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result of southeastward subduction and then overlain by PlioPliocene rhyoliticdacitic flows and pyroclastics
and NW to NNWstriking transfer lineaments. Subsequent arc reversal in Pliocene to Recent times resulted in
subduction in a northwest direction reactivating the NW trending Miocene structures and forming NEENE

system such that epithermallyaltered PlioPleistocene rocks are preserved in the west with erosion down to
Miocene basement strata in the east. The gold mineralisation is associated with quartzadulariabase metal
sulphide veins and stockworks, enveloped by silica alteration and broad pervasive illitekaolinitesmectite

defined a gold deposit called Bundulipu. The Bundulipu consists of parallel pinch and swell shaped zones in a
An Inferred Mineral Resource estimate of 5.4MT @ 3 g/t Au for 500,000 oz Au was estimated, but this has not

Drilling has not yet defineda bonanza zone at Bundulipu or fully tested the mineralisation in thewhole area. A

INTRODUCTION The area is a part of a Contract of Work (CoW)

granted in July 20, 1994 to Newcrest Indonesia,
The Totopo epithermal lowsulphidation as one Pty.Ltd.inGorontalo(formerlypartoftheNorth
of the best prospects defined during extensive Sulawesi province) and Central Sulawesi
regional mineral exploration in Gorontalo area Provinces. In 2007, the remaining COW covering
during 1980 and 1990s located about one anareaof20.06sq.km.sinceithasbeenreduced
kilometretotheSouthofTransSulawesiHighway from original land tenure of 1,129,598.18Ha.
nearBumelatownwasrelativelyunderexplored Totopo Area resides about 60km to the West of
until 2007 when an exploration campaign was Gorontalo,theCapitalcityofGorontaloProvince
heldatthewesternpartofTotopo. Indonesia. Gorontalo has Jalaluddin airport,

supported by daily basis regular flight from mineralisation all related to this Pliocene to
JakartaandMakassar(Figure1). Recent activity (Santos, 1999). The Sulawesi
Tectonic setting can be seen Figure 2 that show
The Totopo prospect was discovered in 1995 theregionalgeologyofGorontaloprovince.
stream sediment sampling techniques and the A reactivating Miocene NWNNW transfer
anomalieswerefoundencompassesalargearea lineament during Pliocene formed a NEENE
ofabout4kmx3km,spreadoutinEWtrend.The trending dilational faults due to changing from
encouraging results of following exploration Miocenesoutheastwardsubductiontorelatively
program including soil sampling, aeromagnetic northwest direction. This structural preparation
radiometric surveying, and scout drilling introduced NEENE extensional fault which
suggested the works to be more focused at provided a space for mineralization. Structural
TotopoEastbuttheprogramwasfailedtofinda field data supported this interpretation and
significantdepositastheareawasdeeplyeroded. suggests the occurrences of northwest
In the same time, the economic crisis suffered mineralized structure as conjugate sets of the
the company that left the area remain extensional structures. Another important
underexplored. feature of this structural setting is the
development of pullapart basin and graben
The ground review later on, led to the thought structuresatTotopoareawhichtiltingthesystem
thatthemostpreservedmineralisationwouldbe such that epithermallyaltered PlioPleistocene
on the western part of Totopo. Since 2007, rocksarepreservedinthewestareawitherosion
exploration programme has been focused on downtoMiocenebasementstrataintheeast.
Totopo West which has defined a Bundulipu
Deposit with reported a nonJORC resource of TheTotopoareaissituatedattheNWmarginof
5.4MT @ 3 g/t Au for 500,000 oz Au using a a caldera structure. It lies within a structural
sectionalpolygonmethod. depression bounded by major NW to NNW and
NE trending lineaments and faults namely
Bumela, Paguyaman, Solupite, Totopo River,
GEOLOGICALSETTINGS Bundulipu and Oletanggunga lineaments and
The Totopo District lie within a volcanoplutonic Bumela lineament is an arcparallel regional
arcofcretaceoustorecentagewhichisextends feature that eventually follows the EW trending
along the west side of Sulawesi, through structuralgrainofthenortharmofSulawesi.The
NorthernSulawesiandSangiheIslandstoeastern NE trending Solupite Fault occurs as an
MindanaointhePhilippines(Carlileetal1990in escarpmentandisobscuredintheNEbyarcuate
Santos, 1999). The late tertiary tectonics of features. The Oletanggunga Fault cuts through a
Northern Sulawesi is relatively complicated steepcliffatOletanggungaHillandmainlypasses
(Hamilton 1979 in Santos, 1999). Subduction through alluvium and colluviums through a NW
during the Miocene is interpreted to have been trending offset of the Totopo River. This
terminated by collision of the Sula Platform that structuralsettingandsinistralreactivationofthe
causedarotationofNorthSulawesiby90otoits major NW trending structures could have led to
current position. A NEtrending belt of Miocene the downthrowing of the SolupiteTotopo River
Andesite volcanic and diorite intrusions occur valleyblock,formingagrabenorpullapartbasin
along the northern part of North Sulawesi featureandopeninguptheNEandENEtrending
(Santos,1999). faults.

Subsequent arc reversal in Pliocene to Recent Figure4showsasimplifiedinterpretedgeologyof
resulted in subduction in a northwest direction. theTotopoProspect.ThedistributionofMiocene
InNorthSulawesi,epithermalstylequartzAuAg, lithologies at the west part clearly shows a
sediment host Au, and carbonate base metal Au consequenceofarelativepositionwheretheeast




block is higher compare to the west. Plio The dacite domes are characterised by grey to
Pleistocene volcanic rocks, including the dark grey, finecoarse grained, euhedral,
mineralization,arepreservedatthewestdespite porphyritic textures, composed of feldspar,
ofitsdownstreamposition. biotite and hornblende with minor quartz. No
alteration has been observed except some clay
In the Totopo Prospect, generally, basement andchloritewhichisprobablyduetoweathering
rocks of probably Miocene in age consisting of processes.
volcanic andesite, intruded by polyphasal
batholiths consisting of granodiorite, quartz The basement volcanic andesites are fine
diorite and diorite. Unconformably overlying the medium grained, porphyritic, mainly composed
basementrocksarePliocenedaciticvolcanic,and offeldsparandbiotite,darkgreenishgreydueto
then all of lithologies are intruded by pervasively chlorite altered. Mostly the original
contemporaneous microdiorite, diorite, and minerals are hard to recognise but the main
dacite porphyry dykes. Pleistocene to Recent observable characteristic is the magnetic
colluviums and alluvium occupy the valleys and propertyoftherock.Thevolcanicandesiteswere
majorlineaments. intruded by light greygrey diorite/granodiorites.
These are finecoarse grained, porphyritic and
Totopo West area is underlain by a thick composed of feldspar, quartz, biotite and
sequenceofPliocenePleistocenerhyoliticdacitic hornblende. The euhedralsubhedral crystal
volcanic rocks consisting of lithic tuffs, crystal shape is slightly destroyed but no significant
tuffs and ash tuffs. These are intruded by alterationisrecognised.
porphyritic dacite domes which can be
recognised in several locations by their ALTERATION
protruding shape that may correspond to the
mineralization event at Totopo. The basement Broad areas of pervasively altered country rock
volcanic andesites are exposed in the north marktheoccurrenceofmineralizationatTotopo
westernpartofWestTotopoandhavealsobeen West. There are at least 3 locations of large
encounteredatdepthindrillholes. altered rock with various level of typical
epithermal lowsulphidation system which are
The volcanic rhyodacite exhibits a light grey to Bundulipu, OletanggungaLoba, and Solupite
whitish colour due to acidintermediate Niwu, with the best geochemistry anomaly is
composition and clay altered feldspars. They are BundulipuasshownonFigures4and5.
finecoarse grained, euhedralsubhedral, mainly
composed of quartz and feldspar with minor Bundulipu alteration intensities are weak to
biotite and hornblende. Fragments of volcanic stronginabroadargillicalterationenvelopeand
bombs, rhyodacite and mineralised clasts are moderate to strong within a more confined
commonlyfoundinthelithicsequences.Therock mineralisation zone. Alteration mineral
units gradationally change from ash, lithic, to assemblages comprise distal kaolinitesericite
mainlycrystallinetufftextures.Thebeddinghasa smectiteillite/smectitechlorite changing to
shallowmoderate NW dip. Widespread silicaquartzilliteillite/smectite as thin zones
accretionary lapilli indicates a relatively moist surrounding the veins/vein zones. Alteration
environment during volcanism and sag textures characterisedbysilicaquartztendtohavebetter
ofvolcanicbombsonwetsurfacesoffinegrained goldtenorthanotheralterationassemblages.
volcanic tuff may indicate the presence of water
during volcanism, i.e. a volcanic lake. At the surface, protruding hill of Oletanggunga
Sedimentary rocks have been recognised in the Loba is characterized by thick silica cap with
northwest of Totopo, mainly occurring as fine vesicular texture and is recognized as an upper
grained laminated sandstone. This appears to part of alteration system in lowsulphidation.
haveaninterfingeringrelationshipwithvolcanic Adjacent to the hill, trace of alteration mineral
rhyodacite. assemblages observed comprise of illite
illite/smectitekaolinitesilica and closer to the The outline of the mineralisation zone at the
vein/vein zone, strong but very narrow silica Totopo West veins exhibit various textures and
alterationtendstooccur. mineral infill. Multiple stages of mineralisation
events are shown by crosscutting relationships.
At Solupite, exposures showing alteration are The veins are usually brecciated and highly
generally found closest to the Solupite cliff. The fractured. Figure 5 shows an example of
alteration mineral assemblages comprise illite mineralisation and alteration crosscutting
illite/smectitekaolinitesilica, similar to those in relationshipobservedincoreofBundulipu.
MINERALIZATION Soil sampling programme has been collected
Quartzveinandstockworkzonesassociatedwith as a ridges and spurs and gridsoil sampling. At
broadquartzclayalterationwereemplacedsoon least two sampling procedures have been
afterthePliocenefelsicvolcanic.Accumulationof applied: auger sampling targeting B horizon and
sinter boulder deposits occurs in the north partial leach method. Levelling method using
western part of Totopo West are believed to be mean value of both sampling techniques is
relatedtolatePliocenePleistocenehydrothermal applied to analyze soil data. At Totopo West,
activity that introduced extensive quartzclay anomalies of Au in soil clustered around the
alterationandassociatedhighgradegoldquartz three areas, which is the best area at Bundulipu
sulphide veining in felsic pyroclastics at the asshowninFigure6.
Bundulipu, OletanggungaLoba, and Solupite
Niwu. Geophysics Induce Polarization Dipole Dipole
(IPDD) survey results two big clusters of high
At Bundulipu, the mineralization zones are resistivityatthelocationknownasOletanggunga
veins/veinlets/stockworks of quartzadularia loba and SolupiteNiwu, and very narrow
barite with pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, moderateresistivityatBundulipu(Figure7,Table
galena,andveryfinegrainedblacksulphidefilling 1). Chargeability survey results two clusters of
fractures. Quartz sulphide veins are generally high chargeability at Bundulipu and Solupite
thin, up to a few cm wide, predominated by Niwu and moderate at Oletanggungaloba. It
simple geometry (planar) with narrow silica appears here that geophysics survey results can
replacement or phyllic alteration. Vein textures aid the recognition of mineralization level. Wide
compriseofsimplebanded,crustiformcolloform, high resistivity and moderate chargeability at
cockade breccias and bladed that representing Oletanggungalobamayrepresentthicksilicacap
theboilingprocess. yetfurtherdownsulphideminerals.Narrowhigh
OletanggungaLoba Quartz vein textures are concentrationofmineralizedbodyatBundulipu.
low temperature in accordance to alteration DrillingProgram
assemblages. At depth (>200mdh), zone of Scout and semiinfill drilling campaign are
strongly silica altered hydrothermally brecciated conducted at Totopo West in 2008. Of 24
rock with cockade textures and disseminated drillholes,15aredrilledatBundulipuasthebest
pyritebasemetalassayedfor310g/tAu. project and remaining 9 holes are located at
OletanggungaLoba and SolupiteNiwu as scout
Some quartz veining at SolupiteNiwu are drillholes.
characterized by multiple banded multiple
bandedandfinecrystalswithdogtoothtextures, AtBundulipu,aSSEtrendfencedrill programme
and returned high assay. It is believed, Solupite was planned following the interpreted NEENE
Niwu mineralization level is in between dilational structures as open spaceinfilled
BundulipuandOletanggungaLoba. mineralizationwhichwasprovensincethose






Resistivity Chargeability
LocationName toboilingzone
highest Wide,High Wide,Low
SolupiteNiwu Middle Wide,High Wide,High
Bundulipu nearest Narrow,high




drilllholes were successfully hit mineralization at On the basis of those parameters, an Inferred
depth over area about 500mx500m. The Mineral Resource estimate of 5.4MT @ 3 g/t Au
Bundulipu mineralization interpretation consists for 500,000 oz Au at a 0.5g/t au cut off was
of parallel pinch and swell shaped zones in a calculated, but this has not been developed in
dominant ENEWSW direction with a minimum accordancewiththeJORCCode(2004).
Thegoldtenorofdrillcoresamplesisfairlyhigh DISCUSSIONANDCONCLUSION
are deep and the most significant zones as The exploration programme at Totopo done by
7.8m@3.74g/t Au from 258mdh including Avocet is considered as a continuance of well
3m@8.76g/tAufrom259mand13m@2.09g/tAu reportedpreviousexplorationworkatthearea.A
from 183mdh including 2m@6.95g/tAu from careful data reevaluation and focussed
187m could not be consider as bonanza (See exploration program at Totopo West of Totopo
Figures8and9). prospect,bycarryingoutdetailedgeophysicsand
Apreliminaryresourceestimateofmineralisation drilling programs and detailed logging of vein
zone was calculated from NWSE crosssections fabrics, are exploration approaches that are
using a sectionalpolygon method. The consistently applied that lead to definition of a
calculationusedastrikelengthof400metresand golddepositcalledBundulipu.
a width of 54 metres. Mineralisation was
conservatively inferred to be continuous down Drilling programme at Totopo West has not yet
dip to depths between 200300 metres from defined a bonanza zone at Bundulipu or fully
surface. tested the mineralisation in the whole area but
the exploration programme at Totopo West has
Additional assumptions and constraints adopted proved the role of presumption NEENE
in the preliminary resource calculation are as structurecontrolled mineralization and the
follows: positionofboilingleveloftheepithermalsystem
Cutoffgradeis0.5g/tAuwithamaximumof recognized by vein fabrics examination and
2metreswasteallowed. prospect structure model, yet the endresult is
Topcutvalueis100g/tAu. stillfairlyunfavourable.
The maximum length interpolated in joining
adjacent significant zones of mineralization is In prospect scale, Totopo area is still far from
50 metres in both lateral and vertical extent, exhaustively explored. A number of alteration
except where there is existing drill hole less and gold mineralisation occurrences at Totopo
than100metresdistance. prospectarestillremainunderexploredincluding
In such case, then the maximum length of Bundulipu, OletanggungaLoba, SolupiteNiwu of
interpolation for both lateral and vertical TotopoWestarea.
Resource calculations involve only zones that ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
can be projected with a fair degree of
confidence. Mapped mineralised zones Theauthorswouldliketothankthemanagement
excludedinthecalculationduetotheabsence of P.T. Gorontalo Sejahtera Mining, Avocet
ofdrilldataarelikelytoupgradetheresource Mining Plc, and JResources Nusantara for the
inthefuture. permission to publish this paper, to Peter A
The average bulk density adopted was 2.5 FlindellandJimSweeneyforthereview.


Budiman, B., Hardjana, I, 2009, Phase I
Exploration and Scout Drilling Report, West
Totopo, unpublished PT Avocet Mining
Corporate Finance, Avocet Mining Plc, 2008,
Information Memorandum PT Gorontalo
Sejahtera MiningDecember 2008,
unpublished PT Avocet Mining Services
Dacosta, E., et al, 2008, Vein Characteristics
Observations from DrillCores and Surface
Mapping at Bundulipu Prospect, Totopo
Project, unpublished PT Avocet Bolaang
Kirkegaard, A., G., 1993, Pani Gold Prospect,
unpublished Newcrest Indonesia Limited
Santos, R. Fernando, et al, 1999, Exploration of
Totopo District North Sulawesi, Indonesia,
unpublished PT Newcrest Nusa Sulawesi