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Earth Science

Unit 2
Bellwork 8. 28: What do you know about the solar system?

There are no wrong answers! Just write what you think. :)


Planets of the Solar System
http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/101-videos/solar-system-101
What created the Solar System?
The Big Bang
Types of Planets
Terrestrial Planets
Mercury
Shortest orbit around the sun
Venus
Hottest planet in the solar system Rocky, solid surface
Earth Dont have rings
Our planet Very few to no moons
The only known planet that supports Relatively small
life
Mars
Possibly could have supported life in
the past
Types of Planets
Gas/Ice Giant Planets
Jupiter
Largest planet
Saturn Multiple moons
Supports a huge ring system Supports ring systems
Uranus No solid surface
Rotates on its side Immense size
Neptune
Outermost planet
Types of Planets
Dwarf Planets
Ceres
Located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter
Largest known object in the solar system that is not a true,
full-sized planet
Pluto
Located in the Kuiper belt beyond Neptune
For many years was known as a full-sized planet till Neil Degrasse
Tyson and the rest of the scientific community ruined it
Layers of the Earth
3 Layers
Crust
30 miles thick
Consists of the landmasses and the ocean floor
Mantle
1800 miles thick
Made of magma
Moves sluggishly, like melted plastic, or peanut butter
Layers of the Earth
Core
Outer Core
1400 miles thick
Mostly liquid iron and nickel
Inner Core
700 miles thick
12,000 degrees Fahrenheit, which is hotter than the surface of
the sun
Solid due to immense pressure
What would happen if we tried to land on Jupiters surface?
We do not yet know if a solid surface exists on Jupiter. Jupiter's clouds are
thought to be about 30 miles (50 km) thick. Below this there is a 13,000 mile
(21,000 km) thick layer of hydrogen and helium which changes from gas to liquid
as the depth and pressure increase. (Source)

A major problem in sending space probes to Jupiter is that the planet has no
solid surface on which to land, as there is a smooth transition between the
planet's atmosphere and its fluid interior. Any probes descending into the
atmosphere are eventually crushed by the immense pressures within Jupiter.
(Source)
Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics
Making Inferences About Plate Boundaries

As a group you will combine data of the seafloor, earthquakes, and volcanoes to
make connections between physical processes and plate boundaries.

Transfer the information from your three thematic maps to your blank plate
boundary map then fill in the group worksheet.
Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics is all the physical
processes that create many of the Earth's
physical features such as the continents,
oceans, and mountain ranges.

The crust is made up of continental


and oceanic crust.
Continental crust is thick and
more buoyant than oceanic crust
Oceanic crust is thin and very
dense, so it sinks more easily into
the mantle.
Plate Tectonics
The crust is divided into 12 major plates which are moved in
various directions by the mantle.

This motion causes them to collide, pull apart, or scrape


against each other.
Plate Tectonics
Divergent Plate Boundaries
Plates move apart from each other
Convergent Plate Boundaries
Plates move towards each other, oftentimes colliding
When plates collide, they can subduct- when one plate moves
under another
Transform Plate Boundaries
Plates slide past each other
Plate Tectonics
Divergent Boundaries

Spreading: as plates move apart new material is erupted to fill the gap,
sometimes causing volcanic activity.
Where are the divergent boundaries if red is the newest
ocean floor and blue is the oldest?
Plate Tectonics
Convergent Boundaries
Plates move towards each other, oftentimes colliding
When plates collide, they can:
Subduct- when one plate moves under another
Convergent Boundaries
There are three styles of convergent plate boundaries
Continent-continent collision
Convergent Boundaries
Continent-oceanic crust collision
Convergent Boundaries
Ocean-ocean collision
Plate Tectonics
Transform Boundaries
Transform boundaries slide
past each other, sometimes
smoothly, and other times
more pressure will cause big
slips that result in
earthquakes.
Bellwork 8.30: What is the hydrosphere?
Look at your vocab!
Hydrosphere
The hydrosphere contains all the solid, liquid, and gaseous water of the planet. It
ranges from 10 to 20 kilometers in thickness. The hydrosphere extends from
Earth's surface downward several kilometers into the lithosphere and upward
about 12 kilometers into the atmosphere.

A small portion of the water in the hydrosphere is fresh (non-salty). This


water flows as precipitation from the atmosphere down to Earth's surface, as
rivers and streams along Earth's surface, and as groundwater beneath Earth's
surface. Most of Earth's fresh water, however, is frozen.
Hydrosphere
Ninety-seven percent of Earth's water is salty. The salty water collects in
deep valleys along Earth's surface. These large collections of salty water are
referred to as oceans. Water near the poles is very cold, while water near the
equator is very warm. The differences in temperature cause water to change
physical states. Extremely low temperatures like those found at the poles cause
water to freeze into a solid such as a polar icecap, a glacier, or an iceberg.
Extremely high temperatures like those found at the equator cause water to
evaporate into a gas.
How does water get to the ocean?
Draw the water cycle using your three vocabulary words.
Precipitation

Evaporation

Condensation
Bellwork 9.1: What is the biosphere? How do humans affect
it?
Think about the components of the biosphere and what you do on a daily basis
that impacts or changes it.

What do you use and consume?

How do you dispose of your trash?

...
Draw this on your Land, Water, and Air Notes
Our Positive Effects on the Biosphere
Environmental Management
Restoring balance to ecosystems
Preservation
Predator-Prey Relations
Assuming the roles of nearly eradicated predators, such as wolves, to help prevent species
like deer from depleting food resources
Pollution Control
Environmental Awareness
Removal of Invasive Species
Our Negative Effects on the Biosphere
Hunting and Gathering
Extinction
Over fishing, over hunting
Agriculture
Deforestation
Soil degradation
Soils hold the majority of the world's biodiversity, and healthy soils are essential for
food production and an adequate water supply
Industry
Introducing toxic compounds into food webs
Poluutants
Urban Development
Alters habitats
Introducing foreign species to new environments
In order from quickest to slowest, how long would it take
these items to decompose at a landfill?
aluminum can (soda pop can) plastic jug
banana rubber sole of the leather boot
cigarette butt styrofoam cup
cotton rag tin can (soup or vegetable can)
glass bottle wool sock
leather boot
paper bag
plastic 6-pack rings
Actual Order

1. Banana 8. tin can (soup or vegetable can)


2. paper bag 9. aluminum can (soda pop can)
3. cotton rag 10. plastic 6-pack rings
4. wool sock 11. plastic jug
5. cigarette butt 12. styrofoam cup
6. leather boot 13. glass bottle
7. rubber sole of the boot
Now Give Estimates For How Long Each Item Would Take to
Decompose

1. Banana 8. tin can (soup or vegetable can)


2. paper bag 9. aluminum can (soda pop can)
3. cotton rag 10. plastic 6-pack rings
4. wool sock 11. plastic jug
5. cigarette butt 12. styrofoam cup
6. leather boot 13. glass bottle
7. rubber sole of the boot
Actual Decomposition Time

banana -- 3 to 4 weeks rubber sole (of the boot) -- 50 to 80 years


paper bag -- 1 month tin can (soup or vegetable can) -- 80 to 100 years
cotton rag -- 5 months aluminum can (soda pop can) -- 200 to 500 years
wool sock -- 1 year plastic 6-pack rings -- 450 years
cigarette butt -- 2 to 5 years plastic jug -- 1 million years
leather boot -- 40 to 50 years styrofoam cup -- unknown? forever?
glass bottle -- unknown? forever?
Kahoot Time
Earth Quiz

Recycling Quiz