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13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences



UTAD - Vila Real, 2529 August 2014


Centro de Estudos em Letras

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Centro de Estudos em Letras
Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Vila Real, Portugal
2 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Executive Board
E.F.K. Koerner (Honorary President), Carlos Assuno (President), Maria Hele-
na Pessoa Santos (Vice-President), Gonalo Fernandes (Coordinator), Rolf
Kemmler (Secretary), Marlene Loureiro (Executive Secretary) and Rebeca Fer-
nndez Rodrguez, Snia Coelho, Susana Fontes and Teresa Moura (Regular

Scientific Committee
Brian D. Joseph (NAAHoLS, U.S.A.), Carlos Assuno (CEL / UTAD, Portu-
gal), Cristina Altman (Universidade de So Paulo, Brazil), Daniele Gambarara
(SFL, Italia), David Cram (University of Oxford, England), Douglas A. Kibbee
(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, U.S.A.), Emilio Ridruejo Alonso
(Universidad de Valladolid, Espaa), Felix K. Ameka (Leiden University, Neth-
erlands), Gerda Haler (Universitt Potsdam, Deutschland), Gonalo Fernandes
(CEL / UTAD, Portugal), Gregory James (Hong Kong University of Science and
Technology, China), Guillermo Toscano y Garca (Universidad de Buenos
Aires, Argentina), Hans-J. Niederehe (Universitt Trier, Deutschland), Jacquel-
ine Lon (SHESL, France), Jos J. Gmez Asencio (SEHL, Spain), Keith Allan
(Monash University, Australia), Maria Carlota Rosa (Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Brasil), Maria do Carmo Henrquez Salido (Universidad de Vi-
go, Espaa), Maria do Cu Fonseca (Universidad de vora, Portugal), Maria
Helena Santos (CEL / UTAD, Portugal), Maria Joo Maralo (Universidade de
vora, Portugal), Marli Quadros Leite (Universidade de So Paulo, Brasil),
Ndonga Mfuwa (Universidade Agostinho Neto, Luanda, Angola), Nicola
McLelland (HSS, U.K.), Otto Zwartjes (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands),
Rebeca Fernndez Rodrguez (CEL / UTAD, Portugal), Rodrigo Martnez
Baracs (SOMEHIL, Mexico), Rolf Kemmler (CEL / UTAD, Portugal), Snia
Coelho (CEL / UTAD, Portugal), Susana Fontes (CEL / UTAD, Portugal), Syl-
vie Archaimbault (Paris Diderot University, Paris 7, France), Telmo Verdelho
(Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal), Teresa Moura (CEL / UTAD, Portugal),
Toru Maruyama (Nanzan University, Nagoya, Japan).

ICHoLS XIII Conference Handbook

Organization, Layout and Design: Gonalo Fernandes
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-989-704-185-3 (paper)
ISBN 978-989-704-186-0 (ebook)
Duty Copy: 378030/14
Printed by Publito, Estdio de Artes Grficas, Braga, Portugal
2014 - Centro de Estudos em Letras (CEL) / Universidade de Trs-os-Montes
e Alto Douro (UTAD)
Conference Handbook 3

Table of Contents


Vila Real ................................................................................................... 4

Campus Quinta de Prados ........................................................................ 5
Edifcio de Geocincias / Geosciences Building ..................................... 6

Foreword & Acknowledgements ...................................................................... 7


Monday, 25 August 2014 ......................................................................... 9

Tuesday, 26 August 2014 ....................................................................... 13
Wednesday, 27 August 2014 .................................................................. 19
Thursday, 28 August 2014 ..................................................................... 22
Friday, 29 August 2014 .......................................................................... 27


Abstracts of Plenary Lectures ................................................................ 29

Abstracts of Papers ................................................................................. 35

Addresses of Participants ............................................................................. 285

Index of Participants .................................................................................... 309

4 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Vila Real
Conference Handbook 5

Campus Quinta de Prados

6 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Edifcio de Geocincias / Geosciences Building

Conference Handbook 7

Foreword & Acknowledgements

The History of the Language Sciences has been a well-established linguistic

field around the world for the last four decades. From a formal point of view, its
beginning as a modern linguistic discipline can be traced back to the efforts ma-
de by Prof. E.F.K. Koerner to publish the first volume of the Studies in the
History of the Language Sciences (Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins,
1973), followed by the specialized journal Historiographia Linguistica: Interna-
tional Journal for the History of the Language Sciences (Amsterdam / Philadel-
phia: John Benjamins, 1974). Shortly afterwards, these editorial activities were
consolidated with the launch of the triennial International Conference on the
History of the Language Sciences (ICHoLS) (Ottawa, 1978), similarly created
and led by E.F.K. Koerner.

With ICHoLS XIII, one of our main purposes is, thus, to honor the editor of
Historiographia Linguistica and founder of ICHoLS, in the year of his seventy-
fifth birthday by conveying him the recognition and the gratefulness of wor-
ldwide linguistic historiographers. For these purposes, we are indebted to Prof.
Koerner for allowing us the use and adaptation of the original 1978 ICHoLS
logotype, which was not used again since the cover of the first ever ICHoLS
Conference Handbook. More importantly the laureate has agreed to honor us
with his presence at this ICHoLS edition and chair a roundtable about the past,
present and future of our field, reuniting some of the most relevant linguistic
historiographers from all over the world, such as Profs. Hans-J. Niederehe, Ber-
nard Colombat, Pierre Swiggers and Nicola McLelland, whose participation in
the venue we sincerely appreciate.

Besides, we would like to thank the plenary speakers who have accepted
our invitation of representing the linguistic historiography from the U.S.A (Mar-
garet Thomas), Brazil (Marli Leite and Ricardo Cavaliere), Eastern Europe
(Serhii Waklenko) and Western Europe (Miguel ngel Esparza Torres). We
would also like to acknowledge all ICHoLS participants from all five continents
and more than thirty countries, who have proposed their abstracts and without
whose collaboration and input this conference would not exist.
8 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Moreover, we would like to extend our gratitude to all the international lin-
guistic historiography associations which, since the beginning, have supported
ICHoLS XIII, namely the Henry Sweet Society for the History of Linguistic
Ideas (HSS), the North American Association for the History of the Language
Sciences (NAAHoLS), the Sociedad Espaola de Historiografa Lingstica
(SEHL), the Socit d'Histoire et d'pistmologie des Sciences du Langage
(SHESL) and the Sociedad Mexicana de Historiografa Lingstica (SOMEHIL).
Furthermore, we extend our appreciation to the Studienkreis Geschichte der
Sprachwissenschaft (SGdS) and the Giorgi Akhvlediani Society for the History
of Linguistics (GASHoL), which have expressed a significant support towards
the participation of many of their members.

Last but not least, we would like to acknowledge the funding of the Centro
de Estudos em Letras (CEL), a research center supported by the Fundao para a
Cincia e a Tecnologia (FCT), the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Te-
chnology; the Rectory of the Universidade de Trs-os-Montes and Alto Douro
(UTAD), for the availability of all facilities, services and human resources; all
members of the Executive Board, the Scientific Committee, the Realvitur, the
Municipality of Vila Real and all other colleagues for their crucial efforts toward
the successful outcome of ICHoLS XIII: to all, our special thank you.
Conference Handbook 9


Monday, 25 August 2014

9:00 - 11:30: Conference office open from 9:00 AM on (Reception Desk


11:30 - 12:45: Opening of the conference and welcome addresses (Aula

Magna D1.02)

12:45 - 14:15: Lunch break

14:30 - 15:25: PLENARY LECTURE (Aula Magna D1.02):

Margaret Thomas (Boston College, USA):
What do we talk about, when we talk about the history of lin-
guistics? A view from the United States

15:30 - 16:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): M. de los ngeles Garca Aranda: Misio-
neros lexicgrafos: un acercamiento a los repertorios lxicos es-
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Lauro Jos Siqueira Baldini: O estudo da lngua nos
dicionrios e lxicos gramaticais Brasileiros (1865 a 1956)
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Maria Helena de Moura Neves: Semntica e sintaxe
no pensamento grego sobre a linguagem: da filosofia gramtica
Room A1.10: J. Lachlan Mackenzie: A first history of Functional Grammar
Room A1.11: Douglas A. Kibbee: Remarks before the Remarques: Jean de
Wapys Remarques sur la langue franoise (1634)
Room A1.12: Bernard Colombat: Linterjection dans la tradition grammaticale
latine, de lAntiquit lHumanisme
Room A1.13: Claudia Stancati: Pour une histoire des grammaires italiennes
entre XVIIIme et XIXme sicles

16:00 - 16:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Manuel Galeote: Molina y Gilberti, dos
misioneros lexicgrafos frente a Nebrija: la macroestructura de sus
10 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Mrcia A. G. Molina: Gramticas para Crianas: scu-

los XIX/XX
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Vera Lucia Harabagi Hanna & Neusa Maria Oliveira
Barbosa Bastos: Historiografia Lingustica, Histria do Presente,
Estudos Culturais: desafios terico-metodolgicos em questo
Room A1.10: Nicola McLelland: Mining Foreign Language Teaching Materi-
als for the History of Pragmatics
Room A1.11: Wendy Ayres-Bennett: Remarks before the Remarques: Jean de
Wapys Remarques sur la langue franoise (1634)
Room A1.12: Sylvie Archaimbault: Linterjection dans la pense grammaticale
et linguistique russe
Room A1.13: Jos Edicarlos de Aquino: L'origine et le Dveloppement des
Langues selon Jlio Ribeiro dans son Traos Geraes de Linguisti-

16:30 - 17:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Pilar Mynez: Consideraciones lingsticas
y culturales en la traduccin al castellano del Cdice Florentino:
anlisis de la astrologa judiciaria
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Maurcio Silva: Gramtica da Lngua Portuguesa no
Brasil: um estudo da gramaticografia brasileira Pr-NGB (1930-
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Nathlia Rodrighero Salinas Polachini: O Lugar do
Texto na Perspectiva Dialgica: O Conceito e Algumas Contribui-
Room A1.10: John Considine: The history of the concept of lexicography
Room A1.11: Jean-Marie Fournier: Erreurs, fautes et exemples dviants
dans le discours des grammairiens aux 16e et 17e sicles
Room A1.12: Marli Quadros Leite: A interjeio sob o olhar de gramticos
portugueses: uma anlise histrica
Room A1.13: Filomena Gonalves: Sur la Rception de la Mthode Ollen-
dorf au Portugal et au Brsil et la Didactique des Langues

17:00 - 17:30: Coffee Break

Conference Handbook 11

17:30 - 18:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Joaqun Garca-Medall: Lexicgrafos his-
pnicos del Pacfico (1521-1909)
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Ana Lcia Campos-Toscano: A Insero de Concep-
es Lingusticas no Discurso Pedaggico da Lngua Portuguesa:
reflexes acerca da proposta curricular de Lngua Portuguesa do Es-
tado de So Paulo na dcada de 1980
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Maria Lcia da Cunha Victrio de Oliveira Andrade:
Formas de tratamento em cartas pessoais no portugus brasileiro:
um estudo historiogrfico
Room A1.10: Andriy Danylenko: Darwinian Linguistics, Aleksandr Popov
(18551880), and the Reconstruction of Indo-European Noun In-
Room A1.11: Marie Odoul: Le primat accord la notion de rapport dans la
dfinition de la prposition allemande au XVIIIe sicle
Room A1.12: Valrie Raby: Linterjection et lanalyse de lnonc (XVIIe-
XVIIIe sicles)
Room A1.13: Jos Horta Nunes: A Inveno do Dicionrio Brasileiro: do saber
enciclopdico ao saber lingustico

18:00 - 18:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Javier Villoria Prieto & Carlos Villoria Prie-
to: Juan de Ormazas and Vicente Salazars Grammars, Dictiona-
ries and Doctrines in Isinay Language
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Caroline Mallmann Schneiders: Serafim da Silva Neto:
entre a constituio e circulao de saberes lingusticos
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Suzy Lagazzi: O gesto de descrever entre o Histrico e
o Gramatical
Room A1.10: Patrick Seriot: Lnigme des ressemblances: lanalogie comme
mthode cognitive dans la linguistique en Russie
Room A1.11: Rossana de Angelis: Textes, discours et institutions sociales
Room A1.12: Aime Lahaussois: Where have all the interjections gone? A
look into the place of interjections in contemporary grammars of
endangered languages
Room A1.13: Maria Helena Pessoa Santos: Da conceptualizao e da operaci-
onalidade de instrumentos metalingusticos destinados anlise da
sintaxe na centria portuguesa de Oitocentos
12 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

18:30 - 19:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Mara Dolores Riveiro Lema: La gramtica
tagala (1878) de Toribio Minguella: para personas que, por su pro-
fesin, no necesitan conocer el latn
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Regina Helena Pires de Brito: Contributos historiogr-
ficos para uma ideia de Lusofonia
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Terezinha Cristina Campos de Resende: Teoria Socio-
lingustica Variacionista Laboviana: o caso de Conceio de Ibiti-
poca (Minas Gerais, Brasil)
Room A1.10: Tsiuri Akhvlediani, George Kuparadze & Sophie Mujiri: Varia-
tions historiques des complexes consonantiques dans les langues
franaise, anglaise, allemande et gorgienne

19:00 - 19:45: Book Launch (Aula Magna D1.02)

Conference Handbook 13

Tuesday, 26 August 2014

09:00 - 09:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Tania Conceio Clemente de Souza: As-
pectos polticos e lingusticos da histria da Lingustica Indgena no
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Nicolas Alexandria Pinheiro: Histria da Lingustica
no Brasil: o protagonismo dos Estudos de Lnguas Indgenas a par-
tir do Setor de Lingustica do Museu Nacional
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Diana Luz Pessoa de Barros: tude historique des
discours des grammaires du portugais
Room A1.10: Gerda Haler: Degrandos three prize essays and the shift in
linguistic thought at the turn of the 19th century
Room A1.11: Lia Abuladze: Carl Abel und seine Stellung in der Geschichte
der Sprachwissenschaft
Room A1.12: Mrcio Alexandre Cruz: Elementos para a desconstruo de uma
evidncia em torno da figura de Ferdinand de Saussure: a relao
entre lngua e histria na perspectiva saussuriana
Room A1.13: Hans Basbll: Hysgaard: Third university caretaker and the
greatest Danish linguist before Rask

09:30 - 10:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Jos Ribamar Bessa Freire: O Lugar da
Histria e das Cincias da Linguagem no Discurso sobre as Lnguas
da Amaznia Brasileira
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Larissa Montagner Cervo: O Museu da Lngua Portu-
guesa como instrumento lingustico
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Cristina Altman: O Pndulo de Foucault: Sincronia e
Diacronia no Estudo do Portugus no Brasil
Room A1.10: Thomas Craig Christy: The Relation of Gesture to Thought and
Language: From Language Origin to Cognitive Science
Room A1.11: Julia Dorokhova: Zur historischen Entwicklung der Translati-
onswissenschaft in Russland
Room A1.12: Rosa Atti Figueira: O Legado de Saussure para os Estudos de
Aquisio da Linguagem
Room A1.13: Bernhard Hurch & Johannes Gregor Mcke: Network of
14 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

10:00 - 10:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Evandro Bonfim: A lingustica etnogrfica
de Capistrano de Abreu: o caso Bakairi
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Claudia Regina Castellanos Pfeiffer: Processos de Ins-
titucionalizao da Lngua Portuguesa no Brasil - o caso do Museu
da Lngua Portuguesa
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Micaela Coelho: As Notas Preparatrias para o Tercei-
ro Curso: uma leitura do Valor Lingustico
Room A1.10: Savina Raynaud: Anton Martys Philosophy of Language and his
Dialogue with Linguists
Room A1.11: Sarah Dessi Schmid: Monodimensionale und bidimensionale
Anstze in der Geschichte der romanistischen Forschung zur As-
Room A1.12: Eliane Mara Silveira: Ferdinand de Saussure e a construo ml-
tipla dos conceitos no manuscrito L'essence double du langage
Room A1.13: Viggo Bank Jensen: Eugenio Coseriu and Eli Fischer-Jrgensen

10:30 - 11:00: Coffee Break

11:00 - 11:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Carolina Rodrguez-Alcal: Norme et usage
dans les premires grammaires de guarani
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Gabriel Rei-Doval: Towards a History of the Real
Academia Galega: Contemporary Research on Galician Sociolin-
guistics and Lexicography
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Mariza Vieira da Silva: Cartilhas: uma representao
do portugus como lngua nacional
Room A1.10: Els Elffers: Remnants of sensualismo
Room A1.11: Edouard Belaga: Fine-Tuning the Blueprint of the Verbal Struc-
ture of Biblical Hebrew
Room A1.12: Karen Alves da Silva: A analogia e o sujeito falante em Saussu-
Room A1.13: Marc Pierce: Germanic Linguistics and the Linguistic Society of
America, 1925 to the Present
Conference Handbook 15

11:30 - 12:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Joyce Palha Colaa: O Guarani e o Caste-
lhano: Dizeres sobre as duas Lnguas Oficiais do Paraguai
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Jos Barbosa Machado: Definies de tipo lexicogrfi-
co na verso portuguesa da Vita Christi (1495)
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Maria Lcia Marcondes Carvalho Vasconcelos, Nancy
dos Santos Casagrande & Neusa Maria Oliveira Barbosa Bastos:
Cartilhas: Joo de Barros, Joo de Deus e Benedita Stahl Sodr
Um Percurso
Room A1.10: Frank Vonk: Sigwart's Logic and its meaning for linguistic
Room A1.11: Anthony J. Klijnsmit: The Grammatical Revolutionary: Spinoza
Room A1.12: Stefania Montes Henriques: Relaes entre a Pesquisa Saussuri-
ana sobre as Lendas Germnicas e o Curso de Lingustica Geral
Room A1.13: Nadge Lechevrel: Language Evolution: Complementary Tools
for the History of Recent Perspectives

12:00 - 12:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Consuelo Alfaro: A Lngua Geral
Amaznica em Couto de Magalhes
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Snia Duarte: Memorias e Louvores da Lingoa Portu-
gueza (1793) contributos da dicionarstica acadmica portuguesa
acerca da perceo peninsular recproca
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Rejane Centurion Gambarra e Gomes: Vocabulrio
empregado por Gndavo, no sculo XVI: Semas Distintivos do
Campo Lxico Nomeao para Nativo a partir de acepes de
Bluteau e Houaiss
Room A1.10: Michael Link: Conceptualizing Language. The Role of Meta-
phors in Structuring Metalinguistic Discourse
Room A1.12: Sheila Elias de Oliveira: Lxico, tempo e enunciao em Benve-
Room A1.13: David Cram: The 'Proper Alphabet Principle' and the history of
phonetic transcription

12:30 - 14:15: Lunch break

16 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

14:30 - 15:25: PLENARY LECTURE (Aula Magna D1.02):

Ricardo Cavaliere (Universidade Federal Fluminense, Aca-
demia Brasileira de Filologia & Instituto da Lngua Portu-
guesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil):
On the concept of grammatical tradition and its application to
linguistic studies in Brazil

15:30 - 16:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Pierre Swiggers: Voices from the Field:
Sapir's early Amerindian field work
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Clara Barros: Pragmtica Histrica: complementarida-
de das abordagens sincrnica e diacrnica
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Maria Iraci Sousa Costa: Reflexes sobre a contradi-
o na gramtica: atravessamento de saberes na produo do co-
nhecimento lingustico
Room A1.10: Maria Cristina Hennes Sampaio: Bakhtin e Heidegger: A Lin-
guagem como Experincia Pensante
Room A1.11: Carita Klippi: Adversaires des grammairiens? Les dialectologues
et la parole dautorit sur des catgories normatives
Room A1.12: Minna Seppnen: Grammar as contemplation of imitation: a
curious definition of
Room A1.13: Maja Kalezi: Narrative and Construction of Ethnobotanical

16:00 - 16:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Marcin Kilarski & Justyna Olko: Polysy-
nthesis as a window to culture and society
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Marina Kossrik: Estudo de monumentos lingusticos
portugueses dos scs. XVI-XVII. Princpios da historiografia lin-
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Juciele Pereira Dias: A institucionalizao da Lingus-
tica em relao s pesquisas sobre a lngua nacional: a produo
acadmica de Mattoso Cmara no Brasil
Room A1.10: Maria Ins Batista Campos: A filosofia da linguagem em Ba-
khtin: embates ticos e estticos
Room A1.11: Muriel Jorge: Le savoir tymologique, enjeu scientifique et objet
denseignement (annes 1880-1920)
Conference Handbook 17

Room A1.12: Anna Reinikka: The so-called Remigius or Dominus quae pars: a
Central European parsing grammar tradition from the later Middle
Room A1.13: Viacheslav B. Kashkin: Early ideas about language and contem-
porary amateur linguistics

16:30 - 17:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Ascensin Hernndez Trivio: Tradiciones,
Paradigmas y Escuelas: Una Visin General de las Gramticas Mi-
sioneras Mesoamericanas
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Snia Coelho & Susana Fontes: A Grammatica
analytica da lingua portugueza (1831) de Francisco Solano Cons-
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Carolina de Paula Machado: Instrumentos de Gramati-
zao e os Parmetros Curriculares Nacionais: a produo de sabe-
res sobre a lngua portuguesa no Brasil
Room A1.10: Snia Sueli Berti Santos: O Conceito de Lngua em Bahktin e
Volochinov e a Atualizao desse Conceito nos Parmetros Curri-
culares Nacionais PCN
Room A1.11: Jacqueline Lon: Les tudes statistiques de vocabulaire en Fran-
ce dans les annes 1950-60 et lautomatisation des sciences du lan-
Room A1.12: Raf Van Rooy: The ancient Greek and Byzantine notion of dia-
lektos: some new perspectives
Room A1.13: Victor V. Ten: Uvular theory of the origin of Indo-European

17:00 - 17:30: Coffee Break

17:30 - 18:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Zarina Estrada Fernndez & Aarn Grageda
Bustamante: Compendio del arte de la lengua de los tarahumares
y Grammatica linguae tarahumaricae: Anlisis comparativo de dos
obras anteriores al siglo XIX sobre el tarahumara
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Dmitri Gurevich: Norma lingustica do Brasil na ptica
das gramticas normativas e descritivas
18 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Ana Cludia Fernandes Ferreira: Constituio das

cidades, diviso dos sujeitos e significao das lnguas no Brasil:
uma histria das ideias lingusticas em enciclopdias
Room A1.10: Milena Borges de Moraes: Reflexes ortogrficas do manuscrito
oitocentista Memria
Room A1.11: Franois Saint-Grand: Lalphabet phontique de labb Rous-
selot: vecteur de la phontique exprimentale?
Room A1.12: Anneli Luhtala: On the Typology of Ancient Grammars
Room A1.13: George Kuparadze, Tsiuri Akhvlediani & Sophie Mujiri: Trans-
lation Basis of Contrastive Linguistic Analysis: On the material of
English, French, German and Georgian Languages

18:00 - 18:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Rebeca Fernndez Rodrguez: An introduc-
tion to the unpublished Listas n 2 (18th century)
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Lyubov Zholudeva: Problema de codificao da grafia
nas gramticas italianas e portuguesas do sculo XVI
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Thas de Arajo da Costa & Vanessa Lacerda da Silva
Rangel: O Fazer Gramatical no Brasil do Sculo XXI
Room A1.10: Dieli Vesaro Palma, Maria Mercedes Saraiva Hackerott & Regina
Helena Pires de Brito: Lngua Portuguesa na dcada de Sessenta
do Sculo XX: Lingustica, Gramtica e Educao
Room A1.11: Maria Helena Dias Rebelo & Thierry Proena dos Santos: Lus
Simes da Fonseca, un philologue et dictionnariste brsilien en
France, et le concept de la prononciation figure ou comme en-
seigner aux Franais la prononciation portugaise
Room A1.12: Jaana Vaahtera: "Grammatical gender in ancient linguistics: issu-
es involving gender agreement"
Room A1.13: Anna Solomonovskaya: Slavic and English Early Translation
Schools through Centuries: a Case Study

18:30 - 19:25: PLENARY LECTURE (Aula Magna D1.02):

Marli Quadros Leite (Universidade de So Paulo, Brasil):
Grammaires brsiliennes de la langue portugaise des XXe et
XXIe sicles
Conference Handbook 19

Wednesday, 27 August 2014

09:00 - 09:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Emi Kishimoto: Examining Nanshi-shukai,
the manuscript of a Japanese-Portuguese dictionary, to clarify its
characters and differences with the Vocabulario da lingoa de Ia-
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Luiza Katia A. Castello Branco: Sujeito, Lngua, Espa-
o: A(s) Lngua(s) Portuguesa(s) e a CPLP
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Soeli Maria Schreiber da Silva: Espao de Enuncia-
o, Textualidade e Poltica de Lngua: A Lngua Polonesa no Pa-
ran (Brasil) na Relao com A Lngua Portuguesa do Brasil A
Constituio do Lxico
Room A1.10: Sung Do Kim: Histoire et Epistmologie de la golinguistique
moderne: partir des ides saussureinnes
Room A1.11: Ekaterina Velmezova: Lhistoire des ides linguistiques transpo-
se dans la littrature: sur les erreurs des crivains linguistes rats
Room A1.12: Djamel Eddine Lachachi: Le changement des parties du dis-
cours: un problme de terminologie?
Room A1.13: Nino Doborjginidze: Old Georgian Grammatical Commentaries

09:30 - 10:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Eun Mi Bae: A Grammar with Extraordina-
ry Practicality and Versatility: Melchor Oyanguren de Santa Ines
Arte de la Lengua Japona (1738)
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Jos Simo da Silva Sobrinho: Histria da Lngua e
Poltica: A Inveno da Lusofonia
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Aline Bussons: Nacionalidade, regionalidade e saber
metalingustico nas produes do Instituto Histrico, Geogrfico e
Antropolgico do Cear (1887-1936)
Room A1.10: Pierre-Yves Testenoire: Potique saussurienne, Potique jakob-
sonienne: Quel(s) rapport(s)?
Room A1.11: Christian Puech: Langage intrieur, psittacisme, cholalies, n-
omanies, glossolalies, pathologies: langage et thories de lesprit
la charnire des XIXme et XXme sicles
Room A1.12: Brengre Bouard: Les parties du discours dans la grammaire
gnrale franaise (1751-1863)
20 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Room A1.13: Marina Jikia: One model of word formation in Georgian

10:00 - 10:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Kenichi Kadooka: Eight Modes of Definiti-
on in the Chinese Thesaurus Erya
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Tas da Silva Martins: Nomeaes e Designaes: a
poltica de um nome
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Verli Ftima Petri da Silveira: Reflexes sobre a hist-
ria da gramatizao da lngua portuguesa: o caso da linguagem gau-
chesca ao sul do Brasil
Room A1.10: Giuseppe D'Ottavi: De lemploi du gnitif absolu en sanscrit
(1881). Texte, manuscrits et enjeux de louvrage oubli de Ferdi-
nand de Saussure
Room A1.11: Dan Savatovsky: La lexicologie colingue de Butet de la Sarthe
Room A1.12: Sophie Piron: Complments dterminatifs, indirects et circons-
tanciels au cours de la seconde moiti du XIXe sicle
Room A1.13: Vladimir Mikhailovich Alpatov: Russian Antistructuralism: V. I.

10:30 - 11:00: Coffee Break

11:00 - 11:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Satarupa Dattamajumdar Saha: History of
the Writing System of the Lepcha Language: Traces of Language
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Felipe Barbosa Dezerto: Colgio Pedro II, Francs e
Livros Didticos: A Construo de um Campo Disciplinar Escolar
de Lngua Estrangeira no Brasil
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Yuko Kawazoe Takano: A variao histrica e lin-
gustica em questo: a variedade nipo-brasileira do Distrito Federal
Room A1.10: Alessandro Chidichimo: Saussure et la temporalit: gense et
dveloppement dune terminologie travers les manuscrits
Room A1.11: Anne-Galle Toutain: Du rapport son/sens la commutation
Room A1.12: Kerstin Ohligschlaeger: Modles du langage et de lhomme dans
le milieu des Idologues
Room A1.13: Sbastien Moret: L'effet Gagarine: linguistique et conqute spa-
tiale en URSS (1950-1960)
Conference Handbook 21

11:30 - 12:45: Roundtable (Aula Magna D1.02): History of the Language

Sciences: Past, Present and Future:
E.F.K. Koerner (Zentrum fr Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft,
Typologie und Universalienforschung, Deutschland)
Hans-J. Niederehe (Universitt Trier, Deutschland)
Bernard Colombat (Universit Paris Diderot-Paris 7, France)
Pierre Swiggers (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium)
Nicola McLelland (University of Nottingham, United Kingdom)

12:45 - 14:00: Lunch break

14:00 - 20:00: Cultural Activities on the Douro River: Vila Real (Outside
Restaurante Panormico) Rgua [Douro River Cruise from R-
gua to Pinho: beverage service on board (soft drinks, water, matu-
re Douro wines)] Quinta da Pacheca: Guided Tour, Port Wine tas-
ting and snack return to Vila Real
22 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Thursday, 28 August 2014

09:00 - 09:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Astrid Alexander-Bakkerus: An 18th cen-
tury Jebero Doctrina Christiana
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Mariarosaria Gianninoto & Giorgio Casacchia: The
Dictionarium sinico-latinum and the development of bilingual lexi-
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Ana Alexandra Silva & Maria Joo Maralo: Portu-
guese as a foreign language in the 19th century: Contrasting Portu-
guese and English Grammars Pierre Babad (1820), Lus Francis-
co Midosi (1832), Porquet (1840)
Room A1.10: Mark Amsler: Medieval Pragmatics: Grammar, Affect and His-
tory of Emotions
Room A1.11: Elena Simonato: La linguistique urbaine en Union Sovitique
dans les annes 1920
Room A1.12: Mara Jos Corvo Snchez: Estudio de los dilogos en los
Sprachbcher de Juan ngel de Zumaran
Room A1.13: Tinatin Bolkvadze: From George Akhvlediani's archive: bunches
of correlation of consonants in N. Trubetskoy's Principles of Pho-
nology and G. Akhvlediani's Principles of General Phonetics

09:30 - 10:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Cristina Monzn Garca: La convergencia
de las tradiciones espaola y tarasca en los testamentos: el caso del
testamento de Don Fernando Titu Huitzimengari, 1632
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Tommaso Pellin: The compass and the square. The
search of rules in 1920s Chinese grammatical studies
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Ana Alexandra Silva: Portuguese as a Foreign Lan-
guage in the 19th century: Babads Compiled Grammar Portugue-
se and English Grammar 1820 edition
Room A1.10: Gonalo Fernandes: Main Sources of the Notabilia (1427), a
Latin Medieval handwritten grammar from the Cistercian Order of
the Monastery of Alcobaa
Room A1.11: Igor Pilshchikov: The Moscow Linguistic Circle and the Prague
Linguistic Circle on the Relationship Between Linguistics, Poetics
and Semiotics
Conference Handbook 23

Room A1.12: Mara do Carmo Henrquez Salido: La Descripcin y Explica-

cin de la Preposicin y los Grupos Preposicionales en el Tesoro
de Covarrubias
Room A1.13: Yuri Kleiner: The syllable from Aristotle to Kurylowicz

10:00 - 10:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Roxana Sarion: Insights into the historio-
graphy of missionary linguistics in Venezuela
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Anabela Leal de Barros: A contrastive study of Arte
China and a manuscript of Father Joaquim Gonalves: between the
History of the Portuguese Language and the acquisition of Portu-
guese as a non-native language
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Maria do Cu Fonseca: Anciennes grammaires de
langue trangre (le cas du Portugais): pour une dfinition dun
sous-genre historiographique
Room A1.10: Rolf Kemmler: Portuguese and Spanish in the First Editions of
the ars minor of Manuel lvares' De institutione grammatica libri
Room A1.11: Giovanni Gobber: Othmar Spanns holistic views and Tru-
beckojs phonological system
Room A1.12: Elena Battaner & Francesca M. Dovetto: La educacin lingsti-
ca de personas sordas en las escuela francesa, italiana y espaola.
Terminologa, reflexin terica y prctica emprica
Room A1.13: Tatyana Skrebtsova: Where linguistics meets biology: the con-
cept of organism in past and present theories of language

10:30 - 11:00: Coffee Break

11:00 - 11:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Maria Carlota Rosa: Revendo uma proposta
de escrita para o quimbundo
Room A1.10: Rogelio Ponce de Len Romeo: Notas sobre la difusin en Por-
tugal del Libellus de constructione octo partium orationis (Londres
1513) durante la primera mitad del siglo XVI
Room A1.11: Alexander N. Dmitriev: Roman Jakobsons linguistics, pheno-
menology and philological tradition in Russia (1920-1960's)
Room A1.12: Jos Mara Garca Martn: Base Ideolgica de la edicin del
Fuero Juzgo (1815)
24 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Room A1.13: Kateryna Karunyk: How do phonemes work in historical phono-

logy? The approach of George Y. Shevelov

11:30 - 12:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Slvio Moreira de Sousa: The Prudent con-
nection between creolists and the semi-creoles
Room A1.10: Csar Chaparro Gmez: De la Ratio discendi et docendi de Jou-
vancy a las Prcticas e Industrias de Idiquez: los avatares de la
Ratio studiorum jesutica
Room A1.11: Tom Glanc: Jakobsons Ideology of Linguistics in his Czechos-
lovakian Period
Room A1.12: Carolina Martn Gallego: Metaclases de palabras en gramticas
espaolas del siglo XIX: clases de palabras
Room A1.13: Alexander M. Kalkhoff: The modelling of complex vocal speech
sounds throughout the history of modern linguistics

12:00 - 12:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Daro Rojas Gallardo: Views of polysemy
in Chilean 19th century linguistics: Ideology and Attitudes
Room A1.10: Juan Mara Gmez Gmez: Torsellino y Vlez reformadores de
la Gramtica de lvarez. Cambios en el mtodo
Room A1.11: Giusy Gallo: Jakobsons Saussure facing the Cahiers de Cons-
Room A1.12: Jos J. Gmez Asencio & Carmen Quijada Van den Berghe: De
Francia a EE.UU.: transferencias del hispanismo lingstico en el
siglo XIX

12:30 - 14:15: Lunch break

14:30 - 15:25: PLENARY LECTURE (Aula Magna D1.02):

Miguel ngel Esparza Torres (Universidad Rey Juan Car-
los, Espaa):
El trasfondo de la lingstica misionera espaola: a modo de
15:30 - 16:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Anna Pytlowany: Learning to read not
only Malay, but also Arabic, Persian, Turkish and other scripts
under the Dutch East India Company
Conference Handbook 25

Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Nadia Kerecuk: From the world of grammar to the

symbolic grammar of the world: covert legacies of 500 years of
grammar writing in Brazil
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Teresa Moura: A pronncia das vogais na Grammati-
ca franceza, ou arte para aprender o francez por meio do portu-
guez, regulada pelas notas e refflexoens da Academia de Frana
Room A1.10: Esteban Lidgett: La gramtica castellana en los programas de los
colegios nacionales argentinos (1881-1936)
Room A1.11: Thomas Robert: Darwin and the Language Instinct
Room A1.12: Eustaquio Snchez Salor: La oracin, objetivo principal de la
Gramtica / la oracin, objetivo nico de la Gramtica

16:00 - 16:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Toon Van Hal: Protestant pioneers in Sans-
krit studies (ca. 17001750): An overlooked chapter in South-
Indian missionary linguistics
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Bruna Soares Polachini: Difficulties to deal with conti-
nuities and discontinuities in nineteenth century Brazilian gram-
mars treatment of syntax: a complex periodization
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Susana Fontes & Snia Coelho: Reflexos das doutri-
nas ortogrficas quinhentistas e seiscentistas na Prosa Grammato-
nomica Portugueza (1728) de Rafael Bluteau
Room A1.10: Emiliano Battista: Vicente Rossi ante el idealismo lingstico. La
polmica con el Instituto de Filologa de la Universidad de Buenos
Room A1.11: Johann-Mattis List: Trees, Waves, and Networks: Modeling
Historical Language Relations in the Early History of Comparative
Room A1.12: Mnica Vidal Dez: De las Partes de la Oracin en las Gramti-
cas Filosficas del Siglo XIX Espaol

16:30 - 17:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): milie Aussant: Classifications of Words in
Ancient Sanskrit Grammars
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Hortncia de Abreu Gonalves: Leitura Paleogrfica:
Especificidades ao Entendimento do Texto Histrico
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Leonor Lopes Fvero: A gramtica no sculo XIX
transio ou ruptura?
26 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Room A1.10: Guillermo Toscano y Garca & Mara Jos Garca Folgado: El
tratamiento de la sintaxis en la gramtica escolar argentina (1863-
Room A1.11: Johan Van der Auwera: Mood (mode) and modality: a pair (tri-
plet) apart
Room A1.12: Sima Garca Gaspar: Hermes, or a philosophical inquiry concer-
ning universal grammar. Una aproximacin a la obra de James Har-
ris desde la doctrina lingstica de Sanctius

17:00 - 17:30: Coffee Break

17:30 - 19:00: Business Meeting (Aula Magna D1.02)

20:00: Conference Dinner (Hotel Mira Corgo)

Conference Handbook 27

Friday, 29 August 2014

09:00 - 09:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Otto Zwartjes & Karien Van der Mei: The
Mexicanismos in Missionary Grammars of Nahuatl
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Anamaria Curea: Les thories transpositionnelles dans
la linguistique genevoise: Ch. Bally, A. Sechehaye, H. Frei
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Marina de Palo: La valeur linguistique et la monnaie
chez Bhler
Room A1.10: Iwona Milewska: Konstanty Regamey An Exceptional Lin-
guist and Musician at the Crossroads of West and East
Room A1.11: Marjorie Lorch: Victorian Ideas regarding Language Learning:
Thomas Prendergasts (1807?-1886) Mastery System
Room A1.12: Bernhard Hurch: Humboldt's Basque grammars: a comparison of
two previously unpublished fragments
Room A1.13: Camiel Hamans: Early Generative Grammar in Amsterdam and

09:30 - 10:00:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Brbara Cifuentes Garca & Mara del Car-
men Herrera Meza: De atole a guaje: los nahuatlismos en la le-
xicografa mexicana
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Amanda Eloina Scherer: Histoire et mmoire discipli-
naire: le savoir sur la langue partir des ides linguistiques euro-
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Sandra Nossik: Histoire de lAnalyse du Discours
franaise: les travaux tardifs de Michel Pcheux et louverture vers
les corpus oraux
Room A1.10: Charles-Henry Morling: Work in process: J.R. Firths reading of
A.N. Whitehead
Room A1.11: Tim Denecker: Joseph Schrijnen and Christine Mohrmanns
sociological approach to the study of early Christian Latin
Room A1.12: Barbara Schfer-Prie: Universalist Grammar in the 17th cen-
tury: The Impact of Religious Denomination
Room A1.13: Lorenzo Vitral: La biolinguistique chomskienne et le statut de
lobjet dtude en linguistique
28 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

10:00 - 10:30:
Geosciences Auditorium (B0.45): Justyna Olko & John Sullivan: Historical
and modern views of Nahuatl: on translation capacity and abstract
thinking in a native language
Auditorium 1 (D0.07): Patrick Flack: Un acteur oubli du structuralisme euro-
pen: Hendrik J. Pos
Auditorium 2 (D0.10): Valentina Bisconti: Les thorisations structuralistes de
la signification lexicale et lhritage saussurien
Room A1.10: Thomas Godard: Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) and the genius
of the language
Room A1.11: Batrice Godart-Wendling & Layla Rad: Presupposition and
Implicitness in the Linguistic Theories of the Twentieth Century
Room A1.12: Elena Battaner Moro: La propuesta ortogrfica de la lengua es-
paola de Lorenzo Hervs y Panduro (1735-1809)
Room A1.13: Manuel Gustavo Isaac: What kind of meaning formalizes the
formal semantics? A focus on the turn of the 20th century

10:30 - 11:00: Coffee Break

11:00 - 11:55: PLENARY LECTURE (Aula Magna D1.02):

Serhii Waklenko (Kharkiv State Pedagogical University,
The Rationalization of the Semiotic Theory in the 18th Century:
Approaches by Christian Wolff and Lus Antnio Vernei

12:00 - 12:45: Closure of ICHolS XIII (Aula Magna D1.02)

12:45 - 14:30: Lunch

Conference Handbook 29


On the concept of grammatical tradition and its application

to linguistic studies in Brazil

Ricardo Stavola CAVALIERE

Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil

The contemporary linguistic studies often make reference to grammatical

tradition as a kind of counterpoint to new proposals of research of linguistic
facts. Within the semantic field of grammatical tradition are inscribed terms such
as grammarian, philology, past, anachronism, diachrony, normativism, purism,
etc., in spite of the fact that not all of these concepts apply adequately to a num-
ber of linguistic studies which are properly understood as traditional. This stems
from a generalized and indiscriminate labeling of papers written in the past, in
which the idea of tradition appears as an imaginary place where everything now
considered anachronistic lies, a depository of outmoded ideas scattered over an
indefinite time span. In another dimension, the concept of tradition dates back to
the origins of human language studies in Classical Antiquity. It stems from the
idea that there is an imperative connection between being traditional and belong-
ing to the set of classical oeuvres that are in the cradle of linguistic thinking. On
the other hand, it is not uncommon to find oeuvres in the contemporary produc-
tion that can be characterized as traditional seminal works or that are introducto-
ry to a certain paradigm, no matter how recent they may be. In this case, the
meaning of tradition is intertwined with that of scientific representativeness.
Hence we assume, for instance, that a text like The Sound Pattern of English, by
Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle (1968), is in the tradition of the generative
model; for the same reason, we speak of the "French tradition" or the "English
tradition" in Discourse Analysis as options for the French or the English "varie-
ty". In other words, the concept of grammatical tradition seems to be located
between those things that everyone knows what they are, but few can define
them. This paper seeks to contribute to the clarification of the polysemic value
the term tradition has in the field of linguistic science, with a final reference to
the special meaning it holds within Brazilian linguistic studies.

Chomsky, Noam & Morris Halle. 1968. The Sound Pattern of English. New York: Har-
per & Row.
30 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

El trasfondo de la lingstica misionera espaola:

a modo de evaluacin


Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Espaa

Desde hace algunos aos se ha venido desarrollando con creciente intensi-

dad la investigacin sobre la corriente de trabajo lingstico que se ha dado en
llamar, no sin cierta discusin, lingstica misionera. En ese contexto, hace ya
algunos aos, comenc a interesarme por las motivaciones, argumentos e ideario
de los autores de estas obras.
Mi planteamiento es que una labor continuada de siglos, que parece ofrecer
pocas fisuras en cuanto al convencimiento de que se est haciendo lo que se
debe hacer (emprender la tarea de codificacin gramatical y de inventario lxico
de decenas de lenguas), a pesar de resultar la opcin ms costosa, slo puede
obedecer a un conjunto de razones extraordinariamente profundas. Ese trabajo,
efectivamente, se fundamenta en un cuerpo doctrinal que da razn de todo ese
enorme trabajo lingstico y lo dota de perfiles concretos y especficos.
Particularmente en lo que atae a los comienzos de las lingstica misionera
y a las obras sobre la lengua nhuatl, parece demostrado que existe ese cuerpo
doctrinal, presentado en forma de ideario lingstico, de enunciados normativos
argumentados, expuestos sobre todo en los prlogos de las obras, que guan la
accin lingstica de los misioneros lingistas. En otros trabajos me he ocupado
de otras tradiciones lingsticas, por ejemplo, de los planteamientos de los auto-
res de las obras sobre la lengua tarasca o de Michoacn.
En la presente ponencia me gustara completar los estudios ya hechos acer-
ca de la cuestin planteada y, a modo de evaluacin y conclusin final, exami-
nar, en otros textos relevantes para la lingstica misionera, dentro del mbito
hispnico, si los mismos postulados se mantienen tambin en el contexto de los
trabajos de codificacin de otras lenguas, sealar relaciones entre unas y otras
obras y, finalmente, si existe algn tipo de evolucin y en el argumentario con el
paso del tiempo.

Palabra clave: Lingstica misionera

Conference Handbook 31

Grammaires brsiliennes de la langue portugaise

des XXe et XXIe sicles

Marli Quadros LEITE

Universidade de So Paulo, Brasil

La grammaire est un instrument qui se renouvelle en accompagnant le d-

veloppement de la philosophie et des sciences, comme le montre son histoire.
Dans notre expos, nous proposons danalyser un certain nombre de grammaires
brsiliennes modernes de la langue portugaise afin dexaminer la faon dont ces
ouvrages sont le produit soit de linvention, soit de linnovation. Notre objectif
est de vrifier dans quelle mesure une grammaire est susceptible daccueillir de
nouvelles rfrences thoriques et a recours aux technologies modernes de
stockage et danalyse des donnes, et comment elle tire profit des concepts pro-
duits dans le temps long dans le domaine des sciences du langage.
Nous empruntons les concepts dinvention et dinnovation, utiliss dans le
cadre des tudes linguistiques, Auroux (2012) pour qui le fait davancer de
nouvelles thories pour interprter les faits linguistiques dcoule de linvention
de lauteur et constitue une innovation si elle produit des connaissances nou-
velles qui soient acceptes par la communaut scientifique concerne. Nous
faisons lhypothse que la grammaire rsultant de ce dveloppement des
sciences du langage est un produit scientifique qui se renouvelle dans le temps et
dans lespace, et est un lieu de production de la connaissance linguistique.
Dans notre expos, nous nous concentrerons sur la production principale de
la grammaire brsilienne, apparue partir des annes 1980, afin didentifier et
dinterprter les contributions des auteurs la thorie linguistique et
linterprtation de la varit brsilienne du portugais. Ce faisant, nous poserons,
entre autres, les questions suivantes qui recouvrent des questions empiriques,
conceptuelles et thoriques:
Dans quelle mesure les auteurs adoptent-ils le modle thorique grco-
latin pour construire leurs grammaires?
Les thories linguistiques modernes contredisent-elles ou spcificient-
elles tout en les compltant les thories classiques?
Quelles modalits linguistiques sont utilises comme objet dtude du
grammairien? Les exemples sont-ils forgs ou bien accrdits?
Les innovations technologiques utilises bnficient-elles
linterprtation des donnes linguistiques, et, en consquence
laccroissement des connaissances grammaticales?
Les ouvrages grammaticaux modernes maintiennent-ils ou bien dpas-
sent-ils la dichotomie grammaire traditionnelle vs. grammaire scien-
32 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

A la lumire de ces questions, nous examinerons les ouvrages suivants: No-

va gramtica do portugus contemporneo, Celso Cunha e Lindley Cintra
(1985); Moderna gramtica do portugus, Bechara (1999); Gramtica de usos
do portugus, Neves (2002); Gramtica Houaiss da lngua portuguesa, Azeredo
(2008). Nova gramtica do portugus brasileiro, Castilho (2010).

Auroux, Sylvain. 2012. Une nouvelle histoire de la grammaire franaise. In: Colombat,
B; Fournier, J-M; Raby, V. (d): Vers une histoire gnrale de la grammaire fran-
aise. Matriaux et perpectives. Paris: Champion.
Azeredo, Jos Carlos de. 2008. Gramtica Houaiss da Lngua Portuguesa. So Paulo:
Bechara, Evanildo. 1999. Moderna gramtica do portugus contemporneo. 37 ed. Rio
de Janeiro: Lucerna.
Castilho, Ataliba. 2010. Nova gramtica do portugus brasileiro. So Paulo: Contexto.
Cunha, Celso e Cintra, Lindley. 1985. Nova gramtica do portugus contemporneo.
Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira.
Neves, Maria Helena de Moura. 2000. Gramtica de usos do portugus. So Paulo:
Editora UNESP.

What do we talk about, when we talk about the history of linguistics?

A view from the United States

Margaret THOMAS
Boston College, U.S.A.

In this presentation, I explore a range of ways in which beginning students

of linguistics have been invited to pay attention toor to ignorethe history of
the language sciences.
My data derive from close examination of textbooks, written as university-
level introductions to the discipline of Linguistics and published in the United
States between 1950 and 2010. Some textbooks describe Linguistics with virtu-
ally no reference at all to its history, depicting (for example) the comparative
method, or techniques of phonemic analysis, or studies of human language ver-
sus animal communication, as if they had always existed in a complete and un-
disputed form (e.g. Gleason 1955; Hockett 1958; Akmajian et al. 1979). Other
textbooks (e.g. Bolinger 1964) include a specific subsection, set off from the rest
of the text, which narrates the history of Linguistics as a separable dimension the
field with tangential value, in the manner that some authors treat the topic of
practical applications of the study of language. Other textbooks (e.g. Fromkin
and Rodman 1974) are infused throughout with brief and decontextualized refer-
ences to the history of the language sciences, which variously orient readers to
regard earlier scholars work as foundational to modern linguistics; or as a suc-
Conference Handbook 33

cession of breakthroughs, each of which supplanted its predecessor; or as a mix-

ture of speculations and misapprehensions that contemporary scientific study of
language has now largely discredited. Still other textbooks (e.g. Finegan 1989)
take an approach familiar from Kuhns (1962) discussion of textbooks in the
sciences, providing very limited references to the history of the discipline, gen-
erally confined to a first chapter or to passing citations of famous figures.
Each of these stances counts as a particular way of talking about the history
of the language sciences. Even to say nothing at all about the history of Linguis-
tics in introducing the field to beginners is to use the transcendental (Olson
1980) authority of a textbook to take a specific position toward the study of the
past. My goal in this analysis is to read between the lines of these texts to ex-
plore what roles for the history of Linguistics these authors model to their read-
ers, and what they sayimplicitly or explicitlyabout its value.

Akmajian, Adrian, Richard A. Demers, and Robert M. Harnish. 1979. Linguistics: An
Introduction to Language and Communication. MIT Press.
Bolinger, Dwight. 1968. Aspects of Language. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World.
Finegan, Edward. 1989. Language, Its Structure and Use. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace.
Fromkin, Victoria, and Robert Rodman. 1974. An Introduction to Language (1st ed.).
New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Gleason, H. A. Jr. 1955. An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics. New York: Henry
Hockett, Charles F. 1958. A Course in Modern Linguistics. New York: Macmillan.
Kuhn, Thomas. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of
Olson, David R. 1980. On the language and authority of textbooks. Journal of Com-
munication, Winter 1980: 186196.

The Rationalization of the Semiotic Theory in the 18th Century: ap-

proaches by Christian Wolff and Lus Antnio Vernei

Kharkiv State Pedagogical University, Ukraine

The so-called second or new scholasticism of the 17th and 18th centu-
ries produced an elaborate doctrine of signs with far-reaching theoretical aspira-
tions. Within its framework, a special place is occupied by what can be referred
to as the Portuguese school of semiotics, including eminent authors such as Ped-
ro da Fonseca, Sebastio do Couto and John of St. Thomas.
In the 18th century, changing educational demands led to its replacement in
the universities by newer rationalist semiotic theories. This process occurred in a
judicious manner, without breaking the continuity with the earlier tradition. The
34 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

rationalists kept those parts of the scholastic theories, which they deemed useful,
leaving out the unnecessary and adding some new elements.
In Germany, Christian Wolff utilized the principle of the arbitrariness of
the linguistic sign to substantiate a double reform of the language of philosophy,
involving, on the one side, a re-definition of scientific concepts, and on the other
side, the introduction of the vernacular instead of the learned Latin, accompa-
nied by the creation of new philosophical terminology. His efforts to this effect
brought him the reputation of one of the foremost sculptors of the German lan-
guage after Luther. The influence of Wolffs philosophy, in part transmitted
through the works of his followers (Friedrich Christian Baumeister et\ al.), en-
compassed in the 18th century, apart from Germany and neighbouring countries,
vast areas in West and South Europe, helping to form there a new attitude to-
wards linguistic phenomena and especially towards corpus planning.
One of the most interesting responses to Wolffs ideas came from the Por-
tuguese thinker Lus Antnio Vernei, the author of a radical plan to purify the
language of philosophy. Verneis case is of particular interest in that he com-
bined his theoretical philosophy with a history of philosophy, offering a ration-
alist assessment of the scholastic semiotic theories, especially the Portuguese

Vernei L. A. 1751. De Re Logica ad usum Lusitanorum Adolescentium libri quinque.
Vernei L. A. 1746. Verdadeiro Metodo de Estudar, para ser util Republica, e Igreja:
proporcionado ao estilo, e necessidade de Portugal, t. I-II, Valensa.
Wolff Ch. 1733. Ausfhrliche Nachricht von seinen eigenen Schriften, die er in deut-
scher Sprache von den verschiedenen Theilen der Welt-Weisheit gegeben
Franckfurt am Mayn.
Wolff Ch. 1740. Philosophia Rationalis sive Logica. Francoforti & Lipsi.
Wolff Ch. 1751 [1. ed. 1719]. Vernnfftige Gedancken von Gott, der Welt und der
Seele des Menschen. Halle.
Conference Handbook 35


Carl Abel und seine Stellung

in der Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft

Universitt Mnster, Deutschland

Der Name des deutschen Sprachwissenschaftlers und Erforschers der indo-

europischen und hamitosemitischen Lexikologie, des Psychologen und ber-
setzers Carl Abel (18371906) wird heute oft von Linguisten erwhnt, die sich
mit der Polysemie oder konkreter mit dem sog. Gegensinn (Enantiosemie) be-
schftigen, mit Wrtern also, die gleichzeitig in gegenstzlicher Bedeutung ver-
wendet werden knnen (Lutzeier, Finkin, Bunchich, Rivelis u.a.).
Carl Abel hat als erster Linguist in der europischen Sprachwissenschaft
der neuen Zeit bereits gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts in seinem Artikel ber
den Gegensinn der Urworte (Leipzig 1884, 65 S.) den Begriff Gegensinn
geprgt, und zwar im Zusammenhang mit seinen Untersuchungen der
altgyptischen Hieroglyphen. Er war der Erste, der die Relevanz dieser
Erscheinung erkannt hat.
Abel formulierte in seinem Artikel ber den Ursprung der Sprache (Carl
Abel, Sprachwissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Leipzig, Friedrich, 1885, 283-
311) die These, dass Wrter mit entgegensetzten Bedeutungen das Werden der
Begriffe und deren sprachliche Bezeichnungen erlutern. Heute bezeichnen Lin-
guisten seine These als Hypothese des ursprnglichen Gegensinns (Bunchich,
Abuladze/Ludden/Weger). Abels Untersuchungen hatten verschiedene Auswir-
kungen auf seinen Zeitgenossen. Bemerkenswert ist auch, dass seine Theorie das
Interesse des Psychologen Sigmund Freud erweckt hat.
Besondere Beachtung haben in den letzten Jahren im Bereich der kogniti-
ven Linguistik das Phnomen des Gegensinns sowie Abels Hypothese des ur-
sprnglichen Gegensinns gefunden (Shmelyov, Bunchich, Rivelis u.a.).
Jedoch verdienen Carl Abel und seine Untersuchungen, die er in Sprach-
wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen verffentlichte, nicht nur wegen dieser Hypo-
these die Aufmerksamkeit der Sprachwissenschaftler.
Abels Beitrge zeigen, dass man ihn heute als einen der wichtigsten Vor-
lufer der modernen Sprachwissenschaft (nmlich auf dem Gebiet der beschrei-
benden Lexikologie, Semantik und Pragmatik) wrdigen kann. So knnen wir
ihn etwa mit seinem Artikel Die englischen Verba des Befehls (1885, 107-
188), der eine grndliche Untersuchung dieses Wortfeldes bietet, als frhen Re-
prsentanten der Wortfeldtheorie bezeichnen.
36 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

In seinen Abhandlungen betont Abel die Notwendigkeit, Wortbedeutun-

gen nicht nur in Bezug auf die Referenten zu betrachten, sondern auch den Ge-
brauch der Wrter, d. h. die kontextuellen Faktoren, die Situation und Absicht
des Sprechers zu beachten. In diesem Sinne ist Abel der Vorlufer der Pragma-
Sehr interessant gerade fr die anthropologische Linguistik und die ber-
setzungstheorie sind auch Abels Untersuchungen verschiedener Begriffe (z.B.
Liebe) in unterschiedlichen Sprachen. In meinem Vortrag habe ich vor, diese
Untersuchungen den Arbeiten von Wierzbicka gegenberzustellen.

Variations historiques des complexes consonantiques

dans les langues franaise, anglaise, allemande et gorgienne

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia

Chaque langue prise en synchronie possde un ensemble de traits qui la d-

finissent et que l'on peut dcrire avec prcision, parmi lesquels la syn-
taxe, le lexique, la morphologie et le systme phonologique. Ces traits, cepen-
dant, ne peuvent tre dcrits que pour un tat prcis de la langue, limit dans
l'espace et le temps. La phontique historique (ou phonologie diachronique)
dcrit en diachronie les modifications subies par les systmes phonolo-
giques des langues au cours de leur histoire. Lun des problmes des variations
phontiques historiques est les changements phontiques des groupes consonan-
En interprtant des causes des changements phontiques des groupes con-
sonantiques, ct des autres facteurs, il est aussi important une suite des con-
sonnes ces complexes sont dcessifs (larticulation est dirige de lextrieur
lintrieur) ou accssifs (larticulation est dirige de lintrieur lextrieur). Des
groupes de sons peuvent tre de diffrentes espces: combinaisons dune voyelle
avec une autre voyelle, dune consonne avec une autre consonne, dune voyelle
avec une consonne, dune consonne avec une voyelle, combinaisons des con-
sonnes pareilles, des voyelles pareilles etc.
En prononant deux consonnes voisines htrognes, leur articulation se
prcipite la simultanit. Cest la rgle de la simultanit de larticulation.
Conference Handbook 37

Sur la base de cette rgle on distingue des complexes dcessifs et accssifs

des consonnes. Les termes accssif (du latin accssio, accessinis), dces-
sif (du latin decssio, decessinis) et supration (du latin superatio)
appartiennent G. Akhvlediani. Dans des groupes consonantiques accssifs la
possibilit de larticulation simultane est exclue et les accssifs ne sont pas
caractriss daccommodation physiologique ; ils sont moins naturels physio-
logiquement ; mais la langue tend toujours lharmonie et pendant larticulation
des complexes accssifs se passe lconomie de laction des organes articula-
toires ; et de ce fait se passe la supration des accssifs.
Mais ce processus phontique se ralise ingalement dans les diffrentes
langues, c'est--dire les voies diffrentes de la supration peuvent tre prsen-
tes dans les langues. Les combinaisons des consonnes composantes des groupes
accssifs peuvent tre avoir des suites: I. prlingual+bilabial, II. prlin-
gual+dento-labial, III. postlingual+bilabial, IV. postlingual+dento-labial, V.
Daprs ce principe de la classification (suivant de la place de
larticulation) peuvent tre 73 types possibles des groupes accssifs dont en
franais sont attests 28 types, en anglais 26, en Allemagne 23 et en gorgien
34. Des 7 espces de la supration des accssifs (mtathse, vocalisation, spi-
rantisation, limite de syllabe, assimilation, perte de la premire consonne du
groupe, palatalisation) lancien franais utilisait 5, lancien anglais 4,
lancien allemagne 6 et lancien gorgien - 7.
La tendance de la supration des complexes consonantiques accssifs est
observe dans beaucoup de langues. Puisque elle est dtermine physiologique-
ment la supration peut tre un phnomne phontique universel.

An 18th century Jebero Doctrina Christiana

University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

Jebero is an indigenous North-Peruvian language. It belongs to the Ca-

huapana language family, a small family consisting of two languages: Jebero
and Chayahuita. Jebero is an agglutinative language and it has predominantly an
SOV (subject-object-verb) constituent order. According to Flowers (2008), only
a few elderly people, living in a district called Jeberos, still speak the native
language. Nowadays, Pilar Valenzuela (Chapman University, U.S.A.) is working
with the Jebero people on a project of revitalisation of the language.
The 18th century Jebero Doctrina Christiana, the subject of my talk, is con-
tained in the codex Ms. Add. 25,324 of the British Library. The author is proba-
bly the Jesuit priest Samuel Fritz (1654-1728). The manuscript has not been
published yet, but a diplomatic edition is in preparation.
38 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

As so many other missionaries in colonial times, the author of the Doctrina

Christiana wrote the manuscript for his private use and for the church, so that,
when he was transferred, his successor could use his work, add something to it,
or change it. In the colonial era Quechua was the most important lingua franca in
Peru, and it has a prominent role in the doctrine mentioned above. In the Doctri-
na Christiana, Quechua, not Spanish, as was to be expected, functions as the
source language from which the religious texts are translated into Jebero. Ex-
traordinary also is the fact that the doctrine contains two versions of the prayers,
the commandments and the confession, in Jebero. The first version dates from
the 17th century, the second version from the 18th century. They represent two
different strata of the language.
In this talk, I first give attention to the composition of the Doctrina Christi-
ana to demonstrate that the manuscript was not meant to be published, but that it
was written for the church. I also pay attention to the use of Quechua as the
source language. Subsequently, I compare a Jebero text dating from the 17th
century with its 18th century counterpart, in order to show that the use of the
language of the 17th century stratum is more elaborated in relation to that of the
18th century.

Nancy Flowers, 2008, www.everyculture.com/South-America/Jebero.html,
Samuel Fritz (?), Doctrina Christiana; Gramatica dela Lengua Xebera, Ms. Add.
25,324, British Library, London (UK).

A Lngua Geral Amaznica em Couto de Magalhes

Consuelo ALFARO
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Couto de Magalhes, poltico e intelectual brasileiro do sculo XIX, dialo-

ga com a produo cientfica do seu tempo, com as gramticas da lngua tupi do
sculo XVI, da lngua guarani do sculo XVII, produzindo uma descrio da
Lngua Geral Amaznica ou Nheengatu com objetivos pedaggicos encomen-
dado pelo governo imperial e, ao mesmo tempo, produz uma reflexo sobre as
lnguas em contato na regio norte de Brasil. Formula propostas de poltica lin-
gustica sobre essa lngua geral de base tupi e, embora acione referencias como
lngua de selvagens, a julga passvel de estudo cientfico e, sobre tudo de ensino.
O autor retoma elementos da tradio colonial que tinha investido na construo
de um discurso destinado a legitimar o status das lnguas gerais, um esforo para
atribuir valores prprios das lnguas de poder, produzindo, para isso, gramticas,
artes y dicionrios, tesouros. Couto de Magalhes (1837-1898) descreve a Ln-
gua Geral com o propsito de instrumentalizar e formar quadros de intrpretes,
Conference Handbook 39

como una estratgia de conquista pacfica da inteligncia das numerosas popu-

laes que ainda no falam o portugus na regio do norte, no sculo XIX.
O Curso da Lngua Geral segundo Ollendorf (1875) apresenta uma es-
trutura didtica de autoaprendizagem. Nos princpios que constituem a base de
sua concepo metodolgica, podem ser reconhecidos elementos da tradio de
anlise lingustica - categorias gramaticais - , mas tambm inovaes, como o
pressuposto da supremacia da oralidade no fenmeno lingustico. A proposta
didtica consiste em aplicar princpios metodolgicos de ensino de Ollendorf
que a partir dos procedimentos no ensino formal - cujo objeto era das lnguas
clssicas so adaptados s lnguas vivas.
A abordagem da lngua, da oralidade e dos mitos est muito prxima dos
procedimentos adotados posteriormente pela antropologia e a lingustica. Com
ele, a rea filolgica evidencia uma proximidade com o pensamento cientfico da
poca, sustentando um dilogo com as cincias naturais e com as cincias sociais
A forma de abordar os dados do contato lingustico portugus/ nheengatu
representa um avano significativo porque implica um reconhecimento das falas
mistas vistas no como um subproduto de falantes sem competncia em ne-
nhuma das lnguas - media lengua - mas como um modo legtimo de comunica-
O trabalho tem como objetivo discutir os conceitos que subsidiam as repre-
sentaes de lngua, de ensino/aprendizagem de lnguas, de lnguas em contato e
a apresentao de dados no material didtico destinado Lngua Geral Amaz-
nica, no sculo XIX.

Russian Antistructuralism: V. I. Abaev

Vladimir Mikhailovich ALPATOV

Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

1920s-1950s were the period of the predominance of structural linguistics

in the world. Some linguists did not accept the structural ideas but mainly from
the positions of the linguistics of the XX century. The most interesting critical
ideas were expressed not in the Western Europe or in America but in the Soviet
Union and Japan (M. Tokieda). The criticism by V. Voloshinov is well known
now. However another serious critic of structural linguistics was Vasily I. Abaev
(1900 2001). He was N. Ya. Marrs pupil but he had shifted away from and
become independent of the New Doctrine still in the 1930s. He was an out-
standing specialist on the Iranian languages especially on Ossetic but for many
years he published works on the general linguistics too. In the 1930s he was
under the influence of V. von Humboldt and criticized both the Neo-
Grammarians and F. de Saussure, because they were afraid of difficulties and
40 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

were characterized by an unrestrained tendency towards cowardly and wingless

hairsplitting. Abaev discriminated between language as techniques and lan-
guage as ideology. According to him ideology is not only ideology in the
usual sense but everyday concepts and notions; by language as ideology
Abaev meant much of what is now called the linguistic worldview. Ideology
is reflected in nomination, figurative meanings etc. Abaev did not reject struc-
tural analysis, in contrast to Voloshinov, but he regarded it as inadequate since it
concerned only language in a technical sense. In the 1960s Abaev preserved
his ideas. He wrote in 1960 that language is systematic and asystematic at the
same time, the systematic character of language is proportional to its techniza-
tion. According to Abaev, structural methods are convenient, if this level of
language is mainly systematic (phonology), but they are not useful for syntax
and especially for semantics, because these levels are to a degree asystematic.
Such ideas were not popular in the USSR in the 1930s and were rejected by the
majority of Soviet linguists in the 1960s. However they have some resemblance
to the modern post-structural linguistics.

O Pndulo de Foucault: Sincronia e Diacronia

no Estudo do Portugus no Brasil

Cristina ALTMAN
Universidade de So Paulo, Brasil

Em trabalho anterior sobre a pesquisa lingustica no Brasil, publicada em

cinco peridicos brasileiros de abrangncia nacional, chegamos a resultados
interessantes no que diz respeito s lnguas analisadas e ao tipo de orientao
que seus autores imprimiram pesquisa: dos 208 artigos publicados entre 1966 e
1988, 160 tiveram o portugus como objeto. Destes, 61 orientaram seu trabalho
para a descrio gramatical, 54 para questes de uso e variao e apenas 5 para a
histria do portugus. Dentre as interpretaes que este levantamento autorizou,
uma, certamente, apontava para a predominncia da orientao sincrnica do
portugus, quer na descrio gramatical, quer no estudo do uso e da variao.
Outra, foi a quase ausncia de artigos dedicados diacronia do portugus: ape-
nas cinco. A descontinuidade entre a filologia, a lingustica histrica e a lingus-
tica descritiva constituiu, sem dvida, um importante fator de diversificao
terica e metodolgica entre os scholars brasileiros dos anos 1960-1990 (cf.
Altman 2003).
Nos ltimos vinte anos, entretanto, a produo lingustica brasileira come-
ou a dar sinais de mudanas. possvel flagrar movimentos de neutralizao
das oposies que construmos em dcadas anteriores. Dentre elas, destaco, ten-
do em vista os objetivos deste trabalho, a neutralizao das oposies entre lin-
gustica histrica e lingustica sincrnica e a consequente busca de estabeleci-
Conference Handbook 41

mento de continuidade entre essas duas orientaes, at ento propostas como

divergentes no estudo do portugus. Esta tendncia de recuperar a dimenso
histrica do dado lingustico encontrou, no Brasil do final do sculo XX, um
paralelo a um outro nvel de reflexo: o estudo crtico da cronologia da prpria
produo lingustica. Com efeito, a busca por dados diacrnicos do portugus
propiciou o resgate de uma literatura at ento esquecida: gramticas, vocabul-
rios, ensaios, artigos, cartas, relatrios, escritos em dcadas anteriores, ou mes-
mo em sculos anteriores.
O objetivo deste trabalho o mapeamento desta reviravolta: pergunta-se
como os estudos diacrnicos do portugus, publicados em peridicos brasileiros
em circulao no perodo 1990-2010, se reintegraram produo lingustica
brasileira, stricto sensu. Com efeito, se um dos desafios do historigrafo con-
temporneo compreender, e se possvel explicar como e por que, no processo
de seleo das ideias e prticas lingusticas do passado, uma determinada tradi-
o de pesquisa privilegiou o estudo de alguns objetos em detrimento de outros,
o caso brasileiro parece oferecer um bom material para esta reflexo.

Altman, Cristina. 2003. A Pesquisa Lingstica no Brasil (1968-1988). 2a ed. So Paulo:
Humanitas. (1a ed. 1998).

Medieval Pragmatics: Grammar, Affect and History of Emotions

University of Auckland, New Zealand

As language in use, pragmatics begins with language itself. But according

to some, Pragmatics the discipline begins in the early twentieth century or, for
Kantians, in the middle of the eighteenth (e.g. Nerlich 2006). Like any historical
inquiry, uncovering and foregrounding thinking about language pragmatics in
the past depends on where we look and how. The history of linguistics needs to
reassess its commitment to traditional historicist scholarship in light of debates
about post-humanist humanities, the importance of critical inquiry of language in
use, and shifting notions of the past as as part of present understanding. I pro-
pose doing so by inflecting traditional historicism with critical close reading,
systems theory (Luhmann 1990) and discourse analysis (Halliday 2004). In this
paper I explore two problems in medieval thinking about language and pragmat-
ics: the interjection and heretic talk. Grammatical writing on Priscian by the
Kilwardby Circle and others suggests new ways of reading some late medieval
court records and literary texts as explorations of theories of spoken and written
Latin and vernaculars. Bernard Guis Inquisitors Handbook (14th c.) presents a
careful account of how heretics talk and reveals a complex awareness of lin-
42 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

guistic pragmatics in hostile situations. Gui and Kilwardbys analyses emphasize

speakers intentio and voluntas, interior speech/concepts and the distinction be-
tween conceptus and affectus as key criteria for discerning meaning, acceptabil-
ity and grammaticality. Their situated accounts of language in use present us
with some familiar and some not so familiar ways of thinking about pragmatics
as a part of ars grammatica in the later Middle Ages. Inflected by systems theo-
ry and critical discourse analysis, the history of pragmatics is not only a subcate-
gory within the history of linguistics but also an important perspective on other
historical projects, such as the history of emotions and historical discourse anal-

Selected References:
Gui, Bernard. 1991. Practica inquisitionis heretice pravitatis (c. 1323/24). In Heresies of
the High Middle Ages, ed. and trans. Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans.
NY: Columbia U P (selections).
Halliday, M. A. K. and C. M. I. M. Matthiessen. 2004. An Introduction to Functional
Grammar. 3rd ed. London: Arnold.
Luhmann, N. 1988. Knowledge as Construction. Bern: Benteli.
-------. 1990. Paradigm Lost. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.
Nerlich, B. 2006. History of Pragmatics. In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics,
ed. Kaith Brown et al. Oxford: Elsevier.
Rosier-Catach, Irene. 1994. La Parole Comme Acte. Paris: Vrin.

Formas de tratamento em cartas pessoais no portugus brasileiro:

um estudo historiogrfico

Maria Lcia da Cunha Victrio de Oliveira ANDRADE

Universidade de So Paulo, Brasil

Tomando como corpus a correspondncia pessoal de Machado de Assis,

organizada por Rouanet (2009) e a obra Cartas da Biblioteca Guita e Jos Mind-
lin, editada por Paris (2008), buscamos identificar e analisar as formas de trata-
mento utilizadas pelo autor e seus interlocutores, seguindo as propostas de Kaba-
tek (2006) Tradies Discursivas - e da Histria Cultural, especialmente Char-
tier (1990). Para tanto, selecionamos cartas escritas por sujeitos que mantinham
relaes de amizade estreita com o enunciador e outras em que se percebe uma
relao menos intima e mais voltada para situaes profissionais. Buscamos
observar a dialogicidade inscrita nas cartas por meio de marcas especficas, sele-
cionadas pelo enunciador a partir das formas de tratamento e de escolhas lexicais
organizadas de tal modo que a sintaxe desse discurso revele um uso significativo
da lngua nas ltimas dcadas do sculo XIX (cartas de M. Assis) e no sculo
XX (coleo de Mindlin). A organizao permite historiar esse continuum no
grau de proximidade/distncia entre os enunciadores, que auxilia a descrever os
Conference Handbook 43

usos de acordo com a situao comunicativa estabelecida, atravs de padres

discutidos a partir da teoria de Poder e Solidariedade (Brown & Gilman, 1960).
As hipteses levantadas para este trabalho so elaboradas, de um lado, com base
nos resultados encontrados em outros estudos, que revelam dados significativos
sobre o uso majoritrio de tu, forma recorrente no sculo XIX e incio do XX,
que ser suplantado por voc por volta dos anos 30, evidenciando que so as
mulheres as enunciadoras que mais utilizam esse pronome (Lopes e Machado,
2005, Pereira 2012) e, de outro lado, em algumas das gramticas mais utilizadas
nos sculos XIX e XX, como a de Joo Ribeiro (1887) e a de Eduardo Carlos
Pereira (1907), avaliando como esses autores tratam do pronome em suas obras.

Brown, R. & Gilman, A. 1960. The Pronouns of Power and Solidarity. In: SEBEOK,
T.A. Style in Language. Massachusetts: Ed. MIT Press: 253-276.
Chartier, R. 1990. A histria cultural: entre prticas e representaes. Traduo Maria
Manuel Galhardo. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil.
Kabatek, J. 2006. Tradies discursivas e mudana lingustica. In: Lobo, Tania et al.
(orgs.). Para a histria do portugus brasileiro. Volume VI, Salvador: EDUFBA.
Lopes, C. R. & Machado, A. C. 2005. Tradio e inovao: indcios do sincretismo
entre segunda e terceira pessoas nas cartas dos avos. In: Lopes, C. R. (org.). Norma
brasileira em construo: fatos lingusticos em cartas pessoais do sculo XIX. Rio
de Janeiro: Ps-graduao em Letras Vernculas/FAPERJ: 45-66.
Paris, M. L. (ed.) 2008. Cartas da Biblioteca Guita e Jos Mindlin. So Paulo: Editora
Terceiro Nome.
Pereira, R. O. 2012. O tratamento em cartas amorosas e familiares da Familia Penna:
um estudo diacrnico. Dissertao de Mestrado em Lngua Portuguesa, Rio de Ja-
neiro: UFRJ.
Pereira. E.C. 1907. Gramtica Expositiva. So Paulo: Weiszflog Irmos & Co.
Ribeiro, J. 1887. Grammatica Portugueza. Rio de Janeiro Livraria: Francisco Alves.
Rouanet, S. P. (org.) 2009. Correspondncia de Machado de Assis. Tomos I e II. Rio de
Janeiro Academia Brasileira de Letras.

Textes, discours et institutions sociales

Rossana de ANGELIS
Universit della Calabria, Italia

Par cette communication on propose dvaluer le rle de la notion

dinstitution sociale propose par Ferdinand de Saussure (1894, [1916] 1922)
au sein des thories linguistiques contemporaines, notamment vis vis des no-
tions de texte et discours. La notion saussurienne dinstitution sociale permet
en fait denvisager la dimension sociale des faits linguistiques.
La distinction entre pratiques, discours et textes au sein dune smiotique
des cultures (Rastier & Bouquet 2002) suppose une conception de la langue
44 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

comme fait social (Saussure [1916] 1922). La langue est en effet une institu-
tion sociale qui partage avec dautres institutions sociales un mme milieu
culturel (Hjelmslev 1943, 1953, 1954). Pour analyser les faits linguistiques dans
leur propre complexit, il faut donc valuer les relations rciproques entre la
langue et les autres institutions sociales et montrer comment ces relations se
ralisent effectivement dans les pratiques, les discours et les textes (Rastier
1987, 1989, 2001).
La notion de discours se situe au carrefour entre deux lectures distinctes de
luvre de Saussure, mais en envisageant la langue comme fait social: alors
que la premire se dveloppe autour de la notion dnonciation, ce qui suppose
une rvaluation du sujet parlant implicite dans tout acte linguistique ; la deu-
xime lecture se dveloppe autour de la notion dinstitution sociale, ce qui na
pas reu la mme dattention dans lhistoire des rceptions du Cours de linguis-
tique gnrale (Saussure [1916] 1922).
Les auteurs qui ont repris la notion saussurienne dinstitution sociale par
rapport leurs rflexions sur le discours sont notamment Edmond Ortigues
(1962) et Michel Pcheux (1969-1975). La thorie linguistique de Michel P-
cheux (1969, 1975), par exemple, se dveloppe autour dune notion de discours
issue de la conjonction entre le sujet et lhistoire, mais en passant par la notion
saussurienne dinstitution sociale qui suppose la fois ces deux aspects du lan-
On va donc suivre les voies ouvertes par la notion saussurienne
dinstitution sociale pour comprendre dans quelle mesure la dimension sociale
a t prise en compte dans lanalyse des faits de langage, notamment en relation
aux notions de texte et discours.

Hjelmslev, Louis T. [1953] 1954. Sprogets indholdsform som samfundsfaktor, Det
danske Magasin, II, pp. 1-7; tr. it. La forma del contenuto del linguaggio come
fattore sociale, in ID. Saggi di linguistica generale, d. par Massimo Prampolini,
Parma: Pratiche Editrice, pp. 115-122.
Hjelmslev, Louis T. 1943. Langue et Parole, in ID. 1971, Essais linguistiques, d. par
Franois Rastier, Paris: Minuit, pp. 77-89.
Hjelmslev, Louis T. 1943b. Omkring Sprogteoriens Grundlggelse, Copenhagen: Ejnar
Munksgaard; trad. fr. par Una Canger, Prolgomnes une thorie du langage, Pa-
ris: Minuit, 1971.
Hjelmslev, Louis T. 1954. La stratification du langage, Word n. 10, pp. 163-188 ; in in
ID. 1971, Essais linguistiques, d. par Franois Rastier, Paris: Minuit, pp. 44-76.
Ortigues, Edmond, [1962] 2007. Le discours et le symbole, Paris: Beauchesne.
Pcheux, Michel. 1969. Analyse smantique du discours (extraits), in ID. Linquitude
du discours, d. par Denise Maldidier, Paris: Editions des Cendres, 1990, pp. 97-
Pcheux, Michel. 1975. Les vrits de Lapalice. Linguistique, smantique, philosophie
(extraits), in in ID. Linquitude du discours, d. par Denise Maldidier, Paris: Edi-
tions des Cendres, 1990, pp. 175-244.
Conference Handbook 45

Rastier, Franois, Bouquet Simon, ds. 2002. Une introduction aux sciences de la cul-
ture, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Rastier, Franois. [1987] 2009. Smantique interprtative, Paris: Presses Universitaires
de France.
Rastier, Franois. 1989. Sens et textualit, Paris: Hachette.
Rastier, Franois. 2001. Arts et sciences du texte, Paris: Presses Universitaires de
Saussure, Ferdinand de. [1894] 2007. N. 10: notes pour un article sur Whitney [Ms. fr.
3951/10], Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure, n. 60/2007, copie digitale en annexe.
Saussure, Ferdinand de. [1916] 1922. Cours de linguistique gnrale, d. par Charles
Bally e Aalbert Schehaye, Paris: Payot; trad. it. par Tullio De Mauro, Corso di
linguistica generale, Roma-Bari: Laterza, [1967] 2003.

L'origine et le Dveloppement des Langues selon Jlio Ribeiro

dans son Traos Geraes de Linguistica

Jos Edicarlos de AQUINO

Universidade Estadual de Campinas, So Paulo, Brasil

L'origine de la langue est certainement l'une des questions les plus contro-
verses de l'histoire des sciences du langage. cet gard, il suffit de citer
comme exemple l'interdiction faite au sujet par la Socit Linguistique de Paris
quand elle fut fonde en 1866. Le sujet de l'origine du langage a lieu au Brsil
la fin du XIXe sicle, dans l'ouvrage Traos Geraes de Linguistica, crit par
Jlio Ribeiro, considr comme le premier grammairien du processus de gram-
matisation brsilienne de la langue portugaise. Dans ce livre, apparemment le
premier travail autoproclam de "Linguistique" au Brsil, l'origine du langage
divise l'espace avec et se rapporte des questions telles que le sige du langage
articul, le dispositif de la phonation et l'volution et la typologie des langues.
Selon le traitement donn ce sujet par Julio Ribeiro, on ne peut pas signaler le
moment historique de l'origine du langage articul ni rpondre la question de
savoir si ce quon appelle la langue primitive fut monolithique, comme
laurait dfendu Wilhelm Bleek, ou polilithique, comme lauraient dclar
August Schleicher et Friedrich Mller. Face cette impossibilit, l'auteur tente
de dcrire les sept grandes priodes de dveloppement par lesquels le langage
articul aurait pu passer: linterjectif, le dmonstratif, lattributif, le monosylla-
bique, lagglutinant, le fusionn et le contractif. Les trois premires priodes
sont tenues comme prhistoriques, tandis que les quatre derniers sont appels
historiques. Selon Jlio Ribeiro, cette priodisation est plutt un ordre ration-
nel qu'un ordre chronologique. Cette priodisation du langage articul pr-
sente par l'auteur est directement align au dveloppement de l'humanit elle-
mme, partir de l'anthropode jusqu l'homme moderne. Elle tablit galement
une hirarchie des langues en fonction de leur degr de dveloppement. Le Chi-
46 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

nois, par exemple, garderait les caractristiques de la priode monosyllabique,

quand le langage se montre dj relativement parfait, mais moins dvelopp
que les langues romanes, qui surgirent pendant la priode de contraction, la p-
riode actuelle du monde civilis. Dans le sillage du processus massif de gram-
matisation qui, selon Auroux (1992), retire la question de l'origine des langues
du champ de la thologie, la lacisant, l'uvre de Jlio Ribeiro conoit un pro-
cessus de dveloppement du langage qui, mme quirraliste pour beaucoup de
recherches actuelles en linguistique, a le mrite de reconnatre le langage articul
comme tant la qualit fondamentale et dterminante de l'humanit.

Auroux, Sylvain. 1992. A revoluo tecnolgica da gramatizao. Campinas: Editora da
________. 2008. Questo da origem das lnguas. A historicidade das cincias. Campi-
nas: RG.
________. (org.). 2000. Histoire des ides linguistiques: lhgmonie du comparatisme.
Belgique: Mardaga.
Fracchiolla, Batrice (ed.). 2006. Marges Linguistiques. Lorigine du langage et des
langues. N. 11.
Harris, R. (org.). 1996. The origin of language. Bristol: Thoemmes Press.
Rastier, Franois. 2009. Tem a linguagem uma origem? Revista Brasileira de Psicanli-
se, V. 43, N. 1: 105-117.
Ribeiro, Jlio. 1880. Tracos Geraes de Linguistica. So Paulo: Teixeira e Irmo.

Linterjection dans la pense grammaticale et linguistique russe

Universit Paris Diderot-Paris 7
& Laboratoire dHistoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Le statut de l interjection fait lobjet de positions divergentes, ce depuis

lantiquit. Est-elle une partie du discours ? Est-elle mme un mot part en-
tire ? A lintrieur mme de la catgorie, le distinguo entre interjection et ono-
matope est galement lobjet de dbats toujours vivants. Nous nous intresse-
rons la question de la catgorisation de linterjection, ainsi qu celle de son
statut smiotique, dans la tradition grammaticale russe.
A la suite de Smotrickij, Lomonosov a install linterjection au titre des
parties du discours auxiliaires ( le nom et le verbe sont des parties du discours
humain, indispensables la reprsentation mme de nos conceptions fondamen-
tales ; le pronom, le participe, ladverbe, la prposition, la conjonction et
linterjection servent la liaison ou la rduction de celles-ci. Ainsi est-il juste
de dnommer les premires parties du discours principales, et les secondes auxi-
liaires. M. Lomonosov, Rossijskaja grammatika, 45). Cette conception pse-
Conference Handbook 47

ra, sans toutefois obrer un dbat qui perdure, hsitant considrer linterjection
comme intgre au lexique, ou bien reconnaissant sa participation
lorganisation syntaxique de lnonc.
Nous voquerons donc les diffrents arguments tant des grammairiens et
linguistes qui reconnaissent linterjection comme partie du discours (Lomono-
sov, Vostokov, Shakhmatov, Vinogradov) que de ceux qui la discutent, voire
la rejettent (Gretch, Potebnja, Ovsjaniko-Kulikovskij, Aksakov, Peshkovskij,
Shvedova) ainsi que les proprits et valeurs qui lui sont attaches.
Une conception retiendra tout particulirement notre attention: celle de A.
Shakhmatov qui, prenant appui sur lide creuse par Potebnja dans son ouvrage
La pense et la langue (Mysl i jazyk) selon laquelle linterjection nexprimant
pas un contenu de pense, elle ntait pas un mot muni dun signifiant, et quelle
est en cela incapable de dnommer: elle ne fait que signaler un tat du locuteur.
Dans le courant de la grammaire psychologique, Shakhmatov assigne cette
srie de mots, qui ne possdent pas de signification formelle et nexpriment pas
une reprsentation, le statut de mot incomplet (nepolnye slova). Viktor Vino-
gradov pousse encore cette analyse pour intgrer linterjection au titre des par-
ticules du discours.

Principales rfrences:
Germanovitch, A.I. 1966. Mezhdometija russkogo jazyka. Kiev, Radjanska skola.
Lomonosov, M.V. 1952. Rossijskaja Grammatika, 1755, [ed. Polnoe sobranie so. Aka-
demija Nauk SSSR]
Potebnja, A.A. 2007. Mysl i jazyk, 1862, Moskva, Labirint.
Shakhmatov A. A. 1925/1927. Sintaksis russkogo jazyka, Moskva,.
Vinogradov, V.V. 1972. Russkij jazyk, 2oe izd. Moskva.

Classifications of Words in Ancient Sanskrit Grammars

Universit Paris Diderot-Paris 7
& Laboratoire d'Histoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Even though the analysis of language in units seems to have appeared as

essential for all traditions of language study, to classify words consists in an
activity which is neither self-evident nor homogeneous: the classifier (whether
he is an individual scholar, a school of thought, or a trend) has an epistemologi-
cal aim (i.e. he has something to explain) and one must consider the regularities
(hence the categories) he establishes on this basis (see Auroux 1988a). Episte-
mological aims varied greatly throughout history, from one tradition of language
study to another, and even within one and the same tradition (see Auroux
1988b). Today, specialists of different trends in linguistics use different catego-
48 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

ries, and the criticisms they address to each other and the debates they have on
this topic remain vigorous.
In this paper, I will study the classifications of words which were elaborat-
ed in the different schools of ancient Sanskrit grammar (Vykaraa), that is to
say: the Pinian (See Bhate), the Cndra, the Jainendra, the kayana, the
Hemacandra, the Ktantra and the Srasvata schools, as well as the school of
Vopadeva and some others (see Belvalkar 1915, Scharfe 1977, Banerji 1996).
For each classification, I will try to identify its origin and I will describe and
explain the way according to which it was introduced and possibly justified, the
criteria on which it is based and if any the discussions it gave rise to; the
final aim being to provide a detailed overview of the way ancient Indian Sanskrit
grammarians perceived and carried out the classification of words, which is an
essential metalinguistic activity.

Bibliography (secondary sources)

Auroux, S., 1988a, La grammaire gnrale et les fondements philosophiques des
classements de mots, Langages 92, 79-92.
Auroux, S., 1988b, Annexe I. Les critres de dfinition des parties du discours, Lan-
gages 92, 109-112.
Banerji, S. C., 1996, Historical Survey of Ancient Indian Grammars (Sanskrit, Pali and
Prakrit), Delhi, Sharada Publishing House.
Belvalkar, S. K., 1915, An Account of the Different Existing Systems of Sanskrit Gram-
mar, Poona (the author).
Bhate, S. (undated). Classification of terms, unpublished.
Scharfe, H., 1977, Grammatical Literature (A History of Indian Literature, part II, fasc.
2), Wiesbaden, Otto Harrassowitz.

Remarks before the Remarques:

Jean de Wapys Remarques sur la langue franoise (1634)1

University of Cambridge, U.K.

The genre remarques sur la langue franaise has typically been dated to
the publication of Claude Favre de Vaugelas work of the same title in 1647, for
example in Ayres-Bennett 2004:23: Les Remarques de Vaugelas constituent la
premire tentative dlaboration du genre; elles en sont le modle. The genre
of remarques is distinct from observations on specific authors, such as Mal-
herbes on Desportes, or on specific works, such as the Acadmie Franaise on
Corneilles play, Le Cid. It is also distinct from formal grammars, such as those
of Charles Maupas and Antoine Oudin in the first half of the 17th century. The

See also Kibbee.
Conference Handbook 49

choice of the term remarques is specific to a particular approach to language,

opposed to the lois or rgles or even dcisions, as Vaugelas makes clear in his
preface. As such, the term reflects a particular attitude towards a linguistic
norm, one that emphasizes the arbitrary, one might even say capricious, nature
of judgments of correctness in language. This arbitrariness is defined socially
the language of the best speakers in the royal court rather than by reason or by
appeal to the learned tradition of the classical languages.
This traditional view of the history of the French grammatical tradition is
now upset by the discovery of a work previously unknown to us, and unexplored
in modern scholarship. In 1634 13 years before Vaugelas printed remarks,
and four years before he first circulated a manuscript version of his remarques -
Jean de Wapy, a printer from Lorraine, authored a book of the same title, Re-
marques sur la langue franoise. Though structurally different, Wapys Re-
marques prefigure Vaugelas reluctance to present laws and rules about usage,
and his reliance on the plus excellents esprits reconnus pour Maistre passs en
lartifice de bien dire, perhaps equivalent to Vaugelas formula of the plus
saine partie de la cour, as well as on la lecture des plus excellens escriuains,
again presaging Vaugelas formula of la faon descrire de la plus saine partie
des Autheurs du temps.
This said, the two works differ markedly in other respects, both in structure
and in content. The similarities and differences invite us to revisit and rewrite
the history of French grammatical thought at the formative period for creation of
standard French. We propose a two-person panel to present this important dis-
covery, situating it within the remarqueur tradition and examining its contribu-
tion to prescriptivism in Early Modern France.

A Grammar with Extraordinary Practicality and Versatility:

Melchor Oyanguren de Santa Ines Arte de la Lengua Japona (1738)

Eun Mi BAE
Heilongjiang University, Oslo, Norway

The first Japanese grammar written in Spanish came out nearly after a cen-
tury when the relationship between the Japanese authorities and the Europeans
ended because of their political and religious conflicts. According to the descrip-
tion of the historical context that our author, Oyanguren, referred to in his Japa-
nese grammar and his seven letters, it also confirmed that his desperation to
enter Japan never came true. How did he manage to produce a grammar of the
Japanese in Manila then?
What we should keep in mind is that the purpose of his Japanese grammar
was purely for those who were familiar with the Greco-Latin grammatical tradi-
tion and mostly for the European speakers who needed the rudimentary language
50 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

training in the Japanese as fast as possible. Oyanguren directly indicated his

grammatical mould in his title: Arte de la lengua japona, dividido en quarto
libros segn el arte de nebrixa; and referred to a several other sources: Diego
Collados Art Grammaticae Iaponicae (1632), Vocabulario de iapon declarado
primero en portugues por los padres de la Compaa de IESUS de aquel reyno y
agora en castellano (1630), and some Japanese texts.
Oyanguren was not just well aware of the linguistic usages as a crucial key
of social code in the Japanese society which was deeply influenced by Confu-
cianism, but also the characteristic features of the Japanese language such as
agglutinative words, agreements of subject, object, and verb; and conjugation of
verb. The scope of the presentation will raise the following three questions.

1. What peculiarities of the Japanese language for Europeans did

Oyanguren realize? How did he interpret these problematic features to
fit into the Greco-Latin grammatical mould? And which edition of
Nebrijas Latin grammar did he possibly use?
2. The way of how Oyanguren arranges his entire grammar looks very sim-
ilar to the Collados, but apparently it is not. What are the reasons that
Oyanguren made it very dissimilar?
3. How can we evaluate his pedagogical methods and idiosyncratic theories
of linguistic terms?

The Japanese grammar of Oyanguren still offers us tons of unsolved riddles

of the linguistic situation of 18th century and, at the same time, invaluable evi-
dences that contribute to the history of linguistics and the written grammar.

O Estudo da Lngua nos dicionrios e lxicos gramaticais brasileiros

(1865 a 1956)

Lauro Jos Siqueira BALDINI

Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brasil

A perspectiva terica em que se insere este trabalho aquela concebida pe-

lo projeto Histria das Ideias Lingusticas no Brasil, em que duas questes
tem importncia fundamental. De um lado, o conceito de gramatizao formula-
do por Sylvain Auroux em sua obra A revoluo tecnolgica da gramatizao
(1992), em sua relao com o ponto de vista histrico do desenvolvimento das
cincias proposto pelo mesmo autor na obra A historicidade das cincias
(2008); de outro, a abordagem discursiva proposta por Eni Orlandi em Lngua e
conhecimento lingustico: por uma histria das ideias no Brasil (2002). Assim,
a articulao que propomos aqui se d entre a perspectiva da Histria das Ideias
e a da Anlise de Discurso. Neste trabalho, procuraremos refletir, como faz
Conference Handbook 51

Sylvain Auroux, sobre as seguintes questes: a) sob que formas o saber lingus-
tico se constitui no tempo? e b) como essas formas se criam, evoluem, se trans-
formam ou desaparecem? Alm disso, nossa posio enfatiza que fazem parte da
histria de uma lngua os instrumentos tecnolgicos que incidem sobre ela. Nes-
se sentido, o poltico e o terico podem ser vistos na relao de imbricao um
com o outro na constituio de uma lngua nacional e no estabelecimento de um
modo de abord-la cientfica e pedagogicamente. Iremos mostrar como a refle-
xo acerca da lngua no Brasil se d numa longa tradio normativa (em contra-
dio com uma abordagem descritiva), devido a particularidades histricas liga-
das ao processo de colonizao do pas e ao estabelecimento da lngua portugue-
sa como elemento unificador da identidade nacional. No caso deste trabalho,
nosso olhar estar voltado para objetos bastante especficos: os lxicos e dicion-
rios gramaticais publicados no Brasil no perodo de 1865 a 1956. Dessa maneira,
iremos levar em conta o fato de que as diferentes concepes de lingustica e
gramtica em jogo no perodo estudado revelam contradies prprias histria
do Brasil e tornam visveis elementos da construo da identidade do pas. Mais
especificamente, iremos mobilizar os verbetes desses lxicos e dicionrios que
tratam da prpria conceituao da lingustica e/ou da gramtica enquanto prti-
cas, mostrando como diferentes concepes a respeito que estudar as lnguas se
constituram neste perodo no Brasil, numa relao em que certos sentidos so
silenciados em detrimento de outros, indicando um conflito entre diferentes con-
cepes a respeito da lngua e de seu estudo que iro desembocar na publicao,
por iniciativa do Estado Brasileiro, da Nomenclatura Gramatical Brasileira

A contrastive study of Arte China and a manuscript of Father

Joaquim Gonalves: between the History of the Portuguese Language
and the acquisition of Portuguese as a non-native language

Anabela Leal de BARROS

Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal

Father Joaquim Gonalves, Vincentian who taught Chinese, among other

matters, in the Royal College of St. Joseph, in Macau, left testimony of the dis-
tinguished master who must have been, in the double strand of Portuguese and
Chinese, on its tripartite method of teaching this latter language, directly ad-
dressed to his students. He composed the Arte China (wide breath manual and
grammar), Diccionario China-Portuguez and Diccionario Portuguez-China,
totaling almost three thousand pages, and even in their manuscript notebooks. At
a time when the collection of linguistic material, the individual record of
knowledge by teachers preparing lessons was conducted in manuscript support,
the investigators of linguistic historiography, missionary linguistics, the history
52 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

of the Portuguese language and the history of teaching and learning Chinese
language can easily imagine the Father Gonalves in its work of recording, in
notebooks or loose papers, phrases extracted from the Chinese classics, popular
at the time, and works with more colloquial registers, most appreciated by the
people; may easily evoke it to point out actual dialogues or create others with the
help of other priests, his disciples or other intellectual and friends, Portuguese,
Chinese, Europeans who were coming to Macau since the sixteenth century,
under the Portuguese patronage. To the point of manually obtain a complete and
perfect alphabetical sorting of thousands of entries in their dictionaries, without
the aid of electronic means of the twenty-first century, certainly he had to regis-
ter his monumental works in numerous manuscript notebooks or loose sheets. In
order to teach the Chinese, always side by side with the nineteenth-century Por-
tuguese, in a contrastive pioneering work, he began by writing the Arte China
(1829), a bulky grammar and handbook for teaching formal and informal Chi-
nese language, especially including Mandarin, but also Cantonese. The contras-
tive study of its contents with one of his manuscript notebooks shows clearly
that the priest approached the phrases in Chinese in various ways, whether oral
or written record, whether formal or informal, providing them with Portuguese
equivalents, that become apparent a wide range of variation. This variation co-
vers all linguistic subcodes, from the phonetic and phonological, mirrored in
spelling, the morphological, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, but also lexical.
There are also discrepancies or changes in cultural content, pedagogically very
significant, between the manuscript and printed. This variation is of great inter-
est not only to describe the Portuguese of the nineteenth century, particularly in
Macau, but also for teaching and learning Portuguese as a foreign and second
language. We propose, therefore, address ourselves in this paper on this varia-

Keywords: History of the Portuguese language; variation in nineteenth-century

Portuguese; metalinguistic historiography Portuguese-Chinese; Missionary

Pragmtica Histrica: complementaridade das abordagens

sincrnica e diacrnica

Universidade do Porto, Portugal

O objetivo desta comunicao refletir sobre os estudos de pragmtica his-

trica nas vertentes sincrnica e diacrnica procurando uma complementaridade
entre os dois aspetos. Sero analisados aspetos de metodologia / casos de estudo
realizados sobre textos jurdicos medievais.
Conference Handbook 53

A pragmtica histrica abarca uma rea de investigao interdisciplinar e os

seus estudos so perspetivados como sincrnicos e diacrnicos. Jacobs e Jucker
(1995) tentam clarificar o problema da distino entre estas duas abordagens,
propondo designaes distintas para as diferentes perspetivas: Pragmtica Hist-
rica e Pragmtica Diacrnica. A primeira a perspetiva de estudo e descrio
dos aspetos textuais e contextuais de textos histricos. Nesta rea, tem tido gran-
de divulgao uma orientao terico-metodolgica de anlise de textos do pas-
sado que promove o estudo dos gneros discursivos numa perspetiva histrica,
com a designao de tradies discursivas (cf. Jacob/Kabatek, 2001).
Por outro lado, a Pragmtica Diacrnica a perspetiva que est focalizada
na evoluo do inventrio lingustico e seu uso comunicativo atravs de diferen-
tes estdios da mesma lngua, incidindo sobre uma forma ou funo de que se-
gue o percurso evolutivo. Definiu-se e desenvolveu-se uma corrente de estudos
sobre gramaticalizao em h que destacar os trabalhos de Traugott (cf. Traugott
/Heine, 1991) sobre as regularidades da mudana semntica e pragmtica.
A utilizao da metodologia da pragmtica histrica no caso do discurso ju-
rdico legislativo que tenho estudado particularmente pertinente na anlise dos
atos discursivos. Este tipo de textos manifesta uma acionalidade prpria, inscre-
vendo-se num cenrio ideolgico especfico: o de um discurso de uma instncia
de Poder, apresentando uma dimenso ilocutria e perlocutria dominante que o
configura em termos genricos como discurso de Autoridade e que se traduz em
atos ilocutrios diretivos.
Mas este estudo utiliza as duas perspetivas consideradas na Pragmtica His-
trica, que no so incompatveis, porque se podem cruzar: os dados obtidos na
anlise textual-discursiva permitem descrever o significado e uso dos elementos
lingusticos, revelando-se fundamentais para a determinao do seu valor em
comparao com outras sincronias, e permitindo detetar variao e eventuais
movimentos de evoluo lingustica que afetem diversas categorias.
As duas perspetivas delineadas no mbito da Pragmtica Histrica no se
excluem mutuamente, surgindo como complementares.
Com a anlise de casos concretos de estudo de um corpus extenso de textos
tentarei demonstrar essa complementaridade. Parece-me, pois, defensvel uma
metodologia ampla, abrangente, que proceda, por um lado, descri-
o/explicitao do uso da lngua numa sincronia e, por outro, estude a mudana
lingustica em curso, quando observvel.
54 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

tude historique des discours des grammaires du portugais

Diana Luz Pessoa de BARROS

Universidade de So Paulo
& Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, So Paulo, Brasil

Cette tude fait partie dune investigation plus largie sur les grammaires de
la langue portugaise depuis le XVIe sicle jusqu nos jours. Ce projet se carac-
trise par le fait thorique-mthodologique quil conoit les matriaux en exa-
men comme des discours et dessayer, alors, de construire lhistoire des ides
linguistiques partir des discours, selon les propositions de la smiotique discur-
sive franaise. Les tudes que nous avons dj accomplies nous permettent de
proposer trois groupes principaux de procdures tre examines pour tablir les
discours des grammaires: les modalisations des sujets et des objets concerns;
les projections discursives de personne et de temps; et les dialogues avec
dautres discours sociaux qui tablissent les rapports socio-historiques des
Nous nous en tiendrons ici quelques brves remarques sur les modalisa-
tions. Il y a, notre avis, trois sortes de discours de la norme, btis partir des
diffrentes classes de modalisations qui ont lieu dans les grammaires: la norme
unique, naturelle (modalisation par ltre, dun seul usage, conception de
langue homogne, sans variation) ; la norme prescriptive (modalisation par le
devoir, vouloir, et pouvoir; conception de langue htrogne, avec des variantes
hirarchises), la norme usuelle (modalisation par ltre, des diffrents usages ;
conception de langue htrogne, avec des variations non hirarchises, sauf
par la frquence des usages).
Avec les principes thoriques et mthodologiques proposs, nous avons pu
analyser chaque grammaire et, en outre, observer les changements diachroniques
et historiques des discours des grammaires. Nous avons examin les
changements du discours de la norme selon les types de normes proposs et,
encore: les changements des traitements rservs par ces grammaires la
question de la variation linguistique; les diffrentes conceptions dauteur, qui
changent selon les variations des usages de personnes du discours; les
changements historiques des sens attribus au langage populaire et loralit; les
diffrents discours de lintolrance et des prjugs qui traversent ces
grammaires; les rles des grammaires, selon les dialogues tablis entre leurs
discours et dautres discours socio-historiques. Contruire des empires coloniaux,
crer des identits nationales, tablir des relations entre langue et socit et
lordre social, apprendre la langue, il y a toujours des rles politiques,
historiques et sociaux jous par la grammaire, qui, de ce fait, se justifie et se
Conference Handbook 55

Hysgaard: Third university caretaker

and the greatest Danish linguist before Rask

University of Southern Denmark

Jens Pedersen Hysgaard (1698 1773) was a caretaker (the third out of
three) at the University (in Copenhagen) in 1737 59 and subsequently a sacris-
tan at Trinity (University) Church. In 1743 he presented the first linguistic anal-
ysis ever of the Danish std (a laryngeal syllable rhyme prosody with a complex
grammatical distribution), and he developed this analysis, which is actual even
to-day (see Basbll forthcoming), further in (1747) and (1769). These two latter
works constitute, together with his work on syntax (1752), a comprehensive
integrated analysis (of almost 800 pages) of the Danish language far superior
to anything before organised in 2022 consecutively numbered paragraphs (see
Bertelsen 1926).
In my talk I shall give a general presentation of Hysgaard's work and as-
sess its originality and historical impact, giving examples of his insights within
phonology, morphology and syntax. His influential younger contemporary Jacob
Baden (1735-1804) was the first to give university lectures on the Danish lan-
guage (as Professor Eloquentiae), published 1785, and his ambiguous relation to
Hysgaard's work will be discussed. The greatest Danish linguist ever, Rasmus
Rask (1787-1832) in his largest published work (1826), on Danish orthography,
evaluated Hysgaard highly and in important respects followed his system but
also Rask was controversial. The Royal Danish Academy refused his offer to
write an etymological dictionary if he insisted to publish it in his own orthogra-
phy, what he did!

Baden, J. 1785. Forelsninger over det Danske Sprog, eller Resonneret Dansk Gram-
matik. Copenhagen: P. Horrebow.
Basbll, H. (forthcoming). The Non-Std Model in a Historical Perspective. History of
Linguistics 2011 (Proceedings from ICHoLS XII). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Bertelsen, H. 1915-1929. Danske Grammatikere fra Midten af det syttende til Midten af
det attende Aarhundrede. Vol. I-VI. Copenhagen (reprinted 1979).
Bertelsen, H. 1926. Jens Pedersen Hysgaard og hans Forfatterskab. Copenhagen:
[Hysgaard, J. P.] 1743. Concordia res parv crescunt, eller Anden Prve af Dansk
Orthographie. Reprinted in Bertelsen 1920 (vol. IV): 219-248.
[Hysgaard, J. P.] 1747. Accentuered og Raisonnered Grammatica. Reprinted in Bertel-
sen 1920 (vol. IV): 251-488.
[Hysgaard, J. P.] 1752. Methodisk Forsg til en Fuldstndig Dansk Syntax. Reprinted
in Bertelsen 1923 (vol. V): 3-506.
56 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

[Hysgaard, J. P.] 1769. Frste Anhang til den Accentuerede Grammatika. Reprinted in
Bertelsen 1923 (vol. V): 509-550.
Rask, R. 1826. Forsg til en videnskabelig dansk Retskrivningslre med hensyn til
Stamsproget og Nabosproget. Tidsskrift for Nordisk Oldkyndighed 1: 1-340.

La propuesta ortogrfica de la lengua espaola

de Lorenzo Hervs y Panduro (1735-1809)


Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Espaa

Este trabajo se propone describir la propuesta de reforma ortogrfica de la

lengua espaola que el jesuita Lorenzo Hervs y Panduro (1735-1809) expuso en
su libro Escuela espaola de sordomudos o Arte para ensearles a escribir y
hablar el idioma espaol, dividida en dos tomos (en adelante, EES) publicado en
1795. En la primera parte se darn ciertas noticias biogrficas y bibliogrficas
que explican la escritura de una obra como Escuela Espaola de Sordomudos en
el conjunto de la obra general del jesuita. En la segunda parte se exponen las
razones tericas y prcticas de la presencia de una reforma ortogrfica en una
obra destinada, en principio, a la instruccin de personas sordas. En la tercera y
cuarta parte se describirn, de forma general, las ideas ortogrficas de Hervs y
Panduro para, a continuacin, detallar su propuesta ortogrfica. En la quinta y
ltima parte de este trabajo se ofrecen algunas conclusiones acerca de la pro-
puesta ortogrfica y su alcance terico y relevancia, as como algunas reflexio-
nes a propsito de la historia de la ortografa de la lengua espaola.

La educacin lingstica de personas sordas en las escuela francesa,

italiana y espaola. Terminologa, reflexin terica
y prctica emprica


Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Espaa

Francesca M. DOVETTO
Universit degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italia

Este trabajo presenta los resultados del anlisis de tres autores estrechamen-
te relacionados entre s debido a su formacin y a la influencia de sus obras den-
tro de la tradicin de instruccin a sordomudos en el siglo XVIII: el francs
Charles Michel de LEpe (1712-1789), el italiano Tommaso Silvestri (1744-
1789) y el espaol Lorenzo Hervs y Panduro (1735-1809).
Conference Handbook 57

El objetivo de este trabajo es doblemente genealgico: en primer lugar, des-

cribir el alcance de la influencia de estos autores entre s (LEpe-Silvestri-
Hervs) en la enseanza de la pronunciacin a personas sordas; y, de este modo,
en un segundo momento, encontrar las lneas divergentes y originales y descri-
birlas en su contexto individual; por ejemplo, cul es el peso de la tradicin ana-
tmico-patolgica, especialmente la italiana, en las obras de Silvestri y Hervs.
Para llevar a cabo este estudio, compararemos la terminologa lingstica y
metalingstica expuesta y utilizada por los tres maestros: en concreto, aquellos
trminos relevantes en el contexto de la reflexin lingstica del siglo XVIII y
aquellos trminos estrictamente fonticos relevantes para una historia de la fon-
tica: por ejemplo, aere sonoro y meato uditivo en la descripcin de los procesos
productivo y receptivo del lenguaje; voz y sonido referidos bsicamente al pro-
ceso semitico de la emisin; o voz/slaba y articulacin en relacin con algunos
elementos mnimos que atribuan al habla.
De esta forma, nuestro trabajo pretende contribuir al estudio del debate te-
rico desarrollado en el siglo XVIII sobre la relacin entre pensamiento y lengua-
je y entre el concepto de lenguaje hablado, lenguaje escrito y lenguaje "signado",
as como demostrar que la terminologa estrictamente fontica ofrece una buena
muestra de la visin innovadora acerca del lenguaje y de su componente fnico
que, de manera original en la historia de la lingstica, desplegaron estos autores
en sus obras.

Fuentes primarias:
Donnino, A. G. 1889. Larte di far parlare i sordomutti dalla nascita e labbate Tomma-
so Silvestri. Memorie. Roma: Mario Armanni.
LEpe, Charles Michel. 1776. Institution des sourds et muets par la voie des signes
mthodiques. Paris: Nyon lAn.
Hervs y Panduro, Lorenzo. 1795. Escuela espaola de sordomudos, o Arte para ense-
arles a escribir y hablar el idioma espaol, dividida en dos tomos. Tomo I y II.
Madrid: Imprenta Real y Villalpando.

Vicente Rossi ante el idealismo lingstico. La polmica

con el Instituto de Filologa de la Universidad de Buenos Aires

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

En 1922 se funda el Instituto de Filologa de la Universidad de Buenos Ai-

res. Desde esa fecha hasta 1946 se suceden en el mando del centro argentino
cuatro directores espaoles: Amrico Castro (1885-1972), Agustn Millares Car-
lo (1893-1980), Manuel de Montolu (1877-1961) y Amado Alonso (1896-
1952). El perodo comprende el momento de emergencia y establecimiento de la
58 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

lingstica como disciplina de investigacin y enseanza acadmica en la Argen-

tina (Weber de Kurlat 1975, Di Tullio 2003, Ennis 2008, Toscano y Garca
2009). Este desarrollo de la filologa universitaria tiene lugar en un entramado
epistemolgico en el que el idealismo lingstico, frente a la perspectiva positi-
vista dominante hasta entonces, se establece paulatinamente como modelo teri-
co para la reflexin sobre el lenguaje (Toscano y Garca 2011, Battista 2013).
Contemporneamente a la actividad desarrollada por el Instituto, se desarro-
lla una filologa que podemos denominar no acadmica. Esta es producto de la
actividad de un grupo de intelectuales que, desde una posicin perifrica, ofre-
cen una postura alternativa y crtica frente al saber tcnico y modernizador de los
cientficos espaoles. Vicente Rossi (1871-1945), uno de los representantes de
esta perspectiva, publica entre 1927 y 1945 una serie cuadernos (de tono polmi-
co) bajo la denominacin Folletos lenguaraces. En el presente trabajo nos pro-
ponemos analizar estos folletos, y en particular aquellos en los que el autor en-
frenta directamente a Amado Alonso, entonces director del Instituto, como re-
presentante de la perspectiva del Centro de Estudios Histricos de Madrid, diri-
gido por Ramn Menndez Pidal. Segn entendemos, Rossi busca en estos tex-
tos utilizar la misma interpretacin idealista de Alonso para denunciar y rechazar
la pretensin de unidad lingstica hispanoamericana reclamada por los espao-
les; concretamente, para el idealismo de Rossi, si la lengua es producto del esp-
ritu resulta inconsistente sostener una actitud que procure imprimir una direccin
al cambio lingstico.

Fine-Tuning the Blueprint of the Verbal Structure

of Biblical Hebrew

Edouard BELAGA
Universit de Strasbourg, France

One of the most natural approaches to the problem of origins of natural lan-
guages is the study of hidden intelligent "communications" emanating from their
historical forms. Semitic languages history is especially meaningful in this
sense. One discovers, in particular, that Biblical Hebrew, BH, the best preserved
fossil of the Semitic protolanguage[7], is primarily a verbal language [2], with
an average verse of the Hebrew Bible containing no less than three verbs and
with the biggest part of its vocabulary representing morphological derivations
from verbal roots [8], almost entirely trilitteral [6] the feature BH shares with
all Semitic and a few other Afro-Asiatic languages [5]. For classical linguists,
more than hundred years ago, it was surprising, and yet senseless [4] to discover
that verbal system of BH is, as we say today, optimal from the Information The-
orys point of view and that its formal topological morphology is semantically
meaningful [1]. These and other basic features of BH reflect, in our opinion, the
Conference Handbook 59

original design of the Semitic Protolanguage and suggest the indispensability of

IIH Inspirational Intelligence Hypothesis, our main topic, for the understand-
ing of origins of natural languages. Our project is of vertical nature with respect
to the time, in difference with the vastly dominating today horizontal linguistic
The exquisite combinatorial, topological, and communicative precision,
efficiency, and evocativeness of BH are the real source of the so much deplored
above difficulty of mechanical memorization of BH verbs, the difficulty which,
according to [9], would be considerably aggravated if the quoted manual should
be written somewhen in between the third and second millennium BC: It has, of
course, long been recognized that the ancient Hebrew vocabulary must have
been markedly larger than that preserved in the OT [Old Testament, alias He-
brew Bible].
Summarizing the above observations, we arrive at the following central
problem of our project:
Main Problem. What is the meaning and what are the origins of these
unique and fundamental attributes of Biblical Hebrew, primarily verbal lan-
guage, with most of words of its dictionary derived from verbal roots ? We
speak here of the highly innate, morphologically most parsimonious, semantical-
ly efficiently involved formal structure of its verbal system, displaying also a
unique language-alphabet relationship, closely resembling in particular, and yet
vastly superior in its expressive power to humanly designed assembler lan-
Our conclusion cannot be formulated otherwise than Inspirational Intelli-
gence Hypothesis, IIH: the assumption that the hypothetical protolanguage pre-
ceding Biblical Hebrew and other known Semitic languages, and called here
Semitic protolanguage, has appeared, or emerged, spontaneously and during a
relatively short period of time, in and from a single person or a single family. In
other words, its emergence is of inspirational nature, sort of a very personal po-
em, reflecting the innermost vital, moral, spiritual, and intellectual architec-
ture and aspirations of certain human beings. The real presence of inspirational
creativity related to physics or biological, linguistic, cultural, and social con-
texts is somehow eluding today the scientific curiosity. To confirm the reality
and the validity of our intuition in the linguistic and cultural context, it will suf-
fice to mention the example of the Russian poetic genius Alexander Puchkin
(1799-1837) who almost singlehandedly initiated the modern culture of Russian
language and literature, better the Russian modern culture tout court [3].

[1] Edouard Belaga. 2008. In the Beginning Was the Verb...
[2] Robert D. Bergen, ed.1994. Biblical Hebrew and Discourse Linguistics...
[3] David M. Bethea, Alexander Dolinin. 2005. The Pushkin Handbook...
[4] Andrew Bruce Davidson. 1916. An introductory Hebrew grammar...
[5] Christopher Ehret. 1995. Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic...
60 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

[6] Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius. 1813-2008. Hebraische Grammatik...

[7] John Huehnergard. 2011. Proto-Semitic Language and Culture
[8] Jan Joosten. 2012. The Verbal System of Biblical Hebrew
[9] Edward Ullendorff. 1971. Is Biblical Hebrew a Language?

Grammaires franaises et enseignement du franais

aux Flamands dans les Pays-Bas mridionaux au XVIIIe sicle:
positionnement mthodologique et sources des auteurs

Michel BERR
Universit de Mons, Belgium

Notre intervention a pour objectif de dterminer la manire dont les auteurs

de grammaires destines lenseignement du franais aux Flamands rsolvent
certains problmes lis aux besoins spcifiques de leur public.
Compltant le tableau de la production grammaticographique belge pro-
pos par De Clercq (2000), nous ferons une brve prsentation des principales
grammaires conues pour lenseignement du franais aux Flamands parues dans
les Pays-Bas mridionaux entre 1699 et 1792/95. Fonde essentiellement sur le
paratexte (prface, table des matires, etc.), cette prsentation a pour objectif de
prciser le positionnement mthodologique de lauteur et la macrostructure des
diffrents ouvrages.
Le corpus sera ensuite interrog sur deux points particuliers qui constituent
une pierre dachoppement pour les apprenants nerlandophones: le genre des
noms et la place de ladjectif (pithte).
Lobjectif est la fois de dterminer les types de rgles proposs (gnrali-
t, contrastivit, nature, etc.) et de tenter didentifier les sources auxquelles les
grammairiens flamands ont recourt pour tablir leurs rgles (transposition des
grammaires franaises de rfrences, emprunt la tradition franais langue
maternelle, adaptation des grammaires franaises destines aux publics germa-
nophone, hispanophone, anglophone, invention de rgles propres, etc.).
Plus gnralement, cette communication sinscrit dans une histoire compa-
re des grammaires franaises destines lenseignement du franais langue
trangre et du franais langue maternelle (cf. Chervel 2009, Berr 2012).

Quelques rfrences bibliographiques

Berr, M. (2012). Les grammaires scolaires et leur horizon de rtrospection: comparai-
son de deux grammaires FLE FLM publies dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens. In:
B. Colombat et al. (eds), Vers une histoire gnrale de la grammaire franaise.
Matriaux et perspectives, Paris, H. Champion, pp. 493-510.
Chervel, A. (2009). Pour une histoire compare des disciplines du franais langue
trangre et du franais langue maternelle. Le Langage et lhomme, XXXXIV-1,
pp. 83-96.
Conference Handbook 61

Chevalier, J.-Cl. (1994), Histoire de la grammaire franaise, Paris, PUF.

Colombat, B., Fournier, J.-M., Raby V. (eds) (2012). Vers une histoire gnrale de la
grammaire franaise. Matriaux et perspectives, Paris, H. Champion.
De Clercq, Jan (2000) La grammaire franaise de Jean Des Roches (1763), in P. Des-
met et al. (eds), The History of Linguistic and Grammatical Praxis, Actes du XI. In-
ternationaal Colloquium of the Studienkreis Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft,
Louvain, juillet 98, Louvain, Peeters (Orbis Supplementa 14), pp. 131-171.
De Clercq, J., Lioce, N., Swiggers, P. (eds) (2000). Grammaire et enseignement du fran-
ais, 1500-1700, Louvain, Peeters (Orbis Supplementa 16).
Swiggers, P. (2007a). Lanalyse grammaticale et didactico-linguistique du franais, du
Moyen Age au XIXe sicle. In: P. Schmitter (d.), Sprachtheorien der Neuzeit
III/2: Sprachbeschreibung und Unterricht, teil 2. Tbingen: Narr, pp. 559-645.
Swiggers, P. (2007a). Linstitution du franais. Jalons de lhistoire de son enseigne-
ment. In: P. Schmitter (d.), Sprachtheorien der Neuzeit III/2: Sprachbeschrei-
bung und Unterricht, teil 2. Tbingen: Narr, pp. 645-721.

Les thorisations structuralistes de la signification lexicale

et lhritage saussurien

Valentina BISCONTI
Universit de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens,
& Laboratoire d'Histoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Notre communication propose une analyse historico-pistmologique des

approches structuralistes du lexique et du vocabulaire des annes 1950-1970, la
question tant de savoir dans quelle mesure les approches lexicologiques et s-
mantiques de matrice structuraliste ont valid, amend ou rejet les ides saussu-
riennes partir de la lecture du Cours de linguistique gnrale (1916, dorna-
vant CLG). En parallle, nous nous efforcerons de mettre en regard les thses du
Cours avec celles que rendent dsormais disponibles les manuscrits saussuriens
afin dapprcier jusqu quel point le CLG a instaur un rgime de rception de
la pense saussurienne.
Notre corpus rassemble les travaux de L. Hjelmslev, G. Mator, A.J. Grei-
mas, B. Pottier, E. Coseriu, L. Prieto et S. Ullmann, qui permettent de suivre les
multiples trajectoires de la filiation saussurienne. En particulier, nous verrons
que relativement la possibilit dune tude empirique du lexique le milieu
structuraliste (Hjelmslev [1957] 1971,
Coseriu [1964] 2001) formule les mmes rserves que Saussure expose
dans De la double essence du langage (Droz, 2011, p. 198). Or, la fondation
dune lexicologie, voire dune smantique structurale, passe par llaboration
dune thorie de la signification lexicale susceptible disoler le signifi. Pour sa
part, Saussure avait remis en question lisolabilit du signifi par rapport la
structure gnrale du signe, ainsi que les compartiments disciplinaires tradition-
62 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

nels: Difficile de sparer sur beaucoup de points lexicologie, morphologie et

syntaxe (CLG/E 2131 IIC). Nous verrons quen postulant une concidence entre
ltude des formes et celle des fonctions, Saussure avait indiqu une nouvelle
voie pour la lexicologie.
La tentative structuraliste de produire une description structurale de la si-
gnification lexicale se heurte la nature capricieuse du vocabulaire (Hjelmslev
[1957] 1971, p. 106). La validit de la notion de structure lexicale (Coseriu
[1964] 2001, p. 267), labore partir des postulats du structuralisme phonolo-
gique, est pourtant affirme au prix dune dlimitation de lobjet dtude. L o
la transversalit du fait smantique assurait, chez Saussure, la continuit entre les
diffrentes composantes linguistiques et avait abouti une approche globale du
signe, la mthode structurale semble devoir renoncer une thorie du lexique
en bloc (ibid.) au profit dune approche plus restreinte et provisoire qui prend
la forme dune thorie de champs lexicaux, et ce dans le sillage de la thorie des
Begriffsfelder de Trier et Weisgerber. Il sensuit du mme coup le rejet dune
smantique universaliste.
travers une analyse des thorisations lexicales de matrice structuraliste,
notre proposition se veut une contribution une histoire des structuralismes, qui
dessine en miroir une histoire des rceptions du CLG.

Coseriu E., [1958] 1981, Sincronia, diacronia e storia: il problema del cambio linguisti-
co, trad. de P. Mura, Turin, Boringheri.
[1964] 2001, Pour une smantique diachronique structurale, in Coseriu E., 2001,
Lhomme et son langage, Louvain Paris, Peeters, p. 253-313.
1965, Probleme des strukturellen Semantik, Tbingen, Fotodruck Przis.
1971, Teoria del linguaggio e linguistica generale. Sette studi, introduction de R.
Simone, Laterza, Bari.
Greimas A.J., ([1966] 2002), Smantique structurale, Paris, PUF.
Hjelmslev L., [1943] 1971, Prolgomnes une thorie du langage, nouvelle d. trad.
du danois par U. Canger avec la collab. DA. Wewer, suivi de La structure fonda-
mentale du langage, trad. de langlais par A.-M. Lonard, Paris, Minuit.
[1957] 1971, Pour une smantique structurale, in Essais linguistiques, Paris, Mi-
nuit, p. 105-121.
Mator G., [1953] 1973, La mthode en lexicologie. Domaine franais, 2e d., Paris,
Pottier B., 1964, Vers une smantique moderne, Travaux de linguistique et de littra-
ture, 2, p. 107-139.
Prieto L.J., 1964, Principes de noologie, La Haye Londres Paris, Mouton and Co.
Saussure F. de, [1916] 2005, Cours de linguistique gnrale, publi par Charles Bally et
Albert Schehaye, avec la collaboration dAlbert Riedlinger, dition critique prpa-
re par T. De Mauro, Paris, Payot.
1967-1974, Cours de linguistique gnrale, dition critique tablie par R. Engler,
Wiesbaden, Otto Harrassowitz.
1996, Premier cours de linguistique gnrale (1907) daprs les cahiers dAlbert
Conference Handbook 63

Riedlinger, edited by E. Komatsu et G. Wolf, Oxford New York Tokyo, Per-

gamon Press.
1997, Deuxime cours de linguistique gnrale (1908-1909) daprs les cahiers
dAlbert Riedlinger et Charles Patois, edited by E. Komatsu et G. Wolf, Oxford
New York Tokyo, Pergamon Press, p. 1-108.
2002, crits de linguistique gnrale par Ferdinand de Saussure, texte tabli et dit
par S. Bouquet et R. Engler, Paris, Gallimard.
2006, Constantin, mile, Linguistique gnrale, Cours de M. le Professeur de Saus-
sure, 1910-1911, Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure, vol. 58, pp. 83-290.
2011, Ferdinand de Saussure, Science du langage. De la double essence du lan-
gage, dition critique tablie par R. Amacker, Genve, Droz.
Ullmann S., [1952] 1965, Prcis de smantique franaise, Berne, Francke.

From George Akhvlediani's archive: bunches of correlation

of consonants in N. Trubetskoy's Principles of Phonology
and G. Akhvlediani's Principles of General Phonetics

Tbilisi Ivane Javakhishvili State University
& Giorgi Akhvlediani Society for the History of Linguistics, Georgia

The classification of the Georgian consonants by Giorgi Akhvlediani

which was given in his articles of 1922-1926 years is shown amazing similarity
to N. Trubetskoy's understanding of notion of correlation and the bunches of
correlation of phonemes in the work "Principles of Phonology" (Grundzge der
Phonologie, Prague, 1939). Than such proximity can be caused? We find the
answer to this question in George Akhvlediani's archive (the collection is stored
in a museum of Tbilisi State University of. I.Javakhishvili).
Obviously, G. Akhvlediani got acquainted with the phonological theory of
N. Trubetskoy after the translation of Grundzge der Phonologie into Russian
and publishing in USSR 1960. G. Akhvlediani independently developed the
ternary system of the Georgian consonants. His articles of 1922-1926 years were
included into his university textbook Propaedeutics of linguistics and general
phonetics", 1932 and the part about the system of consonants of the Georgian
language was printed 1946-1999 in its work "Principles of General Phonetics"
without changing.
After acquaintance with Trubetskoy's views about bunches of correlation of
phonemes, the scientist searched of ternary systems of consonants in different
languages (it is confirmed by many language data which were collected by G.
Akhvlediani and preserved in his archive). He paid special attention to similarity
of systems of consonants of Georgian and old Greek languages and raised a
question of the subsequent discussion about the interrelation of these languages,
in particular, about historical relations of Indo-European and South-Caucasian
64 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

languages from the point of view of both typological, and theory of unions of
languages that was arisen within the Eurasianism theory.

A lingustica etnogrfica de Capistrano de Abreu:

o caso Bakairi

Evandro BONFIM
Museu Nacional / Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

O objetivo desta comunicao discutir os pressupostos do trabalho lin-

gustico realizado por Capistrano de Abreu (1853-1927) em torno do idioma
Bakairi (Caribe) na passagem do sculo XIX para o XX. A anlise do autor bra-
sileiro se situa no momento de constituio da etnologia moderna, que conside-
rava a descrio lingustica como parte integrante da escrita etnogrfica. Tal
movimento discursivo tambm se fazia em contraposio ao estilo de trabalho
dos viajantes estrangeiros na Amrica do Sul, caracterizada pela coleta de listas
de palavras e pelo impressionismo. Capistrano de Abreu chamava o trabalho que
fazia de selvagem por se fundamentar na transcrio de depoimentos, sobretu-
do de narrativas mitolgicas, ditados pelos prprios indgenas em lngua nativa,
acompanhadas de traduo interlinear, como tentativa de evitar a interferncia da
cultura e da lngua do analista no material coletado. Tal procedimento, conheci-
do como fraseologia, teve grande repercusso nos estudos das lnguas indgenas
norte americanas atravs de figuras como Franz Boas e Edward Sapir, ficando
por ser coberto o papel do modelo na descrio dos idiomas autctones sul-
americanos, sobretudo no que diz respeito s relaes entre lngua e cosmologia
dos povos amerndios.

Les parties du discours dans la grammaire gnrale franaise


Brengre BOUARD
Universit de Lorraine, France

Nous nous proposons dexaminer ici la division en parties du discours dans

un corpus de grammaires franaises du milieu du XVIIIme sicle au milieu du
XIXme sicle. On observe en effet, durant cette priode, une bi, tri ou quadri-
partition des classes de mots associe de nombreuses innovations terminolo-
Dans un premier cas de figure, les grammairiens suivent le modle binaire
dArnauld et Lancelot: signes des objets des penses/ signes de la forme et la
Conference Handbook 65

manire de nos penses ([1660]1676, p. 47-48), avec quelques modifications

partir des remarques de Duclos (1754), Dumarsais (1729) ou Beauze (1767).
Dautres grammairiens de la mme priode rpercutent plutt linfluence de
Buffier (1709) en prenant en compte le modificatif dans un systme bipartite
minimal mais qui peut slargir jusqu quatre classes, comme Domergue, cer-
tains des membres de la Socit Grammaticale, Harris ou encore Destutt de Tra-
cy. Enfin, un troisime groupe de grammairiens choisit un systme tripartite qui
fait la synthse des apports des prdcesseurs, Montmont distingue ainsi les
substantifs, des attributifs (dterminatifs, modificatifs, submodifica-
tifs) et des connectifs (1845, p. 113-116).
Nous prsenterons les diffrentes organisations possibles et les choix termi-
nologiques des grammairiens, en fonction de leur horizon de rtrospection et
des critres dfinitoires privilgis (Auroux, 1988) et nous nous interrogerons
aussi sur lintrt que prsentent ces grammaires gnrales tardives pour
lhistorien des sciences du langage. En effet, si au XVIme sicle, la variation
relative aux classements des parties du discours traduit les efforts dadaptation
du modle latin et les tentatives de construction dun mtalangage franais (Ju-
lien, 1988, Colombat, 1988), il en est tout autrement au XIXe sicle. Les di-
verses solutions de classement des mots, variables dun grammairien lautre,
ne semblent pas relever dune problmatique de fondation de la grammaire mais
plutt de dfinition, qui sexplique par labsence de modle dominant: essoufle-
ment de la grammaire gnrale, fin de lcole idologique, critique de la pre-
mire grammaire scolaire etc. Par ailleurs, les choix oprs par les grammai-
riens dans le classement des parties du discours engagent lensemble de leur
thorie syntaxique car ils sattlent, au fond, nommer et dcrire la dpendance
smantico-syntaxique (modification, dtermination, porte, complexit) un
moment o le modle fonctionnel de la phrase se construit, partir de lhritage
de Buffier, Girard, Beauze ou Domergue.

AUROUX SYLVAIN (1988a). La grammaire gnrale et les fondements philosophiques des
classements de mots. Langages 23-92, 79-92.
AUROUX SYLVAIN (1988b). Annexe Les critres de dfinition des parties du discours.
Langages 23-92, 109-112.
BOUARD BERENGERE ( par.) Lorganisation des grammaires franaises et ltude de la
forme des mots dans la premire moiti du XIXe sicle. Volume dhommage Syl-
vain Auroux. Lyon: ENS ditions.
BOURQUIN JACQUES (2005). Les prolongements de la grammaire gnrale en France et
dans les pays francophones au XIXe sicle (1802-1870). Actes du colloque de Be-
sanon, 19-21 septembre 2002. Besanon: Presses universitaires de Franche-
CHERVEL ANDRE (2008). Histoire de lenseignement du franais du XVIIme au XXme
sicle. Paris: Retz.
COLOMBAT BERNARD (1988). Prsentation: lments de rflexion pour une histoire des
parties du discours. Langages 23-92, 5-10.
66 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

FOURNIER JEAN-MARIE ( par.) Un mta-terme dans le rseau terminologique de la com-

plmentation: dterminer et ses drivs aux 16e et 17e sicles. Actes du colloque
ComplmentationS 21-23 octobre 2010 St Jacques de Compostelle.
JOLY ANDRE (1972) Hermes ou recherches philosophiques sur la grammaire universelle,
dition, introduction et notes, traduction et remarques par Thurot Franois (1796).
Genve-Paris: Droz.
JULIEN JACQUES (1988). La terminologie franaise des parties du discours et de leurs
sous-classes au XVIe sicle. Langages 23-92, 65-78.
REUILLON-BLANQUET MADELEINE (2005). Vive controverse autour du systme binaire et
du systme trinaire Lemare, Destutt de Tracy, Vanier, Michel, Lemeneur-Doray.
BOURQUIN JACQUES (coord.). Les prolongements de la grammaire gnrale en
France et dans les pays francophones au XIXe sicle (1802-1870). Actes du col-
loque de Besanon, 19-21 septembre 2002. Besanon: Presses universitaires de
Franche-Comt, 151-165.

ARNAULD ANTOINE, LANCELOT CLAUDE ([1676] 1660). Grammaire gnrale ou raison-
ne de Port-Royal suivie des Remarques de Duclos et du supplment de labb
Fromant, introduction historique par M.A. Bailly [reprint: Genve Slatkine, 1993,
rimpression de ldition de Paris 1846].
BEAUZEE NICOLAS (1757). Grammaire gnrale ou Exposition raisonne des lments
ncessaires du langage, pour servir de fondement ltude de toutes les langues.
Paris: Barbou, 2 vol.
BUFFIER, le Pre Claude (1709). Grammaire franoise sur un plan nouveau. Paris: N. le
BURGGRAFF PIERRE (1863). Principes de grammaire gnrale ou exposition raisonne
des lments du langage. Lige: Dessain.
CAILLOT NAPOLEON (1838). Grammaire gnrale et philosophique et critique de la
langue franaise pour tre apprise sans matre. Paris: Thomassin et Cie.
DESTUTT COMNTE DE TRACY A. L. C. (1817). Elments didologie, 1 partie Idologie
proprement dite, 2 partie: Grammaire. Paris: Courcier. Paris: Vrin [1970].
DOMERGUE FRANOIS URBAIN (1798-1799). Grammaire gnrale analytique. Paris: impr.
de C. Houel.
DOMERGUE FRANOIS URBAIN (1784-1792). Journal de la langue franaise soit exacte
soit orne, tome I (srie 1 volumes 1-6 septembre 1784-janvier 1788) tome II (s-
rie 2 volumes 1-5 janvier 1791-mars 1792). (Genve: Slatkine Reprints. [1978]).
HARRIS JAMES (1751). Hermes ou recherches philosophiques sur la grammaire univer-
selle. Traduction et remarques par Franois Thurot, dition, introduction et notes
par Andr Joly. Genve-Paris: Droz [1972].
JULLIEN BERNARD (1832). Grammaire Gnrale abrg de grammaire franaise.
Dieppe: Madame Veuve.
JULLIEN BERNARD (1849). Coup dil sur lhistoire de la grammaire. Paris: Panckoucke.
LEMARE PIERRE ALEXANDRE (1807, 1817). Cours pratique et thorique de langue fran-
aise divis en neuf parties, savoir Idologie, Lexigraphie, prononciation, syntaxe,
construction, ponctuation, tropes ou sens des mots, tymologie, versification. Paris:
Conference Handbook 67

LEMARE PIERRE ALEXANDRE (1835). Cours thorique et pratique de la langue franaise.

Paris: LAuteur.
LONEUX EUGENE (1799). Grammaire Gnrale applique la langue franaise. Lige:
L. Bassenge.
MONTEMONT ALBERT ETIENNE (1845). Grammaire gnrale ou philosophie des langues
prsentant lanalyse de lart de parler, considre dans lesprit et dans le discours,
au moyen des usages compars des langues hbraques, grecque, latine, alle-
mande, anglaise, italienne, espagnole, franaise et autres, Paris: Moquet, 2 tomes.
Grammaire gnrale et philosophique. Paris: A. Pihan Delaforest.
SERREAU JEAN EDME (1798). Grammaire raisonne ou principes de la langue franaise.
Paris: Chez Richard, Caille et Ravier.
principes naturels ou Trait de Grammaire Gnrale applique la langue fran-
aise. Paris: Plicier.
SICARD PSEUDONYME DRACIS R.-A.-C. ABBE (1808, 1798). Elemens de Grammaire Gn-
rale, Appliqus la langue franaise. Paris: Deterville, 2vol.
THUROT FRANOIS (1796). Hermes ou recherches philosophiques sur la grammaire uni-
verselle. Traduction et remarques par., dition, introduction et notes par Andr Jo-
ly. Genve-Paris: Droz [1972].
VANIER VICTOR AUGUSTIN (1836) Dictionnaire grammatical, critique et philosophique de
la langue franaise Paris: Lauteur.
1820). Annales de grammaire par la Socit Grammaticale de Paris, tome 1er. Pa-
ris: Bchet.

Sujeito, Lngua, Espao:

A(s) Lngua(s) Portuguesa(s) e a CPLP

Luiza Katia Andrade Castello BRANCO

Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brasil

Na Histria das Cincias da Linguagem, as noes de lngua, sujeito e es-

pao so preferencialmente observadas e definidas, fato que parece apontar para
a impossibilidade de se fazer cincia da linguagem sem a elas retornar; porm
no sem estarem conformadas pelo contexto scio-histrico que as produz. Pen-
sar as fronteiras, as delimitaes e as especificidades dos estudos realizados no
campo dos estudos da linguagem passa por compreender a no coincidncia nas
concepes de lngua, sujeito e espao a desenvolvidas. Assim, compreender
essa relao sujeito/lngua/espao afeta o modo de fazer cincia da linguagem, o
modo de ler, analisar, escrever e se inscrever nesse lugar da cincia. Em relao
aos estudos sobre Lngua Portuguesa, no diferente. A partir da circulao do
discurso cientfico-positivista da Sociolingustica sobre lngua portuguesa, em
Portugal que est a lngua, enquanto nos outros espaos que hoje se organizam
68 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

sob a designao de espao lusfono o que h dialeto, variante nacional

(VASCONCELOS, 1928; SILVA NETO, 1957, 1979; CUNHA, 1985), apagan-
do a historicidade da relao sujeito-lngua-espao; ou, ainda que, nos pases
membros da Comunidade de Pases de Lngua Portuguesa (CPLP, 1996), h uma
lngua portuguesa homognea e comum a todos, o que torna seus povos irmos,
apagando o poltico e o histrico da relao. Nessa apresentao, sob a perspec-
tiva terica da Anlise de Discurso (Michel Pcheux e Eni Orlandi) no encontro
com a da Histria das Ideias Lingusticas (Sylvain Auroux), damos a ver parte
de nossa pesquisa realizada no doutorado em que analisamos a designao ln-
gua portuguesa nas Constituies dos pases membros da CPLP, para compre-
ender: 1) pela relao poltico-histrico-ideolgica entre sujeito-lngua-espao,
quem / o qu faz uma lngua ser considerada lngua e no dialeto e vice-versa
produzindo efeitos de sentido que ancoram ainda hoje o modo de dizer sobre
Lngua Portuguesa na atualizao de uma memria dessa lngua como lngua
europeia de conquistas; 2) como o gesto da designao lngua portuguesa con-
corre para a formao de um imaginrio sobre a Histria da Lngua Portuguesa
que faz circular dizeres e saberes sobre essa lngua que sustentam, legitimando
ou silenciando, formas de estabelecimento da relao sujeito-lngua-espao,
como, por exemplo, a da coincidncia do par lngua materna/lngua nacional nos
espaos desses pases.

Contributos historiogrficos para uma ideia de Lusofonia

Regina Helena Pires de BRITO

Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, So Paulo, Brasil

Sendo os Estudos Lusfonos foco de interesse recente nos meio acadmico

brasileiro e considerando-se os debates em torno da conceituao e da pertinn-
cia do tema, pretende-se, aqui, apresentar pontos que contribuam para que se
trace um (possvel) percurso histrico e historiogrfico desses estudos, a partir
de referncias de historiadores, fillogos e literatos. Com essa perspectiva (que
tem como ponto de partida a poca das "Grandes Navegaes") e um tratamento
descritivo e reflexivo dos dados coletados, pretende-se fornecer elementos que
possam contribuir para a disseminao e para a compreenso do conceito de
Conference Handbook 69

Nacionalidade, regionalidade e saber metalingstico nas produes

do Instituto Histrico, Geogrfico e Antropolgico do Cear

Aline Maria Freitas BUSSONS

Universidade Regional do Cariri, Brasil

O presente trabalho se insere na linha de pesquisa da Histria das ideias lin-

gusticas no Brasil, campo de estudo interdisciplinar que tem como objetivo
central discutir o conhecimento da histria da lngua e a histria do conhecimen-
to sobre a lngua. Distingue-se do que faz, tradicionalmente, a histria da cin-
cia, por trabalhar com as singularidades da produo cientfica de um pas de
colonizao como o Brasil. Esse tipo de investigao rompe com a tendncia
eurocntrica e homogeneizante da histria das cincias. Tambm se distingue da
disciplina em questo, por colocar o histrico e o poltico como discusso intrn-
seca, desmistificando a ideia de cincia neutra, alm de fazer repensar o papel do
saber lingustico na construo da sociedade brasileira, retirando a lingustica do
lugar de cincia sem implicaes poltico-ideolgicas (Orlandi, 2001: 07-19).
Sob esta perspectiva, investigamos as relaes entre saber metalingstico e a
construo da nacionalidade/regionalidade brasileira nos artigos que abordam a
estrutura das lnguas indgenas, em um vis diacrnico, produzidos pelo Instituto
Histrico, Geogrfico e Antropolgico do Cear (1887-1936). Para tanto, parti-
mos do pressuposto de que o sentido determinado pelas posies ideolgicas
que entram em jogo, em um dado momento scio-histrico, descartando a iluso
de que o sentido em si uma evidncia (Pechux, 1997:160). A materialidade
analisada consta, fundamentalmente, de dezassete textos sobre lnguas indgenas,
produzidos entre 1887 a 1936, perodo do Brasil Repblica, e possui as seguintes
caractersticas: (1) abordagem prioritria das lnguas indgenas; (2) utilizao
dos pressupostos terico-metodolgicos da lingustica histrica, no que concerne
ao aspecto comparativo de lnguas distintas, busca da etimologia e de trans-
formaes morfo-fonticas; (3) saber portador de muitas referncias a outros
textos e; (4) saber metalingustico, apresentado em uma academia de histria,
atravessado por outros saberes (geogrfico, histrico e antropolgico). Ademais,
estes textos foram escritos e publicados no Cear da virada de sculo (XIX/XX),
uma provncia que ainda no possua suas fronteiras definidas, cuja capital, For-
taleza, passava por um processo de urbanizao, enquanto a seca, no interior,
afligia a populao, dizimando o gado, formando exrcitos de famintos institu-
indo-se um conflito entre a urbanizao da capital e as mazelas da seca (Ponte,
2007: 162-191). Desta forma, este trabalho buscar compreender os efeitos de
sentidos que atravessam as produes do Instituto Histrico e Geogrfico do
Cear e a construo da nacionalidade/regionalidade brasileira, tendo em vista as
70 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

especificidades do saber metalingustico que permeia essas produes e as con-

dies de produo nas quais esse saber irrompe.

Referncias Bibliogrficas
ORLANDI, Eni P. (Org.). Histria das idias lingsticas: construo do saber meta-
lingstico e constituio da lngua nacional. Campinas, SP: Pontes; Cceres, MT:
Unemat Editora, 2001, pp. 07-20.
PECHUX, Michel. Semntica e discurso: uma crtica afirmao do bvio. Traduo
Eni P. Orlandi et al. 3. Ed.- Campinas, SP: Editora da Unicamp, 1997.
PONTE. Sebastio Rogrio. A Belle poque em Fotaleza: remodelao e controle. In
SOUSA, Simone de. Uma nova histria do Cear. 4 ed. Ver. Atual. Fortaleza: Edi-
es Demcrito Rocha, 2007. (pp. 162-191).

A Insero de Concepes Lingusticas no Discurso Pedaggico

da Lngua Portuguesa: reflexes acerca da proposta curricular
de Lngua Portuguesa do Estado de So Paulo na dcada de 1980


Uni-FACEF Centro Universitrio de Franca, So Paulo, Brasil

Este trabalho uma anlise da insero de concepes lingusticas no dis-

curso pedaggico da Proposta Curricular de Lngua Portuguesa da Secretaria de
Educao do Estado de So Paulo, Brasil, na dcada de 1980 a fim de verificar
como so sugeridas as atividades de linguagem que evidenciam a escola como
um espao efetivamente de interao social, ou seja, a enunciao como um
fator importante para o ensino de Lngua Portuguesa. Para tanto, adotamos como
referencial terico-metodolgico as reflexes do Crculo de Mikhail Bakhtin
sobre dialogismo e enunciado concreto. Bakhtin entende que a linguagem
constitutivamente dialgica e, em funo disso, prope o estudo da translingus-
tica, concebida por ele como uma rea que ultrapassa os limites da Lingustica
Estrutural, evidenciando o funcionamento real da linguagem em detrimento de
um estudo, unicamente, do sistema da lngua. Nessa perspectiva, o enunciado
concreto constitui-se por sua natureza dialgica, ou seja, s se caracteriza pela
alternncia dos falantes. Consequentemente, diferentes vises de mundo e valo-
res sociais so marcados por tenses que se refletem nos enunciados, nos quais
se encontram ecos de outros enunciados e com os quais dialoga, confirmando-os,
completando-os ou confrontando-os. Com a introduo da Proposta de Lngua
Portuguesa, considera-se uma dupla natureza da linguagem enquanto ao e
enquanto objeto. Nesse contexto, os contedos apresentados ora esto direciona-
dos para a linguagem em uso, aproximando, desse modo, dessas reflexes lin-
gusticas, ora para o conhecimento das noes da teoria gramatical. possvel
afirmar que, a partir de propostas de um ensino de Lngua Portuguesa voltadas
Conference Handbook 71

primordialmente para o texto, os documentos publicados na poca passaram a

privilegiar as atividades de linguagem no uso social, interativo, assim como
tambm propuseram reflexes sobre a linguagem (chamadas de atividades epi-
lingusticas) para o desenvolvimento da capacidade lingustica dos educandos.
Por outro lado, as atividades metalingusticas, antes predominantes no ambiente
escolar, passaram a ser concebidas como uma construo conjunta entre alunos e
professores no que se refere leitura e produo textual. Desse modo, verifica-
mos que essa proposta curricular, ao introduzir novos olhares sobre linguagem,
lngua e ensino, significou um avano nas reflexes pedaggicas que, a partir de
ento, passaram, como j mencionado, a compreender a aprendizagem de lngua
materna no somente como um estudo das unidades da lngua e das normas
prescritas pela gramtica.

A filosofia da linguagem em Bakhtin: embates ticos e estticos

Maria Ins Batista CAMPOS

Universidade de So Paulo, Brasil

Nesta comunicao, nosso objetivo discutir questes tericas e apresentar

resultados prticos de pesquisas que tm como base a teoria bakhtiniana, particu-
larmente, o conceito de arquitetnica, a fim de compreender os embates ticos e
estticos que o homem vive como um ser mergulhado no seu tempo, no seu es-
pao e comprometido com a sua cultura. No incio dos anos 20, a obra de Mi-
khail Bakhtin teve por base uma investigao dedicada arquitetnica do mundo
real e cotidiano, no teorizado, mas vivenciado pela tica do eu-para-mim, do
outro-para-mim e do eu-para-outro. Embora esse importante conceito filosfico
no tenha sido realizado por completo, a concepo de linguagem bakhtiniana
considera a relao intersubjetiva entre o eu e o outro, uma vez que nossas pala-
vras sempre so respostas a palavras de outros, presentes de forma marcada ou
constitutiva em nosso discurso, provocando novas respostas a interlocutores
diversos. Conceitos como dialogismo e discurso bivocal materializam o pensa-
mento bakhtiniano, que no pode ser monolgico. A arquitetnica das relaes
dialgicas compreende no s a tica, mas tambm uma viso esttica que se
fundamenta no excedente de viso que o outro tem de mim. Desse modo, o con-
ceito de arquitetnica rene premissas dialogicamente constitudas que pode ser
uma boa chave terico-metodolgica para dar encaminhamento a leituras de
textos verbais e verbo-visuais. Bakhtin elaborou extensamente essa reflexo
filosfica sobre a arquitetnica nos seus primeiros ensaios que podem ser consi-
derados um trptico. Inicia com Para uma filosofia do ato responsvel (1919); a
seguir O autor e a personagem na atividade esttica (1922-1924), publicado
em portugus parcialmente (Esttica da criao verbal), e o ensaio O problema
do contedo, do material e da forma na criao literria (1923-24). Dessa pers-
72 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

pectiva filosfica, procuro apresentar aspectos enunciativo-discursivos que pos-

sibilitam uma articulao entre os discursos verbo-visuais, tornando a leitura
uma atividade significativa para quem l a diversidade de imagens (pinturas, por
exemplo, o autorretrato) nas vrias esferas de atividade de produo e circula-
o. A finalidade dessa comunicao examinar a compreenso do ato tico e
esttico na concepo da arquitetnica bakhtiniana, buscando recorrer s fontes

Processos de Institucionalizao da Lngua Portuguesa no Brasil

o caso do Museu da Lngua Portuguesa


Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brasil

A partir de uma perspectiva disciplinar da Histria das Ideias Lingusticas

(cf. Orlandi, 2001), vimos procurando compreender, h j algum tempo, parte do
processo de institucionalizao da lngua portuguesa no Brasil. Nesta apresenta-
o, traremos uma anlise sobre o Museu da Lngua Portuguesa, instalado em
2006, no Estado de So Paulo/Brasil, a partir da Histria das Ideias Lingusticas
na sua relao com a Anlise de Discurso. Em nossas pesquisas, estamos com-
preendendo o Museu da Lngua Portuguesa enquanto uma poltica de lngua. E
nesse recorte especfico da anlise que traremos, trabalhamos a pgina eletrnica
que acolhe o discurso institucional do Museu da Lngua Portuguesa como um
arquivo que, por sua vez, se constitui em um discurso sobre (Mariani, 1998) a
lngua portuguesa. Ao tomar o Museu como uma poltica de lngua, estamos
refletindo sobre os efeitos de uma instalao pblica de um projeto de governo
em nvel estadual que promove a edificao de um Museu que tem como patri-
mnio a lngua portuguesa. E, enquanto uma edificao, tratamos o Museu en-
quanto um espao material (simblico, poltico, histrico e fsico) que, dentro de
uma histria das ideias lingusticas nos faz colocar em relao o funcionamento
da lngua; das polticas pblicas; dos discursos especializados (dentre eles: o
discurso cientfico um discurso de um saber sobre a lngua ; um discurso
miditico/tecnolgico; e um discurso esttico/artstico). Dito de outro modo,
trata-se de colocar em relao o Estado, o Conhecimento e a Sociedade (Orlandi,
2001). Tomamos esta relao enquanto tensa e contraditria. E a pensamos co-
mo parte estruturante da produo do ordinrio de sentido (Pcheux, 1981). E,
mais especificamente, quando estamos pousando nosso olhar para uma escuta
social (poltica) (Pcheux/Thomas Herbert, 1966) de um espao que tem a lngua
como objeto de exposio, observamos esta relao enquanto uma direo de-
terminada de sentidos que afeta o imaginrio do brasileiro na/da lngua portu-
guesa, com toda sua espessura semntica (Pcheux, 1975), que tambm afetada
por uma construo histrica e poltica (ideolgica) de um saber sobre a lngua.
Conference Handbook 73

Referncias bibliogrficas
Mariani, B. O PCB e a imprensa. Os comunistas no imaginrio dos jornais (1922-1989).
Rio de Janeiro: Revan;Campinas:Editora da Unicamp, 1998.
Orlandi, E. P (org) Histria das Idias Lingsticas. Construo do Saber Metalingstico
e Constituio da Lngua Nacional. Campinas: Pontes; Crceres: Unemat Editora.
Pcheux, M. (Thomas Herbert), Reflexions sur la situation thorique des sciences so-
ciales et, spcialement, de la psychologie sociale, Cahiers pour lanalyse, 2, 1966.
Pcheux, M. Lecture et Mmoire: Project de Recherche. In: L inquitude du discours.
Paris, Ed. Cendres, 1981; 1990.
_______. Les vrits de la Palice, Paris, Maspero, 1975.

O Museu da Lngua Portuguesa como instrumento lingustico

Larissa Montagner CERVO

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

Quando tratamos da relao lngua e sujeito, somos constantemente interpe-

lados pelo primado poltico dos instrumentos lingusticos (AUROUX, 1992)
enquanto aqueles que sistematizam o conhecimento sobre a linguagem verbal
humana. Gramticas e dicionrios, nesse sentido, produzem o imaginrio de uma
relao inequvoca, assim constituda na medida em que tais tecnologias signifi-
cam em posio fundante, a da gramatizao. Neste trabalho, propomo-nos refle-
tir sobre a possibilidade de constituio de instrumentos lingusticos outros que,
atravessados pelos mesmos sentidos de evidncia e completude, dedicam-se a
instrumentar e (re)descrever lngua(s), realocando e reconstituindo as fronteiras
da relao lngua e sujeito em termos de memria e histria, muito embora dis-
tantes da perspectiva de fundao de sentidos. Tal estudo j vem sendo realizado
no Brasil por pesquisadores que associam Anlise de Discurso e Histria das
Ideias Lingusticas, a exemplo de Petri (2012) em relao a dicionrios regiona-
listas. Ns nos ocuparemos especificamente do Museu da Lngua Portuguesa,
um museu brasileiro que, via o slogan A lngua o que nos une, prope-se
ressignificao do imaginrio da lngua portuguesa enquanto lngua nacional do
Brasil, o que, em um primeiro momento, pode ser posto em relao dada a coin-
cidncia do nome. No Museu da Lngua Portuguesa, o arquivo uma espcie de
inventrio desta lngua, composto de dados, fatos e representaes que aludem a
questes histricas e etimolgicas. O processo descritivo parte do saber j histo-
ricizado nas e pelas gramticas e dicionrios, pelo saber escolar, em direo a
uma prtica de reinscrio de princpios valorativos que tangem ressignifica-
o poltica da lngua por formas outras de nomeao e designao no interior
dos espaos reservados ao patrimnio. Alm deste modo especfico de versar
sobre o que a lngua portuguesa, o que a constitui e como ela deve ser valora-
74 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

da, a associao dos conceitos museu, lngua e patrimnio abrem, ainda, a possi-
bilidade de refletirmos sobre o processo de constituio do arquivo a partir das
novas tecnologias da linguagem e do modo como elas interpelam nossas relaes
com o conhecimento, haja vista que o arquivo do Museu predominantemente
formado por mdias udio-visuais. Certamente, se no estamos tratando de um
deslocamento da prtica de tecnologizao da lngua por instrumentos lingusti-
cos, pelo menos estamos diante de um processo de ressignificao dessa prtica,
que tambm um modo outro, talvez, inovador, de es/inscrever a histria da
lngua e a lngua na histria.

De la Ratio discendi et docendi de Jouvancy a las Prcticas e Industrias

de Idiquez: los avatares de la Ratio studiorum jesutica


Universidad de Extremadura, Cceres, Espaa

La Compaa de Jess hizo gala siempre de un espritu irnico y sincretista,

utilizando tcticamente corrientes y modas culturales y epistemolgicas e intro-
ducindolas, en la medida de lo posible, en su aparato ideolgico y propagands-
tico. En el mbito de la enseanza de las LETRAS HUMANAS, tanto la obra de
J. Jouvancy (a nivel general) como la labor propedutica de F. J. Idiquez (en
Espaa) fueron intentos muy positivos del afn globalizante de los seguidores de
Ignacio de Loyola. En esta comunicacin se analizar la ndole de las obras
mencionadas, haciendo hincapi en sus propsitos e intenciones, similitudes y
diferencias, redacciones, destinatarios, etc. En el trasfondo de tales proyectos
est el intento de salvar la Ratio studiorum de 1599 acomodndola a la corriente
de pensamiento racional, cientfico y pragmtico de la poca, expresin asimis-
mo de unos cambios polticos, filosficos y culturales en la sociedad en general.

Saussure et la temporalit: gense et dveloppement

dune terminologie travers les manuscrits

Universit de Genve, Suisse

La temporalit est au centre de la rflexion de linguistique gnrale Ferdi-

nand de Saussure. Aprs avoir analys lvolution terminologique de la smiolo-
gie (Chidichimo, ICHOLS XII, sous presse), le pas suivant est reprsent par
lanalyse de la temporalit. La smiologie et la temporalit sont deux notions
lies entre eux dans la conception saussurienne de la vie des langues. Mon pro-
Conference Handbook 75

pos est de prsenter la continuit et la diffrentiation de la terminologie et de la

thorie de Saussure propos de la temporalit. Dun ct, je montrerai la re-
cherche de Saussure travers la pratique dcriture, qui merge dans ltude de
ses manuscrits et lanalyse des variantes. De lautre ct, je dfinirai une carto-
graphie de la terminologie saussurienne inhrente la temporalit. Il sagit, donc,
dune rcognition qui sappui sur le Cours de linguistique gnrale (CLG), mais
aussi sur les sources manuscrites qui rservent encore des dcouvertes. Au de l
de la couple classique diachronie/synchronie et le clbre schma langue-temps-
masse parlante prsents dans le CLGE, il est possible de retrouver dautres
termes et nuances thoriques dans les sources manuscrites (cf. Chidichimo,
2009). Avant darriver aux leons de linguistique gnrale des annes 1907-
19011, en fait, Saussure avait envisag le problme de la temporalit dans les
langues dans des contextes textuels, demploi et priodes diffrents ( Paris, le
1881-1891, et dans notes de leons et textes ; cf. Saussure, 1995 ; Joseph, 2010 ;
Chidichimo, 2009 et 2011). Grace lappui dune recherche de philologie saus-
surienne, je donnerai des repres pour une reconstruction des concepts de la
temporalit et de lvolution du lexique en Saussure. Jessayerai, enfin, de dm-
ler les nuances thoriques en discutant les points de passage et les changements
les plus importants pour la thorie smiologique de Saussure.

Bibliothques de Genve, Papiers Ferdinand de Saussure, Ms.fr. 3951, 3957. [Ms.fr.]
Bibliothques de Genve, Archives de Saussure, 372, 374, 376-378, 385-387. [AdS]
Harvard, Houghton Library bMS Fr 266 (8)
Chidichimo, Alessandro (2009). Chiudere il cerchio. Une nouvelle terminologie sur la
temporalit [online] http://www.cerclefds.unical.it.
Chidichimo, Alessandro (2008). Dclinaisons de la temporalit Lenchevtrement de la
pluralit des temps chez Saussure in Du ct de chez Saussure, Arriv M. (d), p.
51-66, Lambert-Lucas, Limoges.
Chidichimo, Alessandro (2011). Il manoscritto saussuriano De lessence double du
langage, Dissertation doctorale, mars 2011, Universit de Calabre.
Chidichimo, Alessandro (sous presse). Lvolution du terme smiologie chez Saussure
(1881-1891) in ICHOLS XII, International Conference on the history of language
sciences, John Benjamins Pub. Co., Amsterdam.
Choi Yong-Ho (2002). Le temps chez Ferdinand de Saussure, LHarmattan, Paris.
Constantin, mile (2005). Linguistique gnrale, Cours de M. le Professeur de Saus-
sure, 1910-1911 in Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure, 58, p. 83-289.
Engler, Rudolf (1964). Lexique de la terminologie saussurienne, Spectrum, Uthrecht.
Godel, Robert (1957). Les sources manuscrits de Ferdinand de Saussure, Droz, Genve.
Joseph, John (2010). Saussures notes of 1881-1885 on Inner Speech, Linguistic Signs
and Language Change in Historiographia Linguistica, 37:1/2, p. 105-132.
Saussure, Ferdinand (1967-74). Cours de linguistique gnrale (dition critique par
Rudolf Engler), Harrasowitz, Wiesbaden. (CLG/E)
Saussure, Ferdinand de (1982). Les lgendes germaniques, a cura di Marinetti, Meli,
Editrice Zielo, Este.
76 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Saussure, Ferdinand de (1995). Phontique:, Unipress, Firenze.

Saussure, Ferdinand de (1996). Premier cours de linguistique gnrale (1907), ed. by
Komatsu, Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Saussure, Ferdinand de (1997). Deuxime cours de linguistique gnrale (1908-1909),
ed. by Komatsu, Pergamon Press, Oxford.

The Relation of Gesture to Thought and Language:

From Language Origin to Cognitive Science

Thomas Craig CHRISTY

University of North Alabama, U.S.A.

Gesture has had a long, if ambiguous, role in linguistic theories, particularly

in speculation on the origin of language, where it has often been seen as ante-
cedent to verbal symbolization. Recent interdisciplinary research in developmen-
tal psychology, cognitive science, neurobiology and related fields, particularly in
the past decade, has taken a more integrative approach and focused on the ways
in which gesture functions in a constitutive fashion in the representation, pro-
cessing, and transformation of thought, and how it provides an infrastructure for
action understanding, for reading the intentions of others. What has emerged
from this holistic approach is an understanding of language as being not an au-
tonomous system of interlocking modules but rather a cognitive ability tightly
interwoven with other cognitive abilities and influenced, if not in part deter-
mined, by and through the body and bodily actions. In this study I will review
the ways in which our understanding of gesture as it relates to language and
cognition has undergone radical revision in the wake of advances in cognate
sciences, where robust arguments for the replacement of traditional with em-
bodied cognition have been advanced.

Selected References
Barsalou, L. W. (2008). Grounded Cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 617-
Beilock, S. L., and S. Goldin-Meadow. 2010. Gesture Changes Thought by Grounding
it in Action. Psychological Science, 21(11), 1605 1610.
Christy, T. Craig. 2013. Vygotsky, Cognitive Development and Language: New Per-
spectives on the Nature of Grammaticalization. Historiographia Linguistica 40
(1/2). 2013: 199-227. Christy, T. Craig. 1989. "Reflex Sounds and the Experiential
Manifold: Steinthal on the Origin of Language." In Rahden & Gessinger 1989:
Fauconnier, Gilles, and Mark Turner. 2002. The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending
and the Minds Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.
Galesse, V., & Lakoff, G. 2005. The Brain's Concepts: The Role of the Sensory-Motor
System in Conceptual Knowledge. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22, 455-479.
Conference Handbook 77

Gibbs, R. W. 2006. Embodiment and cognitive science. Cambridge University.

Kinsbourne, M. 2006. Gestures as Embodied Cognition: A Neurodevelopmental Inter-
pretation. Gesture, 6(2), 205214.
McNeill, D. 2005. Gesture and Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago.
McNeill, David, ed. 2000. Language and Gesture. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Nerlich, Brigitte, and David Clarke. 1996. Language, Action and Context: The Early
History of Pragmatics in Europe and America (1780-1930). Amsterdam: Benja-
Rahden, Wolfgang von, and Joachim Gessinger. 1989. Theorien vom Ursprung der
Sprache Berlin: Walter de Gruyter

De atole a guaje: los nahuatlismos en la lexicografa mexicana


Escuela Nacional de Antropologa e Historia
Instituto Nacional de Antropologa e Historia, Mxico

Mara del Carmen HERRERA MEZA

Direccin de Lingstica,
Instituto Nacional de Antropologa e Historia, Mxico

Intereses distintos al estudio de la lengua han contribuido al conocimiento

de sus cualidades y perfiles. No tanto porque modifiquen los conceptos que han
guiado su estudio, sino porque iluminan fenmenos lingsticos al convertirlos
en un objeto de relevancia sociohistrica y poltica.
Los prstamos del nhuatl al espaol mexicano, y al espaol general, tienen
tan larga historia que algunos apenas si son visibles, aunque en Mxico abunden
en la toponimia y en diversas nomenclaturas. La atencin que se ha prestado a su
uso y registro en diccionarios y vocabularios no ha sido ajena a los mtodos por
los que ha atravesado la lexicografa del espaol, ni a momentos cruciales en la
construccin de la historia de los Estados nacionales durante el siglo XIX. Al
tiempo en que se forjaban las ideas de la nacin mexicana corresponde el Voca-
bulario de mexicanismos de Joaqun Garca Icazbalceta (1899), y al principio del
declive nacionalista, el Diccionario de mexicanismos de F. Javier Santamara
(1959). Sin embargo, desde el mismo diccionario de fray Alonso de Molina
(1571) se encuentran vocablos nahuas en las definiciones en castellano escritas
por el franciscano; y, por supuesto, los nahuatlismos tienen un lugar en el ms
reciente Diccionario de mexicanismos (2010).
Se trata pues de voces cuyo estudio no ha perdido vigencia y por lo tanto
constituye un interesante objeto para la historiografa, porque permite observar
un tratamiento diferencial de este universo lxico en los diccionarios del espaol
mexicano que se han producido en los dos ltimos siglos. Cmo construyeron,
cada uno de los lexicgrafos bajo anlisis, el concepto de mexicanismo? En to-
78 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

dos los casos, este concepto incluye los indigenismos y de manera sobresaliente,
los nahuatlismos, el corpus especfico en el que centraremos nuestra atencin.
En qu nivel diatpico ellos insertan los nahuatlismos?, porque en estos diccio-
narios se incluyen u omiten las indicaciones sobre su presencia en el espaol
general, el espaol hispanoamericano o exclusivamente en Mxico. Por ltimo,
cules son los contrastes ms notorios en la microestructura de los artculos
relativos a los nahuatlismos? Nuestra participacin dar respuesta a estas inte-
rrogantes, destacando el carcter pionero del trabajo de J. Garca Icazbalceta.

Academia Mexicana de la Lengua. 2010. Diccionario de mexicanismos. Concepcin
Company Company (dir.). Mxico: Siglo XXI editores.
Garca Icazbalceta, Joaqun. 1899-1905. Vocabulario de mexicanismos; comprobado
con ejemplos y comparado con los de otros pases hispano-americanos. Propnen-
se adems algunas adiciones y enmiendas la ltima edicin (12) del Diccionario
de la Academia. Mxico. Tip. y Lit. La Europea de J. Aguilar Vera y Ca., en
Gnther Haensch (comp.) Textos clsicos sobre la historia de la lexicografa del
espaol en Amrica. Volumen 9. Serie VIII.
Molina, Fray Alonso de. [1571] 2010. Vocabulario en lengua castellana y mexicana y
mexicana y castellana. Versin digital de Marc Thouvenot, Gran Diccionario
Nhuatl, en Compendio Enciclopdico del Nhuatl. Mxico: INAH (dvd).
Santamara, Franciso Javier. 1959. Diccionario de Mejicanismos. Razonado; comproba-
do con citas de autoridades; comparado con el de americanismos y con los voca-
bularios provinciales de los ms distinguidos diccionaristas hispanoamericanos.
Mxico: Porra.

As Notas Preparatrias para o Terceiro Curso:

Uma Leitura do Valor Lingustico

Micaela COELHO
Universidade Federal de Uberlndia, Minas Gerais, Brasil

As Notas preparatrias para o terceiro curso consistem em um conjunto

de manuscritos elaborados por Ferdinand de Saussure com a finalidade de prepa-
rar as aulas que ministrou durante seu terceiro curso na Universidade de Genebra
(1910-1911). Esse conjunto de manuscritos composto por um total de 56 fo-
lhas, e pertence ao grupo cedido Biblioteca de Genebra em 1955, fato que nos
leva a afirmar que eles no estiveram entre as fontes utilizadas por Bally e Se-
chehaye para a elaborao do Curso de Lingustica Geral (CLG). Entretanto,
comprovamos, por meio de anlises realizadas em trabalhos anteriores, que o
CLG consiste em uma edio cujo contedo provm majoritariamente das lies
ministradas durante o terceiro curso de Saussure, o que evidencia a possibilidade
de semelhanas entre o contedo dessa edio e das Notas preparatrias para o
Conference Handbook 79

terceiro curso. Dessa forma, ao analisarmos o conjunto de manuscritos em

questo, destacamos o tratamento outorgado ao valor lingustico como um ponto
terico comum ao contedo do CLG. Tendo isso em vista, partimos da conside-
rao de Silveira (2009, p. 9) de que a Teoria do Valor consiste na viga mes-
tra das elaboraes saussurianas para justificarmos a realizao de uma aborda-
gem das partes que se referem especificamente ao valor lingustico no conjunto
de manuscritos Notas preparatrias para o terceiro curso. Com essa aborda-
gem, visamos expor que a leitura do valor lingustico nos manuscritos em ques-
to nos permite conhecer a trajetria de Saussure no desenvolvimento da Teoria
do Valor, tanto por terem sido elaboradas em um momento anterior ao curso e
apresentarem aspectos formais que evidenciam essa trajetria de desenvolvimen-
to, como tambm por apresentarem uma tica desse contedo distinta daquela
apresentada no CLG. Alm disso, nosso trabalho se justifica pelo fato de que a
Teoria do Valor um princpio fundamental na delimitao da lingustica
moderna e merece, portanto, uma anlise de todas as fontes disponveis a seu
respeito. Consideramos importante buscar no s o que apresentado a respeito
do valor lingustico enquanto conceito acabado, mas tambm averiguar a trajet-
ria de sua elaborao, o que pode ser proporcionado pelos manuscritos saussuri-

GAMBARARA, D. Un texte original: Prsentation des textes de F. de Saussure. In:
Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure, vol.58, n. 58, p. 29-42. Genve: Droz, 2005a
JOSEPH, J. E. Saussure. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
MEJA, C. Sous les signe de doute Prsentation des textes de E. Constantin. In: Cahier
Ferdinand de Saussure. Vol. 58, p. 43-67, Publicado por Cercle Ferdinand de Saus-
sure. Genve: Librairie Droz S.A, 2005.
SAUSSURE, F. Cours de Linguistique Gnrale - dition critique prpar par Tulio de
Mauro. Paris: Payot, 1967.
______________ Cours de Linguistique Gnrale. dition critique par Rudolf Engler
(Tome 1).Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1967.
______________ Curso de lingustica geral. Trad. de A. Chelini; J. P. Paes e I. Blikstein.
27 Ed. So Paulo: Cultrix, 2006. Cours de linguistique gnrale. Charles Bally e
Albert Sechehaye (orgs.), com a colaborao de Albert Riedlinger, [1916].
______________ Notes pour le cour III. In: Papiers Ferdinand de Saussure, 3951 22.
Biblioteque de Genve, 1910-1911. 56 f.
SILVEIRA, Eliane Mara. A teoria do valor no Curso de Lingustica Geral. In: Revista
Letras & Letras. v. 25, n. 1. Uberlndia: EDUFU, 2009. p. 39-54
80 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

A Grammatica analytica da lingua portugueza (1831)

de Francisco Solano Constncio

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal

A Grammatica analytica da lngua portugueza de Francisco Solano Cons-

tncio teve duas edies, uma primeira em 1831, seguida de outra em 1855.
Contou, ainda, com a publicao de uma verso resumida, Resumo da gramma-
tica portugueza, inserida no Novo Diccionario critico e etymologico, da lingua
portugueza, que teve mais de dez edies. O presente artigo visa relembrar esta
gramtica e o seu autor, fazendo uma incurso pelas partes que a compem e
evidenciando as principais ideias lingusticas do autor tendo em conta o contexto
gramatical da poca.

Referncias bibliogrficas:
Barbosa, Jernimo Soares (1807): As duas Linguas ou Grammatica Philosophica da
Lingua Portugueza, comparada com a Latina, Para Ambas se aprenderem ao
mesmo tempo. Coimbra: Na Real Impressa da Universidade.
_____________________ (11822): Grammatica Philosophica da Lingua Portugueza.
Lisboa: Na Typographia da Academia das Sciencias.
Coelho, Francisco Adolfo (1868): A Lingua Portugueza. Phonologia, Etymologia,
Morphologia e Syntaxe. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade.
Constncio, Francisco Solano (1831): Grammatica analytica da lngua portugueza,
offerecida mocidade estudiosa de Portugal e do Brasil. Paris: Em Casa de J. P.
Aillaud, Rio de Janeiro: Em Casa de Souza, Laemmert e C.
Constncio, Francisco Solano (1836): Resumo da grammatica portugueza. In: Novo
Diccionario critico e etymologico, da lingua portugueza. Paris: Casimir.
Schfer-Prie, Barbara (2002): Entre a gramtica filosfica e a lingustica histrico-
comparativa: Francisco Solano Constncio e a sua Grammatica analytica da lingua
portugueza de 1831. In: Estudos de histria da gramaticografia e lexicografia
portuguesas, 159-175.
Schfer-Prie, Barbara (2000): Die portugiesische Grammatikschreibung von 1540 bis
1822. Entstehungsbedingungen und Kategorisierungsverfahren vor dem Hinter-
grund der lateinischen, spanischen und franzsischen Tradition. Tbingen: Max
Niemeyer Verlag (Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fr Romanische Philologie Band 300)
__________________ (no prelo): A Gramaticografia Portuguesa de 1540 at 1822:
Condies da sua gnese e critrios de categorizao, no mbito da tradio lati-
na, espanhola e francesa. Traduo de Jaime Ferreira da Silva, revista e atualizada
pela autora.
Silbert, A[lbert] (1950): Autour de Francisco Solano Constncio. In: Bulletin des Etu-
des Portugaises 14, 132-196.
Conference Handbook 81

Silva, Inocncio Francisco da (1859): Diccionario Bibliographico Portuguez. Volumes

III. Lisboa: na Imprensa Nacional.
Verdelho, Telmo (2007): Dicionrios portugueses, breve histria. In: Telmo Verdelho
e Joo Paulo Silvestre (org.): Dicionarstica portuguesa. Inventariao e estudo do
patrimnio lexicogrfico. Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro.

O Guarani e o Castelhano:
Dizeres sobre as duas Lnguas Oficiais do Paraguai

Joyce Palha COLAA

Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Brasil

Em nossa pesquisa, investigamos, com base na Histria das Ideias Lingus-

ticas (AUROUS, 2009 [1992]), no seu encontro com a Anlise de Discurso (AD)
(PCHEUX, 1988 [1975] e ORLANDI (2002), a relao entre lngua nacional e
sujeito nacional no Paraguai Para tanto, analisamos os dizeres sobre as lnguas
oficiais do Paraguai, o guarani e o castelhano, na constituio federal e nas leis
de educao. Um ponto importante a ressaltar que uma lngua, qual seja, no
alcana o status de oficialidade sem que haja um trabalho ideolgico, poltico,
social e econmico sobre os modos de sua produo, organizao e circulao.
Uma lngua oficial resultado de polticas de lnguas, bem como do investimen-
to econmico para promover-se como lngua nacional. H, deste modo, alm das
polticas lingusticas (CALVET, 2007) que instituram o guarani como lngua
dos sistemas de educao, o poltico nas lnguas (GUIMARES, 2005).
Na construo de uma nao, a lngua uma questo fundamental: ou admi-
te-se a pluralidade ou apagam-se as diferenas. No primeiro caso, preciso que
se invista em polticas lingusticas que a garantam. O Estado atua como regula-
dor do poltico na linguagem e o faz de maneira a garantir uma unidade (imagi-
nria) da lngua, instituindo tambm a imagem de um cidado. Esse princpio de
unidade leva concepo de uma lngua, a lngua nacional, a lngua do cidado.
Todo cidado fala uma lngua, determinada pelo Estado, que a lngua das insti-
tuies de poder, em que se identifica um sujeito (identidade, cpf, ttulo de elei-
tor), que o torna parte do sistema em que se supe que toda prtica civilizatria
feita atravs de sua lngua. Por fim, vale destacar que se considera que todo
trabalho acerca da linguagem (e pela linguagem) constitui-se em um trabalho do
simblico, tomando a historicidade dos processos de formao e formulao das
polticas de lnguas.

AUROUX, Sylvain. A revoluo tecnolgica da gramatizao. Campinas: Editora da
Unicamp, 2009 [1992].
CALVET, Louis-Jean. As polticas lingusticas. So Paulo: Parbola Editorial: IPOL,
82 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

GUIMARES, Eduardo. Semntica do acontecimento: um estudo enunciativo da

designao. Campinas, SP: Pontes Editores, 2005. 2 ed.
ORLANDI, Eni. Lngua e conhecimento lingstico: para uma Histria das Idias no
Brasil. So Paulo: Cortez Editora, 2002.
PCHEUX, Michel. Semntica e discurso: uma crtica afirmao do bvio. Trad. Eni
P. Orlandi et al. Campinas, SP: Editora da UNICAMP, 1988 [1975].

Linterjection dans la tradition grammaticale latine,

de lAntiquit lHumanisme

Universit Paris Diderot-Paris 7
& Laboratoire d'Histoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Cette communication envisage lhistoire de linterjection (interiectio), de

lAntiquit la Renaissance.
Linterjection est reconnue comme partie du discours dans lAntiquit la-
tine. Elle est gnralement considre comme une innovation des Latins, et un
texte de Quintilien parat montrer quelle vient en remplacement de larticle pour
complter la liste de huit parties du discours. En fait, il semble bien que dans les
thories grecques antiques ait dj exist une telle catgorie, nomme piphn-
ma, mme si elle napparat pas dans la liste alexandrine canonique des huit
parties du discours.
On a dj une trace de la thorie de linterjection chez Varron qui utilise
lexpression particula interiecta. Linterjection est reconnue dans la tradition
artigraphique comme une pars orationis, partie dnonc qui sera intgre,
malgr son statut particulier, sans plus de discussion dans les parties du dis-
cours au sens de classes fonctionnelles de mots , dont le rle est de signifier,
dsigner ou exprimer (significare) un affect (adfectus) ou un mouvement (mo-
tus) de lme (animus) ou de lesprit (mens). Priscien, sensible la tradition
grecque, traite de linterjection en appendice ladverbe en montrant la proximi-
t des deux classes parfois difficiles distinguer.
Le Moyen ge hsite entre le point de vue de Donat (faire de linterjection
une partie du discours spcifique) et celui de Priscien (lassocier ladverbe). Le
statut de linterjection est discut par rapport aux modes de signifier et par rap-
port la division des passions et des vertus qui vient de la tradition philoso-
phique et thologique. On se pose galement la question de savoir sil faut y
intgrer de nouveaux items.
Le statut de linterjection est galement trs comment la Renaissance.
Pour Scaliger, linterjection (traite au livre 10 du De causis, 1540) est une
classe de mots essentielle: elle est le signe dun affect psychique, signe qui na
Conference Handbook 83

pas besoin de laide dun nonc. Au contraire Valla et Sanctius refusent den
faire une partie du discours.
On sera particulirement attentif aux questions suivantes:
linterjection est-elle une classe de mots part entire, intgrable dans
lnonc, ou un lment toujours extrieur ?
peut-elle sassocier avec une autre partie du discours ? quel est son rap-
port avec le verbe ?
est-elle obligatoirement une forme indistincte, inanalysable et sans accent
(vox incondita ou abscondita), ou bien une fonction, ou une place laquelle
peuvent accder des termes relevant dautres parties du discours ?

Indications bibliographiques
Larticle sappuiera notamment, mais pas seulement, sur les ouvrages dont
les notices descriptives ont t tablies dans le CTLF (Corpus de textes linguis-
tiques fondamentaux, http://ctlf.ens-lyon.fr/n_form.asp).
La bibliographie secondaire est trop importante pour pouvoir tre donne

The history of the concept of lexicography

University of Alberta, Canada

The history of lexicography is a widely recognized subdiscipline of the his-

tory of the language sciences, and rightly so nobody would deny that there is
such a thing as lexicography, and that it has a history. But when did lexicogra-
phy begin? The obvious answer is when the first wordlists were compiled: so
it is that a recent history of Chinese lexicography (Yong and Peng 2008) claims
to treat the period from 1046 BC onward, and that the five-volume Ashgate Crit-
ical Essays on Early English Lexicographers (Lancashire 2012) begins with the
glosses and wordlists of Anglo-Saxon England.
However, it is by no means clear that lexicography was a concept recog-
nized by early compilers and users of wordlists. On the one hand, they did not
make the distinction between dictionary and encyclopedia which is now well
established in English, so that works like the sixth-century Latin Etymologiae of
Isidore of Seville, or the eighteenth-century Chinese Kang Xi Zi Dian, combine
lexical and encyclopedic content in such a way as to make a history which does
them any sort of justice rather more than a history of lexicography. On the other
hand, they did not make the distinction between dictionary and grammar which
is also well established in English, so that books like the thirteenth-century Ca-
tholicon of Giovanni Balbi of Genoa or the sixteenth-century Lesclaircissement
de la langue francoyse of John Palsgrave combine lexical and grammatical con-
84 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

tent, again in such a way as to make a history which does them any sort of jus-
tice rather more than a history of lexicography.
My presentation will set out the problems inherent in the use of lexicogra-
phy as a transhistorical and transcultural concept; it will investigate the ways in
which dictionary and lexicography developed as usable concepts in different
languages and different cultural areas; and it will discuss the practical implica-
tions of these developments for the history of lexicography and its place among
the histories of the language sciences.

Lancashire, Ian (general ed.). Ashgate Critical Essays on Early English Lexicographers.
5 vols. Farnham, UK, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012.
Yong, Hemin, and Jing Peng. Chinese Lexicography: A History from 1046 BC to AD
1911. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Estudio de los dilogos en los Sprachbcher

de Juan ngel de Zumaran


Universidad de Vigo, Espaa

En 1634 apareci en Viena la obra Grammatica y pronunciacion alemana y

espaola. espaola y alemana de Juan ngel de Zumaran, un maestro e intrpre-
te de las lenguas francesa, italiana, espaola y alemana. Con anterioridad a este
Sprachbuch, quiz su obra ms conocida a da de hoy, ya haba publicado otros
manuales en la misma lnea, si bien en combinaciones lingsticas diferentes, en
tres, cuatro y cinco lenguas, y que se corresponden, respectivamente, con los
siguientes ttulos abreviados: Tyrocinium (1617), Das Newe Sprachbuch (1621)
y Thesaurus (1626).
En este trabajo, nuestro inters se centra en destacar la labor didctica de
este maestro de lenguas que vivi entre los alemanes en las primeras dcadas del
siglo XVII y, de forma concreta, en analizar el papel que desempean los dilo-
gos en su obra original. Por esta razn, tras una breve pero completa presenta-
cin de dicha labor didctica, nos ocuparemos del anlisis de sus dilogos.
Para ello, primero los estudiaremos de forma descriptiva, identificndolos
en el conjunto global de sus diferentes manuales. En segundo lugar, los analiza-
remos como elementos de contenido lingstico integrantes de un programa do-
cente y los valoraremos dentro de la labor didctica desempeada por este maes-
tro; este anlisis, que abordaremos desde la perspectiva de la didctica de len-
guas extranjeras, nos posibilitar entender la funcionalidad de las secciones que
ocupan en los libros de lenguas de Zumaran, enormemente interesantes e ilustra-
tivas del quehacer docente y de la labor de traduccin que llev a cabo este no-
Conference Handbook 85

ble cntabro en las primeras dcadas del siglo XVII. Finalmente, completaremos
nuestro anlisis con su estudio histrico, lo que, por un lado, nos permitir de-
terminar algunos aspectos referidos a la originalidad y a la resonancia o repercu-
sin de los dilogos de Juan ngel de Zumaran en el contexto europeo de la
enseanza de las lenguas extranjeras y, por otro lado, reflexionar sobre el uso y
la validez de estos elementos de contenido lingstico en las clases de lenguas en
el pasado y hasta nuestros das.
Por razones obvias de brevedad y de sentido prctico, ante la imposibilidad
de incluir el total compuesto por las cinco lenguas manejadas por Zumaran en
sus manuales o libros de lenguas, en nuestras ejemplificaciones en este estudio
nos serviremos principalmente de los dilogos espaoles y alemanes recogidos
por este maestro en su ltimo libro, la Grammatica de 1634.

Reflexes sobre a contradio na gramtica:

atravessamento de saberes na produo do conhecimento lingustico

Maria Iraci Sousa COSTA

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

O presente estudo, filiada Anlise de Discurso de linha francesa pecheux-

tiana e Histria das Ideias Lingusticas, tem o objetivo de propor uma reflexo
sobre a contradio na gramtica. A nossa proposta compreender, a partir da
categoria da contradio, como se constitui os gestos interpretativos do sujeito
na produo do conhecimento. A nossa questo de pesquisa se justifica na medi-
da em que entendemos que a gramtica repousa sobre um imaginrio de comple-
tude sobre o saber produzido sobre a lngua, imaginrio esse que encontra na
definio uma formulao privilegiada para a produo de efeitos de evidncia.
A definio uma questo que permeia a gramtica, por se tratar de uma formu-
lao de aparncia semanticamente inequvoca, que atribui a esse instrumento
lingustico um efeito de preciso e interdito da dvida. Entretanto, trata-se de um
efeito de totalidade e completude que projeta sobre a gramtica uma imagem de
obra acabada e de saber inquestionvel e evidente. Partindo de tal perspectiva,
no vemos a gramtica como um objeto sacralizado com todas as respostas tidas
como verdadeiras e universais, mas a vemos como resultado de um processo de
construo de um saber que constitudo em condies histricas, determinadas
por sujeitos afetados ideologicamente. nesse sentido que entendemos que a
gramtica no pode ser indiferente contradio, ainda que se constitua sobre
um imaginrio de completude do saber sobre a lngua. A contradio que refe-
rimos aqui no a falta de coerncia, mas a disperso de diferentes gestos inter-
pretativos em relao a um mesmo saber, ou seja, a no unidade de gestos inter-
pretativos sobre um saber. A partir do reconhecimento da contradio no interior
do prprio domnio de saber gramatical apontado pelo gramtico, nosso objetivo
86 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

compreender o funcionamento do discurso outro que ressoa no dizer do gram-

tico, bem como compreender como se constitui o gesto interpretativo do sujeito
e como este se posiciona em relao contradio. Desse modo, mobilizaremos
a noo de discurso-transverso (PCHEUX, 2009 [1988]), para buscar compre-
ender o funcionamento da contradio na gramtica, pois estamos entendendo
que a condio para que a contradio se constitua na gramtica est na retoma-
da de enunciados que se opem ao posicionamento do sujeito. preciso conside-
rar tambm as condies histricas em que as obras se inscrevem, pois todo
dizer s pode ser compreendido em relao rede de dizeres que constitui o
processo discursivo.

O Fazer Gramatical no Brasil do Sculo XXI

Thas de Arajo da COSTA

Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil

Vanessa Lacerda da Silva RANGEL

Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil

J no final do sculo XX vimos iniciativas de cunho poltico-econmico se-

rem tomadas pelo Estado brasileiro que acarretaram a redefinio da relao
entre lngua e nao. Tal redefinio, segundo Zoppi-Fontana (2009), teve como
consequncia a dupla determinao discursiva da lngua portuguesa do Brasil, a
qual passou a ser significada, concomitantemente, a partir da sua dimenso naci-
onal e da sua dimenso transnacional esta entendida como o espao de enun-
ciao no qual se observa o transbordamento das fronteiras territoriais dos Es-
tados-Naes pelas lnguas nacionais (idem, p. 21). Em nosso estudo, conside-
rando a proposta de Zoppi Fontana (idem) no que tange a essa dupla determina-
o do portugus brasileiro, interrogamos, num gesto que em certo ponto vai no
sentido oposto ao percorrido pela autora em suas anlises, as relaes singulares
estabelecidas entre os acontecimentos que se deram nessa conjuntura e o desen-
volvimento dos estudos da linguagem no Brasil no sculo XXI, voltando o nosso
olhar especificamente para as gramticas produzidas no Brasil por brasileiros e
para brasileiros. Interessa-nos aqui compreender como se d hoje o seu processo
de produo, como elas significam e produzem sentido na histria dos estudos
da linguagem do/no Brasil. Para tanto, luz da Histria das Ideias Lingusticas
(HIL), de Auroux (2009a/ 2009b) e Orlandi (2001), na sua relao com a Anli-
se de Discurso, de Pcheux (2009) e Orlandi (2007), tomaremos como materiali-
dade os textos introdutrios (prefcio / notas introdutrias / apresentao / intro-
duo) de quatro gramticas publicadas entre 2000 e 2011, a saber: Gramtica
de usos do portugus, de Maria Helena de Moura Neves (2000), Gramtica
Houaiss da lngua portuguesa, de Jos Carlos de Azeredo (2008), Nova gram-
Conference Handbook 87

tica do portugus brasileiro, de Ataliba Castilho (2010), e Gramtica pedaggi-

ca do portugus brasileiro, de Marcos Bagno (2011).

Referncias Bibliogrficas
AUROUX, Sylvain. A revoluo tecnolgica da gramatizao. Trad. Eni P. Orlandi. 2.
ed. Campinas, SP: Editora da UNICAMP, 2009a.
________. Filosofia da linguagem. Trad. Marcos Marcionilo. SP: editora Parbola,
________. Lngua e hiperlngua. In: Lnguas e instrumentos lingusticos. Campinas, SP:
Pontes, n.1, jan/jun de 1998. p. 17-30.
AZEREDO, Jos Carlos de. Gramtica Houaiss da lngua portuguesa. So Paulo: Publi-
folha, 2008.
BAGNO, Marcos. Gramtica Pedaggica do Portugus Brasileiro. So Paulo: Parbola
Editorial, 2011.
CASTILHO, Ataliba. Nova Gramtica do Portugus Brasileiro. So Paulo: Contexto,
NEVES, M. H. M. Gramtica de usos do portugus. 1 ed. So Paulo: Ed. Unesp, 2000.
ORLANDI, Eni P. Lngua e conhecimento lingustico: para uma histria das ideias no
Brasil. So Paulo: Cortez, 2002.
_______ . Anlise de Discurso princpios e procedimentos. 7 edio Campinas, SP:
Pontes, 2007.
_______. Lngua Brasileira e outras histrias Discurso sobre a lngua e ensino no
Brasil. Campinas: Editora RG, 2009.
_________ (org.). Histria das Idias Lingsticas: constituio do saber metalingsti-
co e constituio da lngua nacional. Campinas, SP: Pontes, 2001.
PCHEUX, Michel. Semntica e discurso: uma crtica afirmao do bvio. 4 ed.
Campinas, SP: Editora da Unicamp, 2009.
PCHEUX, Michel; GADET, Franoise. A lngua inatingvel: o discurso na histria da
lingustica. 2 ed. Campinas: Editora RG, 2010.
ZOPPI FONTANA, Mnica Graciela. O portugus do Brasil como lngua transnacional.
In: ZOPPI FONTANA, Mnica Graciela (org.). O portugus do Brasil como lngua
transnacional. Campinas: Editora RG, 2009, p. 13-41.

The Proper Alphabet Principle

and the history of phonetic transcription

David CRAM
University of Oxford, U.K.

One received notion which is crucial to understanding early methods of

phonetic transcription is the Proper Alphabet Principle: the idea that each sepa-
rate human language should have its own separate writing system. Having a
distinct writing system was taken to be a defining characteristic of the three holy
languages (Hebrew, Greek and Latin) in the western tradition, and this was also
88 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

seen to apply in the case of exotic languages ranging from Arabic to Chinese.
In its extreme form, the principle further assumes that the relation between al-
phabet and language is biunique: one language has one and only one proper al-
phabet, and vice versa.
The purpose of the present paper is to document how this simple principle
has permeated western ideas ideas about writing in general, and phonetic tran-
scription in particular, in ways that have often been underestimated or even over-
looked. I will start by examining the theory and practice of phonetic transcrip-
tion in the seventeenth century, both in the context of philosophical language
schemes and early comparative philology, and then attempt to position these
developments within a larger historical context leading through to the establish-
ment of the International Phonetic Alphabet in the late nineteenth century.
The essential principle of the IPAthat it is independent of any language
is of course the precise contrary of the Proper Alphabet Principle. The two prin-
ciples turn out, however, to co-exist and interplay in complex ways in the gradu-
al development of methods and applications of phonetic transcription.

Elementos para a desconstruo de uma evidncia

em torno da figura de Ferdinand de Saussure:
a relao entre lngua e histria na perspectiva saussuriana

Mrcio Alexandre CRUZ

Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brasil

O status de objeto semiolgico do Curso de lingustica geral e do nome de

Ferdinand de Saussure, a quem sua autoria atribuda, parece indiscutvel. Des-
de sua publicao em 1916, ele no cessa de circular, sendo objeto de leituras as
mais diversas, de modo algum desconectadas de valores culturais a serem situa-
dos no espao e no tempo (cf. Chiss e Puech, 1999; Puech, 2000). Essa historici-
dade radical do CLG produziu e continua produzindo uma srie de evidncias
em torno da figura de Saussure que, desde os anos 1960/1970, vem sendo objeto
de uma crtica escrupulosa oriunda, sobretudo, dos domnios da historiografia da
lingustica e da filologia. Gostaramos, nesta contribuio, de abordar, em parti-
cular, uma dessas evidncias, a saber, a evidncia de que Saussure teria concebi-
do a lngua como um objeto desprovido de historicidade. consenso, hoje, entre
historigrafos e fillogos que a lngua em Saussure no um objeto a-histrico.
Mas de que histria se trata? Em que medida a lngua como sistema de signos
um conceito compatvel com a histria? Saussure teria mudado de posio em
relao a essa questo ao longo de sua reflexo sobre a lingustica geral? Eis a
algumas das questes para as quais procuraremos fornecer elementos de respos-
ta. No que diz respeito s fontes, analisaremos os Escritos de lingustica geral
entre outros textos manuscritos. Contudo, no excluiremos de nossas anlises o
Conference Handbook 89

CLG, redigido por Bally e Sechehaye. Isto porque gostaramos, tambm, de in-
vestigar a oposio defendida por alguns autores contemporneos (cf. Bouquet,
1997 entre outros) entre o CLG que supostamente falsearia o verdadeiro
pensamento de Saussure e os ELG que, ao contrrio, revelariam, enfim, esse
pensamento. Dito de outro modo, procederemos, tambm, a uma anlise compa-
rativa entre os ELG e o CLG tomando como objeto a relao lngua-histria.
Nossa hiptese que o CLG tambm permite desconstruir essa representao de
um Saussure que teria excludo a histria dos estudos lingusticos, sua origem,
portanto, devendo ser procurada alhures. No tocante perspectiva adotada neste
trabalho, leremos Saussure tendo em vista no as respostas que suas reflexes
poderiam fornecer a problemas atuais, mas as representaes que a disciplina
tem de si prpria, que no raras vezes veiculam mitos que obstam seu desenvol-
vimento. Um dos interesses que suscita a (re)descoberta das fontes manuscritas,
em voga atualmente, parece residir precisamente a, nessa tentativa de reviso
das representaes da disciplina.

Referncias bibliogrficas
BOUQUET, Simon. Introduction la lecture de Saussure. Paris: ditions Payot & Ri-
vages, 1997.
CHISS, Jean-Louis e PUECH, Christian. (1999) Le langage et ses disciplines XIXe
XXe sicles. Bruxelles: Duculot.
PUECH, Christian. Lesprit de Saussure Paris contre Genve: lhritage saussurien.
Modles Linguistiques, Lille, v.20, n. 1, p.79-93.
SAUSSURE, Ferdinand de. crits de linguistique gnrale, tablis et dits par Simon
Bouquet et Rudolf Engler avec la collaboration dAntoinette Weil, Paris: Galli-
mard, 2002.
SAUSSURE, Ferdinand de. Cours de linguistique gnrale publicado por Charles Bally
et Albert Sechehaye com a colaborao de Albert Riedlinger, edio crtica prepa-
rada por Tullio de Mauro, Paris: Editions Payot & Rivages, [1916]1972.

Les thories transpositionnelles dans la linguistique genevoise:

Ch. Bally, A. Sechehaye, H. Frei

Anamaria CUREA
Universit Babes-Bolyai de Cluj-Napoca, Roumanie

Cette communication se propose de relever les particularits des approches

de la notion de transposition chez les trois linguistes genevois dans les premires
dcennies du XXe sicle. Largement investie dans leurs travaux, cette notion
nest pourtant pas envisage dans la mme perspective, et ne donne pas lieu
une thorie unique (cf. Peter Lauwers 2004, qui utilise le terme thories transpo-
sitionnelles). En adoptant un point de vue comparatif, nous relverons les carts
90 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

et les affinits entre ces trois thories, particulirement significatifs de leurs

modes de reprsentation du rapport entre la pense et la langue.
Dans la stylistique de Ch. Bally, la transposition est brivement voque
comme opration (travail de transposition) ncessaire la mthode stylistique,
la comparaison des synonymes (dans le Trait, ce terme est remplac par celui
de transcription). Plus tard, en 1922 et en 1944, la transposition devient vrita-
blement un objet de thorisation. Un appareil conceptuel complexe est labor
(transponend, transpositeur ou catgoriel, transpos, hypostase...) pour rendre
compte de la transposition entendue comme une sorte de loi gnrale de
lexprimabilit, qui prsente de multiples facettes, autant syntagmatiques (syn-
taxiques) que smantiques.
La perspective dA. Secheyaye sur la transposition est cible sur les ori-
gines du phnomne et vise montrer que ses mcanismes sont possibles grce
lexistence des catgories de limagination qui ont des proprits remarquables,
lies au fonctionnement du raisonnement grammatical. Ses rgles de transposi-
tion, formules et commentes principalement dans son Essai de 1926, caractri-
sent linterface entre limagination et la syntaxe, en montrant larticulation entre
les catgories de lentit, de la relation, de la qualit, du procs et les classes de
mots. Cette thorie dfend principalement la thse de la relative autonomie des
catgories de limagination par rapport aux ides que nous exprimons par nos
Dans la Grammaires de fautes (1929), H. Frei livre une thorie tendue de
la transposition, quil met au service du besoin dinvariabilit. Malgr les affini-
ts entre cette thorie et celle de son directeur de thse, Ch. Bally, H. Frei tend
le domaine de cette notion jusqu le faire concider avec une loi universelle qui
rgit les langues, illustre par un nombre impressionnant dexemples du franais
avanc. Lie la mobilit du signe, la transposition est dfinie trs gnralement
comme le passage dun lment formel dune valeur une autre et recouvre
une varit impressionnante de procds linguistiques, classs en trois catgo-
ries: transposition smantique, syntagmatique et phonique.
Notre rflexion sarticule autour des points suivants:
1. Quels sont les apports de ces thories transpositionnelles la perspective
sur la catgorisation linguistique?
2. Quels sont les points de rencontre des trois modes de reprsentation de
la transposition?
3. Quel est le rapport entre ces thories, les particularits de la problma-
tique de lexpression quils dveloppement dans leurs travaux, plus par-
ticulirement leur conception du signe, de son arbitraire et de sa motiva-
tion, et leur adhsion aux problmatiques de lpoque dveloppes au-
tour de larticulation entre la pense et la langue?

Bibliographie slective:
Sources primaires
Conference Handbook 91

Bally Charles, 1922, La pense et la langue, Bulletin de la Socit de linguistique de

Paris, no XXIII, p. 693-701.
Bally Charles, 1965 [1932], Linguistique gnrale et linguistique franaise, Berne,
Francke, 4e dition.
Frei Henri, 1942, Ramification des signes dans la mmoire, Cahiers Ferdinand de
Saussure, no 2, p. 15-27.
Frei Henri, 2007[1929], Grammaire des fautes, Paris, Ennoa.
Sechehaye Charles-Albert, 1926, Essai sur la structure logique de la phrase, Paris,
Sechehaye Charles-Albert, 1941, Les classes de mots et l'imagination, Cahiers Ferdi-
nand de Saussure, no 1, p. 77-88.

Bibliographie secondaire
Amacker Ren, 1974-1975, Syntaxe et smantique en Suisse (1940-1970), Cahiers
Ferdinand de Saussure, no 29, p. 101-135.
Amacker Ren, 2001, Charles Bally juge de La grammaire des fautes d'Henri Frei,
Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure, no 54, p. 5-20.
Colombat Bernard, Fournier Jean-Marie, Puech Christian, 2010, Histoire des ides sur le
langage et les langues, Paris, Klincksieck.
Frba-Reber Anne-Marguerite, 1994, Albert Sechehaye et la syntaxe imaginative:
contribution l'histoire de la linguistique saussurienne, Genve, Droz.
Frba-Reber Anne-Marguerite, 2001, La revanche de la stylistique: hommage d'Albert
Sechehaye son prdcesseur et ami Charles Bally, Cahiers Ferdinand de
Saussure, no 54, p.125-144.
Huot Hlne, 1991, La grammaire franaise entre comparatisme et structuralisme
(1870-1960), Paris, Armand Colin.
Lauwers Peter, 2004, La description du franais entre la tradition grammaticale et la
modernit linguistique. Etude historiographique et pistmologique de la
grammaire franaise entre 1907 et 1948, Leuven-Paris, Peeters.

De lemploi du gnitif absolu en sanscrit (1881). Texte, manuscrits et

enjeux de louvrage oubli de Ferdinand de Saussure

Giuseppe D'OTTAVI
Institut des Textes et Manuscrits Modernes, Paris, France

Tandis que le Mmoire sur le systme primitif des voyelles dans les langues
indo-europennes (1879 [1878]) lui a assur une place parmi les majeurs indo-
europanistes de lpoque ainsi que dans lhistoire de la linguistique compare
, le second ouvrage publi de son vivant par Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-
1913) na suscit que de faibles attentions, alors comme aujourdhui, et ne de-
meure connu que de manire assez impressionniste.
92 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

La lecture de Joseph (2012: 260-269) la seule qui en offre une image

complte a rvl la complexit de sa gestation et en a indiqu le statut
duvre finalement inacheve.
Notre communication entend poursuivre une analyse axe sur deux direc-
trices principales. Nous nous proposons dabord de situer louvrage saussurien
dans le contexte des tudes sanskrites contemporaines et den prsenter les prin-
cipes argumentatifs, la mthodologie, les acquis techniques majeures, ainsi que
les limites. Ensuite, comme leffort philologique affich ntait pour Saussure
que le point de dpart de sa vritable recherche, nous avons lintention
dexploiter la richesse et la nature exceptionnellement varie de ses vestiges
manuscrites (cahiers de recherche, notes prparatoires, copie autographe, disper-
ss entre Genve et Harvard). Tel matriau permet dengager une tude gn-
tique, travers laquelle on entend ranimer la partie fantme (Joseph) de
louvrage consacre aux origines du dispositif syntaxique particulier dans le
but de localiser son positionnement et de mettre en lumire son rle au sein de
luvre et du parcours intellectuel de Ferdinand de Saussure.

Rfrences minimes
DOTTAVI, G., Nine Easy Pieces. Les manuscrits de Ferdinand de Saussure Harvard,
Archives et manuscrits de linguistes: observations et tats des lieux, d. V. Chepiga
& E. Sofia, Louvain-la-Neuve: Academia, paratre
PARRET, H., d., Les manuscrits saussuriens de Harvard, Cahiers Ferdinand de Saus-
sure, 47 (1993 [1994]), p. 179-234
JOSEPH, J.E., Saussure, Oxford: Oxford University Press 2012
SAUSSURE, F., De lemploi du gnitif absolu en sanscrit, Genve: J.-G. Fick 1881
SPEIJER, J.S., Sanskrit Syntax, Leyden: Brill 18861
WHITNEY, W.D., A Sanskrit Grammar. Including Both the Classical Language and the
Older Dialects of Veda and Brhmaa. Leipzig: Breitkofp & Hrtel 18892 [18791]

Darwinian Linguistics, Aleksandr Popov (18551880)

and the Reconstruction of Indo-European Noun Inflection

Pace University, New York, U.S.A.

In accordance with the Schleicherian view, linguistic evolution was to be

modeled on a par with biological evolution, whence the congruence between the
simple-to-complex Darwinian development of biological organisms and the
postulated historical progression of languages and their structures through varia-
tion and subspeciation. In that vein, Georg Curtius (1873/1867) proposed a 6-
stage evolution of IE and posited for stage 6 two layers of cases, (1) nominative,
accusative, and vocative and (2) oblique cases. Since oblique cases were inter-
changeable in different dialect groups, Curtius treated the dependent accusative
Conference Handbook 93

as a source of all later functions of this case. The Russian scholar Aleksandr
Popov (1880) was the fist to postulate the independent nominative and accusa-
tive as sources of later adnominal and adverbial functions of the oblique cases. It
is believed today that the object function of the accusative is the result of the
refinement of the primary circumstantial-defining meaning of the case of the
perspective object in the broad sense (Haudry 1977; Krysko 1997). What is
left beyond the scholarly scope today is the development of independent nomi-
native as outlined by Popov. In parallel to the independent accusative, he posited
the independent (circumstantial-defining) nominative for an early developmental
stage of IE, whence the interchangeability of these two cases in some petrified
environments (cf. Danylenko 2001). Later the nominatives meanings of tem-
poral, spacial and comitative extension as well as that of relation were taken
over by oblique cases, thus allowing nominative to become the default case of
unambiguously finite clause. Contrary to Shields (1982), we venture to concur
with Popov that the emergence of overt nominative subject and accusative object
as core grammatical cases should be viewed as two sides of one joint develop-
ment in the historical dialects of IE.

Curtius, Georg. 1873/1867. Zur Chronologie der indogermanischen Sprachforschung.
Leipzig: S. Hirzel.
Danylenko, Andrii. 2001. Russian to za, Ukrainian o za, Polish co za fas fr ein: A
case of contact-induced or parallel change? Diachronica 18 (2): 24165.
Haudry, Jean. 1977. Lemploi des cas en vedique. [s.l.]: LHerms.
Krysko, V.B. 1997. Istorieskij sintaksis russkogo jazyka. Objekt i perexodnost.
Moscow: Indrik.
Popov, Akelsandr. 1880. Sinkarsieskie issledovanija. Vorone: V.I. Isaev.
Shields, Kenneth. 1982. Indo-European Noun Inflection: A Developmental History.
University Park: Penn State University Press.

History of the Writing System of the Lepcha Language:

Traces of Language Contact


Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi, India

The study deals with the origin and development of the writing system of
Lepcha (a definitely endangered language according to UNESCO), a Tibeto
Burman language spoken in Darjeeling district of West Bengal and Sikkim in
India. Grierson (1908) opines that Lepcha script is a form of the Tibetan U-met
character derived from Brahmi script. The Lepcha alphabet is known as Rong
Choming. Scholars differ in their opinion regarding the origin of the writing
system of the language. Whether it owes its origin to the Tibetan writing system
94 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

during the Tibetan rule in the land or it belongs to a much earlier period remains
open. Though it is widely accepted that Lepcha script is a derivative of the Ti-
betan script, there are certain peculiar characteristics of the Lepcha scripts which
are observed to be specific features of Lepcha orthography only. The present
author while tracing the history of the origin of the language and its script ob-
serves the development that has taken place in the structure of the writing system
of Lepcha .
Language changes continually with various socio cultural and political in-
fluences across the time period. But as orthography serves the purpose of docu-
mentation and recording of the earlier speech form of a language, it usually
tends to retain the earlier linguistic forms. In spite of this, developments can be
observed in the writing system of Lepcha which bear the evidence of the influ-
ence of different socio-political phases which the speech community passed
through. The deviation of the Lepcha writing system from the Tibetan model and
later its move towards the model of Devanagari script used in Hindi and Nepali
languages (spoken in the neighbourhood) accounts for the socio-political influ-
ences on the language and its script at different points of time. This becomes
evident when we study the earlier texts of the Lepchas, collectively known as
Namtho Namthar and compare it with the present day writing system of the lan-
guage. The contribution of G.B. Mainwaring (who was the first to write a Lep-
cha grammar in 1876) in the development of the writing system of the language
will be dealt with significantly. Therefore, the present study of Lepcha writing
system will focus on the fact that Lepcha script being quite old carries traces of
the socio-political history of the land.

Joseph Schrijnen and Christine Mohrmanns sociological

approach to the study of early Christian Latin

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium

Among students of early Latin Christianity, Joseph Schrijnen (1869-1938)

and Christine Mohrmann (1903-1988) are known as the key figures of the so-
called cole de Nimgue. Schrijnen, who was trained as a classicist and a lin-
guist in Leuven and Paris (where he was a student of Saussures), was a co-
founder and the first rector magnificus of the Catholic University of Nijmegen.
With the assistance of Mohrmann from 1928 onwards, he developed the hypoth-
esis that the Latin used by early Christians was a Sondersprache or langue
spciale within the Latin language of late antiquity. Although the hypothesis
became successful, it received a lot of criticism from contemporary classicists
and theologians, and finally was abandoned in the 1980s. Within the history of
linguistics, the cole de Nimgue can be regarded as a parallel tradition to
Conference Handbook 95

mainstream 20th-century sociolinguistics, developing at an earlier date but

disappearing relatively soon, maybe due to its disciplinary isolation (Burton
2008: 153). Through an analysis of four (programmatic / apologetic / retrospec-
tive) texts published by Schrijnen in 1912 and 1932, and by Mohrmann in 1939
and 1977, I will try to reconstruct the theoretical evolution of the Sondersprache
hypothesis. It will be shown how Schrijnen implemented concepts and terms
from contemporary sociology and general linguistics in the study of early Chris-
tian Latin, and how Mohrmann took care to institutionalize the hypothesis pro-
posed by her teacher and predecessor (e.g. by founding the review Vigiliae
Christianae), to corroborate it by means of textual analyses, and to update it
conceptually and terminologically with reference to new developments in (so-

Burton, Philip. 2008. Revisiting the Christian Latin Sondersprache Hypothesis, in H.
Houghton & D. Parker, eds., Textual Variation: Theological and Social Tenden-
cies. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 149-71.
Engels, L.J., G.J.M. Bartelink & A.A.R. Bastiaensen. 1991. In memoriam Christinae
Mohrmann, cuius anima in pace [= Sacris Erudiri 32/1].
Mohrmann, Christine. 1939. Altchristliches Latein. Entstehung und Entwicklung der
Theorie der altchristlichen Sondersprache, Aevum 13, 339-54 [= C. Mohrmann,
ed., tudes sur le latin des chrtiens I, 3-19].
. 1977. Nach vierzig Jahren, tudes IV, 111-40.
. 1979. Schrijnen, Joseph Charles Franois Hubert (1869-1938), in J. Charit, ed.,
Biografisch Woordenboek van Nederland <online>.
Schrijnen, Joseph. 1912. Sociale klassieke taalkunde. Amsterdam: Van Langenhuysen.
. 1932. Charakteristik des altchristlichen Latein, Latinitas Christianorum Primaeva, 1.
Nijmegen: Dekker & van de Vegt [= tudes IV, 367-404].

Colgio Pedro II, Francs e Livros Didticos: A Construo de um

Campo Disciplinar Escolar de Lngua Estrangeira no Brasil

Felipe Barbosa DEZERTO

Colgio Pedro II
Universidade Federal Fluminense
& Laboratrio Arquivos do Sujeito, Brasil

O presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar livros didticos de ensino de

francs adotados pelos Programas Nacionais de Ensino do Colgio Pedro II, no
Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em trs perodos da histria dessa instituio. So esses
momentos: a fundao do Colgio Pedro II no sculo XIX, a passagem para a
Repblica brasileira e a Era Vargas, na primeira metade do sculo XX.
96 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Para tais reflexes, nos situamos no lugar terico da Histria das Ideias
Lingusticas (Auroux, 2008, 2009) em seu encontro com a Anlise do Discurso
francesa (Pcheux, 1975), tal como esse lugar terico trabalhado no Brasil a
partir dos trabalhos de Eni Orlandi (2001, 2002).
Dessas trs historicidades, analisamos, ento, os seguintes livros didticos:
Nova grammatica franceza,de Emlio Sevene, adotada pelo programa de 1856; a
Gramtica terica e prtica da lngua francesa, de Jos Francisco Halbout, ado-
tada pelo programa de 1892; e o Mthode directe de franais, de Louise Jaquier
e Marie Munzinger, adotado pelo programa de 1942.
A partir dessas anlises, pudemos observar a presena de duas metodologias
de ensino de lngua estrangeira balizando o ensino de francs no Colgio Pedro
II: o mtodo traduo-gramtica, no sculo XIX e o mtodo direto, no sculo
XX. Temos, ento, livros editados no Brasil, produzidos por professores do Co-
lgio Pedro II, no caso das gramticas do sculo XIX e professores que atuavam
na educao brasileira, no caso do livro analisado do sculo XX. Observou-se
tambm que esse ensino importa, do ensino de lngua na Frana, uma memria
da lngua francesa, no que diz respeitos aos saberes lingusticos que circulavam
nesses livros didticos, e uma memoria pedaggica de ensino, pela presena dos
mtodos traduo-gramtica e direto no material analisado. essa memria que
sustenta o processo de disciplinarizao do francs no ensino escolar brasileiro.

Referncias Bibliogrficas
AUROUX, Sylvain. A questo da origem das lnguas seguido de A historicidade das
cincias. Campinas: Editora RG, 2008.
_______________. A revoluo tecnolgica da gramatizao. Trad: Eni Orlandi. 2ed.
Campinas, SP: editora da Unicamp, 2009.
HALBOUT, Jos Francisco. Gramtica terica e prtica da lngua francesa. 39 ed. Rio
de Janeiro: F. Alves, [1890] 1937.
JAQUIER, Louise e MUNZINGER, Marie. Mthode directe de franais. Cia Editora
Nacional: So Paulo, 1939.
ORLANDI, Eni. (org) Histria das ideias lingusticas: construo de um saber metalin-
gustico e constituio da lngua nacional. Campinas, SP: Pontes; Crceres, MT:
UNEMAT Editora, 2001.
___________. Lngua e conhecimento lingstico: para uma histria das ideias no Bra-
sil. So Paulo: Cortez, 2002.
PCHEUX, Michel. Semntica e discurso: uma crtica afirmao do bvio. Traduo
Eni Orlandi. Campinas, SP: Editora da UNICAMP, 1975.
SEVENE, Emilio. Nova grammatica franceza. Tomo II, 12 edio. Rio de Janeiro,
Eduardo e Henrique Laemmert editores, 1868.
Conference Handbook 97

A institucionalizao da Lingustica em relao s pesquisas sobre a

lngua nacional: a produo acadmica de Mattoso Cmara no Brasil

Juciele Pereira DIAS

Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil

Nos ltimos anos, temos trabalhado a questo do processo de institucionali-

zao da disciplina Lingustica por uma relao com o processo de gramatizao
da lngua portuguesa no Brasil, a partir da produo acadmica do linguista Joa-
quim Mattoso Cmara Junior, de 1935 a 1969, abarcando um perodo de produ-
o de manuais didticos para o ensino de lnguas na escola (1935-1938) e um
perodo de produo de manuais de ensino de Lingustica, com nfase no estudo
da lngua portuguesa na universidade (1941-1969). Tendo como objeto de estudo
a lngua portuguesa do Brasil e por conseguinte a estrutura dessa lngua, a pro-
duo de Mattoso Cmara no apenas divulgou uma cincia, pondo em circula-
o conceitos de linguistas europeus e americanos, mas, por meio da constitui-
o de uma rede de filiaes a autores brasileiros e a outras formas de saber da
Gramtica, da Filologia, da Antropologia, tal produo possibilitou que a Lin-
gustica fosse disciplinarizada no pas (cf. Altman, 2004; Guimares, 2005).
Fundamentados em Scherer (2005), compreendemos a disciplinarizao da cin-
cia Lingustica como um processo que envolve, de um lado, uma poltica institu-
cional de legitimao do saber metalingustico e de outro lado, um fazer cientfi-
co pelo qual so produzidos e trabalhados instrumentos lingusticos, nesse caso,
os manuais de ensino de/sobre lngua. Um ponto significativo, nesse sentido, a
relao da produo de Mattoso Cmara com outros campos do saber, os quais
se constituem como um lugar de publicao, de (re)produo de conhecimentos
sobre a Lngua Portuguesa fundamentos no saber da Lingustica Moderna, con-
forme as orientaes terico-metodolgicas do estruturalismo lingustico francs
(Saussure) e do estruturalismo lingustico americano (Sapir). Entre 1939 e 1940,
Mattoso Cmara publicou artigos, intitulados Lies de Lingustica Geral, na
Revista de Cultura, no Rio de Janeiro, que, posteriormente, vieram a constituir
uma obra, intitulada Princpios de Lingustica Geral: como fundamento para os
estudos superiores de lngua portuguesa (cf. Sousa da Silveira, [1941] 1969). J
na segunda edio do manual Princpios de Lingustica Geral: como introduo
aos estudos superiores da Lngua Portuguesa (PLG), foi desenvolvida uma rela-
o do conceito de lngua com o conceito de cultura. Desse modo, a partir da
anlise das (re)edio do manual PGL por uma relao com as condies de
produo dessas edies, propomos uma historicizao do processo de instituci-
onalizao da Lingustica em articulao com a tradio/modernidade do ensino
de/sobre lngua portuguesa no Brasil.
98 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

ALTMAN, Cristina. As Pesquisas Lingsticas no Brasil (1968-1988). 2 ed. So Paulo:
Humanitas, 2004.
GUIMARES, Eduardo. Semntica do Acontecimento. Campinas: Pontes, 2005.
SCHERER, Amanda. Lingstica no sul: estudo das idias e organizao da memria.
In: Eduardo Guimares; Mirian Rose Brum de Paula (Orgs.). Sentido e memria.
Campinas: Pontes, 2005.
SOUSA DA SILVEIRA (1941). Prefcio do Dr. Sousa da Silveira primeira edio. In:
CMARA Jr., Joaquim Mattoso. Princpios de Lingstica Geral: como introduo
aos Estudos Superiores da Lngua Portuguesa. 4 ed. Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Aca-

Roman Jakobsons linguistics, phenomenology

and philological tradition in Russia (1920-1960's)

Alexander N. DMITRIEV
National Research University-Higher School of Economics,
& Center for the History of Ideas and Sociology of Knowledge, Moscow, Russia

The literature on Jakobson traditionally assumes a strong influence of phe-

nomenology on his early work from the mid-1910s on (E. Hollenstein, M. Denn
etc). However, more cautious researchers (J. Toman, J.F.K. Koerner) point out
that this view is retrospective, given that in the post-World War II circumstanc-
es Roman Jakobson could reappraise and correct some of the views he used to
hold in his early youth. In fact, the beginning of the interaction of phenomeno-
logical philosophy to linguistics to refer to the activities of the Prague Linguistic
Circle and its related philosophers mid-1930s (Dmitro Chyzhevsky, Ludwig
Landgrebe, Hendrik Pos etc). To clarify the philosophical sources of Jakobsons
linguistics I want to address the collective biography of his allies from Moscow
period, prior to his emigration to Prague.
After the official closure of the Moscow Linguistic Circle (1924) some of
its members, e.g. Grigory Vinokur, Maxim Kenigsberg, Boris Gornung etc.,
worked for the State Academy of Arts Studies under the guidance of the philos-
opher Gustav Shpet, Husserls disciple. This paper focuses on an analysis of a
big unpublished polemical article (and a paper delivered at the Academy of Arts
Studies) by young Boris Gornung, presented in 1925. The main target of Gor-
nungs criticism was Jakobsons book on Velimir Khlebnikov (1921) and its
linguistic presuppositions. The phenomenological development path for linguis-
tics suggested by Gornung, however, was rather a declaration and not actually a
positive program. He considered the method of Husserls Logical Investigations
mostly as a weapon used for a sharp criticism of older theories in linguistics,
such as Hermann Pauls Neogrammarian approach and others.
Conference Handbook 99

Gornung also criticized the linguistic claims of Jakobson, who was trying to
break the old disciplinary boundaries and to present literary studies (i.e. poetics)
as a part of a more general language science. Jakobsons linguistic imperialism
was also explicitly denied by such different adherents of formalism as Zhirmun-
sky and Eikhenbaum in the first half of the 1920s. The prominent Russian lin-
guist and leader of the Moscow Linguistic Circle Grigory Vinokur who initially
supported Jakobsons point, in the mid-1920s put forward the idea of restoring
philology (including the whole 19th century tradition) as a kind of philosophical
and cultural reflection on linguistic phenomena. This philological conservatism
was close to Gornungs, who in 1930-1940s engaged in Ancient Greek studies
under Indo-European aspect. In his anti-structuralist worldview phenomenologi-
cal philosophy clearly stepped to the background.
After World War II, Jakobson himself took a more reserved stand on the re-
lationship between linguistics and poetics, with phenomenological philosophy
forming the horizon for his own structuralist studies. The Soviet linguistic struc-
turalism in the 1960s was dominated rather by anti-philosophic, positivist meth-
ods (with the exception of Alexander Reformatsky). This was partly due to polit-
ical circumstances that made public debate between structuralism and official
Marxism impossible and undesirable.

Cassedy Steven. Shpet and Phenomenology in an Orthodox Key // Gustav Shpet's Con-
tribution to Philosophy and Cultural Theory. Ed. by Galin Tihanov. West Lafayette,
2008. P. 98-114.
Flack Patrick. Roman Jakobson et le moment phnomnologique de la linguistique struc-
Jakobson Roman. An Example of Migratory Terms and Institutional Models: (On the
Fiftieth Anniversary of the Moscow Linguistic Circle) // Jakobson R. Selected
Writings, The Hague Paris 1971. [Vol.] II: World and Language. P. 527538;
Jakobson Roman. To the History of the Moscow Linguistic Circle // Logos semantikos:
Studia linguistica in honorem Eugenio Coseriu, 19211981. Berlin New York
Madrid 1981, vol. 1: Geschichte der Sprachphilosophie und der Sprachwissen-
schaft, 285288$
Koerner E.F.K. Remarks on the Sources of R. Jakobson's Linguistic Inspiration." Jakob-
son entre l'Est et l'Ouest (1915-1939): Un Episode de l'histoire de la culture euro-
peenne. Ed. Francoise Gadet, and Patrick Seriot., 1997. [Cahiers de l'ILSL. Vol. 9].
P. 151-1684
Toman J. The Magic of a Common Language: Jakobson, Mathesius, Trubetzkoy, and the
Prague Linguistic Circle (Cambridge, Mass., 1995);
100 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Old Georgian Grammatical Commentaries

Ilia State University
& Center of linguistic Research, Tbilisi, Georgia

The paper analyzes the problems of reception of the of

Dionysios Thrax, especially to the Ancient and Medieval methods of studying
texts in Georgian linguistic and hermeneutic commentaries of the 10th-13th
centuries. Special focus is placed on comments regarding the first part of the
: reading in accordance with the rules of prosody (
). This practical part of the grammar of Dionysios
covers various issues connected with the correct reading and understanding of
old texts: phonetics, vocabulary, semantics, orthography, pronunciation, inflec-
tion and so forth. It seems to have been no less important also for Georgian
translators. they knew that there were no such rules in Georgian, but the Old
Georgian with its practical orientation was not interested in the scientific de-
scription of the language (which is the aim of grammar in its modern under-
standing), but in understanding texts that were to be translated, in finding Geor-
gian equivalents and in making translations as precise as possible.
A significant part of Georgian translation commentaries are precisely about
phonetics, intonation, and in particular loud reading. Translators were particular-
ly interested in explaining these grammatical phenomena of the Greek language
that were not characteristic of Georgian, for example, grammatical phonetic
rules that are necessary to read Ancient and Byzantine Greek texts; euphonic (
); peculiarities of plural forms; the dual number; the problem of
stress and of diacritic tone signs (); the article; gender; in general, the
signs of prosody and so forth. Commentaries by translators particularly focused
on expected phonetic and lexical differences when borrowing words from for-
eign languages, changes in the form and meaning of borrowed words not only in
Georgian, but in translations in general, in particular in the texts translated from
Hebrew into Greek at different times. These kinds of commentaries are often of
an exegetic rather than linguistic nature. However, making explanations, transla-
tors obviously rely on phonetic and lexical regularities. On the basis of the
commentaries is possible to reconstruct this first part of the Old Georgian
grammatical ( ) on an implicit (meta-
phorical) and on a technical (terminological) level: the skill of reading Greek
texts and correspondingly the knowledge of their phonetic and orthographic
peculiarities, and the technique of transferring them to Georgian
Conference Handbook 101

Zur historischen Entwicklung der Translationswissenschaft

in Russland

National Research University-Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

Der Beitrag setzt sich zum Ziel, einen berblick ber die Entwicklung der
Translationswissenschaft in Russland zu geben.
Die Translationswissenschaft in Russland entstand Anfang der 1950er und
entwickelte sich rasch zu einem wichtigen Forschungsbereich der modernen
Linguistik. Die Werke der russischen Translationsforscher sind zahlreich und
beschftigen sich mit ganz unterschiedlichen Aspekten der Theorie und Praxis
vom bersetzen und Dolmetschen. Zunchst gehen wir auf die Werke der be-
deutenden Translationsforscher ein und erlutern ihre theoretischen Entwicklun-
J.I. Rezker begrndete in seinen Werken (ber regelmige quivalente
in der bersetzung, 1950, Theorie und Praxis der bersetzung, 1974) die
linguistische Translationswissenschaft, schlug eine Klassifikation der quiva-
lente und Transformationen in der bersetzung vor, thematisierte die berset-
zung von Idiomen und Benutzung von Wrterbchern bei der bersetzung.
A.W. Fjodorow (Einfhrung in die Theorie der bersetzung, 1953) un-
terschied zwischen der allgemeinen bersetzungswissenschaft, deren Grundla-
gen fr alle Sprachen gelten, und der speziellen bersetzungswissenschaft, an-
hand eines konkreten Sprachpaars. Weiterhin werden lexikalische und gramma-
tikalische Probleme (z.B. lexikalische Lakunen oder Gebrauch von Artikel) so-
wie Fragen der Genres in der bersetzung errtert.
I.I. Revsin und W.J. Rosenzweig (Grundlagen der allgemeinen und ma-
schinellen bersetzung, 1963) haben den Versuch unternommen, maschinelle
bersetzung theoretisch zu begrnden. Sie entwickeln Modelle der bersetzung,
die als Interpretation (in der Humanbesetzung) und bersetzung (maschi-
nell) bezeichnet werden. Es werden auch Unterschiede zwischen bersetzen und
Dolmetschen erlutert.
Im Vordergrund der Forschung von W.G. Gak (Theorie und Praxis der
bersetzung, 1962) steht das Problem der quivalenz in der bersetzung und
Klassifikation der lexikalisch-grammatikalischen Transformationen (Wechsel
von grammatischen Kategorien, von Wortklassen, von syntaktischen Funktio-
nen, von Semantik).
A.D. Schweizer (bersetzung und Linguistik, 1973) untersucht quiva-
lenz der bersetzung (formelle, inhaltliche und situationsbezogene), nimmt da-
bei Bezug auf die kommunikative Funktion des Originals und der bersetzung
und untersucht, inwieweit diese identisch sein knnen. Dabei werden die Fragen
der Pragmatik in der bersetzung thematisiert. Der Autor beschftigt sich auch
102 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

mit den Wechselbeziehungen von Translationswissenschaft mit der kontrastiven

Linguistik, Semasiologie, Stilistik, Textlinguistik, Soziolinguistik, Psycholingu-
L.S. Barchudarow (Sprache und bersetzung, 1975) betrachtet nher se-
mantische quivalenz der bersetzung, insbesondere folgende Bedeutungsarten:
denotative (referentielle), pragmatische und intralinguistische Bedeutung.
R.K. Minjar-Belorutschew (Allgemeine Translationswissenschaft und
Dolmetschen, 1980) geht auf die Eigenstndigkeit der Translationswissenschaft
ein und grenzt sie von anderen Wissenschaften im Bereich Linguistik ab. Als
eigenstndige Wissenschaft verfgt die Translationswissenschaft ber den Ge-
genstand der Forschung, eigene Methoden und eine eigene Terminologie. Wei-
terhin erlutert der Autor die Probleme vom Dolmetschen: inhaltliche und syn-
taktische Analyse der Aussage und Mglichkeiten von Wiedergabe der Informa-
tion. Dabei wird zwischen Schlsselinformation, zustzlicher, przisierender,
wiederholender Information und Null-Information unterschieden.
G.W. Tschernow (Theorie und Praxis von Simultandolmetschen, 1978)
untersucht die Besonderheiten von Simultandolmetschen und entwickelt ein
Modell dieses Prozesses (wahrscheinlichkeitsprognostisches Modell), wobei
er Erkenntnisse und Methoden von Psycholinguistik und Kommunikationstheo-
rie nutzt.
Verallgemeinernd lsst sich konstatieren, dass in der Translationswissen-
schaft in Russland zwischen 1950 und 1980 die wichtigsten theoretischen
Grundlagen geschafft wurden.
Anschlieend werden die neusten Forschungsergebnisse nach Themen pr-
sentiert (Dissertationen von 2000 bis 2013) und es wird ein Versuch unternom-
men, besonders aussichtsreiche Forschungsbereiche zu definieren.

Grammaire & Rhtorique dans lEurope des Lumires: la relve des

Jsuites, travers les Instrucoens du Marquis de Pombal
(Portugal, 1759)

Franoise DOUAY
Universit de Provence, France

En 1759, les Jsuites sont expulss du Brsil et du Portugal, puis de France,

dItalie, etc. jusqu la dissolution de leur Compagnie par le Pape en 1773. Dans
toute lEurope catholique, le dpart des Jsuites prive de leur personnel ensei-
gnant de nombreux collges, imposant aux gouvernements concerns la rorga-
nisation de leur enseignement et la rnovation de son contenu.
Au Portugal, cette modernisation est dcrte, ds 1759, par les Ins-
trucoens para os Professores de Grammatica latina, grega, hebraica, e de Rhe-
torica du premier ministre, le marquis de Pombal, et publies dans une brochure
Conference Handbook 103

de 17 pages: 8 pour la Grammaire latine, 4 pour les grammaires du Grec et de

lHbreu, et 5 pour la Rhtorique. Ce document a paru en fac-simile dans la
revue Euphrosyne en 1978-79 grce Maria Leonor Carvalho Buescu, qui en
souligne les trois principaux mrites: ordonnance logique en principes gnraux,
ouvrages recommands, horaires et exercices ; bibliographie ouverte sur toute
lEurope contemporaine ; mthodologie claire: apprentissage du latin partir des
langues modernes, selon une mthode raisonne qui en rvle la structure uni-
verselle. Centrant son attention sur le programme de Grammaire, M.L. Carval-
ho Buescu insiste sur linfluence dcisive de la Grammaire Gnrale & Rai-
sonne des MM. de Port-Royal jansnistes, on le sait, et ennemis dclars des
Jsuites- et va jusqu voquer, au sicle des Lumires, le triomphe dune cul-
ture francise (cultura afrancesada).
Mattachant pour ma part au programme de Rhtorique tel que Pombal le
dtaille dans lInstruco para os Professores de Rhetorica, je dvelopperai un
point de vue diffrent. Homme des Lumires francophone et francophile, le
marquis de Pombal connat lEurope entire pour avoir t ambassadeur du Por-
tugal Londres, puis Vienne o, en 1752, la monarchie catholique des Habs-
bourg rforme son enseignement sur le modle que la Saxe rforme a dvelop-
p Leipzig. Pour rnover lenseignement de la Rhtorique au Portugal aprs
lexpulsion des Jsuites, Pombal convoque bel et bien quelques autorits fran-
aises: Lamy, Fnelon, Rollin, Gibert (tous des catholiques oratoriens, quitistes
ou jansnistes, hostiles aux jsuites) mais il en appelle aussi Lama, rformateur
catholique franciscain de lenseignement en Savoie, et plus encore aux duca-
teurs rforms de Hollande (Vossius) et de Saxe (Walch, Heineccius),
sexprimant en latin.
Je me propose donc de situer prcisment cette Instruction aux Professeurs
de Rhtorique de Pombal (1759) dans lEurope des Lumires qui voit le contrle
de la culture dominante passer dfinitivement des mains de lEglise aux mains
des tats-nations -avec des disparits encore considrables entre lOuest et lEst
de lEurope, pour ne rien dire de lOutre-Mer alors dlaiss- plaidant cette
occasion pour une alliance constante de lhistoire interne des documents et des
textes avec lhistoire externe des institutions et des autorits culturelles.

AUROUX Sylvain, Histoire des Ides Linguistiques, vol.2, Lige, Mardaga, 1992.
CARVALHO BUESCU Maria Leonor, Um Documento da Reforma Pombalina do
Ensino, revista Euphrosyne, nova srie vol IX, Lisboa, Imprensa Nacioanal-Casa
da Moeda, 1978-1979.
FUMAROLI Marc, Histoire de la Rhtorique dans lEurope moderne (1450-1950),
Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1999.
POMBAL Sebastio Jos de Carvalho e Melo, comte dOeiras, marquis de Instrucoens
para os Professores de Grammatica latina, grega, hebraica, de de Rhetorica, Lis-
boa, Miguel Rodrogues, 1759.
104 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Memorias e Louvores da Lingoa Portugueza (1793),

contributos da dicionarstica acadmica portuguesa
acerca da perceo peninsular recproca

Centro de Lingustica da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, Portugal

No quadro do movimento das Academias que marca o sculo XVIII na Eu-

ropa, a Academia das Cincias de Lisboa, fundada em 1779 (Carvalho 1981),
produziu uma das primeiras obras da lexicografia moderna portuguesa: o Dicci-
onario da Lingoa Portugueza, publicado em Lisboa, em 1793.
Tal como expem Verdelho & Silvestre (2007: 24-25), a referida obra est,
na sua origem, associada preocupao com a pureza e a valorizao do portu-
gus que dominava ento o pensamento lingustico nacional. Tais objetivos so,
alis, expressos nos textos preliminares do Diccionario, entre os quais se conta o
texto epgrafe, descrito por Casteleiro (1981: 60-61) como uma colectnea de
excertos de autores portugueses e estrangeiros [...] que visam louvar as qualida-
des e beleza da lngua portuguesa, em comparao, com a latina, a castelhana, a
francesa, etc. [...].
luz das implicaes que este ambiente de patriotismo lingustico ter
tido sobre o discurso metalingustico portugus que se pretende desenvolver a
presente comunicao, considerando, ainda, que o texto que lhe serve de objeto
publicado numa fase final da cronologia do que se convencionou chamar a
questo da lngua em Portugal (Buescu 1983) - conceito que descreve o quadro
terico das relaes lingusticas peninsulares, no que ao portugus e ao espanhol
diz respeito.
Para levar a cabo tal abordagem, sero aqui estudadas quer as referncias ao
espanhol encontradas nos fragmentos de textos de autores portugueses, quer as
identificadas acerca do portugus nas citaes de autores espanhis, procurando,
atravs delas, dar conta de alguns dos elementos que, ao longo da tradio meta-
lingustica ibrica, conformam as representaes que portugueses e espanhis
alimentaram acerca da(s) lngua(s) do outro, e, simultaneamente, aferir em que
medida a amostra selecionada pela Academia serve os propsitos apologticos
anteriormente aludidos.

Academia das Real das Sciencias de Lisboa. 1793. Memorias e Louvores da Lingoa
Portugueza que se acho em Diversos Autores. In Diccionario da Lingoa Portu-
gueza, Tomo I. Lisboa: na officina da mesma academia, XXI-XLI.
Buescu, Maria Leonor Carvalho. 1983. Babel ou a ruptura do signo. A gramtica e os
gramticos portugueses do Sculo XVI. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moe-
Conference Handbook 105

Casteleiro, Joo Malaca. 1981. Estudo lingustico do 1 Dicionrio da Academia

(1793). Separata de Memrias da Academia das Cincias de Lisboa, Classe de Le-
tras, tomo XXII. Lisboa: 1981.
Carvalho, Rmulo. 1981. A Actividade Pedaggica da Academia das Cincias de Lisboa
nos Sculos XVIII e XIX. Lisboa: Academia das Cincias de Lisboa.
Verdelho, Telmo & Silvestre, Joo Paulo (orgs.). 2007. Dicionarstica Portuguesa. In-
ventariao e estudo do patrimnio lexicogrfico. Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro.

Remnants of sensualism

University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

After the 18th and 19th century heyday of linguistic sensualism, this meta-
theory was replaced by other, more sophisticated interpretations of the relation
between language and thought. Due to major changes in philosophy and psy-
chology, the meaning of words and sentences was no longer identified with pas-
sive occurrences (representations) in the speakers mind. From +1900 on-
wards, more complicated psychical acts (apperceptions, intentional acts)
were generally assumed to be the mental correlates of language use (cf. e.g.
Elffers 1998).
This conceptual change was not at all a smooth transition; it was rather, in
the words of Knobloch (1988: 298) ein langer und widerspruchsvoller
In my contribution, I will discuss one somewhat paradoxical aspect of this
episode, an aspect to which little attention has been paid thus far: during the first
decades, of the 20th century, remnants of sensualism can be found in the work of
some linguists and philosophers of language who, in general, adopted a purely
post-sensualistic view. Exceptions were made for infants, primitive people, men-
tally retarded people, or normal adults in e.g. perfunctory talk. All these excep-
tions are described in sensualistic terms.
For example Wundt (1832-1920), who claimed that the psychical correlates
of words (Einzelvorstellungen) result from acts of apperception, yielding the
isolation of focal elements in Gesamtvorstellungen, denied this faculty to primi-
tive people (Naturmenschen, in dessen Denken das Wort berhaupt kein fest
sich abgrenzendes Gebilde ist, Wundt 19112: 611). Similarly, Van Ginneken
(1877-1945), who argued that speaking involves, in addition to reprsentations,
active adhsions, (e.g. reality claims), denied the latter faculty (but not the for-
mer) to mentally disabled people (Van Ginneken 1907: 233). Comparable views
can be found in works of Cassirer (1874-1945), Ammann (1885-1956) and
Langeveld (1905-1989).
106 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Such residual sensualism was generally based upon a leveled view of

thought and language. Developmental levels were assumed, ontogenetically as
well as phylogenetially, and the lowest level was described in sensualistic terms.
Remnants of sensualism were not widespread. Significantly, they are totally
absent in the work of scholars such as Bhler (1979-1963) and Reichling (1898-
1986), while both focus on problems of language development. Reichling ex-
plicitly denies the very existence of a sensualistic lowest level of language use:
all language use is based upon intentional acts. For Bhler, intentionality is a
universal characteristic of language use, even of animal language.
I will argue that there is a relation between, on the one hand, absence or
presence of remnants of sensualism and, on the other hand, broad (social-
institutional) or narrow (intellectualistic) conceptions of intentionality.

Elffers, E. (1998). Linguistics and psychology; how should we reconstruct their rela-
tionship? Metahistoriography. Theoretical and methodological aspects in the his-
toriography of linguistics. Ed. by Peter Schmitter & Marijke van der Wal, 87 - 106.
Mnster: Nodus.
Ginneken, J. van (1907). Principes de linguistique psychologique. Essay
synthtique. Amsterdam etc.: E. van der Vecht etc.
Knobloch, C. (1988). Geschichte der psychologischen Sprachauffassung in Deutschland
von 1850 bis 1920, Tbingen: Niemeyer.
Wundt, W (19112). Vlkerpsychologie. I Die Sprache. Leipzig: Krner.

Compendio del arte de la lengua de los tarahumares y Grammatica lin-

guae tarahumaricae: Anlisis comparativo de dos obras anteriores
al siglo XIX sobre el tarahumara


Universidad de Sonora, Mxico


Universidad de Sonora, Mxico

El presente trabajo aborda, por primera ocasin, el anlisis comparativo de

algunos aspectos lingsticos de la obra de Thomas de Guadalaxara Compendio
del arte de la lengua de los tarahumares y guazpares, publicada en 1683,
tomando como referencia los aportes elaborados por Matthus Steffel, en su
Grammatica linguae tarahumaricae, la cual fue escrita en latn ms de cien aos
despus y que se conoce como manuscrito de 1799. El estudio que se desarrolla,
adems de acentuar el respeto de Steffel a los rasgos gramaticales del
tarahumara descritos tambin por Guadalaxara, permite diferenciar dos
posicionamientos contrastantes del autor moravo; uno como erudito apegado a
Conference Handbook 107

los cnones del quehacer gramatical en el Mxico colonial, y otro como

intelectual ya radicado lejos de la obediencia al estado espaol y que responde a
la influencia del racionalismo de finales del siglo XVIII, en la que el autor se
observa fascinado por lo extico; caracterstica primordial del pensamiento
europeo de la poca, tal como se constata a la vez en su Tarahumarisches
Wrterbuch de 1809.
Al comparar ambos opsculos gramaticales, se observa en Steffel, timidez o
quiz falta de dominio de la lengua tarahumara, pero al mismo tiempo un
posicionamiento, presto y curioso, para proporcionar comentarios detallados
referentes a los rasgos culturales de los tarahumaras. Guadalaxara, en cambio, se
apega a la tradicin poltico-acadmica de la poca que vivi.
En lo gramatical, el trabajo permite enriquecer nuestra visin sobre las
caractersticas gramaticales del nombre, adjetivo, y pronombre del tarahumara
antiguo dentro de un marco de anlisis desde la Historiografa Lingstica.

Guadalaxara, Thomas. 1683.Compendio del Arte de la Lengua de los Tarahvmares y
Gvazpares(Manuscrito en la British Library).
Steffel, Matthus. 1799. ms.Grammatica Lingu Tarahumaric American nationis in
regno Nov Viscay, concinnata a P. Thoma de Guadalaxara e Societate Jesu olim
ibidem Missionario, Superiorum permissu literis Didaci Fernandez Angelopoli A.
1683. excusa, nunc vero a quodam ejusdem Societatis apud eamdem gentem olim
exposito Missionario, precibus cujusdam bonarum artium et linguarum Philologi
inducto ex hispanico idiomate in latinum translata, notis pluribus et additionibus
aucta, atque in meliorem formam redacta.Brun Moravorum 1799, Archiv msta
Brna, file v3, (fondo) Mittrovsky, Sign. A62.
______. 1809. Tarahumarisches Wrterbuch, nebst einigen Nachrichten von den Sitten
und Gebruchen der Tarahumaren, in Neu-Biscaya, in der Audiencia Guadalaxara
im Vice-Knigreiche Alt-Mexico, oder Neu-Spanien von P. Matthus Steffel. En
Christoph Gottlieb von Murr (ed.),Nachrichten von verschiedenen Lndern des
Spanischen Amerika, aus eigenhndigen Aufstzen einiger Missionare der Gesell-
schaft Jesu, vol. 1, pp. 293-374. Halle: Johann Christian Hendel.

A gramtica no Brasil: sculo XIX transio ou ruptura?

Leonor Lopes FVERO

Universidade de So Paulo
& Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de So Paulo, Brasil

O trabalho, apoiado na Histria das Ideias Lingusticas (Auroux, 1989),

examina gramticas publicadas nas ltimas dcadas do sculo XIX, no Brasil,
que ainda se ressentem da influncia da gramtica geral e filosfica, orientao
que dominou as da primeira metade desse sculo. Elia (1975), Cavaliere (2002)
108 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

e Fvero e Molina (2006), embora exponham as dificuldades ou mesmo a im-

possibilidade de uma partio rgida, reconhecem dois momentos na produo
gramatical do sculo: um, sob a gide da gramtica geral e filosfica, at 1881, e
outro de orientao cientfica, depois de 1881, quando surge a Gramtica Portu-
guesa de Jlio Ribeiro (1881), divisora de guas. Embora tenha havido quem
afirmasse que ela, na realidade, apenas trasladava em Lngua Portuguesa muitos
dos dizeres de Mason (1874), tem o mrito de ter sido a primeira a comparar a
lngua com as espcies humanas. Citando obras de orientao evolucionista,
Jlio Ribeiro assevera: a lngua, como os seres vivos nascem, crescem, desen-
volvem e morrem, lembrando Darmesteter. Observa-se que muitas gramticas
publicadas a partir dessa data ainda convivem com a influncia da gramtica
tradicional, o que se explica, considerando-se a formao de seus autores, permi-
tindo-nos dizer que as ltimas dcadas do sculo constituem um perodo de tran-
sio. Veja-se, por exemplo, a Nova Gramtica Analtica de Charles A. Grivet
(1881), a Gramtica Filosfica Portuguesa de Ernesto Carneiro Ribeiro (1881) e
a Gramtica Analtica da Lngua Portuguesa do Pe .Jos de N. Npoles Massa
(1888). Merece destaque a Gramtica Portuguesa (1887), de Joo Ribeiro, con-
siderada uma das melhores da poca. Adotada no Colgio Pedro II, apresentou
inmeras edies e, como material de transio, revela traos das obras de orien-
tao filosficas e das de orientao cientfica. Na definio de Gramtica, por
exemplo, Ribeiro (1904) assevera: Gramtica a coordenao das frmulas,
leis ou regras da linguagem literria ou polida (p.3) e ancorado nos enciclope-
distas, divide-a em Geral e Particular. Mesmo no incio do sculo XX, gram-
ticas como as de Eduardo Carlos Pereira (1907) e de Hemetrio Jos dos Santos
(1907) sofrem essa influncia.

AUROUX, Sylvain. (1989). Histoire de ides linguistiques. Bruxelas, Pierre Mardaga
CAVALIERE, Ricardo (2002). Uma proposta de periodizao dos estudos lingsticos
no Brasil.Confluncia, n.23. Rio de Janeiro: Liceu Literrio Portugus
ELIA, Slvio.(1975). Ensaios de Filologia e Lingstica. So Paulo, Grifo.
FVERO, Leonor L.; MOLINA, M. A.G. (2006). As concepes lingsticas no sculo
XIX: a gramtica no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Lucerna.

Main Sources of the Notabilia (1427), a Latin Medieval handwritten

grammar from the Cistercian Order of the Monastery of Alcobaa

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal

The most important, from our point of view, medieval Latin-Portuguese

grammar still remains unpublished. It has the title Hic incipiunt notabilia que
Conference Handbook 109

fecit cunctis [Here begin the Noteworthy things he made for everyone], compris-
es 89 folios (5r-93v), in paper and in quarto size (150 mm x 212mm). It is dated
from 1427 and belongs to the Portuguese National Library. The Notabilia are
considered to have been written by an anonymous author; however, we think
that its author (or its copyist) is the Spanish Cistercian friar Juan Rodrguez de
Caracena, from the Monastery of Alcobaa.
This Alcobacensis manuscript is quite an elaborate volume, copied perhaps
by two hands; it is divided into 31 chapters which analyze morphologic, syntac-
tic and speculative (nowadays semantic) issues. The text identifies some im-
portant sources, such as the Spanish Grammatica Proverbiandi, Aelius Donatus
(mid-4th cent.), Priscianus Caesariensis (late 5th-early 6th cent.), Alexandre de
Villedieu (ca.1170-ca.1250), Giovanni Balbi de Genoa, (fl. 1286-1298), and two
speculative grammars, Petrus Helias (ca 1100-post 1166) and Robert Kilwardby
(1215-1279). However, we think that its main source, although not revealed, was
the Italian Giovanni da Soncino (? ca. 1363), the forefather of the Modism in
Thus, in this paper we intend to show this manuscript as a pioneering text in
the History of Latin-Portuguese Linguistics and in the teaching of Latin in the
Late Middle Ages in Portugal, and to find its main explicit and unrevealed

Keywords: Notabilia, Late Middle Ages, Cistercian Order, Monastery of Alco-

baa, Juan Rodrguez de Caracena,

Primary Source:
Rodrguez de Caracena, Juan. 1427. Hic incipiunt notabilia que fecit cunctis. Manus-
cript, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, Lisbon, Codex Alc. 79: ff. 5r-93v.

An introduction to the unpublished Listas n 2 (18th century)


Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal

Jesuit Joaquin Bouvet (16621732), a mathematics teacher in Beijing (Chi-

na), explained the yi jing or I Ching, an ancient Chinese 64 symbol language, to
German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (16461716). Leibniz wanted to
create a universal language by studying the Lords Prayer and 128 words in as
many languages as possible. He told Russian Emperor Peter the Great (1672
1725) and they shared the same ambition. Unfortunately death prevented them
from accomplishing their goal. Using the Lords Prayer and half of Leibnizs
words but years later Jesuit Lorenzo Hervs y Panduro (17351809) wanted to
establish the relationships between languages. In 1787, German researcher Peter
110 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Simon Pallas (17411811), commissioned by Russian Empress Catherine the

Great (17621796), published Linguarium Totius Orbis, a list of 273 words in
200 languages. Two years later, Russian Empress ordered Serbian Jancovic
Mirievo (17411814) to publish a new edition adding 79 languages and more
words. Despite the number of languages and despite Russian efforts to have
them translated into more languages Russian Empire asked the King of Spain
Charles III (17161788) for help, there are no Amerindian and Philippine lan-
guages in these two works. This paper tries to explain the reason of this and to
present the unpublished and manuscript Lista n 2 translated into more than fifty
Amerindian and Philippine languages in the late 18th century.

Constituio das cidades, diviso dos sujeitos e significao

das lnguas no Brasil: uma histria das ideias lingusticas
em enciclopdias

Ana Cludia Fernandes FERREIRA

Universidade do Vale do Sapuca, Minas Gerais, Brasil

Este trabalho parte de uma reflexo a propsito da histria de saberes so-

bre as lnguas em circulao no Brasil e sua relao com a constituio das cida-
des e a diviso dos sujeitos. Mais especificamente, busco investigar como esses
saberes sobre as lnguas se produzem em artigos sobre cidades brasileiras em
trs enciclopdias diferentes: a Enciclopdia Abril (da dcada de 1970) a Wiki-
pdia e a Desciclopdia (esta ltima tambm considerada aqui como uma enci-
clopdia). Este trabalho se coloca a partir de uma perspectiva da Histria das
Ideias Lingusticas e dialoga com diversas investigaes sobre o espao urbano e
sobre linguagem e tecnologia. Algumas referncias importantes para essas refle-
xes so S. Auroux (1992, 1998), C. Dias (2011), J. H. Nunes (2011, 2012), E.
Orlandi (2001, 2011, 2013) e M. Pcheux (1982). O ponto de partida para este
estudo a considerao de que, enquanto as enciclopdias tradicionais contam
com a contribuio de especialistas, a Wikipdia e a Desciclopdia funcionam
de outro modo mais democrtico e menos legitimado em relao aos saberes,
aos sujeitos e s lnguas. Para as anlises, foram escolhidos artigos de trs cida-
des brasileiras: Rio de Janeiro, So Paulo e Belo Horizonte. As anlises partem
de duas linhas distintas de observao que se entrecruzam: a) uma que contem-
pla alguns aspectos da relao entre os saberes sobre as lnguas das cidades e os
sujeitos que produzem esses saberes; b) outra que contempla os modos pelos
quais lnguas e sujeitos significam e so significados em relao s cidades de
que fazem parte. Desse modo, este trabalho se depara com questes como: O que
se constri como algo a saber sobre as lnguas do/no Brasil nos artigos sobre
cidades dessas enciclopdias? Que relaes esses artigos estabelecem entre as
lnguas e os sujeitos dessas/nessas cidades? Que memria apagada/silenciada e
Conference Handbook 111

que memria permanece e se reproduz nessa histria de sentidos sobre as lnguas

no espao das enciclopdias no Brasil? Como alguns vestgios do que foi apaga-
do nessa histria de sentidos resistem e significam? Como essa memria vem
mudando se consideramos as relaes atuais do sujeito com o saber e com as
novas tecnologias? So estas as questes que norteiam este trabalho e que busca-
rei discutir aqui.

O Legado de Saussure para os Estudos de Aquisio da Linguagem


Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brasil

Cem anos aps seu falecimento, Saussure deixou-nos um legado de indiscu-

tvel importncia. Seus ensinamentos do Curso de Lingustica Geral (CLG) po-
dem hoje ser cotejados com elementos novos advindos dos manuscritos publica-
dos no livro crits de Linguistique Gnrale (ECL, 2002, ed. Bouquet e Engler),
permitindo avaliar toda a riqueza de seu pensamento. A teorizao de Saussure
abre a perspectiva de uma efetiva contribuio para uma rea de estudos: a
Aquisio de Linguagem, nascida oficialmente no sculo XX, mas que conta no
sculo XIX com precursores, os diaristas. Quanto a Saussure, quando trata do
fenmeno da analogia, que este vislumbra o cenrio da linguagem na infncia. A
analogia tema central na teorizao sobre o funcionamento da lngua - con-
templada numa dezena de referncias no Index Rerum do livro ELG, mas para
explorar tal conceito no se pode prescindir da leitura do CLG, nos tpicos que o
fenmeno analgico solicita do edifcio terico-descritivo saussuriano: as rela-
es associativas e sintagmticas, a arbitrariedade (relativa/motivada), a solida-
riedade sincrnica do sistema, todos eles alinhavados, na presente comunicao,
a partir dos dados a que nossa pesquisa emprica nos conduziu. Procuraremos
mostrar que o tratamento do chamado erro na literatura sobre os processos
reorganizacionais da aquisio de linguagem pede uma valorizao da contri-
buio advinda da viso estruturalista (v. De Lemos1992).
Adotando uma metodologia longitudinal, que se vale predominantemente
de registros gravados, mas que no abre mo dos dados do Dirio, esta pesquisa
opta pela ocorrncia divergente como dado de eleio, no acompanhamento de
dois sujeitos (2;8 a 5-6 anos) aprendendo o portugus como lngua materna. Os
dados mostram fatos da morfologia, aptos a revelar que a produo das crianas
afetada por um funcionamento a exibir aspectos ora previsveis, ora singulares,
nicos, estes ltimos nem sempre assimilveis s representaes de um clculo.
A fala da criana instvel, heterognea expe um tecido de lngua cujo efeito
(inslito, engraado, curioso, desconcertante) interessa igualmente ao estudioso
tematizar como parte da anlise. Afinal, foi por ela tambm tocado o mestre
genebrino: Son langage est un vritable tissu de formations analogiques, qui
112 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

nous font sourire, mais qui offrent dans toute sa puret et sa candeur le principe
qui ne cesse dtre loeuvre dans lhistoire des langues (ELG: 160) Refern-
cias: Saussure, F. de 2002. crits de Linguistique Gnrale. Paris:Gallimard.
Saussure, F. de (1969, [1916]). Cours de Lingstique Gnrale. Paris:Payot.

Un acteur oubli du structuralisme europen: Hendrik J. Pos

Patrick FLACK
Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic

Au-del des frontires de son pays natal, le philosophe et linguiste nerlan-

dais Hendrik Josephus Pos (1898-1955) est une figure aujourdhui largement
oublie et mconnue. De son vivant, Pos fut pourtant un intellectuel de rputa-
tion internationale, aussi actif dans les milieux acadmiques de lpoque
quengag dans la vie publique et culturelle de son pays. Elve du no-kantien
Heinrich Rickert puis dEdmund Husserl, il entretint des contacts productifs et
souvent amicaux non seulement avec ses matres mais aussi avec dautres repr-
sentants du no-kantisme (Ernst Cassirer) et de la phnomnologie (Martin Hei-
degger, Helmuth Plessner). Il simpliqua activement dans les diffrents cercles
structuralistes davant-guerre (Genve, Prague, Copenhague, Pays-Bas) et fut
par ailleurs un critique perspicace et attentif de nombreuses thories philoso-
phiques et psychologiques de son temps (Henri Bergson, Karl Bhler, Wilhelm
Dilthey, Wilhelm Wundt). Loin de se cantonner aux rles dlve ou de com-
mentateur, Pos entreprit parmi les premiers une rflexion sur lpistmologie de
la linguistique et formula, de faon certes fragmentaire, une philosophie du lan-
gage consonance phnomnologique qui fut trs bien accueillie par Roman
Jakobson, Louis Hjemslev, Maurice Merleau-Ponty ou encore Eugenio Coeriu.
A tous ces gards, Pos se rvle donc comme lauteur dune uvre occupant une
position de mdiation et de synthse tout--fait originale et minemment digne
dintrt entre le no-kantisme, la philosophie de la vie (Lebensphilosophie), la
phnomnologie et le structuralisme.
Prenant avantage de la publication du premier recueil des crits de Pos en
franais (Hendrik Pos, Ecrits sur le langage, sdvig press, Genve, paratre),
notre prsentation se proposera tout dabord daborder de faon gnrale sa bio-
graphie et les grandes lignes de lvolution de sa pense. Par lentremise dune
brve analyse comparative de la thorie du langage que Pos labore dans Zur
Logik der Sprachwissenschaft (La logique de la linguistique, 1922) thorie qui
est tonnamment proche mais nanmoins indpendante de celle propose par
Ferdinand de Saussure dans le Cours de linguistique gnrale , on tentera en-
suite de mettre en vidence de faon nouvelle le rle essentiel qua jou
lpistmologie no-kantienne dans le dveloppement du paradigme structura-
liste en linguistique.
Conference Handbook 113

DAALDER, Saskia ; NOORDEGRAAF, Jan (1990), H.J. Pos: taal-kundige en genga-
geerd filosoof, Amsterdam, Huis a.d. Drie Grachten.
MEILLET, Antoine (1922) Pos: Logik der Sprachwissenschaft, Bulletin de la Socit
de Linguistique de Paris 23 (2).
NOORDEGRAAF, Jan (1991) Hendrik J. Pos (1898-1955) and the History of Linguis-
tics, In: Elisabeth Feldbusch et. alia (eds.), Neue Fragen der Linguistik, Pader-
born, de Gruyter, pp. 5564.
POS, Hendrik(1922), Zur Logik der Sprachwissenschaft, Heidelberg, Winter.
POS, Hendrik ( paratre) Ecrits sur le langage, sdvig press, Genve.
SALVERDA, Reiner (1991) The contribution of H.J. Pos (1898-1955) to early structu-
ral linguistics, In: J. Fenoulhet, T. Hermans (eds.), Standing Clear: A Festschrift
for Reinder P. Meijer, London, University College London, pp. 220237.
WILLEMS, Klaas (1998) Edmund Husserl und Hendrik J. Pos: Phnomenologie,
Sprache und Linguistik, Phnomenologische Forschungen 3 (2).

Anciennes grammaires de langue trangre (le cas du Portugais):

pour une dfinition dun sous-genre historiographique

Maria do Cu FONSECA
Universidade de vora, Portugal

Dans cette communication, on nabordera pas lenseignement et la didac-

tique des langues trangres, champ dtude de la linguistique applique. La
rvision historique des stratgies, processus et techniques de cet enseignement et
apprentissage, ainsi que lapplication de la linguistique la didactique des
langues (matires dj trs bien tudies) sont exclues de notre propos.
Notre propos ici est de contribuer ltude des grammaires de langues non
maternelles dans le cadre de lhistoriographie linguistique canonique, partant du
fait que ces uvres font partie de lhistoire de la grammaire des vernaculaires
europens. Mais, en mme temps, la thorie linguistique subjacente aux gram-
maires de langues trangres (malgr les faibles proccupations thoriques)
permet la dfinition dun genre (ou sous-genre) grammaticographique spci-
fique. Les caractristiques respectant le public cible, la catgorie de l'auteur et
le type de description grammatical nos amnent situer ces grammaires dans un
contexte ddition, rdaction et conception sui generis, dont la porte thorique,
historiographique et culturelle diffre sensiblement de toute autre grammatico-
graphie de langue maternelle.
En ce qui concerne lespace pninsulaire, ces matires ont dj t vues
propos de la grammaire de lespagnol langue trangre (cf., par exemple, Gmez
Asencio 2006a, 2006b). On tudiera ici un corpus portugais du XVII au XIX
sicles, crit en anglais, franais, espagnol et italien.
114 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Caravolas, Jean A. 2000. Histoire de la didactique des langues au sicle des Lumires:
prcis et anthologie thmatique. Montral/Tbingen: Presses de lUniversit de
Montral/Gunter Narr Verlag.
Gmez Asencio, Jos J. (dir.). 2006a. El Castellano y su Codificacin Gramatical. Vo-
lumen I: De 1942 (A. de Nebrija) a 1611 (John Sanford). Burgos: Fundacin Insti-
tuto Castellano y Leons de la Lengua.
_________ 2006b (dir.). El Castellano y su Condicin Gramatical. Volumen II: de 1614
(B. Jimnez Patn) a 1697 (F. Sobrino). Burgos: Instituto Castellano y Leons de la
Ponce de Len, Rogelio. 2007. Materiales para la enseanza del espaol en Portugal y
para la enseanza del portugus en Espaa: gramticas, manuales, guas de conver-
sacin (1850-1950). In Gabriel Magalhes (ed.). Actas do congresso Relipes III.
Salamanca: CELYA, pp. 59-86.
Snchez Escribano, Francisco Javier. 2006. Portuguese in England in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries. Sederi 16, pp. 109-132.
Smith, Robert C. 1945. Father Peter Babad and his Portuguese Grammar. Hispania
28/3, pp. 330-363.

Reflexos das doutrinas ortogrficas quinhentistas e seiscentistas na

Prosa Grammatonomica Portugueza (1728) de Rafael Bluteau

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal

Rafael Bluteau (1638-1734) discorreu sobre vrios temas nas Conferncias

Discretas e Eruditas que se celebravam na casa do 4 Conde de Ericeira. Resul-
tado destas intervenes so as Prosas Portuguezas (1727-28), que representam
um caso interessante pelas reflexes de natureza lingustica que nelas se encon-
Na presente comunicao, propomo-nos analisar a Prosa Grammatonomica
Portugueza (1728), onde o autor tece variadas consideraes acerca da ortogra-
fia, aludindo diretamente a fontes de relevo no panorama metaortogrfico portu-
gus, posicionando-se criticamente a favor ou contra as suas doutrinas. Preten-
demos, deste modo, estabelecer um cotejo com as obras de alguns dos ortgrafos
mencionados: o quinhentista Duarte Nunes de Leo e os seiscentistas lvaro
Ferreira de Vera e Joo Franco Barreto.
Conference Handbook 115

Referncias Bibliogrficas
Bluteau, Rafael (1712-1728): Vocabulario Portuguez, e Latino. 10 volumes. Coimbra:
Colgio das Artes da Companhia de Jesus.
______ (1728) Prosa Grammatonomica Portugueza, ou regras, e leys, para o uso das
letras do Alfabeto Portuguez, na escritura, e na pronunciaa. In: Prosas Portu-
guesas, recitadas em differentes Congressos Academicos, pelo Padre D. Rafael
Bluteau, Clerigo Regular, Doutor na Sagrada Theologia, Prgador da Rainha da
Gra Bretanha Henriqueta Maria de Frana, Qualificador do Santo Officio no Sa-
grado Tribunal da Inquisia de Lisboa, e Academico da Academia Real. Parte II.
Lisboa: Jos Antnio da Silva. pgs 186-228.
Gonalves, Maria Filomena (1992): Madureira Feij, ortografista do sculo XVIII. Para
uma histria da ortografia portuguesa. Lisboa: Instituto de Cultura e Lngua Por-
tuguesa. Ministrio da Educao (Identidade Srie Lngua Portuguesa).
______ (2003): As ideias ortogrficas em Portugal: de Madureira Feij a Gonalves
Viana (1734 a 1911). Braga: Fundao Calouste Gulbenkian/FCT, 2003.
______ (2002): Notas sobre as "Prosas Portuguezas" de Rafael Bluteau e a Historiogra-
fia Lingustica do sculo XVIII, em: Filologia e Lingstica Portuguesa 5, pgs.
107-127, em:
(consultado em 3 de julho).
Kemmler, Rolf (2001): Para uma histria da ortografia portuguesa: o texto metaortogr-
fico e a sua periodizao do sculo XVI at reforma ortogrfica de 1911 In: Ro-
sa, Luciano, e Schnberger, Axel, e Scotti-Rosin, Michael (eds.), Lusorama vol.
47-48. Pgs 128-319.
______ (2007): A Academia Orthografica Portugueza na Lisboa do Sculo das Luzes.
Vida, obras e actividades de Joo Pinheiro Freire da Cunha (1738-1811). Frank-
furt am Main: Domus Editoria Europaea.
Silvestre, Joo Paulo (2008): Bluteau e as origens da Lexicografia Moderna. Lisboa:
Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.

Erreurs fautes et exemples dviants

dans le discours des grammairiens aux 16e et 17e sicles

Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3
& Laboratoire d'Histoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Les travaux dhistoire de la grammaire, en particulier lorsquils sont centrs

sur ltude dune tradition nationale, se sont dvelopps aux cours des dernires
annes notamment dans les deux directions suivantes:
- lhistoire de loutillage des langues, phnomne que Sylvain Auroux
(1994) a propos dappeler grammatisation, quoi ressortit lhistoire des con-
cepts et des formes du discours grammairien ;
116 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

- lhistoire des effets de la mise en uvre de cet outillage que lon peut ob-
server sur les pratiques langagires (invention dune langue commune, rgula-
tion, normalisation, codification) et sur les imaginaires i) du grammairien (ou du
linguiste) travers par exemple la construction de lobjet langue ; ii) des locu-
teurs (le cas chant des locuteurs natifs) travers larticulation entre savoirs
mtalinguistiques et pilinguistiques, et la construction dune conscience linguis-
tique (Weinrich, 1989).
Ltude que lon se propose ici se veut une contribution lexploration de
la seconde de ces pistes de recherche, extrmement riche et complexe, travers
lexploitation systmatique du Grand corpus des grammaires franaises, des
remarques et des traits sur la langue (Colombat & Fournier dir., 2010).
Ltude portera sur deux ensemble de faits:
i) le relev et ltude systmatique de lensemble des occurrences des
termes permettant lidentification des erreurs et des fautes et leurs contextes
demploi. Si lon sen tient aux seuls termes faute et erreur, linterrogation du
corpus livre ainsi 154 occurrences du premier dans le corpus des grammaires du
17e sicle, et 56 dans le corpus des textes du 16e sicle. Le second est plus rare:
41 occurrences dans le corpus 17e, 10 dans le corpus 16e ;
ii) ltude des occurrences des formes dviantes: des anti exemples (Four-
nier et al., 2007), et de lensemble des formes rejetes. Le corpus permet no-
tamment le reprage systmatique des attestations signales comme dialectales
dont il est extrmement intressant dobserver le rle dans largumentation des
auteurs sur les deux sicles de description runis dans le Corpus.

Repres bibliographiques:
Grand Corpus des grammaires franaises, des remarques et des traits sur la langue
(XIVe-XVIIe s.) (dir. B. Colombat, J.-M. Fournier ; dir. W. Ayres-Bennett pour le
volet Corpus des remarques sur la langue franaise), Paris, Classiques Garnier Nu-
mrique, 2011.
Auroux Sylvain, 1994, La rvolution technologique de la grammatisation, introduction
l'histoire des sciences du langage, Lige, Mardaga.
Fournier Jean-Marie, 2007, Lexemple dans quelques traditions grammaticales (formes,
fonctionnement, types), article collectif introductif avec S. Archaimbault, B. Co-
lombat, J.-L. Chevillard, J.-P. Guillaume, J. Lallot, C. Rodriguez, Lexemple dans
les traditions grammaticales, Jean-Marie Fournier (d.), Langages, 166, La-
rousse/Armand Colin, p. 5-31.
Weinrich, Harald, 1989, Conscience linguistique et lectures littraires, Paris, Maison des
sciences de lhomme.
Conference Handbook 117

O Lugar da Histria e das Cincias da Linguagem no Discurso

sobre as Lnguas da Amaznia Brasileira

Jos Ribamar Bessa FREIRE

Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

No momento em que Cames morria, no sculo XVI, no havia um nico

falante de portugus na Amaznia, em cujo territrio havia cerca de 700 lnguas
indgenas. Uma delas serviu de base para a Lngua Geral ou Nheengatu, que
teve papel histrico marcante, como meio de comunicao intertnica: no pero-
do colonial foi ela, e no o portugus, a principal lngua da Amaznia, presente
nas aldeias, povoaes, vilas e cidades. Mas a entrada da lngua portuguesa no
Gro-Par, a partir do sculo XVII, determinou novo ordenamento lingustico na
regio, com consequncias sobre a identidade, o patrimnio e a memria social.
At o final do sculo XIX, predominou o bilinguismo nheengatu x portugus.
O objetivo da presente comunicao discutir o lugar da Histria e das Ci-
ncias da Linguagem na reconstruo da memria e no discurso que se construiu
sobre esse processo histrico. O dilogo entre Lingustica e Histria permite
explorar o campo do conhecimento denominado por Peter Burke de "histria
social da linguagem" ou histria social do falar", numa abordagem interdiscipli-
Com essa perspectiva terica sero analisados dois momentos histricos da
construo desse discurso: i) no contexto determinado pela lingustica nascente,
pretendemos fazer um balano sobre a reflexo elaborada fora das universidades
pelos tupinlogos na segunda metade do sculo XIX, responsveis pela coleta de
narrativas orais em nheengatu. Couto de Magalhes (1837-1898), Charles Hartt
(1840-1878), Ermano Stradelli (1852-1926), Barbosa Rodrigues (1842-1909) se
inspiraram nas representaes de lngua do romantismo alemo para observar as
situaes histricas de lnguas em contato, at ento ignoradas e para abordar o
bilinguismo como forma de identidade nacional; ii) no contexto acadmico, a
produo de um meta-discurso cujos expoentes principais foram Plinio Ayrosa
(1895-1961) na Universidade de So Paulo, com seu livro Primeiras Noes de
Tupi (1935), Frederico G. Edelweiss, (1892-1974), professor da na Universidade
Federal da Bahia e autor de Estudos tupis e tupis-guaranis (1969) e padre
A.Lemos Barbosa, da Pontificia Universidade Catlica do Rio de Janeiro, autor
de um Curso de Tupi Antigo (1956) e do Pequeno Vocabulrio Tupi-Portugus
118 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Molina y Gilberti, dos misioneros lexicografos frente a Nebrija:

la macroestructura de sus vocabularios

Universidad de Mlaga, Espaa

En setiembre de 1599 se termin de imprimir el volumen de fray Maturino

Gilberti, titulado (al estilo de los antiguos cdices medievales) Aqu comienza el
vocabulario en lengua castellana y mechucana, compuesto por el muy reveren-
do padre () de la orden del sepahico padre Sant Francisco. As, pues, junto al
Diccionario del franciscano Alonso de Molina, Aqu comiena un vocabulario
en la lengua castellana y mexicana (mayo de 1555), nos encontramos con dos
diccionarios similares, impresos en la primera imprenta de Mxico por Juan
Pablos, que se enfrentan al Vocabulario castellano-mexicano de Nebrija. Ambos
aceptaban el magisterio nebrisense pero se encontraban con la disparidad lin-
gstica y material del nuevo mundo mesoamericano.
Nunca se ha cotejado la macroestructura de estos dos raros incunables
americanos entre s ni, por supuesto, en comparacin con Nebrija.
Nuestra comunicacin se propone revisar las decisiones macroestructurales
de Molina y de Gilberti, as como bosquejar el tratamiento microestructural de
las entradas nuevas, aadidas por los misioneros: a) Molina frente a Nebrija;
b) Gilberti frente a Nebrija; c) Gilberti frente a Molina. Es bien sabido que las
artes gramaticales y los vocabularios de los misioneros lingistas respetan la
tradicin lexicogrfica que generan sus obras impresas y combinan con ella las

Alonso de Molina (O.F.M.). [Vocabulario en lengua castellana y mexicana... compuesto
por el Padre Fray Alonso de Molina...]. [Mexico: Juan Pablos, 1555]. -- [6], 259 h.;
Fray Maturino Gilberti, (O.F.M.), 1498-1585. Aqu comienza el vocabulario en lengua
castellana y mechucana / compuesto por el muy reverendo padre Fray Maturino
Gylberti de la orden del sepahico padre Sant Francisco. Indorum nimia te fecit pro-
le parentem Qui genuit moriens,quos pater alme foves. Confixus vivis, langues:
cum mente revoluis, Vulnera, cum spectas, stigmata carne geris.--Mxico: acabose
de imprimir a siete dias del mes de setiembre de 1559, 1559. 168fs., A-X8.: il. ; 4
(20 cm).
Conference Handbook 119

Jakobsons Saussure facing the Cahiers de Constantin

Universit della Calabria, Italia

It is known that a great number of linguists of Twentieth Century owe

something to the Genevian linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. It is possible to num-
ber among them Roman Jakobson with his research on phonology and the pro-
gram of the Prague Linguistic Circle.
The analysis of lectures delivered by Jakobson in 1942 and 1959 shows that
his approach to Saussures theory is fragmentary and according to Harris (1997)
Jakobson does not argue precisely on the Saussurean points he critizes.
The aim of this paper is to reconstruct Jakobsons misunderstandings about
Saussure taking into account the notes on his third course taken by the student
Emile Constantin. The comparison between Jakobsons interpretation of Saus-
sure and his third course in General Linguistics (1910-1911) will focus on three
points: la langue, synchrony and diachrony, langue and parole. It will be argued
against Jakobson that la langue is not a fictional idea and synchrony and dia-
chrony are not oppositions and cannot be split. Moreover, it will be explained
the theoretical range of the couple langue and parole in relation to the linguistic
change. We will challenge Jakobsons idea that Saussure contradicts himself
attributing to la parole before and to la langue after the linguistic change.

Harris, Roy, 1997, Jakobsons Saussure, Acta Linguistica Hafniensia: International
Journal of Linguistics, 29:1, pp. 75-88, DOI: 10.1080/03740463.1997.10429456
Saussure, Ferdinand (de), 1922, Course de linguistique gnrale, Paris, Payot (trad. it. di
Tullio De Mauro, Corso di Linguistica Generale, Roma-Bari, Laterza, 2003)
Id., 2005, Linguistique gnrale. Cours de M. le Professeur Ferdinand de Saussure, a
cura di E. Constantin, Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure, 58, pp. 83-289
Jakobson, Roman, 1987, La thorie saussurienne en retrospection, Selected Writings,
vol. 8, pp. 391-435, The Hague, Mouton (ed. or. 1942).
Id. 1959, Zeichen und System der Sprache, 1st International Symposium Sign and
system of language, published translated in English Sign and system of language.
A reassessment of Saussures doctrine in Selected Writings, vol. 1, The Hague,
Mouton 1971.
120 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Misioneros lexicgrafos:
un acercamiento a los repertorios lxicos espaol-cakchiquel

Mara de los ngeles GARCA ARANDA

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Espaa

Los que en este Apostlico trabajo dexaron ms nombres fueron entre otros
en el primer siglo nuestros venerables Padres fundadores de Provincia los Or-
does, los Betanzos, los Zalcedos, los Parras, los lvaros de Paz, los Juanes
Lzaros, los vilas y el Ilustrssimo y Rmo. Seor Obispo que fue del Chile, don
Fr. Juan de Espinosa. En el segundo siglo los Anleos, los Mendozas, los Zassez,
los Crdenas, los Varelas, los Cotos, los Dvalos y, sobre todos, el R. P. Fr.
Francisco Maldonado. Y en este nuestro ltimo siglo, que corre de setecientos,
los Rodrgues, los Crdovas, los Castos, Pantalen de Guzmn, los Quiones y
ltimamente los Yriondos y los Utrillas. Todos esscrivieron cosas grandes, y
muy altas, tiles y necessarias para la instruccin de los Indios, no solo en lo
perteneciente a la Christiandad, sino tambin en lo moral, poltico y natural.
Algunos de ellos tuvieron milagrosamente el don de lenguas, otros para que
naturalmente pudieran aprenderse escrivieron variedad de Artes, Diccionarios, y
Este fragmento del Parecer que precede al Arte de la lengva metropolita-
na del reyno cakchiquel o gvatemalico de Ildefonso Jos Flores (1753), en el que
el Predicador General, Jos Antonio Coutio, ofrece la nmina de misioneros
que describieron el cakchiquel de la etapa colonial, muestra la importancia y el
inters de esta lengua en el proceso de evangelizacin de los indios.
Esta comunicacin tiene como objetivo presentar los principales repertorios
lxicos con el espaol y el cakchiquel (Vocabulario en lengua castellana y gua-
temalteca que se llama cakchiquel chi de Juan Alonso, Vocabulario en lengua
castellana cachiquel chi y quich chi de Domingo Basseta, Vocabulario de la
Lengua Cakchiquel de Toms de Coto, Compendio de nombres en lengua
cakchiquel de Pantalen de Guzmn, Vocabulario de la lengua cakchiquel de
Thoms de Santo Domingo, Calepino en lengua cakchiquel de Francisco Varea,
Vocabulario de la lengua cakchiquel con advertencia de los vocablos de las
lenguas quich y tzutuhil de Domingo de Vico, Vocabulario en lengua cakchi-
quel de Benito de Villacaas o Vocabulario de la lengua cakchiquel de Francis-
co Ximnez, entre otros), sus caractersticas ms destacadas (macroestructura y
microestructura), su tipologa (los alfabticos y temticos, biblinges y tri-
linges...) y las fuentes que los inspiraron, pues, como ocurre habitualmente en
Lexicografa, pocos son completamente originales.
Este trabajo constituye, pues, una aportacin a la Lingstica misionera, al
estudio de las lenguas indgenas, captulo fascinante de la historia intelectual,
especialmente de la lingstica (Zimmermann, 1997: 9) que no siempre ha reci-
bido la atencin que merece.
Conference Handbook 121

Referencias bibliogrficas:
Hernndez Hernndez, Esther (2008): La lexicografa hispano-amerindia del siglo
XVI, Philologia Hispalensis, 22, pp. 189-211.
Ridruejo, Emilio (2007): Lingstica misionera, en Josefa Dorta, Cristbal Corrales y
Dolores Corbella (eds.), Historiografa de la lingstica en el mbito hispnico.
Fundamentos epistemolgicos y metodolgicos, Madrid, Arco/Libros, pp. 435-477.
Zimmermann, Klaus (ed.) (1997): La descripcin de las lenguas amerindias en la poca
colonial, Frankfurt am Main / Madrid, Vervuert / Iberoamericana.
Zwartjes, Otto (ed.) (2000): Las gramticas misioneras de tradicin hispnica (siglos
XVI-XVII). msterdam: Rodopi B.V.

Hermes, or a philosophical inquiry concerning universal grammar.

Una aproximacin a la obra de James Harris
desde la doctrina lingstica de Sanctius


Universidad de Extremadura, Cceres, Espaa

La hiptesis de partida es el hecho de que durante el siglo XVI se sientan

las bases de una Gramtica terica, de corte lingstico, gracias sobre todo a la
labor de gramticos como la de Linacro, Escalgero y el Brocense. En efecto, es
sabido que la gramtica racional del Brocense tiene gran fortuna en la gramtica
latina europea de los siglos XVII y XVIII, pero tambin en las gramticas de
lenguas vernculas europeas: castellano, cataln, portugus, francs, italiano e
En 1646 aparece The English Accidence, gramtica del ingls escrita por
Joshua Poole, el autor escribi esta obra pensando especialmente en futuros es-
tudiantes del latn ya que les podra servir para entender los conceptos gramati-
cales bsicos antes de empezar con el aprendizaje de esa lengua. La gramtica
fue tan popular que de ella aparecieron nuevas ediciones en 1655, 1662 y 1670.
A pesar de lo que el ttulo parece sugerir, su autor no se cie slo a la morfologa
del ingls, sino que trata diversas cuestiones sintcticas. Sin embargo, el aparta-
do sintctico est enormemente influido por el latn y ha de considerarse como
una gua de traduccin del latn al ingls ms que una descripcin adecuada de la
sintaxis inglesa.
En la segunda mitad del siglo XVII, ao 1653, aparece la gramtica de John
Wallis titulada Gramtica Linguae Anglicana. Adems de los tradicionales apar-
tados de fontica y morfologa, la gramtica ofrece una visin histrica general
de la lengua inglesa y algunas consideraciones sintcticas.
En general, todas estas gramticas del ingls estaban profundamente influi-
das por las gramticas del latn, y es ah donde la Minerva cobra una importancia
notable en las gramticas de toda Europa.
122 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Consideramos, pues, muy pertinente este anlisis, en nuestro caso concreto,

en la gramtica inglesa (Hermes, or a philosophical enquiry concernig universal
gramar) de James Harris.

Base Ideolgica de la edicin del Fuero Juzgo (1815)


Universidad de Cdiz, Espaa

La decisin de editar el Fuero Juzgo vena de 1784. Los miembros de la

Real Academia Espaola manejaron las ediciones latinas y alguna castellana de
Alonso de Villadiego, 1600, reeditada en 1792, y se dice que tuvieron en cuenta
el manuscrito indito en la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, debido a Diego de
Covarrubias en el siglo XVI, desde una visin regalista avant la lettre. Manuel
de Lardizbal, acadmico oscilante en su adhesin ideolgica, es el facttum de
la edicin del Fuero Juzgo (1815), que se publica despus del golpe de Estado
de la RAE, con el duque de San Carlos como nuevo director de la corporacin
(noviembre de 1814). Este texto parta de dos principios jurdicos, que son los
importantes para justificar esta edicin decimonnica: 1) el Fuero Juzgo repre-
sentaba una legislacin redactada para una pennsula unificada, la de Suintila a
principios del siglo VII; y 2) las normas del Fuero Juzgo, en el origen del Liber
Iudiciorum, no brotan de la cualidad de la personalidad, sino de la territorialidad,
esto es, si la nacin es Espaa, no se distinguira entre cada una de las partes
componentes o integrantes de esa nacin (ni a los ciudadanos en la nacin deci-
monnica). En cambio, el liberal autor del prlogo de las Partidas, Francisco
Martnez Marina, que fue director de la Real Academia de la Historia, adems de
miembro de la RAE, se bas en la obra de Alfonso X para construir la teora
segn la cual haba una continuidad entre las cortes medievales y las que repre-
sentaban la idea de la nacin de principios del XIX, cuya soberana resida en el
pueblo. Hay bases diferentes, incluso opuestas, entre la visin de las Partidas y
la del Fuero Juzgo a finales del XVIII y comienzos del XIX? Con ese funda-
mento, se enfrentaron dos grupos polticos ideolgicos a travs de las dos Aca-
demias? Basado uno de los textos ms bien en el derecho germnico y el otro en
el derecho comn, se poda hablar de colaboracin o de discordia entre aquellas
instituciones? Hay que situar adecuadamente el Fuero Juzgo en la historia, no
solo de la RAE, sino tambin en la historia sin ms de Espaa contempornea,
tanto desde el punto de vista lingstico como desde las perspectivas jurdica y

Referencias Bibliogrficas
ZAMORA VICENTE, Alonso (1999): Historia de la Real Academia Espaola. Madrid:
Conference Handbook 123

Lexicgrafos hispnicos del Pacfico (1521-1909)

Universidad de Valladolid, Espaa

Desde la expedicin de Magallanes, los misioneros espaoles idearon un

plan de descubrimiento e interpretacin de los pueblos del Pacfico con el fin de
acercarse culturalmente al Otro. Una parte no poco importante de dicho plan
hermenutico fue la descripcin de sus smbolos lingsticos y su traduccin con
vistas a la evangelizacin y al dominio poltico. Pigafetta ya elabor un pequeo
glosario de trminos de la lengua bisaya de las islas de San Lzaro (1521) como
manifestacin simblica del contacto pero su trabajo no tuvo continuacin sino
durante el primer tercio del siglo XVII (Alonso de Mntrida 1637). El intento de
Pigafetta necesit un lapso de ms de un siglo de silencio semitico para tener
una feliz culminacin. Por su parte, los jesuitas portugueses del Japn elaboraron
una obra magna a fines del siglo XVI pero fueron expulsados del archipilago a
comienzos del XVII (1633). Recalaron en las Filipinas, donde solo su escasa
conciencia del fracaso y su obstinacin en l permitieron que su obra fuera tra-
ducida al espaol con el fin de regresar algn da a Japn bajo la Corona de Es-
paa (Annimo, 1630). Como es sabido, sus deseos de regreso al Japn nunca se
veran cumplidos. Por ltimo, los estadounidenses expulsaron a los espaoles en
1898 de las islas Filipinas. El agustino Aparicio acab de elaborar su Tesoro de
la lengua Bisaya en Valladolid en 1909, una obra de ms de 1300 pginas an
manuscritas que no es sino el ltimo monumento del fracaso hispnico del Pac-
fico pero que an persiste en la mejora de la descripcin lexicogrfica de la se-
gunda lengua ms hablada de las islas Filipinas.

The Dictionarium sinico-latinum

and the development of bilingual lexicography

Mariarosaria GIANNINOTO
Universit Stendhal Grenoble 3, France

Consulate General of Italy in Shangai, China

The Dictionarium sinico-latinum by the Italian missionary Basilio Brollo

(1648-1704) is one of the first Chinese-European language dictionaries and ex-
erted a profound influence on the development of bilingual lexicography.
This was among the first works that arranged Chinese lemmas following the
alphabetical order of phonetic transcription. The dictionary contains tables of
124 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

antonyms, tables of frequent collocations for specific characters and tables of

radicals. The manuscript edition we consulted, dated 1723, consists of a 795
page dictionary, plus appendices, for a total of almost 9,500 characters.
The lemmas are semantically rich and detailed, distinguishing this work
from the simple bilingual word lists which appeared during the 16th and 17th
For each entry, Brollo indicated the Chinese character, the Latin equivalent,
compound words and frequent collocations of the characters (in Latin letter tran-
scription) or illustrative phrases, followed by the translation. The author also
included cultural, historical or ethnographical informations to the entries, going
beyond the simple search for equivalents.
Hence, this dictionary represents an important source for the study of the
history of cultural exchanges between Europe and China as well as for historical
graphemics and historical phonology.
Our presentation describes the specific features and technical innovations of
this dictionary, situating it in the historical context of the period and highlighting
the influence that both Chinese and Western lexicographical traditions exerted
on this work.
Furthermore, we will try to analyze the relationship with the trilingual dic-
tionary Dictionnaire chinois, franais et latin (published in 1813 by de
Guignes), and, more generally, to underline its contribution to the development
of bilingual lexicography.

Guignes, Ch.-L.-J. de. 1813. Dictionnaire chinois, franais et latin. Paris: Imprimerie
Klaproth, J. 1819. Supplment au dictionnaire chinois-latin du P. Basile de Glemona
(imprime en 1813, par les soins de M. de Guignes). Paris: Imprimerie Royale
Masini, F. 2006. Manoscritti sulla lingua cinese presenti negli archivi e nelle biblioteche
italiani, in Boccali G.,Scarpari M., eds., Scritture e codici nelle culture dellAsia:
Giappone, Cina, Tibet, India. Prospettive di studio. Venezia: Cafoscarina, pp. 233-
Yang Huilin. 2007.Ye Zongxiao de Hanzi xi yi yu Malisun de Han Ying
cidian. , Cishu yanjiu 2007
(1): 135-143

Jakobsons Ideology of Linguistics in his Czechoslovakian Period

Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin, Deutschland

The theory of world and language in Prague linguistic circle since 1926 is
supposed to be close connected to the conception of Russian formalism of the
Conference Handbook 125

OPOJAZ period and Moscow linguistic circle, Russian reception of Saussure' s

Course in General Linguistics as well as Trubetskoy's phonology (Steiner, Ehr-
lich, Hansen-Lve). In fact, some other less known, but not less relevant links to
important conteporary as well as historical concepts of world philosophy and
language philosophy are showing Jakobsons position during 20ies and 30ies in
a different way. An implicit, or even non-existent discussion with the tradition of
Czech Herbartism played a crucial role in the process of establishing the dis-
course of autonomous language expression and aesthetic object. Works of Ota-
kar Zich, Josef Durdk and Otakar Hostinsky was present in the early structura-
list contributions of Jan Mukarovsky and Vilem Mathesius and familiar for Ja-
kobson as well, who, however, didn't include their heritage into the canon of
new philology. Jakobsons prominent interest in teleology at the end of 20ies
(Sprachbund theory, ber die heutigen Voraussetzungen der russischen Slawis-
tik, 1929) reoriented or even excluded the local dominante of the Herbart school.
Only the late publication of Jakobsons Lectures on formalism (Czech edition
2005, russian translation 2011) made clear the immense influence of Potebnia
and through Potebnia also Wilhelm von Humboldt for the diskussion on langua-
ge. Jakobson even revisited explicitely the ideological statement of Viktor
Shklovskij, who have seen in Potebnia the main enemy of modern linguistics.
The same position formulated Jakobson himself in his Moscow period. The later
evolution, however, made clear the strong line of continuity. In my paper, I
would also like to analyze from this point of view only recently published Do-
cuments of Prague linguistic Circle (Cermak, Poeta 2012). In this sense, some
criticism of formalism in Russia could be revisited, for example the polemics of
Rosalia Shor from 1927, who established the connection between formalism and
early structuralism with the German philology of late 19ies century in her pole-
mic concerning kernel formulations of formalist linguistics and poetics.

Othmar Spanns holistic views and Trubeckojs phonological system

Giovanni GOBBER
Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano, Italia

This contribution focusses on the connection established by N.S. Trubeckoj

and R.O. Jakobson between their phonological theories and Othmar Spanns
theory of the totality (Ganzheitslehre). Spann was an Austrian leading scholar
in social sciences who taught in Vienna until 1938 and played a decisive role in
the foundation of the so-called Stndestaat i.e. the Corporate State that charac-
terized Austria in the period between the two world wars (Johnston 1972). The
relationship between Trubeckoj and Spann has been shortly mentioned in a lar-
ger investigation on Eurasianism (Glebov 2003), but without considering the
possible influence of Spanns holism on Trubeckojs phonology.
126 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

The present contribution will show that Trubeckoj did in fact use some of
Spanns terminology in a work on the phonological systems (Die phonolo-
gischen Systeme) that appeared in the Travaux (1931). In this paper Trubeckoj
did not mention the name of Othmar Spann: he merely pointed to the fact that
his own theorizing meets the requirements of the modern scientific tendencies.
That this remark refers to Spann can be understood only after a careful investiga-
tion of the expressions that Trubeckoy used in this passage to describe the
methodological aspects of his own phonological theory (Gobber 2010).
Further evidence concerning the connection to the Austrian scholar can be
found in Jakobsons letters and notes. These documents do not prove that Spann
influenced Trubeckojs and Jakobsons phonology. They rather demonstrate how
the two great linguists were aware of Spanns ideas and considered their own
phonological theories to be consistent with his holistic methodology.

Fdor V. Poljakov, Trubetzkoys eurasische Vision, in N.S. Trubetzkoy, Russland Eu-
ropa Eurasien, Ausgewhlte Schriften zur Kulturwissenschaft , F.V. Poljakov
Hrsg., Verlag der sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 2005, pp.
Giovanni Gobber, Totalit e intero parziale nelluniversalismo di Othmar Spann e
nelle teorie fonologiche di Trubekcoj e di Jakobson, Lanalisi linguistica e lettera-
ria, XVIII, 2010, pp. 411-420.
Patrick Seriot, Structure et Totalit: Les Origines Intellectuelles du Structuralisme en
Europe Centrale et Orientale, PUF, Paris 1999.
Sergei Glebov (ed.), N. S. Trubetskoi to P. P. Suvchinskii. December 17, 1926, Ab
Imperio, III, 2003, 2, pp. 319321.
W. Johnston, The Austrian Mind. An Intellectual and Social History 1848-1938, Univer-
sity of California Press 1972.

Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) and the genius of the language

University of Cambridge, U.K.

In the past decade there has been a growing interest in Joseph Priestleys
grammatical work, re-assessing his supposed position as the forerunner of En-
glish descriptivism, in opposition to a more prescriptivist Robert Lowth (1710
1787). One aspect of Priestleys work which has attracted much attention, and
earned him his reputation as a descriptivist, is the extent of the changes which he
introduced in the second edition of his Rudiments of English Grammar (1768).
Hodson (2008) and, in her wake, Straaijer (2011) argued that these changes re-
flected a crisis of faith about the teaching of English grammar (Hodson 2008:
Conference Handbook 127

In this paper, I challenge these accounts of the 1768 changes and demons-
trate that they resulted from the crucial implementation of Priestleys views on
the genius of the language. I trace these views back to Priestleys Course of
Lectures on the Theory of Language and Universal Grammar (1762), and I show
that the shift from a traditional parts-of-speech approach in the first edition of
the Rudiments (1761) to an innovative three-part organisation in 1768 reflects
his sense that the genius of a language depends on the methods of expressing
the relations of words to words (1762: 192).
Finally, I compare Priestleys take on the concept of genius of the langua-
ge with that of contemporaries such as Harris (1751), and show how original his
approach was by placing it in its historical context thanks to the framework pro-
vided by Schlaps (2004).

Harris, James. 1751. Hermes: or, a Philosophical Inquiry Concerning Language and
Universal Grammar. London: H. Woodfall.
Hodson, Jane. 2008. Joseph Priestleys two Rudiments of English Grammar: 1761 and
1768, in Tieken-Boon von Ostade, Ingrid (ed.), Grammars, Grammarians and
Grammar Writing. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 177-189.
Priestley, Joseph. 1762. A Course of Lectures on the Theory of Language and Universal
Grammar. Warrington: W. Eyres.
Priestley, Joseph. 1768. The Rudiments of English Grammar, Adapted to the Use of
Schools; with Notes and Observations, for the Use of Those who have made some
Proficiency in the Language. 2nd edition revised. London: T. Becket, P.A. de
Hondt, and J. Johnson.
Schlaps, Christiane. 2004. The Genius of Language: Transformations of a Concept in
the History of Linguistics in Historiographia Linguistica, 31: 23, 367388.
Straaijer, Robin. 2011. Joseph Priestley, Grammarian: Late Modern English
Normativism and Usage in a Sociohistorical Context. Utrecht: LOT Dissertation

Presupposition and Implicitness

in the Linguistic Theories of the Twentieth Century

Universit Paris Diderot-Paris 7,
& Laboratoire d'Histoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Layla RAD
Universit de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France

In the 1970s, when linguists began to inventory and to analyze the various
forms that a presupposition can take in natural languages, their studies con-
verged on the idea that presupposition comes under the heading of implicitness.
128 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Linguists with quite different theoretical orientations, such as Charles Fillmore

(1970) or Oswald Ducrot (1972), argued that the meaning of statements con-
tained two complementary levels of communication: the explicit, which is illo-
cutionary, and the implicit, formed by the presuppositions conveyed in the
statement. However, by thus anchoring presupposition in the field of implicit-
ness, linguists carried out a profound shift in the issue raised between 1892 and
1950 by the logicians and philosophers Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell and
Peter Strawson; as a result, this new type of questioning notably led to the scope
of presupposition no longer being limited to reference to proper names and defi-
nite descriptions. A heterogeneous plethora of linguistic phenomena (several
types of verbs, cleft sentences, temporal clauses, non-restrictive relative clauses,
counterfactual conditionals, questions, etc.) was analyzed as types of presupposi-
tions. In return, the notion of implicitness had to be clarified in order to become
paradoxically consistent with the fact that every presupposition always explicitly
appears thanks to a specific signifier in a statements literal form. Therefore, the
theoretical assumption of construing presupposition as implicit is not obvious in
itself. The purpose of our communication will be to assess the impact that this
categorization had on the very fast elaboration of linguistic models (Robert Stal-
naker (1973), Lauri Karttunen and Stanley Peters (1977), Deirdre Wilson and
Dan Sperber (1979), ...) which, in spite of being in competition with one another,
treated presupposition as a phenomenon which essentially falls within the realm
of the pragmatic.
To reach our aim, we will begin by identifying the various criteria that led
the principal theorists to classify presupposition under the category of implicit-
ness. This study, which will highlight the lack of consensus, will then lead us to
establish a correlation between each theorys criteria for implicitness and each
ones specific way of explaining presupposition. Finally, we will show that in-
scribing presupposition in the field of implicitness contributed to the massive
increase of linguistic facts considered to be presuppositional in the last quarter of
the twentieth century, but then curiously contributed to emptying this heteroclite
grouping in favor of pragmatic analyses, highlighting, for example, that many
presuppositions could correspond to conventional or conversational implica-

Ducrot, O. 1972. Dire et ne pas dire. Paris: Hermann.
Fillmore, C. 1970. Verbes de jugement. Essai de description smantique. Langage 17.
Frege, G. 1892. Uber Sinn und Bedeutung. Zeitschrift fr Philosophie und philoso-
phische Kritik. 100. 25-50.
Gazdar, G. 1979. Pragmatics. Implicature, Presupposition and Logical Form. New
York: Academic Press.
Kerbrat-Orecchioni, C. 1986. Limplicite. Paris: Armand Colin.
Conference Handbook 129

Karttunen, L. 1974. Presupposition and linguistic context. Theoretical Linguistics 1.

Karttunen, L and S. Peters. 1977. Requiem for presupposition. BLS 3. Proceedings of
the Third Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society. Berkeley (CA). 360-
Russell, B. 1905. On Denoting. Mind 14. 479-493.
Stalnaker, R. 1974. Pragmatic presuppositions. in Munitz & P. Unger (eds). Semantics
and Philosophy. New York: New York University Press. 197-214.
Strawson, P. 1950. On Referring. Mind 59. 320-344.
Wilson, D and D. Sperber. 1979. Ordered entailments: an alternative to presupposition-
al theories. in C. K. Oh & D.A. Dinneen (eds), Syntax and Semantics 11: Presup-
position, New York: Academic Press. 299-323.

Vocabulrio empregado por Gndavo, no sculo XVI:

semas distintivos do Campo Lxico Nomeao para Nativo
a partir de acepes de Bluteau e Houaiss

Rejane Centurion Gambarra e GOMES

Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil

O objetivo desta comunicao apresentar a anlise de um campo lxico

categorizado a partir da obra Historia da prouincia Scta Cruz a que vulgarmete
chamamos Brasil, de Pero de Magalhes de Gndavo, publicada em 1576. Esta
considerada a primeira histria escrita em Lngua Portuguesa sobre o Brasil,
classificada pela historiografia literria como Literatura de Informao, apresen-
tando grande relevncia junto produo escrita do perodo colonial. Gndavo
teria dedicado em torno de dez anos de sua vida para elaborar tal obra, escreven-
do-a em trs verses, at que a entregasse para impresso, aos cuidados da ofici-
na tipogrfica de Antonio Gonsalvez. H, portanto, quatro verses da obra em
questo preparadas por seu autor: os manuscritos Tractado da prouinia do Bra-
sil, Tractado da terra do Brasil e Historia da prouincia Sancta Cruz, a que vul-
garmente chamamos Brasil; e a edio prncipe Historia da prouincia Scta
Cruz a que vulgarmete chamamos Brasil. No h autgrafos conhecidos e das
verses manuscritas citadas, h cpias apgrafas arquivadas em bibliotecas de
trs diferentes pases: Inglaterra, Portugal e Espanha. Da edio prncipe, por sua
vez, h o conhecimento de oito exemplares ao todo. A investigao se prope a
fazer um estudo do lxico tomando os captulos referentes aos nativos em suas
quatro verses, de forma a categorizar os substantivos em campos lxicos e dis-
cutir os semas de suas respectivas lexias, a partir da proposta metodolgica de
Coseriu (1977) e baseando-se em obras lexicogrficas coetneas e no coetneas
de Gndavo, bem como nos pressupostos tericos de Biderman (1978 e 1999).
Os itens agrupados nos campos lxicos estabelecidos apresentam um contedo
lexical comum, mas traos distintivos entre si, considerando-se, portanto, como
130 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

base fundamental da anlise a discusso de tais traos. Para isso, foi necessria a
consulta a obras lexicogrficas, selecionando-se Cardosi (1562), Pereyra (1647),
Bluteau (1712-1721) e Houaiss (2009). Em relao s trs primeiras, deve-se
esclarecer que, como o material de anlise do ano de 1576, e o primeiro dicio-
nrio de Lngua Portuguesa somente fora publicado entre 1712 e 1721, utiliza-
mos os primeiros para atestao do verbete, e o terceiro para aferio das acep-
es. Primeiramente, se procurava o verbete em Cardosi (1562), visto ser coet-
neo de Gndavo. Quando esta obra no o atestava, consultava-se Pereyra (1647).
A ltima obra foi consultada quando houve necessidade de complementar a
compreenso do significado da lexia. So seis os campos lxicos categorizados
e, nesta comunicao, ser apresentada a anlise de apenas um, denominado
nomeao para nativo, o qual serviu para se pensar no processo de nomeao
do nativo pelo no nativo. Ao final, ser mostrada a contribuio do estudo
lxico estrutural junto aos estudos da linguagem, entendendo que a descrio
lexical de vocabulrio empregado no sculo XVI possa fornecer subsdios para o
entendimento da atribuio de sentidos estabelecidos no perodo de formao do
lxico do portugus brasileiro. Para fazer o inventrio das lexias, foi utilizado
um programa de estatstica textual o Lxico 3. Esta pesquisa est vinculada
ao programa de ps-graduao em Filologia e Lngua Portuguesa da Universida-
de de So Paulo (USP), ao Departamento de Letras da Universidade do Estado
de Mato Grosso (UNEMAT/Tangar da Serra) e Fundao de Amparo Pes-
quisa do Estado de So Paulo (FAPESP).

Palavras-chave: substantivos campo lxico semas nomeao para nativo


BIDERMAN, Maria Tereza Camargo. Teoria lingustica: lingustica quantitativa e
computacional. Rio de Janeiro: Livros Tcnicos e Cientficos, 1978.
______. Conceito lingustico de palavra. In: BASLIO, Margarida (org). Revista Pala-
vra. Volume Temtico I: A delimitao de unidades lexicais. Departamento de Le-
tras. PUC-Rio. Rio de Janeiro: Grypho, 1999.
BLUTEAU, Raphael. Vocabulario portuguez e latino. Coimbra: Collegio das Artes da
Companhia de Jesu, 1712-1721. 10 vol. Disponvel em: http://purl.pt/13969/4/
Acesso em: 19.ago.2013.
CARDOSI, Hieronymi. Dictionarivm ex lvsitanico in latinvm sermonem. Ex Officina
Ioannis Aluari typographi Regij, 1562. Disponvel em: http://purl.pt/15192 Acesso
em: 19.ago.2013
COSERIU, Eugenio. Principios de Semntica Estructural. Madrid: Editorial Gredos,
HOUAISS eletrnico. Verso monousurio 3.0. Instituto Antnio Houaiss. Objetiva,
PEREYRA, Bento. Thesovro da Lingoa Portvguesa. Lisboa: Officina de Paulo Craes-
beeck, 1647.
Conference Handbook 131

De Francia a EE.UU.:
transferencias del hispanismo lingstico en el siglo XIX


Universidad de Salamanca, Espaa


Universidad de Salamanca, Espaa

Tras un perodo de letargo y aparente desinters por el aprendizaje de la

lengua espaola en Francia (a partir de la segunda dcada del siglo XVIII apenas
se publican mtodos o manuales que no sean reimpresiones de las gramticas de
Sobrino o de Fernndez), ya desde los primeros aos del siglo XIX, y debido al
afianzamiento de la enseanza de lenguas extranjeras en los currculos escolares
y universitarios de una parte, y a la consolidacin de los intereses econmicos y
comerciales en y con Hispanoamrica de otra, comienza a prepararse abundante
material didctico en ese pas.
El gran xito editorial en Francia de las obras de algunos autores como
entre otros Auguste-Louis Josse (desde 1799) o G. Harmonire (desde 1815)
(ambos publican buena parte de sus textos en la editorial parisina de Thophile
Barrois e hijos), junto con los primeros desarrollos autctonos del hispanismo
norteamericano, mueven a editores y autores estadounidenses a preparar traduc-
ciones, adaptaciones o versiones hispano-inglesas para sus lectores angloparlan-
tes, para el nuevo mercado entonces emergente.
El propsito de esta comunicacin es abrir una nueva va doble de investi-
gacin: (i) analizar los mecanismos generales de adaptacin y transferencia del
hispanismo lingstico francs al estadounidense a lo largo de su primer siglo de
existencia; y (ii) presentar y valorar el tratamiento descriptivo y pedaggico de
casos concretos tocantes a dificultades especficas de los aprendientes anglfo-
nos: sean los contrastes SER/ESTAR, indicativo/subjuntivo, cant/cantaba,
POR/PARA, etc.

Torsellino y Vlez reformadores de la Gramtica de lvarez.

Cambios en el mtodo


Universidad de Extremadura, Cceres, Espaa

Como sucedi en Espaa con las Introductiones de Nebrija, que fue objeto
de diferentes reformas hasta que se impuso la del jesuita Juan Luis de la Cerda a
principios del siglo XVII, tambin la Gramtica del jesuita Manuel lvares, De
institutione grammatica libri tres (Lisboa, 1572), fue reformada y adaptada de-
132 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

pendiendo de los diferentes lugares y de las necesidades docentes para las que se
hacan las nuevas ediciones. Pero, mientras que en muchas de las reformas y
explicaciones de las Introductiones de Nebrija realizadas durante los siglos XVI
y XVII, adems del mtodo, se incorporaba y reformaba buena parte de la doc-
trina sintctica siguiendo la lnea de la Gramtica racional, en las reformas de la
Gramtica de Manuel lvarez que vamos a abordar, la de Horacio Torsellino
(Roma, 1584) y la de Antnio Vlez (vora, 1599) los cambios fundamentales
se producen en el mtodo. El anlisis de este cambio de mtodo y de las estrate-
gias y recursos utilizados por estos dos autores para enseanza de la gramtica
latina pretende ser el objeto de esta comunicacin.

Palabras clave: Gramtica latina del siglo XVI; lvarez; Torsellino; Vlez; re-
forma gramatical; mtodo gramatical.

Sur la Rception de la Mthode Ollendorf au Portugal et au Brsil

et la Didactique des Langues

Universidade de vora, Portugal

Dvelopp par l'allemand Heinrich Gottfried Ollendorff (1802-1865), la r-

ception de la mthode Ollendorff a connue une grande popularit en Europe.
Comme en Espagne voir le cas d'Eduardo Benot (Ollendorf reformado) cette
mthode pour l'enseignement des langues trangres a donn galement
quelques fruits au Portugal et au Brsil.
Cette communication vise analyser la rception, en langue portugaise, de
la mthode Ollendorf dans les deux pays, en prenant comme rfrence les
ouvrages suivants: d'une part, o Methodo apprender a ler falar e escrever a lin-
gua franceza em seis mezes (Porto, 1878), o Novo Methodo para aprender a
lingua latina [Ollendorf, Benot e Manuel Bernardes] (1887); d'autre part, o Cur-
so de lingua geral segundo Ollendord, inclus dans O selvagem (1876) et publi
Rio de Janeiro par Jos Vieira Couto de Magalhes (1836-1898).
Les objectifs spcifiques de notre tude sont les suivants: i. dterminer la
rpercussion de la mthode et la faon dont celle-ci a t adopte pour diff-
rentes langues cibles; ii. identifier les possibles spcificits dans ladaptation de
la mthode en contexte lusophone; iii. comparer la rception de la mthode en
Espagne et celle des deux pays lusophones; iv. le rle de la traduction dans la
dissmination des mthodes didactiques et des ides linguistiques associes ; v.
analyser limportance de la mthode Ollendorf dans le contexte des mthodolo-
gies suivies au Portugal et au Brsil, dans le dernier quart du XIXe sicle, pour
l'enseignement des langues.
Conference Handbook 133

BENOT Eduardo (1864): Mtodo del Dr. Ollendorf para aprender a leer, hablar y es-
cribir un idioma cualquiera adaptado al francs, 4a ed. corregida nuevamente.
Cdiz: Imprenta de la Librera de la Imprenta Medica.
BENOT, Eduardo (1864): Ollendorf Reformado - Gramtica italiana y mtodo para
aprenderla, 3 ed. corregida. Cdiz: Verdugo y Morillas y Compaia.
MAGALHES, Jos Vieira Couto de (1876): Curso da lingua geral, segundo Ollendorf,
comprehendendo texto original de lendas tups. In: O selvagem. Rio de Janeiro:
Typographia da Reforma.
OLLEDORF, Heinrich G. (1878): Methodo para aprender a ler, falar e escrever a
lngua franceza em seis mezes. Porto.
SNCHEZ, Aquilino (1992): Historia de la enseanza del espaol como lengua ex-
tranjera. Madrid: SGEL.
VIA ROUCO, Mar (2002): The teaching for foreign languages en Europe: a historical
persperctive on foreign languages teaching in Spain. CAUCE Revista de Filo-
loga y su didctica, n25, 255-289.

Leitura Paleogrfica:
especificidades ao entendimento do texto manuscrito

Hortncia de Abreu GONALVES

Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, Brasil

Compreender o contedo de um manuscrito requer o conhecimento de tc-

nicas de leitura que envolve no apenas o contedo textual, como tambm a
avaliao analtica e interpretativa do que foi comunicado e ainda, a verificao
da caligrafia, fidelidade ortogrfica e argumentao pretendida pelo autor. Ma-
nuscrito qualquer documento escrito mo, traduo literal do latim manu
scriptum, em oposio a documentos impressos ou reproduzidos de outras ma-
neiras, como por exemplo, por tipografia ou por litografia (HEITLINGER,
2007, [n.p.]). A decifrao documental, independente de datao, exige o conhe-
cimento de tcnicas paleogrficas, visando evitar erros ao entendimento do con-
tedo abordado, por se tratar de uma fonte de pesquisa histrica que pode revelar
informaes importantes para a elucidao de perodos remotos. Objetivou-se
estudar os Testamentos postem mortem (140) e Inventrios (35) da Capitania
de Sergipe d El Rey, pertencentes aos sculos XVII - XIX - Brasil, documentos
cartoriais e seriais, com o intuito de verificar a relevncia da leitura paleogrfica
e suas especificidades ao entendimento do texto manuscrito. Como fontes se-
cundrias de pesquisa, recorreu-se ao levantamento bibliogrfico do tema, numa
abordagem exploratria, descritiva e analtica, pautada em reviso de literatura,
abrangendo publicaes entre os anos de 2006 e 2012. Os Testamentos post
mortem por serem fontes primrias manuscritas, em sua maioria so documen-
tos extremamente fragmentados, compostos de vrias pginas, escritas tanto no
134 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

anverso quanto no reverso, muitas vezes em condio fsicas precrias para o

manuseio regular. Em sua maioria, apresentam uma escrita rebuscada, acompa-
nhada de inmeras abreviaturas e siglas, fato que imprimiu a necessidade do
domnio de seus significados. Assim, por intermdio das especificidades da lei-
tura paleogrfica, foi possvel entender e restituir em sua especificidade o conte-
do textual dos documentos estudados, de modo a torn-los compreensveis,
considerando contextos, abordagens e pormenores descritos, com o intuito de
elucidar todas as informaes contidas no documento, considerando a sua ori-
gem, veracidade, caligrafia e tipo de escrita.

CAMPOS, Angelita Heidmann Campos; ANDRADE, Elias Alves de Andrade. Caracte-
rsticas ortogrficas da lngua portuguesa: sculos XVIII ao XX. Revista Philolo-
gus, Ano 18, N 53. Rio de Janeiro: CiFEFiL, maio/ago. 2012 Disponvel em:
<http://www.filologia.org.br/revista/_53/_RPh53.pdf#page=62>. Acesso em:
FLEXOR, Maria Helena Ochi. Abreviaturas de manuscritos dos sculos XVI ao XIX.
Encontro de Paleografia e Diplomtica, VI. outubro de 2010, Vitria ES.
Anais...Disponvel em: <www.aarqes.org.br/.../Maria%20Helena%
20Flexor%20-....> Acesso em: 20.11.2012.
HEITLINGER, Paulo. Manuscritos. [S.l.]: [s.n.], 2007. Disponvel em: <
http://tipografos.net/glossario/manuscrito.html>. Acesso em: 15. 11. 2012.

Norma lingustica do Brasil

na ptica das gramticas normativas e descritivas

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia

As mudanas internas da lngua e os factores sociolingusticos externos que

acompanham o seu funcionamento e influem na formao da norma lingustica
encontram nas gramticas tratamentos variados. A moderna lingustica brasileira
envolve duas abordagens diferentes quanto norma da lngua portuguesa.
Nas gramticas do portugus brasileiro (PB) registra-se uma mudana de
princpios da escolha do material lingustico e de critrios da sua descrio. As
gramticas anteriores s dcadas de 1970-80 (Rocha Lima,1945; Marques da
Cruz, 1964; C.Cunha & L.Cintra, 1984) registravam traos comuns ao portugus
europeu e ao portugus brasileiro e refletiam a norma do portugus europeu
fixadas nas gramticas existentes na altura. As gramticas posteriores dcada
de 1980 pretendem descrever as particularidades do PB (Castilho, 2012; Neves,
2000; Ilari & Neves, 2008). Essas gramticas no refletem s o portugus culto
(exemplos literrios) mas tambm a linguagem de mdia e o portugus brasileiro
falado culto (materiais do Projecto NURC). O objectivo de tal abordagem do
Conference Handbook 135

material visa marcar nas gramticas os resultados das mudanas na lngua tpicas
do PB. As mudanas na situao sociolingustica levaram a comunidade lingus-
tica do Brasil, inclusive os gramticos, reavaliao do status da lngua portu-
guesa do Brasil. Aparece o termo portugus brasileiro, diferindo-se do portu-
gus do Brasil. As gramticas refletem a mudana na atitude para com a norma
da lngua e as formas da linguagem que se consideram normativas (Bagno, org.
2002). Desenvolve-se o processo de escolha das variantes possveis do ponto de
vista da norma; as gramticas esto a fixar as variantes que devam constituir a
base da norma. Muitos exemplos no se consideram normativos do ponto de
vista do portugus europeu. Comea, de facto, a codificao da norma lingusti-
ca nacional brasileira j existente.
A questo da base da norma para o caso do Brasil s pode ser a norma soci-
al j que impossvel uma base geogrfica devido ao policentrismo cultural. A
base funcional da norma tambm tem a sua importncia porque muitas particula-
ridades do PB popular acabam a ser empregues no PB culto e aparecem nas
gramticas como admissveis.
Resumindo podemos dizer que a situao da diglossia (portugus culto vs
portugus popular) (Mattos e Silva, 2004; Lucchesi, 2002) est a ser superada na
situao sociolingustica actual; a unidade da lngua tem como base o entendi-
mento do papel social dela (Labov, 1972) cuja descrio no s inclui variantes
antigamente inadmissveis (Bechara, 1992) mas salienta a sua nova avaliao
linguisticamente normativa.

Early Generative Grammar in Amsterdam and Europe

Adam Mickiewicz University, Pozna, Poland

It was at the University of Amsterdam where in the late 1950s a group of

young students and assistants started to read Noam Chomskys Syntactic Struc-
tures (1957). This very small group, in which the name of the student of maths,
and later specialist in Basque, Rudolf de Rijk ( 1937-2003) was prominent two
other names are those of the young classicist and linguist Pieter Seuren (1934)
and of the linguist and expert in Dutch Albert (Remmert) Kraak (1928-2005)
received no support but rather obstruction from the established linguistic au-
thorities of the Faculty, in which the general linguist Anton Reichling (1898-
1986) was the leading figure.
The mathematician and philosopher Evert Willem Beth (1908-19640 sym-
pathized with the group of Young Turks and supported them where he could,
while at the same time he polemicized with Reichling. After Beths untimely
death Frits Staal (1930-2012), a young professor of analytical and of Indian phi-
losophy, was able to help young linguists who were interested in modern devel-
136 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

opments in their field, but Staal got into trouble in his own faculty and left for
the USA.
In this period Albert Kraak defended his PhD-dissertation Negative Zinnen
Negative Sentences(1966). The public defense of his thesis became a cause
clbre in the history of the Amsterdam Faculty of Arts. Reichling protested
openly. Staal, supervisor of Kraak, proposed a cum laude for the thesis the
highest distinction the Amsterdam University grants , which was refused on
formal grounds. Nevertheless Staal read the laudatory speech he had prepared
for the granting of this highest honor.
Two years later Reichling retired. The Young Turks hoped that his succes-
sor would be a generativist, but Reichling ant the Faculty of Arts had other
plans: they wanted Reichlings assistant, the very young Simon Dik (1940-
1995), who defended his PhD-dissertation just in time, to become the new full
professor of General Linguistics at Amsterdam University. This led to an open
fight, not only fought in the halls, rooms and offices of the university but also in
the Dutch press. The group of non-generativists won, Dik was offered the chair,
from which he started his very successful functionalist school. At the same time
the Department of Dutch became the equally successful headquarters of the first
European Generative School.
In this presentation the early history of the study of Generative Grammar in
the Netherlands will be presented, using sources from private archives such as
the correspondence between Seuren/De Rijk and Noam Chomsky, the corre-
spondence between Kraak and De Rijk and the correspondence between Staal
and the Anglicist and co-supervisor of Kraaks thesis Andries Vos. The archives
of some Dutch press media have also been consulted.

Hamans, Camiel (in prep.). The Dutch Linguistics Wars . To appear with Stichting Neer-
landistiek Amsterdam.
Conference Handbook 137

Historiografia Lingustica, Histria do Presente, Estudos Culturais:

desafios terico-metodolgicos em questo

Vera Lucia Harabagi HANNA

Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, So Paulo,
& Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de So Paulo, Brasil

Neusa Maria Oliveira Barbosa BASTOS

Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, So Paulo,
& Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de So Paulo, Brasil

Debates a respeito da histria do tempo presente em relao instituio de

uma verdade no-histrica, assim como estudos sobre crises epistemolgicas e
metodolgicas pelas quais esse campo de estudo tem passado nos ltimos ses-
senta anos tm trazido para discusso questes relativas mutabilidade da Hist-
ria, s fronteiras porosas entre as disciplinas, assim como algumas insatisfaes
atinentes promiscuidade que possa existir entre a Histria e outros ramos do
conhecimento, e as desconfianas de fontes advindas dos chamados no-
historiadores - cientistas sociais, jornalistas, cineastas, dramaturgos, escritores.
O modo como se cria a autenticidade, como se constitui a realidade, como se
estabelecem os argumentos, como se filtra o passado, como se usa a narrao
como forma de argumentao, de descrio, como se faz a seleo, a ordenao,
a reconstruo dos fatos so discusses infindveis. Indagaes sobre a histria
do presente e verdade histrica, alm do imediatismo de fontes novas, exigem
uma reviso sobre o posicionamento terico-metodolgico do trabalho em HL e
tm sido objeto de discusso no GPeHLP - Grupo de Historiografia da Lngua
Portuguesa - IP-PUC/SP e no GT de Historiografia da Lingustica Brasileira da
ANPOLL. O presente trabalho, alm de propor a continuidade daquele estudo,
visa a complement-lo e ampli-lo no que se refere ao construto de interpretao
das evidncias a partir do perodo em que foi produzida e identific-la com os
movimentos culturais e polticos da poca (episteme de Foucault). Consideran-
do-se que todos os sistemas humanos so simblicos e sujeitos s regras da ln-
gua, no havendo possibilidade de o indivduo se posicionar como um observa-
dor fora do crculo fechado da textualidade, utiliza-se o modelo do texto para o
estudo da cultura (Estudos Culturais) que justifica a incluso das anlises de
Geertz (a cultura e os rituais que a compem como um rede de significados es-
tratificados), de Hall (representaes e construo textual da identidade cultural,
da cultura popular s prticas cotidianas), de Bhabha (questes do tempo e tem-
poralidade; vivncias nas fronteiras do presente), alm de Bordieu, Chartier,
Halbawachs, Koerner, Le Goff, Munslow, Muricy, Veyne, White, dentre mui-
tos outros.
138 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Degrandos three prize essays and the shift in linguistic thought

at the turn of the 19th century

Universitt Potsdam, Deutschland

Joseph-Marie Degrando (1772-1842), today mainly known as a precursor

of modern anthropology, started out from the views of the French ideologists on
the relationship of language and thought, but increasingly distanced himself
from them. This is already evident based on the choice of reference authors
(Kant instead of Condillac) and also on the increasing emphasis on empirical
research. His prize essays reflect the fundamental changes in linguistic thought
during the late 18th century. For the competition of the Institut National on the
influence of signs on thought, he submitted essays both in 1797 and once again
during the new call for submittals in 1799. He was successful in this competition
and came into contact with the 'ideologists', who gave him a teaching position
and encouraged him to treat subjects like pasigraphy, the observation of exotic
peoples and languages, the sign language of the deaf and mute, as well as Kant's
writings. Degrando was successful with another essay on a related subject at the
Berlin Academy (1802). In his major work on linguistic subjects (Degrando
1800), the extended version of his Parisian prize-winning essay, he discusses in
four volumes the operations of the human spirit and the usefulness of signs in
the acquisition of knowledge. His main argument against Condillac and the ide-
ologists is that empirical knowledge does not depend on signs. Therefore, the
development of better languages will not improve this kind of human
knowledge. Nevertheless, signs are necessary in the composition of ideas, in
generalisation and abstraction. In his History of Philosophy, he tried to reconcile
scepticism and dogmatism, empiricism and rationalism, materialism and ideal-
ism in a philosophy of experience (philosophie de l'exprience) with a con-
sciously eclectic solution. In this context he continued discussing the sign prob-
lem from an epistemological point of view.

Bibliographic Notes:
Degrando (1800): Des Signes et de l'Art de penser considrs dans leurs rapports mu-
tuels, 4 vols., Paris: Goujon, Fuchs, Henrichs.
- (1802) De la gnration des connaissances humaines. Mmoire qui a partag le prix de
l'acadmie Royale des Sciences de Berlin [...], Berlin: Decker.
Haler, Gerda (2001): Joseph Marie Degrando et ses rponses aux questions poses
par lAcadmie de Berlin et par lInstitut de France. In: Fontius, Martin / Mondot,
Jean (Hrsg.): Franzsische Kultur Aufklrung in Preuen, Berlin: Arno Spitz
Haler, Gerda / Cordula Neis: Lexikon sprachtheoretischer Grundbegriffe des 17. und
18. Jahrhunderts. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter 2009
Conference Handbook 139

Relaes entre a Pesquisa Saussuriana

sobre as Lendas Germnicas e o Curso de Lingustica Geral

Stefania Montes HENRIQUES

Universidade Federal de Uberlndia, Minas Gerais, Brasil

Sabe-se que de 1907 1911, Saussure ministrou trs cursos de lingustica

geral na Universidade de Genebra. O contedo desses cursos, fundamentado nas
notas de alguns de seus alunos, foi publicado postumamente por Charles Bally e
Albert Sechehaye, sob o nome de Curso de Lingustica Geral, e foi o responsvel
pela fundao da Lingustica moderna. vlido ressaltar que os estudos de Sau-
ssure durante esse perodo no se restringiram ao mbito da lingustica, abarcan-
do tambm os estudos anagramticos (1906-1911) e as lendas germnicas (1903-
1910). Ademais, perceptvel que esses estudos, apesar de serem distintos, fo-
ram desenvolvidos concomitantemente aos cursos de lingustica geral. Isso fez
com que alguns estudiosos defendessem a existncia de uma dicotomia nos estu-
dos saussurianos: haveria um Saussure diurno, que ministrava cursos de lingus-
tica; e um Saussure noturno, que se detinha no estudo dos anagramas e das len-
das germnicas. Por outro lado, Turpin (1992) afirma que os estudos sobre os
anagramas e as lendas germnicas no podem ser dissociados da pesquisa em
lingustica na medida em que eles se relacionam teoricamente. (cf. TURPIN,
1992, p. 301). Concordamos com Turpin (1992) e pretendemos explicitar de que
maneira as consideraes saussurianas sobre a lngua interferem na pesquisa
sobre as lendas germnicas. Tendo em vista que, de acordo com Starobinski
(1974), os estudos sobre as lendas germnicas esto compreendidos em cerca de
dezoito cadernos alm de vrias folhas avulsas -, catalogados sob os nmeros
Ms. Fr. 3958 e Ms. Fr. 3959), optamos por analisar o manuscrito Ms. Fr. 3958,
especificamente o quarto caderno, que foi adquirido na Biblioteca Pblica e
Universitria de Genebra. O nosso objetivo principal tentar estabelecer rela-
es tericas entre o contedo desse manuscrito e o contedo do Curso de Lin-
gustica Geral, especificamente com conceitos importantes da teoria lingustica,
tais como signo lingustico, arbitrariedade e valor lingustico.

La Descripcin y Explicacin de la Preposicin

y los Grupos Preposicionales en el Tesoro de Covarrubias


Universidad de Vigo, Espaa

El Tesoro de Covarrubias (1611) es una obra especialmente singular tanto

desde el punto de vista lexicogrfico como enciclopdico, porque aporta abun-
dante informacin sobre fuentes (jurdicas, filosficas, gramaticales...) y unida-
140 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

des sintcticas. En nuestro estudio, en el que seguimos la edicin de Arellano &

Zafra (2006 [1611]), a partir de la descripcin contenida en el correspondiente
artculo, examinaremos el inventario de esta clase cerrada, el uso y las diversas
ideas expuestas por el autor a partir de diversos ejemplos:
ANTE. Preposicin; algunas veces vale lo que en latn coram, en presencia
de persona o personas, como lo que dice el notario en la fe que da [...].
CON. Lat. cum, preposicin de ablativo.
CONTRA. Preposicin, contra, sentencia en contra. Martinus contra,
cuando alguno contradice todo lo que se propone.
+ CONTRA. (Aade). Algunas veces no sinifica contrariedad y enemiga,
sino cosa puesta una en frente de otra segn el lugar del Evangelio: Ite in Cas-
tellum quod contra vos, etc. [...] En lenguaje antiguo vale ergo y apud, lo mes-
mo que cerca de, ley primera, ttulo tercero, partida segunda [...].

Tradiciones, Paradigmas y Escuelas:

Una Visin General de las Gramticas Misioneras Mesoamericanas


Academia Mexicana de la Lengua,
Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico,
& Sociedad Mexicana de Historiografa Lingstica, Mxico

El estudio de las lenguas americanas ha llegado a ser, desde el siglo XIX,

uno de los grandes temas en la lingstica moderna. Cada da se analizan y des-
criben mejor las lenguas de este continente y se descubre en ellas algn rasgo
que enriquece el conocimiento del lenguaje. Por otra parte, dentro de estas len-
guas se ha ido perfilando la figura de un grupo que tiene como morada un rea
con personalidad propia, la que llamamos Mesoamrica. Mesoamrica es un
dilatado espacio geogrfico donde se desarroll una alta cultura a partir del pri-
mer milenio a. C. En l coexistieron numerosas lenguas, algunas de las cuales
llegaron a ser generales y unas pocas dejaron documentos escritos en escritura
silbica. Hoy da, este espacio es un referente mundial no slo en el campo de la
arqueologa y la historia sino tambin en el de la lingstica; las lenguas mesoa-
mericanas clasificadas en 14 troncos son estudiadas per se y como soportes de
un pensamiento que permanece en el presente mexicano.
Lo que sabemos de este universo lingstico se comenz a generar cuando
un grupo de misioneros se encontraron con una Babel que haba que conquistar
para la fe. La respuesta ante tal hecho inesperado fue un intenso aprendizaje de
lenguas y un gigantesco proceso de gramatizacin; y aunque este ltimo hecho
fue percibido y estudiado por los lingistas del siglo XIX, no fue sino hasta la
segunda mitad del XX cuando cobr gran importancia a la luz de la moderna
Historiografa lingstica debida a Konrad Koerner.
Conference Handbook 141

Mi propuesta para el ICHOLS XIII es presentar una sntesis sobre el proce-

so de gramatizacin de las lenguas generales de Mesoamrica desde los postula-
dos tericos y metodolgicos de la Historiografa lingstica, destacando los
momentos de creacin de nuevos paradigmas gramaticales. Importante es tambi-
n definir cmo se van perfilando tres escuelas que corresponden a los sistemas
de enseanza y de evangelizacin de las rdenes principales que misionaron en
el rea mesoamericana: franciscanos, dominicos y jesuitas. Mi objetivo es mos-
trar que, aunque las tres escuelas parten de la tradicin grecolatina, en concreto
de las Introductiones de Nebrija, cada una de ellas desarroll sus propios mode-
los gramaticales, que juntos conforman una nueva tradicin: la mesoamericana.
Esta tradicin no es simplemente una extensin de la generada en el Renacimi-
ento europeo sino que tiene su propia personalidad dentro de la gran tradicin
gramatical de Occidente.

Humboldt's Basque grammars:

A comparison of two previously unpublished fragments

Bernhard HURCH
Universitt Graz, Austria

The new edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's linguistic writings includes

mostly manuscripts that for one reason or the other had remained unpublished.
One of the first languages Humboldt was deeply interested in was Basque. He
started these studies previous to his field trip in 1801 and continued them until
the publication of his book-length analysis of pre-Roman Iberia in 1821. The
plan of Humboldt's Basque opus embraced 3 volumes. The recent publication of
the Basque section of his writings (Humboldt 2010, 2012 and forthcoming) tries
to reconstruct this in the best possible way: anthropology, language and linguis-
tics, history. The second volume (Humboldt 2012) selects all manuscripts deal-
ing with grammar and lexicography. From these only Humboldt's contribution to
Adelung & Vaters Mithridates had been known. The volume contains a series
of earlier studies that nicely illustrate the way in which Humboldt studied the
language and how he slowly approached the separative marking type of Basque
verbal morphology, gained insight on ergativity, on marked vs. unmarked de-
clensions, proximative plural, etc. He undertook two efforts to write a systematic
grammar of Basque, designed to be part of the Baskenwerk: the first one dates
back to a period soon after his field trip to the Basque Country (probably in the
early years in Rome between 1801 and 1803), the second one was written nearly
one decade later (presumably in Vienna between 1810 and 1812). Due to the
places where we now find the most reliable copies, in the edition the first one is
termed Cracow manuscript, the second Bilbao manuscript.
142 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

On the first sight one difference between the two manuscripts is that the se-
cond follows the structure Humboldt had developed and which he consequently
took as the scheme for describing of about 3 dozen languages from different
parts of the world. In addition, the Bilbao ms. contains a long critical section on
bibliographic references and materials (Hlfsmittel). Contrary to this, the Cra-
cow ms. in some sense follows a more traditional sequential numbering of
grammatical items, but more closely reflects Humboldt's own process of for-
mation of knowledge, of grammatical thinking and categorization. It thus goes
much more into detail in strictly linguistic terms of analysis and data. Conse-
quently, we find a series of insights and formulations for the first time (e.g. on
grammaticalization, written in 1801/02 - hence 20 years earlier than his well-
received article on the topic) and these insights can directly be traced back to the
materials and contacts (esp. Pablo Pedro de Astarloa) during the Basque journey.
The field experience itself had opened a perspective to Humboldt which other-
wise would have remained unexplored. Thus, the Basque years of Humboldt's
life, which somehow also bridge the anthropological and the linguistic topics
and periods, after the publication of the texts can concretly be proven to be cru-
cial in the formation of his linguistic and grammatical thought.

HUMBOLDT, Wilhelm von (2010) Schriften zur Anthropologie der Basken, ed. Bernhard
Hurch. Paderborn: Schningh. (Schriften zur Sprachwissenschaft Abt. II. vol.1).
HUMBOLDT, Wilhelm von (2012) Baskische Wortstudien und Grammatik. ed. Bernhard
Hurch. Paderborn: Schningh. (Schriften zur Sprachwissenschaft, Abt. II, vol. 2).
HUMBOLDT, Wilhelm von (forthcoming) Schriften zur Ur- und Frhgeschichte der
iberischen Halbinsel. ed. Bernhard Hurch. Paderborn: Schning. (Schriften zur
Sprachwissenschaft. Abt. II, vol. 3).

Network of Knowledge

Bernhard HURCH
Universitt Graz, Austria

Johannes Gregor MCKE

Universitt Graz, Austria

Under the title Network of Knowledge a well-funded research project at

the University of Graz explores the societal conditions which made the enor-
mous progress of humanities and especially of language sciences possible. The
two most important constituting factors that have been chosen to sketch this
network are the installation of a mail system meeting the needs of the industrial-
ized market and the development of new printing techniques (rotary press, wood
Conference Handbook 143

pulp paper, innovation in type setting). Around 3 dozen new philological jour-
nals have been founded in the 35 years from 1850 to 1885. Some of them were
published weekly. This flourishing social developments also set the conditions
for the foundation of most of the philological institutes and chairs that we find
today in the old universities.
The networking - as we call the prompt and intense use language scientists
made of the new infrastructure - contributed to a complete new culture of scien-
tific discourse: the review as a new text-type was created, the scientific essay
assumed a completely new gestalt, letters assumed an importance in scientific
exchange which they never had before. Only these 'external' factors provide for a
reasonable explanation of the overwhelming changes of that period.
In a first stance the project elaborates this model by the example of Hugo
Schuchardt, a well-known representative and seminal figure of language scienc-
es in the nineteenth century. His contributions extend over different areas, from
general to Romance, from historical to typology, from Basque studies to Creole
linguistics, from Slavic to Gaelic, Caucasian and many others. He contributed
original ideas to various of these areas which also were constitutive for the for-
mation of disciplines (e.g., Pidgin and Creole studies). One thread running
through his life-time production was the study of language contact and the mix-
ture of languages, Sprachmischung, as he liked to term it.
A serious treatment of this vast array of topics is inseparable from the
14.000 letters in his legacy, from the dozens of reviews he wrote, the hundreds
of reviews he received. All this is part of a network which worked at an incredi-
ble speed and in which virtually anyone who was interested in language sciences
participated. Specific linguistic discussions can be re-drawn, we get a clearer
understanding of parallels between researchers (e.g. Baudouin, Gabelentz, Schu-
chardt) and of innovations in the field.
The presentation will explore this approach at hand of one or two selected
topics (like the discussion around the early Creole linguistics and
Sprachmischung) and will illustrate the knowledge-based information system
which will make the materials accessible.
The presentation also aims at motivating and inviting colleagues from other
countries to collaborate in a pan-European project which re-designs the 19th
century network in large scale on the internet and thus gives free access to its
materials and discussions.
144 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

What kind of meaning formalizes the formal semantics?

A focus on the turn of the 20th century

Manuel Gustavo ISAAC

cole Doctorale Sciences du Langage, Universit Paris Diderot - Paris 7,
& Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3, France

The history of logic from the modern to the contemporary times presents an
explicit shift regarding the formalization of meaning. In the 17th c., the calculus
of meaning is conceived as a calculus on ideas. It focuses on setting and fails to
set the duality of intension and extension (Auroux, 1993); whereas, in the 20th
c. that very one duality leads to an alternative between two conceptions of mea-
ning. More precisely: the first one is the model-theoretic semantics, it is based
on an extensional conception of meaning i.e., meaning means here the valua-
tion of formulas in terms of truth-values and its linguistic formal theory coun-
terpart is the montagovian grammar (Montague, 1974); the second one is the
proof-theoretic semantics, it is based on an intensional conception of meaning
i.e., meaning means there the proof computation process and its linguistic
formal theories counterparts are the categorical grammars (Lambek, 1958). In
both cases, the formal language syntax can be treated as the common ground on
which are triggered these two different ways of dealing with meaning i.e. res-
pectively, by characterizing structures of meaning and by typing formulas of a
calculus. On that layout, my point will be to state why and how, from the failure
of the historically classical logic about the intension/extension duality, emerges
the opposition of the two paradigms concerning the meaning of syntax that are:
the extensionalist and the intensionalist. I will develop my point using the Frege-
Husserl confrontation because their respective works are explicitly used as hori-
zon de retrospection by both paradigms. From their point of view, I will explain
how the transition from a monistic to a dualistic conception of the sy-
ntax/semantics duality and vice-versa respectively in Freges (1879-1893) and
Husserls (1891-1901) works perfectly match the triggering factor of the alter-
native between the two conceptions of the formalization of meaning. In such a
way that finally, in terms of history of language sciences, Frege and Husserls
works together will establish the causal link from modern to contemporary logic.

Auroux, Sylvain (1993). La logique des ides. Montral / Paris: Bellarmin / Vrin.
Boole, George (1854). An investigation of the law of thought: on which are founded the
mathematical theories of logic and probabilities. London / Cambridge: Walton &
Marbely / MacMillan.
Frege, Gottlob (1879). Begriffsschrift, eine der arithmetischen nachgebildete Formels-
prache des reinen Denkens. Halle a/S.: L. Nebert.
(1884). Die GrundlagenderArithmetik: eine logisch-mathematische Untersuchung ber
den Begriff der Zahl. Breslau: W. Koebner.
Conference Handbook 145

(1964). Begriffsschrift und andere Aufstze. Ed. Ignacio Angelelli. Hilde- sheim: G.
(1967). Kleine Schriften. Ed. Ignacio Angelelli. Hildesheim: G. Olms.
(1969). Nachgelassene Schriften und Wissenschaftlicher Briefwechsel. 1, Nachgelas-
sene Schriften. Eds. Hans Hermes et al. Hamburg: Felix Meiner.
Husserl, Edmund (1891). Philosophie der Arithmetik. Psychologische und logische Un-
tersuchungen. Halle: Stricker.
(1900/1). Logische Untersuchungen. III Band. Halle: Niemeyer.
(1970). Philosophie der Arithmetik. Mit ergnzenden Texten (1890-1901). Ed. Lothar
Eley. (Husserliana: 12). Den Haag: Nijhoff.
(1979). Aufstze und Rezensionen (1890-1910). Eds. Bernhard Rang and Herman Leo
Van Breda. (Husserliana: 22). Den Haag: Nijhoff.
Lambek, Joachim (1958). The mathematics of sentence structure, American Mathemat-
ical Monthly, 65.
Montague, Richard (1974). Formal Philosophy: Selected Papers of Richard Montague.
Ed. Richmond Thomason, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Eugenio Coseriu and Eli Fischer-Jrgensen

Viggo Bank JENSEN

University of Copenhagen, Denmark

The Rumanian linguist Eugenio Coseriu (1921-2002) who lived most of his
academic career in Italy, Uruguay and Germany had several contacts, personally
and theoretically, with Scandinavian linguists. This interplay has been of great
importance in international linguistics. In the presentation I will focus on Coser-
ius relationship to the Danish phonetician Eli Fischer-Jrgensen (1911-2010)
who for many years collaborated with Louis Hjelmslev (1899-1965), the central
person in the Glossematic School. In some aspects her opinion diverged from
Hjelmslevs, especially on the problem of form and substance in language.
Since much of Coserius linguistic work is characterized by a discursive attitude
towards the work of Hjelmslev, it is relevant to evaluate the importance of Co-
serius scientific and personal relationship to a near collaborator of Hjelmslev
like Fischer-Jrgensen. Coseriu refers to her as a friend and as the great Danish
phonetician (Kabatek, & Murgua 1997: 93).
My presentation will be in four parts: Firstly it will be demonstrated that
Fischer-Jrgensen is a central reference point for the young Coseriu (1954) in
his critique of Hjelmslevs ideas on form and substance. Secondly I will
comment on how Fischer-Jrgensen refers to Coserius theories in her famous
work Trends in Phonological Theory. Thirdly will be referred to a correspond-
ence between Coseriu and Fischer-Jrgensen which gives information on the
mutual influence and on some discussion points between the two linguists. Fi-
nally I will discuss how this connection sheds light on the Coserian relation to
146 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Hjelmslev and on the development of Coserius linguistics.

Correspondence between Eli Fischer-Jrgensen and Eugenio Coseriu (unpublished).
Coseriu, Eugenio (1954). Forma y sustancia en los sonidos del lenguaje. Montevideo.
Coseriu, Eugenio (1988). Einfhrung in die allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft. Tbingen
Fischer-Jrgensen, Eli (1949). Remarques sur les principes de lanalyse phonmique,
in Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague, vol. V, pp. 214-34.
Fischer-Jrgensen, Eli (1975). Trends in Phonological Theory. A Historical Introduc-
tion. Kbenhavn.
Kabatek, Johannes & Adolfo Murgua (1997). Die Sachen sagen, wie sie sind .
Eugenio Coseriu im Gesprch. Tbingen.

One model of word formation in Georgian

Marina JIKIA
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
& Giorgi Akhvlediani Society for the History of Linguistics, Tbilisi, Georgia

In contemporary Georgian there are compounds of the type noun + verbal

stem +ia(suffix). The Specialists interpret these forms in the following ways: (1)
the second component, i.e. the verbal stem, semantically approximates to the
active participle; (2) the second component is represented by the imperative; (3)
the direct object is expressed by noun and the second component is a participle
which is based on the aorist and has lost its prefix; (4) it consists of the participle
with a direct object and an infinitive with the suffix -a; (5) the verbal compo-
nents of these forms are based on the stems of infinitives they express the
possession of the action denoted by the infinitives; (6) they function as parti-
ciples, and it is confirmed by the existence of the parallel forms as well,
although these forms differ in stylistic nuances. The forms with -ia express state
and denote some property as a result of the subsequent reinterpretation. The case
of the nominal components of these compounds is also differently interpreted
nominative, genitive, and adverbial cases are often mentioned thereupon,
although the genitive is considered more acceptable.
In our opinion these forms are the extended morphosyntaxemes, which se-
em to be equivalent to the compressed sentences. Actually it is the model of the
simple non-expanded sentence, in which the agent is expressed by the suffix -ia
(in the finite forms of the verbs in the Georgian the agent of the 3rd person is
denoted by a suffix) and the whole compound represents an agent. Predicate is
related to the verbal constituent, which is manifested by the verbal root without
any affixes and the direct object is expressed by the noun. As for the case of the
object, generally it is genitive, implying that it agrees with the infinitive. The
dative is obligatory when the names with losable vocal ending do not lose their
Conference Handbook 147

final vocal (dropping of the dative suffix seems quite natural). In such cases, we
regard the predicative constituent as the finite form of the present tense. The
direct object is in the nominative case when the verbal component is presented
by the finite form in aorist (/bartqi'amia bartqi 'ama / nestling-eater
he ate a nestling).
The finite forms corroborate the hypothesis of the sentence-compression.
Historically, Georgian is divided into Old Georgian, from the 5thcentury to
the end of the 11thcentury, Middle Georgian, from the 12thcentury to the begin-
ning of the 19thcentury, and Modern Georgian, from the beginning of the
19thcentury to the present day. The compound words I have written about star-
ted to come into the language from the beginning of the 19thcentury, with the
new sciences of biology and botany and the names they needed to create for
their descriptions and taxonomies of plants, insects, fishes, birds, animals, etc.
But in fairy tales there are plenty of names we are interesting in. They pe-
netrated there from real life of people. For example, /cqaliparia/ water-
stealer drunk a lot of water, /cavretia/ skylooker was looking at the sky all
time, / kvercxiparia/ egg-stealer was stealing eggs from the nid of a turtle-
dove, /nacarkekia/ ash delver' delved into ashes and got appropriate nickname.
The most part of these composite words with single notion are widespread
in a figurative sense and they are mostly humoristic, e.g. /araxvetia/ ro-
adsweeper in the meaning (female) loafer (ones time away), /doqlapia/
yoghurt swallower blockhead, /kevieia/ gum chewer who bores
with long conversations, /karipantia/ wind-spender thoughtless,
/kvaxaria / who boils the stone skinflint, /cxviribzekia / who throws back
ones nose haughty, etc.
The meanings of components everywhere is clear and the words when
they functioned as nicknames of human beings (and we should say that most of
them are nicknames), they sometimes dominated over the real names of persons.
During research of Georgian anthroponymics we met about thirty com-
posites of this kind used as nicknames or stems of family names. In these words
the motivation of choice of nickname is clear and as the most stems of family
names are based on nicknames, we become witnesses of creation of family na-
mes from real facts. Taking into account the fact that every type of the proper
names come from ancient centuries, it Process of patronymization in Georgia is
very ancient. In this connection the compound words occurring as a root in the
surnames may considered as historic category.
There are over two hundred such forms in Georgian and they are increasing
in number.
148 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Le savoir tymologique, enjeu scientifique et objet denseignement

(annes 1880-1920)

Muriel JORGE
cole Doctorale Langage et Langues,
Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3, France

La communication propose relve la fois de lhistoire des ides linguisti-

ques et de lhistoire des disciplines scolaires. Il sagit dabord de montrer com-
ment, dans un contexte dinstitutionnalisation de la linguistique en France par-
tir des annes 1880, le savoir tymologique se trouve au cur de dbats dfiniti-
onnels, mthodologiques et pistmologiques au sein de la communaut savante.
En effet, la philologie, la linguistique historique et lhistoire de la langue fran-
aise, trois approches historiques de la langue alors en cours de diffrenciation,
posent de multiples problmes: le rle des reconstructions dans la mthode
comparative face au dveloppement de la mthode philologique, la place respec-
tive de la forme et du sens dans lvolution des mots, la conceptualisation dune
distinction entre synchronie et diachronie, ou encore le statut ontologique des
dialectes dans la famille des langues romanes. La priode est galement marque
par les dbats autour de la rforme de lorthographe franaise. Ltymologie,
dont la nature est alors redfinie, cristallise ces problmatiques.
Pourtant, le savoir tymologique apparat dans les programmes de
lenseignement primaire partir des annes 1880 pour en disparatre vers 1920.
On analysera comment ce savoir contribue la construction du franais comme
discipline scolaire. On mettra en regard le savoir tymologique scolaire et les
questionnements scientifiques contemporains afin didentifier leurs convergen-
ces et leurs divergences. A partir dexemples tirs dune source indite, des tra-
vaux dlves dune cole parisienne de lanne scolaire 1906-1907, on montrera
que les conceptions savante et scolaire du savoir tymologique sont confrontes
des problmes similaires. On verra que la conception scolaire se situe dans un
horizon de rtrospection plus long que la conception savante. Il apparatra ainsi
que lintroduction du savoir tymologique lcole reprsente une tentative
rate de rapprochement dun savoir de rfrence et du savoir enseign.

Bibliographie indicative
BOURQUIN Jacques (1980), La drivation suffixale: thorisation et enseignement au
XIXe sicle, Paris, Honor Champion, 2 vol., 1167 p.
BRANCA-ROSOFF Sonia et SAVATOVSKY Dan (2007), La lexicologie, un savoir
scolarisable ?, in KIBBEE Douglas (ed.), History of Linguistics 2005. (ICHoLS
X), Amsterdam/Philadelphia, John Benjamins, pp. 356-371.
BRAL Michel (1889), De limportance du sens en tymologie et en grammaire,
Mmoires de la Socit de Linguistique de Paris, n 6, pp. 163-175.
Conference Handbook 149

THOMAS Antoine (1904), Coup dil sur lhistoire et la mthode de la science tymo-
logique, Nouveaux essais de philologie franaise, Paris, Librairie Emile Bouillon,
pp. 1-34.

Eight Modes of Definition in the Chinese Thesaurus Erya

Ryukoku University, Kyoto, Japan

In this paper, departing from the description in Erya in the ancient China,
the methodology of the thesauruses across languages and eras will be examined.
Yong and Peng (2008) classified the Chinese dictionaries into three catego-
ries: thesauruses, character dictionaries, and rhyme books. Erya (The Ready
Guide) can be regarded as a thesaurus, the Chinese oldest one. Though the au-
thor is unknown, its origin should be traced back to the Spring and Autumn Pe-
riod (770 453 B.C.) or the Warring States period (453 221 B.C.), and finally
fixed into shape during the Western Han Dynasty (206 8 B.C.). This paper first
discusses the eight modes of definition in Erya, according to Yong and Peng
(2008: 69 71), such as follows:

1. Identical characters with different interpretation

2. Different words with identical interpretations
3. Identical interpretations with different meanings
4. Different interpretations with identical meanings
5. Anonymous interpretation
6. Self-interpretation
7. Phonetic interpretation
8. Circular interpretation

Of these, 1 is considered to be idiosyncratic with the Chinese language be-

cause of the orthography of its characters. When words in the Indo-European
languages substitute Chinese characters in thisdescription, i.e. Identical words
with different interpretation, that will be the cases like bachelor as one of the
academic degrees and an unmarried human male.
The other categories ought to be common with thesauruses in other langua-
ges. Take Self-interpretation (6) and Circular interpretation (8) for example.
The Chinese example in Yong and Peng (2008: 70) is the preposition yu (diffe-
rent character are adopted meaning at, in) and ye (a final particle) for the self-
interpretation: two kinds of characters are interchangeably used for the preposi-
tion referring to places, but not for ye. The only common syntactical feature
between yu and ye would be that both are functional words.
150 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

For the category Circular interpretation, the following items, with the mo-
dern definitions, are listed in Yong and Peng (2008: 70):
fa (law), ze (namely / rule), xing (punishment), fan (order), ju (rule)
and l (law) mean chang (usually).
xing, fan, l, ju, ze mean fa.
Here again, we must pay attention to the syntactic categories of each cha-
racter: fa, xing, fan, ju, l and ze in the sense of rule are nouns, whereas
ze in the sense of namely and chang are adverbs. Under the heading of fa,
five items xing, fan, l, ju, ze are listed in turn, without the meaning usually.

Narrative and Construction of Ethnobotanical Terminology

Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade, Serbia

Today is generally accepted that narratives have significant role in shaping

memory, knowledge, beliefs, and consequently, the language and communicati-
on within a community. But misconceptions about the phenomenon of narrative
that have existed in the past caused in turn many misconceptions about its ins-
trumentalization in different scientific disciplines. The science of language was
also under such impact. For example, misconceptions about nature, structure and
function of myth as a form of narrative caused that the reconstruction of Proto-
Slavic myths and rituals until the last third of the 20th century was always
shown as a field that could not provide fruitful critical research. However, with a
so-called narrative turn different disciplines (anthropology, psychology, philo-
sophy, political science, gender studies, medicine) begin to conceptualize narra-
tive in a radically different way narrative is no longer just a form for recording
story. The reliable sources for a systematic study of Slavic paganism were found
directly by establishing a new theory of myth. At the same time, by using a new
method for text reconstruction which enables identification of the transformed
fragments of mythical narratives established in ritual, there were brought to light
those key traits of Slavic pagan beliefs that certainly trace their original roots
back to Proto-Indo-European religion (Cf. / (1963), /
(1965), / (1974)). But , of course, both of these
themes - narrative and Slavic mythology are still a much debated topics. The aim
of this paper is, first, to describe the nature of myth as a specific narrative form
and its role in language construction, especially the way it contributes to a sys-
tem of iconym classification i.e. the way it is realized in a corpus of ethnobota-
nical terminology, and second, to show that the generally accepted opinion about
the extremely small number of occurrences of those traditional botanical names
that indicate the mythological connection between certain plants with pagan
deities and cults arose still from the lack of complete understanding the function
Conference Handbook 151

of myth and its close relationship with language. By this research we are going
to make absolutely clear that most likely because they are not yet recognized, the
number of such phytonyms is still relatively small, but even so they are not ne-
gligible and therefore not insignificant both for the history of language studies
and for the ethnology studies, the social anthropology studies and the history of
religion studies in general. We were focused on the examples excerpted from the
Serbo-Croatian ethnobotanical corpus that have never been discussed in previous
etymological and phytonomastical research. A semic analysis helped us in re-
constructing the onomasiological procedure of the name-giving, i.e. denominati-
ve motive which a phytonym was constructed out of. The method of comparati-
ve-etymological analysis was also applied: the naming units with the same deno-
tative function either in genetically close or in unrelated languages enabled us to
mark out specific features of the concept, selection of the semantic components
and the concrete morphemes for processing word-coining. Particular attention
was paid to semasiological and onomasiological analysis of the equivalent phy-
tonyms that belong to classical Latin botanical nomenclature being a folk ta-
xonomy of sui generis.
Some questions arose out of this study and the proposed solutions certainly
require further confirmation at various levels of linguistic and extra-linguistic
analysis, but afterward, we hope that they will provide a solid ground for new
research on the old problems that are constantly imposed.

Key words: Narrative, Myth, History of Language, History of Religion, Compa-

rative Mythology, Etymology, Phytonomastics, Slavistics.

Selected literature:
ANDR, Jacques (1956). Lexique des terms de botanique en latin. Paris: Librairie C.
BARTHES, Roland (1977).Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives. In
HEATH, Stephen. Image-Music-Text. London: Fontana, 79-124.
BENVENISTE, Emile (1973). Indo-European Language and Society. Trans. Elizabeth
Palmer. London: Faber and Faber.
CAMPANILE, Enrico (1977). Ricerche di cultura poetica indoeuropea. Pisa: Giardini.
ELIADE, Mircea (1954). Cosmos and History (the myth of eternal return). Trans. W.
Trask. Princeton-NJ: Princeton University Press.
ELIADE, Mircea (1978). A History of Religious Ideas, vol. I, From the Stone Age to the
Eleusinian Mysteries. Translated: W. Trask. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago
KATII, Radoslav (1987).Hoditi - roditi. Spuren der Texte eines urslawischen Fru-
chtbarkeitsritus, In Universitt Wien. Seminar fr Slavische Philologie.; Universi-
tat Wien. Institut fr Slavische Philologie. Wiener slavistisches Jahrbuch 33. Wi-
en: Verlag der sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften [etc.], 23-43.
MALLORY, James Patrick (1989). In Search of the Indo-European. London: Thames and
152 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

MALLORY, James Patrick/ADAM, Douglas Quentin (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-

European Culture. London-Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn.
MALLORY, James Patrick/ADAM, Douglas Quentin (2006). The Oxford Introduction to
Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. New York: Oxford
University Press.
RENFREW, Colin (1987). Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European
Origins, London: Pimlico.
ULEK, Bogoslav (1879). Jugoslavenski imenik bilja. Zagreb: JAZU.
(1974-). .
. .. . ..
.: .
, /, (1965).
. :
, /, (1974).
. : .
, /, (1963).
. In .V -
.: - , 88-158.
, (2010). -
materia medica). . .
, (2002). (
). : .
(1959-). . :
, (1959). . :

The modelling of complex vocal speech sounds

throughout the history of modern linguistics

Alexander M. KALKHOFF
Universitt Regensburg, Deutschland

There is a vital theoretical debate in phonology studies about the mono- or

biphonemic status of complex vocal sounds, traditionally called diphthongs or
triphthongs. Mostly, these vocalic sound complexes are described as the phonet-
ic realization of two or three underlying vocalic phonemes of the associated
monophthongs. Therefore, it comes as little surprise that even in the typological
theory there are admitted only few diphthong phonemes across the languages of
the world (Maddieson/ Ladefoged 1996: 321f.). The classical acoustic study of
the American diphthongs from Thomas Gay shows clearly that, acoustically as
Conference Handbook 153

well as perceptually, the sound identity of diphthongs does not result from the
target position formants in the vocal space of the associated monophthongs, but
from a specific formant movement which is characterized by the onset target
positions F1 and F2 and the second-formant rate of change (Gay 1968). Gays
findings are also confirmed by more recent researches (Lee/ Potamianos/ Nara-
yanan 2013). Our goal is to trace the history of the description of these complex
vocal sound events that, even against empirical evidence, are evaluated by most
phonologists as two or three distinct sound segments, as for instance in the very
influential work of Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle (Chomsky/ Halle 1968).
The paper aims at showing that early phoneticians like Henry Sweet opened the
Pandoras box by breaking up the continuous articulatory movement into a
static and a dynamic part (Sweet 1877). Then it rather seemed like a heuristic
principle to describe the articulation of the diphthongs, but the dyadic structure
is now open to be interpreted as a bi-segmental sound, and so the step from the
two-tone (from Greek di + fthongos) to the two-segment sound unit is not so far.

Chomsky, Noam/ Halle, Morris (1968): The Sound Pattern of English. New York et al.:
Harper & Row (Studies in Languages).
Gay, Thomas (1968): Effect of Speaking Rate on Diphthong Formant Movements, in:
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 44, number 6, 1570-1573.
Ladefoged, Peter/ Maddieson, Ian (1996): The Sounds of the Worlds Languages.
Malden/ Oxford: Blackwell.
Lee, Sungbok/ Potamianos, Alexandros/ Narayanan, Shrikanth (2013): Developmental
aspects of American English diphthong trajectories in the formant space, in: Pro-
ceedings of Meetings on Acoustics (Acoustical Society of America) 19, 060067.
Sweet, Henry (1877): Handbook of Phonetics. Reprint from 1970, College Park, Mary-
land: McGrath Publishing Company.

History of the Old Georgian Grammar Terms and the Greek Sources

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia

It is impossible to study the Old Georgian grammatical terms without thor-

ough consideration of the Art of Grammar by Dionysius Thrax including the
references mentioned in this book. The history of the Old Georgian terms used
in the XI-XII centuries, reveals their direct relations to the Greek sources. The
Old Greek grammatical theories which are not demarcated from philosophy are
reflected in the discussions of the Old Georgian translators. Many terms, such as
mizezobiti (causal), advilobiti (light, simple), aso (letter), dreka
(bend), dakveta (order), xma(voice) and others, are not transferred as simply
a loan translation; they clearly show deep knowledge of the Antic and Byzan-
154 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

tine grammatical thinking. The paper discusses the history of the Old Georgian
grammatical terms in relation with the Old Greek grammatical theories.

How do phonemes work in historical phonology?

The approach of George Y. Shevelov

Kateryna KARUNYK
Universitt Freiburg, Deutschland

The Ukrainian linguist George Y. Shevelov (19082002), who emigrated in

1943 and settled finally in the United States (since 1952), dealt mainly with the
history and structure of the Slavic languages. His contribution to historical pho-
nology is undoubtedly seminal having published his monograph A Prehistory
of Slavic. The Historical Phonology of Common Slavic (1964), Shevelov edited
with the Carl Winter publishing house in Heidelberg a series of volumes on the
historical phonology of different Slavic languages, which also included his own
monumental work A Historical Phonology of the Ukrainian Language (1979).
The central subject of these books is the system of phonemes in its historical
However, Shevelovs overall approach is not free of contradictions: albeit
the phonological methodology basically implies a study of synchronic opposi-
tions within a certain language, the author, treating language as a dynamic sys-
tem, combined synchronic and diachronic methods, hence phonemes change
their value. Though Shevelov did not give a formal definition of phoneme in his
monographs, it can be implied that he followed on this point his Ukrainian pre-
decessors, namely Kost' Myxal'uk (18401914), Vsevolod Hancov (1892
1979) and Vasyl' Simovy (18801943). All of them studied sound changes and
utilized the term phoneme: Myxal'uk for instance opposed the psychological
approach and suggested the notion of etymological or etymologically dialec-
tal phoneme; Hancov adopted the use of a phoneme according to Baudouin de
Courtenay; Simovy represented the phonological theory of the Prague School.
Shevelov tried to combine mainly Myxal'uks and Simovys ideas in historical
Like Myxal'uk, he regarded the phoneme linguistically casting aside its
psychological aspect. This works well in the description of dialectal phonemic
systems, but analyzing the language of written records Shevelov could not avoid
introducing some psychological facets while referring to the scribes habits,
ways of sound perception and conscious choices in spelling, as reflection of
the psychological reality of phonemic oppositions or lack of them.

Conference Handbook 155

evel'ov Ju. Pokolinn'a dvadciatyx rokiv v ukrajins'komu movoznavstvi. Zapysky Nau-

kovoho Tovarystva imeni evenka, 1962, CLXXIII, pp. 309332.
evel'ov Ju. Pro henetyzm u dijalektolohinij koncepciji K. Myxal'uka. In: Problemy
suasnoji arealohiji. Kyjiv 1994, pp. 1119.
Shevelov G. Y. A Historical Phonology of the Ukrainian Language. Heidelberg, 1979.
Shevelov G. Y. A Prehistory of Slavic. The Historical Phonology of Common Slavic.
Heidelberg 1964.

Early ideas about language and contemporary amateur linguistics

Viacheslav B. KASHKIN
Voronezh State University, Russia

Nave and scientific ideas about language, or metalinguistics, are two paral-
lel lines of linguistic episteme which co-exist and inter-act both in the history of
their surge and development, and in the metalinguistic awareness of an individu-
al. Contemporary language users, sometimes unfairly named nave linguists,
share a whole system of ideas about language and languages, usually implicit,
but disclosable through using various observation and experimental techniques.
These ideas include language learners beliefs, beginners translation techniques,
stereotypes of languages and nations, individual and national linguistic identity,
public attitude to language and linguistics, folk and amateur linguistics, etc. Ear-
ly linguistic ideas which appeared in the course of history, especially in the situ-
ation of language contrast, also included generalizations about language differ-
ences, learning and translation, correlation of words and things, language and the
outer world, the role of language in public and individual life, etc. Similarity
between the two sets of ideas is evident and is a possible reflection of the paral-
lelism between phylogenesis and ontogenesis: the metalinguistic awareness of an
individual follows the same stages in its making as the metalinguistic awareness
of a nation or humankind.
The metalinguistic mindset in both cases includes the following cornerstone
notions, or epistemological invariables: reification of non-material language
phenomena (words as metaphorically equal to things, language as a collection of
things, communication as transport of ideas); natural connection (of words and
things, the physei preference, and exaggeration of lexicon and etymology); his-
torical primordiality (the genuineness of the sacred or native languages, search
for perfect language or correct translation, monolinguistic principle in con-
trasting languages, positive auto-stereotype, historical superiority/inferiority,
etc.); and authority (God as the creator of language and onomatheton, scholars
and teachers as guardians and treasurers, written word and dictionaries as sacred
books of final and stable knowledge, etc.).
Contemporary world gave an additional impulse to the development of am-
ateur linguistics, usually disregarded by the official science of language. A
156 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

case study of several publications by amateurs gives another parallel to the pre-
viously studied systems of language learners beliefs, ideas of language contrasts
in history, and attitudes to language, linguistics and translation expressed in the
internet communication. While folk linguistics is a predominantly implicit do-
main of self-reflection and possibilities of growth, amateur linguistics, especially
in todays Russia, is rather a dead end or a hazard challenging scientific explana-
tion of language in general.

Portuguese and Spanish in the First Editions of the ars minor

of Manuel lvares' De institutione grammatica libri tres

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal

In 1572, the famous Portuguese grammarian Manuel lvares (1526-1583)

published the first edition of his Latin grammar Emmanvelis Alvari Societate
Iesv de institvtione grammatica libri tres. While the printing process of his ars
maior hadn't yet finished, the grammarian was already dedicating himself to
preparing a compendious version without the scholia.
Having been licensed for publication by the inquisition on January 1st,
1573, the first edition of lvares ars minor was published that year (lvares
1573). Devoid of most of the grammatical, critical or explanatory scholia that
are so typical for the ars maior's editions, the grammarian was able to consider-
ably reduce the grammar's volume, thus being able to prove a textbook for the
grammar students of the Society of Jesus.
After this first edition, the ars minor was reprinted twice during the author's
lifetime. Five years later, a second edition of the grammar was printed (lvares
1578), substituting the Portuguese equivalences in the chapter De Verborvm
Conivgatione by Spanish ones. Finally, in what seems to be a 'simple' reprint,
the grammar was reprinted some months before the author's death (lvares
In our paper, we pretend a comparative analysis of the respective parts of
these three editions of the ars minor where the grammarian refers himself to the
two vernacular languages.

lvares, Manuel (11572): EMMANVELIS / ALVARI SO= / CIETATE IESV / DE INS-
Barrerius / Typographus Regius. / M. D. LXXII. / Taxada cada Arte a Oyto Vints em
papel. (http://purl.pt/23043; last access: August 10, 2012).
Conference Handbook 157

lvares, Manuel (11573a): EMMANVELIS / ALVARI SOCIE- / TATE IESV / DE INS-

rius / Typographus Regius. / M. D. LXXIII. / Cum Priuilegio.
BER. / Emanuelis Aluari Lusitani / societate IESV. / Cum explicationibus auctoris
eiusdem. / Ne tuabata volt rapidis oracula vtis, / Nunc folio vates commodiore
sonat. // HISPALI. / Apud Alfonsum Scribanum / via Serpentina. / 1573.
lvares, Manuel (1578): EMMANVELIS / ALVARI / SOCIETATE / IESV, / DE
Ioannes Riberius, expensis / Ioannis Hispani Bibliopol. / Cum facultate
Inquisitorum. / 1578.
lvares, Manuel (1579): EMMANVELIS / ALVARI E / SOCIETATE / IESV, / DE
Excudebat Ioannes Alteraque. / 1579. / Cum facultate Illustris Domini, Vicarij,
lvares, Manuel (1583): EMMANVELIS / ALVARI / SOCIETATE / IESV, / DE
Antonius Riberius, expensis / Ioannis Hispani Bibliopol. / Cum facultate
Inquisitorum. / 1583.
Kemmler, Rolf (2012): La participacin personal del gramtico Manuel lvares en la
difusin de los De institutione grammatica libri tres en Espaa, in: Battaner Mo-
ro, Elena / Calvo Fernndez, Vicente / Pea, Palma (eds) (2012): Historiografa
lingstica: lneas actuales de investigacin, 2 vols., Mnster: Nodus Publikatio-
nen, pgs. 512-524.
Kemmler, Rolf (in print): The first edition of the ars minor of Manuel lvares' De in-
stitvtione grammatica libri tres (Lisbon, 1573).
LUSODAT (s.d.) = Padre Manuel lvares - Gramtica - edies completas ou
parciais, in: http://www.ghtc.usp.br/server/Lusodat/pri/02/pri02145.htm (last
viewed: 11/07/2014).
Ponce de Len Romeo, Rogelio (in print): Contra las interferencias castellanas: en
torno a la doble serie de formas del modo subjuntivo en la gramaticografa de la
lengua portuguesa (siglos XVII y XVIII), paper presented: 27e Congrs Interna-
tional de Linguistique et de Philologie Romanes (Nancy, 15 au 20 juillet 2013).
Schfer-Prie, Barbara (2011): Os modos verbais nas gramticas latino-portuguesas de
Manuel lvares (1572) e Bento Pereira (1672), traduo por Rolf Kemmler, em:
Revista de Letras 9 (II. Srie, 2010) ISSN 0874-7962, pgs. 121-153.
Springhetti, Emilio (1961-1962): Storia e fortuna della Gramatica di Emmanuele Alva-
res, S. J, em: Humanitas 13-14, pgs. 283-304.
158 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

From the world of grammar to the symbolic grammar of the world:

covert legacies of 500 years of grammar writing in Brazil

Independent Scholar, London, U.K.

This paper aims to focus on intellectual legacies, which have underpinned

grammar writing in Brazil. The earliest descriptions of indigenous languages in
letters sent by the Portuguese1 mirror the Catholic missionary zeal to bring faith
to the conquered lands prior to the creation of the Society of Jesus in 1534.
Grammarians would come to Brazil such As Joo de Barros (1496-1570)2.
Jos de Anchieta (1534-1597) arrived in 1553 launching Jesuit schools in
Brazil in the tradition of Trivium and Quadrivium. In 1599, Ratio atque Institutio
Studiorum Societatis Iesu3 set out rigid rules and edicts on grammar writing and
education and was used until the Marquess of Pombal expelled the Jesuits from
the all Portuguese territories in 1759. However, the Jesuit intellectual legacy has
prevailed in much grammar writing (pedagogical & descriptive) to date, which
disregards non-aligned bodies of knowledge. Jesuits left a large body of gram-
matical descriptions of the indigenous languages and the myth of lngua geral.
Following their expulsion new ideas from the Enlightenment, philosophical
grammars, John Locke, and others would be introduced in Brazil. Paradoxically,
there has long been a trend to describe subsequent developments under a flawed
label of positivism well into the 20th century.
The 19th century brings many developments to Brazil following its inde-
pendence and transformation of empire into republic. The aim was to remove
grammar from religious domination bringing it into the lay realm. Significantly,
a collection of grammars published by Livraria Francisco Alves, F.T.D. (from
approximately 1907), Novo Manual de Lingua Portugueza still carried Nihil
Obstat by the Censor and Imprima-se by Vicar General in its 1926 edition. Their
authors have a significant understanding of grammar writing and contemporary
linguistic concepts including those of comparative-historical scientific method
but often disregarded by other grammarians. A very dynamic debate ensues in-
cluding the humorous Mendes Fradiquess4 1928 Grammatica Portugueza pelo
Methodo Confuso: Seguida de uma variada colleco de exercicios pelo mesmo
methodo. In 1934, Monteiro Lobato (1882-1948), acclaimed childrens writer,
explores the world of pedagogical grammar in his Emlia no Pas da Gramtica.
The normative prescriptivist approach to Brazilian grammar writing is further
illustrated by cases such as grammatical notions regulated by 1959 Law, No-
menclatura Gramatical Brasileira, and a late crop of generativist grammars and
attempts to normatize non-standard varieties of Brazilian Portuguese. Indeed, the
Jesuit legacy, often unintentionally misconstrued, continues to be present in 21st
century grammars (e.g. Gramtica Houaiss da Lngua Portuguesa5).
Conference Handbook 159

(e.g. Pro Vaz de Caminhas account of the Portuguese discovery, May 1500)
Author of the famous 1539 Portuguese grammar, who was awarded the capitancy of
Maranho and set off to Brazil with an armada of ten vessels (900 men in each) in the
same year but was shipwrecked, returned and would write about Brazil (including
about its name changed from Holy Cross to the name of the precious wood the Portu-
guese were exporting to Europe).
The Official Plan for Jesuit Education
Pen name of Jos Madeira de Freitas (1893-1944), medical doctor, published by Livra-
ria Editora Leite Ribeiro Freitas Bastos & Cia. do Rio de Janeiro (Fradique 1928) al-
though the foreword states 1927 as publication date.
By Jos Carlos de Azeredo, 2010, So Paulo: Publifolha.

Remarks before the Remarques:

Jean de Wapys Remarques sur la langue franoise (1634)2

Douglas A. KIBBEE
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, U.S.A.

The genre remarques sur la langue franaise has typically been dated to
the publication of Claude Favre de Vaugelas work of the same title in 1647, for
example in Ayres-Bennett 2004:23: Les Remarques de Vaugelas constituent la
premire tentative dlaboration du genre; elles en sont le modle. The genre
of remarques is distinct from observations on specific authors, such as Malher-
bes on Desportes, or on specific works, such as the Acadmie Franaise on
Corneilles play, Le Cid. It is also distinct from formal grammars, such as those
of Charles Maupas and Antoine Oudin in the first half of the 17th century. The
choice of the term remarques is specific to a particular approach to language,
opposed to the lois or rgles or even dcisions, as Vaugelas makes clear in his
preface. As such, the term reflects a particular attitude towards a linguistic
norm, one that emphasizes the arbitrary, one might even say capricious, nature
of judgments of correctness in language. This arbitrariness is defined socially
the language of the best speakers in the royal court rather than by reason or by
appeal to the learned tradition of the classical languages.
This traditional view of the history of the French grammatical tradition is
now upset by the discovery of a work previously unknown to us, and unexplored
in modern scholarship. In 1634 13 years before Vaugelas printed remarks,
and four years before he first circulated a manuscript version of his remarques -
Jean de Wapy, a printer from Lorraine, authored a book of the same title, Re-
marques sur la langue franoise. Though structurally different, Wapys Remar-
ques prefigure Vaugelas reluctance to present laws and rules about usage, and

See also Ayres-Bennett.
160 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

his reliance on the plus excellents esprits reconnus pour Maistre passs en
lartifice de bien dire, perhaps equivalent to Vaugelas formula of the plus
saine partie de la cour, as well as on la lecture des plus excellens escriuains,
again presaging Vaugelas formula of la faon descrire de la plus saine partie
des Autheurs du temps.
This said, the two works differ markedly in other respects, both in structure
and in content. The similarities and differences invite us to revisit and rewrite
the history of French grammatical thought at the formative period for creation of
standard French. We propose a two-person panel to present this important dis-
covery, situating it within the remarqueur tradition and examining its contributi-
on to prescriptivism in Early Modern France.

Polysynthesis as a window to culture and society

Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland

Justyna OLKO
University of Warsaw, Poland

In this paper we examine the accounts of polysynthetic languages of North

and Central America as well as the references to these accounts in the humani-
ties and social sciences. In particular, we investigate common motifs in discus-
sions regarding the correlations between the seemingly exotic nature of poly-
synthesis and cognitive competence, culture and the construction of social reali-
ty. In our study we focus on languages belonging to five language families, i.e.,
Eskimo-Aleut, Algonquian, Iroquoian, Uto-Aztecan and Mayan. This sample is
representative both typologically and historiographically, and reflects the diver-
sity of morphosyntactic expression in polysynthetic languages as well as the
distinct characteristics of the French, English and Spanish traditions.
The accounts of polysynthetic American Indian languages between the 16th
and the 20th century reveal several common motifs (cf. Keen 1971; Andresen
1990; Koerner 2002). The linguistic evidence that was adduced involves in the
first place the degree of lexical, morphological and syntactic complexity. More
specific properties include the assumed absence of abstract/generic terms and an
overabundance of concrete/specific terms, degree of differentiation within lexi-
cal fields as well as such phenomena as noun incorporation, reduplication, inal-
ienable possession and classificatory verbs. The evolving conceptions of such
lexical and grammatical properties contributed to the construction of biased im-
ages of the languages and their speakers. In more extreme cases the exotic
otherness of polysynthesis was valued either positively, as in the notion of the
Noble Savage and 20th century cultural relativism, or negatively, as in the ra-
Conference Handbook 161

cialist doctrines of the late 19th century. In fact, both absence and abundance of
a particular property were interpreted in contradictory terms as impressionistic
evidence of wealth and poverty.
These lexical and grammatical examples were further employed as evidence
in descriptions of the speakers cognitive, cultural and social characteristics. For
instance, the real or supposed absence of abstract/generic terms provided
grounds for claims regarding the speakers incapacity for abstract and rational
thought, deductive reasoning and categorization as well as the absence of social
values and organization. More generally, the wide range of interpretations of
polysynthetic language structure demonstrates the ambivalent methodological
status of linguistic data as well as the extent to which linguistic references are
entangled in the contemporary ideological and theoretical schemes.

Andresen, Julie T. 1990. Linguistics in America, 1769-1924: Critical history. London:
Keen, Benjamin. 1971. The Aztec image in Western thought. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rut-
gers University Press.
Koerner, E.F.K. 2002. Toward a history of American linguistics. London: Routledge.

Histoire et Epistmologie de la golinguistique moderne:

partir des ides saussureinnes

Sung Do KIM
Korea University, Seoul, Korea

Le statut scientifique de la golinguistique est flou sinon trs faible dans la

structure conceptuelle de la linguistique moderne. De plus on connait une quasi-
absence des tudes sur les rapports entre l'histoire de la linguistique et l'histoire
de la gographie. Dans le canon des traits de linguistique les remarques pist-
mologiques sur les conditions gographiques sont presque exclues. Cette lacune
nous semble grave, puisque les fondateurs de la linguistique moderne ont donn
des rflexions solides sur cette matire. Dans cette circonstance, je voudrais
voquer les crits indits de Saussure du troisime cours, intitule 'Tableau go-
graphico-historique des plus importants familles de langues du globe', et essayer
de prsenter une reconstitution de l'atlas go-politique de ces langues conu par
le Matre genevois. En effet, il est possible de prvoir que Saussure ait essay
d'tablir des lments ncessaires du domaine de la linguistique externe et toutes
les relations existant entre l'histoire d'une langue et celle d'une race ou d'une
civilisation, celles entre la langue et l'histoire politique, les relations de la langue
avec les institutions de toute sorte. On compte dans ce tableau 221 noms des
lieux, 85 personnages historiques, 67 inscriptions archaiques, qui prsente une
162 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

typologie des langues indoeuropennes, compose en 8 branches qui comprend

245 langues, avec quelques remarques rapides mais trs justes sur les langues
ourao-altaiques. Le projet de go-linguistique de Saussure est une ide vaste
mais totalement indite dans l'histoire de la linguistique moderne.
A partir de cette exemplarit saussurienne, je voudrais poser quelques ja-
lons historico-pistmologiques sur les conceptions l'espace gographique dans
l'histoire des ides linguistiques modernes de l'organicisime au cercle linguis-
tique de Prague. A partir de cette position que jadopte il est vident que dans
cette partie des lments d'histoire et d'pistmologie le guidage cl est fourni
par le paradigme saussurien qui interroge les questions centrales comme les con-
ditions gographiques au domaine externe de la linguistique, la typologie des
diversits linguistiques, les notions de l'intercourse et des ondes.

Bibliographie sommaire
1. M. Arriv, A la recherche de F. de Saussure, Paris, PUF, 2007.
2. Breton, R. Gographie des langues, Paris, PUF, 1976.
3. Foucault, M. Les mots et les choses, Paris, Gallimard, 1966.
4. De Mauro, T. Cours de linguistique gnrale, Paris, Payot, 1972, des notes.
5. R. Engler, Lexique de la terminologie saussurienne, Utrecht/Anvers, Spectrum Edi-
teur, 1974.
6. J. Fehr, Saussure entre linguistique et smiologie, Paris, PUF, 2000.
7. R. Godel, Les sources manuscrites du CLG, Paris, Groz, 1957.
8. Meyer, P. "Etudes de gographie linguistique", Romania, t.XXIV, 1895, pp.529-575.
9. F. de Saussure, Troisime cours de linguistique gnrale (1910-1911) d'aprs les
cahiers d'Emile Constantin, dit par Claudia Meja et alii, CFS 58, 2005.

Examining Nanshi-shukai, the manuscript of a Japanese-Portuguese

dictionary, to clarify its characters and differences
with the Vocabulario da lingoa de Iapam

Kyoto Prefectural University, Japan

Nanshi-shukai (Nanshi language of the Southern region; shukai explana-

tory notes), the manuscript of a Japanese-Portuguese dictionary, was copied
from the original at the end of the 18th century, and is now housed in Japans
Nagasaki Museum of History and Culture.
It uses no Latin letters but rather the Japanese writing systemthat is, the
main body is in Chinese characters with the Japanese reading and contains
Portuguese translations in Japanese letters. As in the common monolingual Ja-
panese dictionaries being produced for Japanese people at the time, the Japanese
words are classified by meaning categories, for example, the names of animals
and plants.
Conference Handbook 163

Among the Japanese-Portuguese dictionaries, the Vocabulario da lingoa de

Iapam (VLI), edited and printed by the Jesuits around 160304, is quite famous.
However, Nanshi-shukai is a lesser-known dictionary, and only a few studies
have examined it, with the exception of Doi (1982). The manuscript was copied
around at the end of the 18th century by Gi Ryozan (17571834), a Japanese
interpreter of Chinese. However, we have little evidence as to when or by whom
the original was written, and none as to its relationship with previous Jesuit
works. This paper attempts to partially rectify this issue by clarifying what Japa-
nese and Portuguese words are used in the Nanshi-shukai, and how different
Nanshi-shukai is from the VLI.
The manuscript of Nanshi-shukai was formerly in the possession of the fa-
mily of a Japanese interpreter of Chinese in Nagasaki, the only city in Japan
open to foreign trade during the Tokugawa period. When the Portuguese came to
Japan to trade in the mid-16th century, they used few professional interpreters;
instead, European missionaries or Japanese Christians acted as interpreters for
them. However, at the beginning of the 17th century, the Tokugawa shogunate
prohibited Christianity, and, in 1639, prohibited trade with all but China and the
Dutch in Nagasaki. Before professional Japanese interpreters of Dutch appeared,
Portuguese continued to be used for trade purposes for several decades. Thus,
some people in Japan had to study Portuguese, not for missionary work, but for
trade purposes. On the basis of such historical facts, I would like to show that,
unlike the VLI, Nanshi-shukai does not include Christian words but uses newer
Japanese words and corrupt Portuguese.

The syllable from Aristotle to Kurylowicz

Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia

Modern commentators of Aristotle (Steinthal, Belardi, Perelmuter) have

criticized his definition of the syllable, a sound that consist of a consonant and a
vowel and has no meaning (Poetics 20.5), for not taking into account those
syllables that consist of a single vowel. The latter could only be long by nature
in Greek, where they complied with the condition formulated by Kuryowicz,
viz. syllables are only such units that can function as words. It follows that, ac-
cording to Kuryowicz, the syllable belongs to the signif domain.
For Aristotle, however, the syllable was what its etymology and original
meaning imply, viz. something united, cf. gather, unite. On
the one hand, the linguistic value of such a unit was not equal to the sum of the
values of the constituent sounds (cf. 6.17) and, on the other, it cannot and must
not be a meaningful unit (cf. 4.2). The latter condition makes the entire differ-
ence between Aristotle's and later approaches to the syllable.
164 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

According to Aristotle, the syllable belonged to the realm of poetry rather

than grammar (loc. cit.). Indeed, it was only natural to use the combination of
sounds of the /CV/ type as a unit of prosody in a poetry where two short sylla-
bles counted as a long one, cf. spondee ( ) replacing dactyl ( ), tribrach
() replacing trochee ( ) or iamb ( ).
Both in poetics and language generally, the syllable thus defined was the
minimal unit of quantity. This explains why the Greek grammarians were able to
do without the notion of mora, which, in contemporary linguistics is applied not
only to languages traditionally interpreted as mora-counting, but also to those
that do not have short open syllables or long syllables that can be regarded as a
sum of two short ones.

The Grammatical Revolutionary: Spinoza

Advanced Linguistic & Editorial Services, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Benedictus (Bento, Baruch) de Spinoza (Amsterdam, 1632 The Hague,

1677) was not only a revolutionary in philosophical respect, in particular in the
field of hermeneutics but also as a grammarian. His Compendium Grammatices
Lingu Hebr, was published shortly after his death in his Opera Posthuma
(1677). This regrettably unfinished work of the philosopher has puzzled many
researchers. Especially Spinozas statement that in Hebrew nearly all words
have the power and properties of the noun has been seen in connexion with his
philosophy: Spinoza assumes that there is only one Substance with an infinity of
infinite attributes of which we only able to know two, to wit, Extension and
Thought because we are determined by those only. This one Substance is called
by Spinoza Deus sive Natura (God or Nature).
Spinozas Hebrew grammar must be seen as a consequence of his
method of interpretation of the Scriptures which he deseribed in chapter 7 of his
Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1670). In this chapter, he states that knowledge
of Hebrew is essential for a correct interpretation of the Bible. Regrettably, the
Hebrews of Antiquity have left us no grammar or other works on the arts. Spino-
za wrote his grammar on request of some of his friends as it is stated in the Ad-
monitio ad Lectorem of his grammar. But why had Spinoza not referred to the
Hebrew grammars that were extant in the 17th century? According to Stephen
Burnett (2000: 20), there were printed an enormous amount of Hebrew gram-
mars, to wit, 373 in the 16th century alone! Since the end of the 16th century,
Hebrew grammatical theory was mainly Ramistic and it accepted innumerable
anomalies. After the publication of De Arte Grammatica Libri Septem (1635) by
Gerardus Joannes Vossius (15771649), that was changing. Vossius, inspired by
Marcus Terentius Varro (11627 B.C.) and others, reintroduced the principle of
Conference Handbook 165

analogia (= regularity) in grammar. Analogia became a central linguistic princi-

ple in the 18th century in the Institutiones ad fundamenta lingu hebr (1737)
by Albert Schultens (16861750) and, later, in the Schola Hemsterhusiana. By a
rigourous application of analogia, Spinoza was able to reduce the number of
anomalies (cf. Klijnsmit 2000).
In this paper, I will discuss Spinozas grammar and its place in the his-
tory of linguistics focussing on his opinion that nearly all Hebrew words have
the properties of the noun. I start with Aristotle (384/3322 B.C.) and finish with
Geseniuss Hebrew grammar which still serves as an important work for He-
braists of our days.

Anonymus [= Benedictus de Spinoza]. 1670. Tractatus TheologicoPoliticus Con-
tinens Dissertationes aliquot, Quibus Libertatem Philosophandi non tantum salva
Pietate, & Reipubli Pace posse concedi: sed eandem nisi cum Pace Reipublic,
ipsaque Pietate tolli non posse. Hamburg: Henricus Knraht [= Amsterdam: Jan
B.d.S [= Benedictus de Spinoza]. 1677. Opera Posthuma. s.l. [Amsterdam: Jan Rieuwe-
Burnett, Stephen G. 2000. Christian Hebrew Printing in the Sixteenth Century: Printers,
Humanism and the Impact of Reformation. Helmantica LI, 154: 1342.
Klijnsmit, Anthony J. 2000. Vossius, Spinoza, Schultens: The Application of Analogia
in Hebrew Grammar. Helmantica LI, 154: 139166.
Schultens, Albert. 1737. Institutiones ad fundamenta lingu hebr. Quibus via pandi-
tur ad ejusdem analogiam restituendam, et vindicandam. [...]. Leiden: Luzac.
Vossius, Gerardus J. 1635. De Arte Grammatica Libri Septem. Amsterdam: Blaev.

Adversaires des grammairiens? Les dialectologues

et la parole dautorit sur des catgories normatives

University of Tampere, Finland

Les travaux des dialectologues de la fin du 19e et du dbut du 20e sicle en

France permettent de dgager des attitudes perplexes vis--vis de la normativit.
Cherchant expliquer les rgles de la langue au lieu de les imposer, les dialecto-
logues se rangent du ct de la nouvelle gnration de linguistes (ou en font
partie), mais se positionnent galement par rapport aux grammairiens nationalis-
tes prenant au srieux tant la ncessit dun discours sur la nation dans la matire
du langage que lexistence dun gnie de la langue franaise. La reconstruction
de leur discours lgard de diffrentes autorits linguistiques permet de rvler
le contenu des concepts qualifiables de sociolinguistiques, langue nationale,
langue maternelle, dialecte et patois, la place mutuelle de ces concepts ainsi que
166 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

leur rle respectivement la norme standard. Plutt que dune classification en

genres et en espces entre ces termes, il sagit la plupart du temps dune classifi-
cation hirarchique o rgne un rapport dexclusion dun terme subalterne. La
menace immdiate contre les dialectes et les patois ne drive pas de la tradition
grammaticale vieille de plusieurs sicles, ni dune autorit politique directement
responsable, mais du cercle mme des professionnels de la langue qui ne savent
pas comment traiter lambivalence quils prouvent en face de catgorisation de
diffrentes formes de normativits. Paradoxalement, ce sont souvent les mmes
personnes qui la fois proclament la sauvegarde des dialectes et limposition
dune norme prescriptive de la langue standard. Au fur et mesure, la parole des
dialectologues se plie celle dautorit, semblant en possession des droits irr-

Estudo de monumentos lingusticos portugueses dos scs. XVI-XVII.

Princpios da historiografia lingustica

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia

A anlise complexa dos monumentos portugueses (obras de Oliveira, Bar-

ros, Magalhes de Gndavo, Nunes de Leo, Faria, Ferreira de Vera, B. Pereira,
Cardoso, Cavaleiro, Sousa, lvares, Clenardo, Resende, F. Pereira, Roboredo,
Anchieta, Figueira, Estevo, Tvora) revela que os autores portugueses, descre-
vendo, na especfica situao sociolingustica e sociocultural do Portugal da
poca, vrias lnguas de diversa tipologia com diferentes objectivos, fomentaram
a formao de vrias atitudes s questes da lngua: sociolingustica
(problemtica de apologia, norma), histrica, tipolgica, comunicativa,
linguodidctica, tocando tambm aspetos linguoculturolgicos e de con-
tactos lingusticos;
a consolidao, de um lado, do cnone gramatical e, do outro lado, da
diversificao dos tipos de gramticas (universais, particulares, prescri-
tivas, descritivas, comparativas, histricas, escolares), bem como de g-
neros de obras lingusticas;
a engendrao de concees de norma, fonema e o desenvolvimento de
conceitos importantes da morgologia, sintaxe, lexicologia, histria da
lngua, ensino de lngua materna e estrangeira.
O vasto leque da problemtica, objeto e princpios da descrio na lingusti-
ca portuguesa explicam-se pela caracterstica interparadigmtica do perodo em
O estudo dos monumentos portugueses com base da tradio lingustica eu-
ropeia desde a Antiguidade at aos nossos dias, faz-nos pensar em problemas
gerais da historiografia lingustica:
Conference Handbook 167

Princpios da escolha do material s o estudo do corpus completo de

textos, apoiado pela anlise da situao sociolingustica, sociocultural e
do contexto cientfico da poca, possibilita ver a continuidade da tradi-
o, acumulao de componentes de novas concepes, evoluo de no-
es e princpios da descrio lingustica. (Pelo que exprimo o maior
respeito aos colegas que estudam e publicam monumentos lingusticos
portugueses: I. Castro, C. Assuno, T. Verdelho, A. Torres, S. Cardoso,
F. Gonalves, Ponce de Len, G. Fernandes, M. Fonseca, entre outros);
Objetivo da historiografia no consiste na procura da prioridade de al-
guns autores, mas nas tentativas de compreender o processo e os meca-
nismos de engendrao, formao e desenvolvimento das ideias cientfi-
cas. Muitas vezes as obras que obtiveram grande autoridade na histria
da lingustica, ficando smbolo da passagem ao novo paradigma cientfi-
co e fazendo esquecer as obras que prepararam esta passagem (como
Port-Royal), diferem destas no pela novidade de certas ideias, mas pela
exposio completa da nova conceo;
Anlise das principais etapas da formao de concees, conceitos e
princpios de descrio lingustica;
Necessidade de precisar a noo do paradigma cientfico no mbito da
historiografia lingustica (contedo da noo, princpios de delimitao
de paradigmas, hierarquia paradigmtica, importncia dos perodos in-

Translation Basis of Contrastive Linguistic Analysis: On the

material of English, French, German and Georgian Languages

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia

While studying a foreign language, learners should take linguistic features

of the native language into consideration since the mother tongue appears to be
the world of our perception (sensitivity). The influence of native language may
be identified on phonological, syntactic and semantic levels. Contrastive analysis
allows us to reveal the differences between native and foreign languages and it
also enables to draw a special attention to these diversities in the process of fo-
reign language acquisition. Such an approach to language study has much in
168 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

common with the scheme Carroll J. B. calls Cognitive Theory of Code Acquisi-
tion(Carroll J. B. Linguistic relativity, contrastive linguistics and language lear-
ning. In IRAL. 1963).
In case of translation, contrastive analysis is a method in which the transla-
tor should pay attention to the differences between foreign and native languages
on the semantic and syntactic levels, which, to some extent, also implies to over-
come them.
The presented research is based on the contrastive linguistic analysis of En-
glish - Georgian, Georgian - English, French - Georgian, Georgian - French,
German - Georgian and Georgian -German translations. Georgian is our native
language; English, French and German are foreign languages to us, that create
quite different language structures rather than our mother tongue.
Translation from native language into foreign and vice-versa implies the
profound knowledge of syntactic and semantic structures of comparative lan-
guages. These structures are completely different from those of English, French
and German ones. Georgian structures are characterized by more free word order
within the language units.
Contrastive syntactic and semantic study, based upon translation, creates a
solid empirical stem to master the structure of a language.

Carroll J. B.(1963) Linguistic relativity, contrastive linguistics and language learning.
Charaudeau, P. et Maingueneau, D. (2002) Dictionnaire danalyse du discours
Dubois, J. et alii. (1973) Dictionnaire de linguistique.Paris: Larousse.
Fawcett, P.D. (1997) Translation and language: linguistic theories Explained. Manches-
ter: St. Jerome.
Hausmann F. I. (1995) Von der Allgegenwart der Lexikologie. Kontrastive Lexikologie
als Vorstufe zur zweisprachigen Lexikographie. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tbingen.
Katan, D. (1999) Translating cultures: an introduction for translators, interpreters and
mediators. Manchester: St. Jerome.
Niranjana, T. (1992) Sitting Translation: History, Poststructuralism, and the Colonial
Context Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Panjikidze D. (1995) Modern Theories of Translation and Problem of Style Equivalency,
Tbilisi, Georgia
Williams J (1990) The translation of culture-specific terms. Lebende Sprachen 35 (2):55-
Conference Handbook 169

Le changement des parties du discours:

un problme de terminologie?

Djamel Eddine LACHACHI

Universit d'Oran, Algrie

Le changement des parties du discours est un changement permanent dune

partie du discours l'autre. Mais pour le concept de changement des parties du
discours diffrents termes sont utiliss, tels que: la modification ou l'altration,
la transposition, la transition, la traduction, la transfiguration, la transformation,
le dveloppement, le transfert, la conversion, la drivation implicite.. Ces termes
ayant souvent le mme contenu, sont donc utiliss comme synonymes, mais
parfois non. Certains termes n'ont rien voir avec le changement des parties du
discours. Les autres termes sont utiliss de faon interchangeable, sans avoir
constamment sur le changement des parties du discours/ un impact rel.
Quelques dfinitions seront mentionnes et traites ici de telle sorte quune
vue claire de cette problmatique soit mise en vidence. Du plus simple proces-
sus de formation du mot, la conversion, au transfert une autre classe de mots
diffrents dans la transposition et la translation, on va tenter de clarifier les con-
cepts. Dans ce contexte, et dans un deuxime temps, le rapport du genre de for-
mation des mots la drivation et au changement des parties du discours ce
qui a trait la diachronie - sera considr diffrents niveaux: smantique, fonc-
tionnelle, syntaxique et morphologique.

LACHACHI, D.E. (1997): Der Wortartwechsel. Verhltnis zwischen Wortart und Wortbil-
dung am Beispiel des Deutschen und Arabischen. (Diss.) Essen
OLSEN, Susan (1988): Das "substantivierte" Adjektiv im Deutschen und Englischen:
Attribuierung vs. syntaktische "Substantivierung", Folia Linguistica 22, 337-372
VOGEL, Petra Maria (1996): Wortarten und Wortartenwechsel. Zu Konversion und
verwandten Erscheinungen im Deutschen und in anderen Sprachen, Berlin, New
York (Studia Linguistica Germanica 39)

O gesto de descrever entre o Histrico e o Gramatical

Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brasil

So muitas as questes enfocadas nos estudos sobre a produo do conhe-

cimento sobre a lngua no Brasil, em trabalhos que permitem a compreenso dos
processos de gramatizao e institucionalizao da lngua portuguesa em nosso
territrio. Em meio a esses processos, tenho como objetivo discutir a descrio,
170 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

um procedimento constitutivo da posio de quem produz conhecimento sobre a

lngua. Sempre uma questo a ser ressaltada, a descrio percorre diferentes
textos que versam sobre a lngua e a linguagem nas mais diferentes perspectivas.
Neste trabalho, interessa-me compreender o papel da descrio no cruzamento
entre o histrico e o gramatical, cruzamento que estrutura a Gramtica Histrica
da Lngua Portuguesa de Said Ali. Um nome sempre presente quando fazemos
nossas incurses pela produo gramatical no Brasil, Said Ali uma referncia
importante e sua Gramtica Histrica uma obra que intriga. No contraponto
com muitas gramticas produzidas no incio do sculo XX e final do sculo XIX
no Brasil, a Gramtica Histrica da Lngua Portuguesa se apresenta numa pro-
posta marcante e sedutora no que diz respeito produo gramatical brasileira
da poca. Publicada em 1931, ela resultado da composio entre a Lexeologia
do Portugus Histrico, publicada por Said Ali em 1921, e a Formao de Pala-
vras e Sintaxe do Portugus Histrico, publicada em 1923. A prpria nomeao
Gramtica Histrica significativa de uma abordagem que reivindicava como
seu objetivo descrever a mudana no portugus ao longo da histria, estudar as
alteraes do idioma nas diversas fases do portugus histrico, como uma le-
xeologia semantica ou uma semantica lexeologica, destoando assim do ve-
tusto systema de classificao, tal como podemos ler no prlogo da Lexeologia
do Portugus Histrico. Muito a se indagar sobre o gesto de descrever j nestas
citaes de Said Ali, que focam as "alteraes do idioma" no confronto com o
vetusto sistema de classificao. Nessa diviso afirmada por Said Ali entre a
classificao normativa e a mudana do idioma na lexeologia e na semntica, os
limites muitas vezes escorregam entre o gramatical e o histrico no gesto da
descrio do autor. A reside meu interesse. Dar visibilidade ao gesto de descre-
ver a lngua nos limites e deslizes dessas diferentes perspectivas dos conheci-
mentos que vo se produzindo sobre o portugus no Brasil. Compreender pelos
diferentes gestos de descrio da lngua os diferentes modos de legitimao do
conhecimento sobre a lngua.

Where have all the interjections gone?

A look into the place of interjections in contemporary grammars
of endangered languages

Universit Paris Diderot - Paris 7,
& Laboratoire d'Histoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Interjections have been described as "universal yet neglected" (Ameka

1992) and from the perspective of descriptive linguistics, this certainly seems to
be the case: in contemporary descriptions of endangered languages, it is rare to
find a chapter or even section on interjections. According to Schachter and
Conference Handbook 171

Shopen (2007), this omission is in all likelihood a sign that the grammar in ques-
tion is incomplete, and in this presentation, I shall explore what appear to be
three major reasons for this omission:
a) Typology handbooks (such as Givon 1984, Creissels 2006) and field
manuals (such as Payne 1998, Bouquiaux and Thomas 1992) downplay interjec-
tions (if they mention them at all). A variety of different terms are found in such
manuals, from onomatopeia and sound symbolism to ideophones, and it is not
clear how these differ from or ressemble interjections.
b) Descriptive projects leading to grammar writing represent a delicate bal-
ance between elicitation (data collection focused on a specific grammatical topic
through one-on-one sessions with a speaker) and the collection/analysis of a
narrative corpus: any project relying too heavily on elicitation will overlook
interjections, as these prove tremendously difficult to elicit.
c) The phonological marginality of interjections (treated as an integral part
of recent definitions, such as Rhodes 1992) results in a much finer line in the
interpretation of acceptability when reproduced by a non-native speaker than for
any other part of speech. As a result, a field worker might not have the confi-
dence to transcribe and describe interjections, thus consciously omitting them
from the grammar.
Interjections, despite their communicative importance, are largely ignored
in contemporary descriptions of endangered languages. Yet, they constitute a
crucial category in that they force linguists to rethink what belongs in a gram-
mar, and how the methods used to collect the data influence the structure and
content of the grammar in question.

Ameka, F.K. (1992). "Interjections: The universal yet neglected part of speech", Journal
of Pragmatics 18.2. Pp. 101-118.
Creissels, D. (2006). "Syntaxe gnrale une introduction typologique 1: catgories et
constructions", 1/2, Paris, Herms - Lavoisier
Givon, T. (1984). Syntax: A Functional-Typological Introduction. Volume I
Payne, Thomas (1997). Describing morphosyntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Rhodes, R. (1992). Interjections. In: Bright, W. eds. International encyclopedia of lin-
guistics Vol 1.. Oxford University Press, New York
Schachter, Paul, and Shopen, Timothy (2007). "Parts-of-speech systems", in Shopen,
Timothy (ed.) Language typology and syntactic structure, Vol. 1 Clause structure.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 1-60.
172 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Language Evolution: Complementary Tools for the

History of Recent Perspectives

Universit Paris Diderot - Paris 7,
& Laboratoire d'Histoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

The number of papers in language evolution (or evolutionary linguistics)

has increased so dramatically since the years 2000 that it has become almost
impossible to penetrate this literature manually. We suggest to build a large
corpus with language evolution publications retrieved from internet databases,
and to examine them quantitatively using the quite recent textometric software
TXM (Heiden, 2010a, b). As lexicometric data provide quantitative signs of
discursive functioning (Guilhaumou, 2002: 6), we hope to make the
connections within these texts more visible (Brunet, 2003) and to document
differently the relationship between texts and concepts (Haler and Volkmann,
2004). By comparing these results to some current synthesis of the domain (e.g.
Chomsky, 2011; Tallerman and Gibson, 2012; McMahon and McMahon, 2013),
we will try to identify patterns of methodological and conceptual developments
in the field of language evolution. This paper will mainly present results
concerning the evolution and role of computational modeling and simulation in
language evolution.

Brunet, E. (2003). Peut-on mesurer la distance entre deux textes ?. Corpus 2. URL:
Chomsky, N. (2011). Some simple evo-devo theses: how true might they be for langua-
ge?. In R. K. Larson, V. Dprez, H. Yamakido (Dirs.), The Evolution of Human
Language, Biolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, 43-63
Haler, G. & G. Volkmann (Eds.). (2004). History of Linguistics in Texts and Concepts,
Vol. I & Vol. II. Nodus Publikationen Mnster
Heiden, S. (2010b). The TXM Platform: Building Open-Source Textual Analysis Soft-
ware Compatible with the TEI Encoding Scheme. In K. I. Ryo Otoguro (Ed.), 24th
Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation - PACLIC24
(389-398). Institute for Digital Enhancement of Cognitive Development, Waseda
University, Sendai, Japan.
Heiden, S., J-P. Magu, B. Pincemin (2010a). TXM: Une plateforme logicielle open-
source pour la textomtrie conception et dveloppement. In I. C. Sergio Bolasco
(Ed.), Proc. of 10th International Conference on the Statistical Analysis of Textual
Data - JADT 2010) (Vol. 2, 1021-1032). Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Econo-
mia Diritto, Roma, Italy.
MacMahon, A. & R. MacMahon (2013). Evolutionary Linguistics. Cambridge Textbook
in Linguistics
Tallerman, M. & K. R. Gibson (2012). The oxford handbook of language evolution.
Oxford University Press
Conference Handbook 173

A interjeio sob o olhar de gramticos portugueses:

uma anlise histrica

Marli Quadros LEITE

Universidade de So Paulo, Brasil

Desenvolvemos o trabalho ora proposto com base na pergunta os gramti-

cos portugueses, no curso da histria, aceitam e reproduzem a teoria latina sobre
a interjeio, ou no a aceitam, renegando-a ou silenciando-se a seu respeito, ou,
ainda, dizem algo de novo relativamente ao assunto?. Sero examinados os
captulos dedicados ao estudo da interjeio em gramticas de referncia da ln-
gua portuguesa, representantes de cada uma das fases histricas por que passou a
gramaticografia portuguesa. Preliminarmente, observamos que as gramticas
renascentistas deram pouca, ou nenhuma ateno interjeio, pois Ferno de
Oliveira (1536) a ela no se refere, e Joo de Barros (1540 trata-a como uma das
partes do discurso seguindo Donato e Prisciano . Amaro de Roboredo (1619)
nem se refere interjeio, dada a sua filiao terico-filosfica a Francisco
Sanchez de las Brozas. Os gramticos do sculo XVIII, os primeiros que se di-
zem seguidores do mtodo da gramtica racional em nada mudam a concepo
latina vinculada a Donato e a Prisciano sobre a interjeio, dedicando-lhe pouca
ateno, so representantes desse grupo, Jernimo Contador de Argote e Ant-
nio Jos dos Reis Lobato. Os gramticos do sculo XIX, porm, autores de gra-
mticas filosficas e, portanto, tributrios da Grammaire Gnrale e Raisone
du Port Royal, ao contrrio dos demais, tm a interjeio como uma classe gra-
matical importante para a representao do pensamento, dentre esses esto Joo
Crisstomo de Couto Mello (1818), Manoel Pacheco da Silva Jnior e Lameira
de Andrade (1887) e Jernimo Soares Barbosa. A gramtica cientfica do sculo
XIX, calcada na teoria histrico-comparatista, nega interjeio o carter de
categoria gramatical, considerando-a como frase (ou uma orao) e no como
palavra, como em Jlio Ribeiro (1881) e Joo Ribeiro (1887). As gramticas do
sculo XX e XXI, em geral, seguem o pensamento formado no sculo anterior,
tanto que alguns autores a excluem do rol de classes de palavras, como Gladsto-
ne Chaves de Melo (1978) e Celso Cunha e Lindley Cintra (1985) e outros nem
a ela se referem, como Maria Helena de Moura Neves (1999). Em gramticas
do sculo XXI a interjeio ou no reconhecida como classe e o autor silencia
completamente sobre ela, como Ataliba Teixeira de Castilho (2010) e Mario
Perini (2010), ou adquire novo status, no como classe de palavra, mas como ato
de fala, como o faz Jos Carlos Azeredo (2008). A anlise dever demonstrar
que a considerao da classe da interjeio na gramtica portuguesa respeita
princpios tericos agregados teoria greco-latina que levam os gramticos a
construir conceitos diversos para a classe.
As indicaes bibliogrficas ficam apenas sugeridas pela citao dos gra-
mticos cujas obras constituiro o corpus do trabalho.
174 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Les tudes statistiques de vocabulaire en France

dans les annes 1950-60 et lautomatisation des sciences du langage

Jacqueline LON
Socit dHistoire et dpistmologie des Sciences du Langage
Universit Paris Diderot - Paris 7,
& Laboratoire d'Histoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Lautomatisation du langage, initie avec les premires expriences de tra-

duction automatique en Grande-Bretagne et aux Etats-Unis en 1949, na com-
menc en France que dix ans plus tard. Le faible ancrage de la linguistique dans
la premire mathmatisation du langage des annes 1930 peut tre tenu pour une
des raisons de ce retard. Toutefois on peut identifier une seconde voie de
lautomatisation du langage en France, celle des statistiques de vocabulaire,
antrieure la traduction automatique, et qui a abouti llaboration du premier
corpus informatis, Le Trsor de la Langue Franaise dont la planification, re-
montant 1957, a prcd celle du Brown Corpus. Elle a par ailleurs largement
contribu la rception des langages formels et de la linguistique computation-
nelle en France.
Ces tudes statistiques de vocabulaire correspondent une forte tradition
franaise ancre dans lhistoire des mots, ltymologie, la dialectologie et la
stylistique. Elles ont pour origine les listes de frquences de mots tablies la fin
du xixe sicle en Allemagne et dans les annes 1930 aux Etats-Unis, ainsi que les
classifications du lexique de la langue franaise effectues partir de 1936 par
Mario Roques (1875-1961) et son quipe dans le cadre de lInventaire Gnral
de la Langue Franaise. Enfin elles sont ancres dans une rception spcifique
de la thorie de linformation en linguistique, distincte de celle de Jakobson et de
son influence sur Martinet et Dubois. Trois personnalits ont t impliques dans
ce processus de rception: deux mathmaticiens, Benot Mandelbrot (1924-
2010) et Ren Moreau (1921-2009), et un linguiste, Pierre Guiraud (1912-1983).
A partir des travaux de Markov, dEstoup et Zipf, de Yule, de Herdan, et de la
thorie de linformation de Shannon, ils ont labor plusieurs conceptions des
relations entre statistiques, mots et textes.
Bien connu pour ses travaux sur les fractals, Mandelbrot a aussi propos
une macrolinguistique inspire de la physique statistique, justifiant
lutilisation des statistiques et des probabilits pour ltude du vocabulaire. Mo-
reau a dabord travaill au chiffre pendant la guerre dIndochine (1946-1954)
avant de se consacrer aux tudes de frquences des lettres et des mots dans les
textes. Moreau a contribu fonder le Centre de Linguistique Quantitative qui a
jou un rle majeur dans la formation des linguistes en langages formels et en
informatique, de mme que dans celle des mathmaticiens et informaticiens en
linguistique. Tous deux ont crit des comptes-rendus pour lAcadmie des
sciences sur la loi de Zipf et sont parvenus la conclusion que le mot, suite de
Conference Handbook 175

lettres entre deux espaces, constituait la meilleure unit pour les tudes de statis-
tiques linguistiques. Pierre Guiraud, lve de Marcel Cohen, est un stylisticien.
Ds 1954, il publie des travaux sur les caractristiques statistiques du vocabu-
laire. Sa conception smantique de linformation, trs critique par les mathma-
ticiens, a conduit de vifs dbats dans le Bulletin de la Socit Linguistique de
Dans mon expos, je mattacherai examiner ces diffrentes conceptions de
la relation entre statistiques et linguistique en questionnant les points suivants:
(i) la frquence est-elle une proprit intrinsque des mots ? (ii) la frquence des
mots est-elle une proprit des langues, est-elle une proprit des textes? (iii) les
statistiques doivent-elles tre considres comme de simples outils ou comme un
modle du langage ?

Sources primaires
Cohen Marcel, 1949, Sur la statistique linguistique. Confrences de l'institut de linguis-
tique de l'universit de Paris. Paris, Klincksieck, pp. 7-16.
Guiraud Pierre. 1954. Les Caractres statistiques du vocabulaire. Paris: P.U.F.
Mandelbrot B., 1957, Linguistique macroscopique in Apostel Mandelbrot Morf (eds.)
Logique, langage et thorie de linformation, Paris: PUF, pp.1-78.
Moreau R., 1962, Au sujet de lutilisation de la notion de frquence en linguistique,
Cahiers de lexicologie, n3, pp.140-158
Moreau R., 1964, La thorie de linformation. Ses limites dans lexplication linguis-
tique BSL tome 59: xix-xxiii.
Muller Charles, 1968, Initiation la linguistique statistique, Paris: Larousse

Sources secondaires
Chevalier Jean-Claude avec Pierre Encrev, 2006, Combats pour la linguistique, de
Martinet Kristeva, Lyon: ENS Editions.
Lon Jacqueline, 2010, Automatisation-mathmatisation de la linguistique en France
dans les annes 1960. Un cas de rception externe Actes du 2e Congrs Mondial
de Linguistique Franaise, F.Neveu, V.Muni-Toke, J.Durand, T.Kingler,
L.Mondada, S. Prvost (eds.) pp. 825-838. Paris: EDP Sciences
(www.linguistiquefrancaise.org) [DOI10.1051/cmlf 2010158]
Petruszewycz Micheline, 1973, Lhistoire de la loi dEstoup-Zipf:documents, Math-
matiques et Sciences Humaines 44:41-56

La gramtica castellana en los programas

de los colegios nacionales argentinos (1881-1936)

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar un mapa de la gramtica

176 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

escolar argentina con especial atencin a sus vnculos con la legislacin educa-
tiva vigente en este pas en el perodo que va desde 1881 a 1936. En particular,
nuestra propuesta pretende el anlisis de diversos documentos (memorias legis-
lativas, planes de estudio, debates en medios grficos, etc.) que den cuenta de
cuestiones pertinentes a la eleccin de los contenidos que se impartirn en los
distintos cursos de gramtica castellana de los colegios nacionales argentinos. El
periodo propuesto se encuentra delimitado por dos fechas que constituyen pun-
tos de inflexin para la historia de la gramtica escolar en Argentina. En 1881 se
crea, por decreto del Poder Ejecutivo Nacional, el Consejo Nacional de Edu-
cacin que promueve la creacin de una Comisin Revisora de Textos, cuya
funcin era evaluar los contenidos incluidos en los manuales escolares. La
creacin del Consejo y la posterior sancin de la ley de Educacin Comn
(1884) permiten consolidar por primera vez un sistema centralizado de regu-
lacin de los contenidos y los textos. Esta modalidad, segn la cual el Ministerio
de Instruccin designaba comisiones especializadas para la redaccin centraliza-
da de los planes de estudio, experimenta un punto de inflexin en 1910 cuando,
en el marco de las celebraciones del Centenario, Ramos Meja presenta su pro-
grama patritico y se revitalizan toda una serie de cuestiones idiomticas vincu-
ladas a la nocin de Nacin argentina. No obstante, ser en 1936, fecha de corte
para nuestro periodo, cuando se produzca la primera reforma decisiva en los
planes de estudio en la que participe el Instituto de Filologa bajo la direccin de
Amado Alonso. De esta forma, nuestro trabajo pretende recorrer distintos suce-
sos que desde el aspecto legislativo han influido en la configuracin de la
gramtica escolar argentina desde su centralizacin (1881) hasta la incorpo-
racin del Instituto de Filologa como autoridad regulativa (1936).

Conceptualizing Language.
The Role of Metaphors in Structuring Metalinguistic Discourse

Michael LINK
Freie Universitt Berlin, Deutschland

Numerous studies in cognitive semantics have come to the conclusion that

metaphorical mapping and conceptual blending are pervasive in meaning cons-
truction and understanding. Cognitive sciences themselves have grown sensitive
to the impact of metaphors on conceptualizations and explications in their own
field. Nonetheless, only few studies that investigate metalinguistic discourse
from a diachronic perspective make use of these findings.
Therefore, I propose to rethink Enlightenments philosophy of language in
terms of Cognitive Semantics. More specifically, I make use of Cognitive Meta-
phor Theory (CMT) and Conceptual Integration Theory (CIT) to examine the
impact of linguistic forms and conceptualizations on the way philosophical to-
Conference Handbook 177

pics are discussed at that age. My analysis is based on a series of price essays
received by the Berlin Academy of Science and Literature as responses to a price
question issued in 1757. Apart from the origin of language, language change and
language reform, the essays are primarily concerned with the reciprocal influen-
ce of language and thought, an issue that is still vital today, both in the cognitive
sciences and in philosophy.
Investigating metaphors will allow me to comprehend how their use gives rise to
emergent structures which conceptualize different aspects of language. First, I
will introduce the domains other than language (e.g. Economics, Agriculture,
and Biology) which are used to talk about language. In a second step, focusing
on some of these source domains will reveal the conceptualizations structure
and thereby clarify which aspects of language can be managed within this fra-
mework. Finally, the analysis of topics that are structured by competing meta-
phors (language change, for example, may be conceptualized in terms of econo-
mics as well as in terms of politics) will particularly demonstrate the scope of
these metaphoric structures.
To sum up, my paper will examine how topics in metalinguistic discourse are
structured by metaphors issued from other domains of knowledge. Using a
method derived from cognitive linguistics, I link philosophy of language to cog-
nitive linguistics. Thereby, I hope to open up discussions on philosophy of lan-
guage in terms of cognitive linguistics, as well as to encourage cognitive linguis-
tics to become more responsive to the role philosophical positions may assume
in current debates.

Dissertation qui a remport le prix propos par lAcadmie Royale des Sciences et Bel-
les Lettres de Prusse, sur linfluence rciproque du langage sur les opinions et des
opinions sur le langage, avec les pieces qui ont concuru, Ewald Friedrich von
Hertzberg (ed.), Berlin: Haude & Spener 1760.
Auroux, S./ Kouloughli, D. (1991): Why is there no ,true Philosophy of Linguistics? In:
Language & Communicaton 1991, 2 (3), 151-163.
Coseriu, E. (2003): Geschichte der Sprachphilosophie. Von den Anfngen bis Rousseau,
Tbingen/ Basel: Francke.
Croft, R./ Cruse, D.A. (2004): Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Fauconnier, G./ Turner, M. (1998): Conceptual Integration Networks. In: Cognitive
Science 1998, 22 (2), 133-187.
Fauconnier, G./ Turner, M. (2003): The way we think. Conceptual Blending and the
Minds hidden Complexities, New York: Basic Books (Perseus).
Geeraerts, D./ Cuyckens, H. (2007): The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics,
Oxford/ New York: Oxford UP.
Haler, G. (1997): Sprachtheoretische Preisfragen der Berliner Akademie in der 2. Hlf-
te des 18. Jahrhunderts. Ein Kapitel der Debatte um Universalien und Relativitt,
In: Romanistik in Geschichte und Gegenwart 1997, 3 (1), 3-26.
Lakoff, G. (1987): Women, fire and dangerous things. What categories reveal about the
mind, Chicago/ London: University of Chicago Press 1990.
178 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Lakoff, G./ Turner, M. (1989): More than cool reason. A Field Guide to Poetic Meta-
phor, Chicago/ London: University of Chicago Press.
Langacker, R. (2008): Cognitive Grammar. A Basic Introduction, Oxford/ New York:
Oxford UP.
Neis, C. (2003): Anthropologie im Sprachdenken des 18. Jahrhunderts. Die Berliner
Preisfrage nach dem Ursprung (1771), Berlin/ New York: Gruyter.

Trees, Waves, and Networks: Modeling Historical Language Relati-

ons in the Early History of Comparative Linguistics

Johann-Mattis LIST
Philipps-Universitt Marburg, Deutschland

Ever since it was first proposed, August Schleicher's claim that historical
language relations are best modeled by dem Bilde eines sich verstelnden
Baumes (Schleicher 1853: 787) has been the topic of many discussions in the
linguistic world. In contrast to evolutionary biology, where with the exception
of microbial evolution (Bapteste et al. 2009) the family tree is still the leading
paradigm to model species and genome evolution, linguists never really trusted
Schleicher's Stammbaum to be adequate enough to model language history in all
its complexity.
There are three main reasons why scholars rejected the tree as the natural
model for language history: Firstly, its practicability was criticized, since con-
flicting signals in linguistic data often made it difficult to reconstruct a single
tree for a given language family (Schmidt 1872). Secondly, its plausibility was
neglected, since languages usually do not evolve in simple processes of split and
independent development (Schuchard 1870 [1900]). Thirdly, the adequacy of the
tree model was questioned, since it reduces language history to its vertical as-
pects, neglecting its horizontal component (Schuchard 1870 [1900]). Neverthe-
less, although most linguists were well aware of the inadequacy of the family-
tree model, they had great difficulties in coming up with a conclusive alternative
model that would describe the complex reality of historical language relations in
an equally simple and straightforward way. The fruitless quest for new meta-
phors is reflected in numerous different visualizations of the Schmidt's Wellen-
theorie, ranging from simple geographical maps (Schmidt 1875:199, Meillet
1908:134), via overlapping circles (Hirt 1905:93), or alternating boundaries
(Bloomfield 1933:316), up to static networks (Bonfante 1931:174).
In the talk, it will be argued that there are two main factors why during the
early history of comparative linguistics scholars failed to established a unified
model of historical language relations: The first factor was an improper unders-
tanding of the mathematical aspects underlying all modeling enterprises in sci-
ence. The second factor was the failure of early comparative linguistics to provi-
Conference Handbook 179

de a proper distinction between ontological and epistemological facts. The for-

mer factor led to the rejection of the tree model on mathematically unjustified
grounds, and the latter inhibited the development of a new unified model of lan-
guage history that would take both its vertical and its horizontal aspects into

Bapteste, E., O'Malley, M., and Beiko, R. (2009). Prokaryotic evolution and the tree of
life are two different things. Biology Direct.
Bloomfield, L. (1933 [1973]). Language. London: Allen & Unwin.
Bonfante, G. (1931). I dialetti indoeuropei. In: Annali del R. Istituto Orientale di Na-
poli 4, 69185.
Hirt, H. (1905). Die Indogermanen. Ihre Verbreitung, ihre Urheimat und ihre Kultur.
Vol. 1. Strassburg: Trbner.
Meillet, A. (1908). Les dialectes Indo-Europens. Paris: Librairie Ancienne Honor
Schleicher, A. (1853). Die ersten Spaltungen des indogermanischen Urvolkes. In:
Allgemeine Monatsschrift fr Wissenschaft und Literatur, 786787.
Schmidt, J. (1872). Die Verwantschaftsverhltnisse der indogermanischen Sprachen.
Weimar: Hermann Bhlau.
Schuchardt, H. (1900[1870]). ber die Klassifikation der romanischen Mundarten. Pro-
be-Vorlesung, gehalten zu Leipzig am 30. April 1870. Graz.

Victorian Ideas regarding Language Learning:

Thomas Prendergasts (1807?-1886) Mastery System

Marjorie LORCH
University of London, U.K.

Many methods of language teaching were devised in the second half of the
19th century. These were primarily developed by educators from France and
Germany. However, the Englishman Thomas Prendergast (1807?-1886) created
a system for language learning which had many original features. Prendergast
was a polyglot who worked in the East India Company Civil Service in Madras
as a magistrate and judge. Upon retirement and return to England he began to
publish manuals for language learning. The Mastery of Languages or, the art of
speaking foreign tongues idiomatically first appeared in 1864 followed by the
Handbook to the Mastery Series in 1868. Individual volumes were dedicated to
French (1868), German (1868), Spanish (1869), Hebrew (1871) and Latin (1872)
which were reprinted and revised numerous times over ensuing decades.
Prendergast founded the principles of his Mastery System on his observati-
ons regarding the nature of child language acquisition, of mother tongue and
additional languages, as well as ideas on memory and learning. He considered
180 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

developmental principles with regard to changing capacities and the differences

between classroom and immersion experiences, and applied them to fashion a
system of self-guided study for adults. His early ideas on the ways words com-
bine into sentences to express ideas reflect an emphasis and orientation found in
much of the subsequent British work in the 1870s on the Science of Language
(e.g., Max Mueller) and the Science of Education (e.g. Alexander Bain). It also
predated more empirical work on first language acquisition (e.g., James Sully)
and second language learning (e.g. James McKeen Cattell).
Prendergasts method has previously had limited consideration, primarily in
comparing his work to other contemporaries or later authors such as Henry Swe-
et and Harold E. Palmer (Tickoo, 1986, Howatt 2004, Smith 2005, Atherton,
2010). This paper will explore Prendergasts work with regard to the psycholin-
guistic concepts it embodies. It will examine the social historical context and the
reception of his books by contemporaries. One notable younger contemporary
who engaged with Prendergasts system was the educator Robert Hebert Quick
(1831-1891). Quicks evaluation of Prendergasts method from the perspective
of both a learner and teacher will be presented.

Atherton M. (2010) 'The Globe of Language': Thomas Prendergast and Applied Linguis-
tics in the 1870s. Language & History 53(1):15-26.
Howatt A. (2004). A history of English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. 2nd ed.
Smith RC. (2005) An Investigation Into the Roots of ELT: With a Particular Focus on
the Career and Legacy of Harold E. Palmer (1877-1949). Ph.D. Thesis. University
of Edinburgh.
Tickoo, M. L. (1986) Prendergast and the Mastery Method: an assessment. ELT
Journal 40(1): 528.

On the Typology of Ancient Grammars

University of Helsinki, Finland

Linguistic historiography makes use of a typology of grammars, which goes

ultimately back to the work of Karl Barwick. It was developed further by Vivien
Law. According to this typology, four different types of grammars were pro-
duced in Late Antiquity, (1) grammars of Schulgrammatik type, which cover the
canonical eight parts of speech in a systematic manner, (2) regulae or kanones
(rules), which explore the formal features of some or all parts of speech, (3)
partitiones (divisions) or parsing grammars, which analyze grammatically a
series of chosen head-words in a sentence, and (4) grammatical commentaries,
Conference Handbook 181

which accompany the study of the Schulgrammatik type grammar, spelling out
the theoretical background of its doctrine.
In my talk, I will highlight some problems in this typology, which is not as
clearcut as we might wish. The distinction between an ars grammatica and a
commentary is clear enough, whereas the group of regulae grammars is ex-
tremely heterogenous. Moreover, many artes have incorporated portions of
regulae into their frameworks. As to the order of their appearance in Antiquity,
it is believed that the ars grammatica was developed early on, whereas all the
other types came into existence in Late Antiquity. The origin of commentaries
and parsing grammars in Late Antiquity is obvious. Servius wrote the first
grammatical commentary on Donatus, and Priscianuss Partitiones is the only
ancient testimony of this genre. However, there is no evidence to suggest that the
regulae-type of grammar were a product of Late Antiquity. In my talk, I will
argue that both approaches are attested side by side in the earliest grammars
preserved to us.

Barwick, Karl (1922). Remmius Palaemon und die rmische Ars grammatica. Leipzig:
Law, Vivien (2003). History of linguistics in Europe: from Plato to 1600. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.

Instrumentos de Gramatizao e os Parmetros Curriculares

Nacionais: a produo de saberes sobre a lngua portuguesa no Brasil

Carolina de Paula MACHADO

Universidade Federal de So Carlos, So Paulo, Brasil

Buscamos compreender de que maneira as diferentes teorias lingusticas

constituram e ainda constituem o saber metalingustico que transmitido na
escola sobre a lngua portuguesa. Tendo em vista isto, e considerando que todo
o saber uma realidade histrica, sendo que seu modo de existncia real no a
atemporalidade ideal da ordem lgica do desfraldamento do verdadeiro, mas a
temporalidade ramificada da constituio cotidiana do saber (AUROUX, 1992,
P. 11) tivemos como propsito, sob a luz da Histria das Ideias Lingusticas e da
Semntica, comprender as diferentes designaes dos sintagmas nominais ln-
gua, linguagem e lngua portuguesa nos Parmetros Curriculares Nacionais
(PCN) (MEC/SEF, 1997), documento que serve como diretriz no apenas para o
ensino de lngua portuguesa no Brasil, como tambm para a produo de materi-
ais didticos e, tambm, de gramticas e dicionrios. Que saberes lingusticos
esto pressupostos e orientam argumentativamente os saberes sobre a lngua
neste documento to importante, que norteia a conduta do ensino de lngua tanto
182 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

nas salas de aulas como em materiais didticos e em instrumentos de gramati-

zao(AUROUX, 1992)? Para abranger mais amplamente esta ltima questo,
observamos os prefcios de duas gramticas: a Gramtica Contempornea da
Lngua Portuguesa (1997) e a Gramtica da Lngua Portugesa (1998). Para tanto,
tomamos como base a noo de pressuposio de Ducrot (1972) segundo o qual
a pressuposio faz aparecer, no interior da lngua, todo um dispositivo de con-
venes e leis, que deve ser compreendido como um quadro institucional a regu-
lar o debate dos indivduos (p. 13). O pressuposto, isto , o elemento semntico,
permite que se diga algo como se isso no fosse dito. O que pressuposto como
sentidos para a lngua que regulam o conhecimento lingustico que os profes-
sores e profissionais do ensino da lngua portuguesa devem ter? Alm disso, a
noo de designao de Guimares (2002) permite-nos observar aquilo que os
sintagmas nominais Lngua Portuguesa, lngua e linguagem significam na
materialidade textual, significado este tomado na relao com o histrico e
com o real. Observamos, inicialmente, que a lngua portuguesa tratada, nos
PCN, como se no houvesse diferentes formas de conceb-la. como se todos,
professores, linguistas, etc, tivessem a mesma concepo de lngua. Alm disso,
a viso de lngua limita-se dicotomia oral/escrito, deixando-se de lado assim,
novas manifestaes lingusticas como a que usada no meio digital.

Referncias Bibliogrficas
AUROUX, Silvain. A Revoluo Tecnolgica da Gramatizao. Campinas: Editora da
Unicamp, 1992.
CIPRO NETO,P. INFANTE, U. Gramtica da Lngua Portuguesa. So Paulo: Scipione,
DE NICOLA, J.; INFANTE, U. Gramtica Contempornea da Lngua Portuguesa. So
Paulo: Scipione, 1997.
DUCROT, O. Dizer e no dizer: Princpios de Semntica Lingustica. So Paulo: Editora
Cultrix, 1972.
GUIMARES, E. Semntica do Acontecimento. Campinas: Pontes, 2002.
ORLANDI, E. (Org.) Histria das Ideias Lingusticas. Construo do Saber Metalingus-
tico e Constituio da Lngua Nacional. Campinas: Pontes;Cceres:Unemat Edito-
ra, 2001.
PARMETROS CURRICULARES NACIONAIS: Introduo aos parmetros curricula-
res nacionais. Braslia, MEC/SEF, 1997.
Conference Handbook 183

Definies de tipo lexicogrfico na verso portuguesa

da Vita Christi (1495)

Jos Barbosa MACHADO

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal

Na Idade Mdia, os dicionrios, ou no existiam nas lnguas romances, ou

eram raros. Os leitores teriam portanto o acesso significao de determinado
termo menos usual bastante dificultado. Para colmatar este problema, os autores
procuraram explicitar dentro do prprio texto os termos que poderiam ocasionar
dvidas de interpretao. A preocupao lexicogrfica, diz Telmo Verdelho,
subjaz a toda a atividade textual na Idade Mdia, e revela-se sobretudo nos
denunciados processos de acesso significao que entretecem permanentemen-
te os textos desta poca (1995: 169). A escrita em vernculo receava a ambi-
guidade e a incompreenso resultante do desconhecimento do vocabulrio. No
havia patrimnio escrito, nem memria textual onde o leitor pudesse familiari-
zar-se com o especializado e forosamente mais amplo vocabulrio da escrita.
desta forma que a escrita tinha de facilitar o acesso significao, oferecendo
uma larga margem de informaes redundantes e de processos de autodecifra-
o (Ibid.). A este processo chama-se lexicografia implcita.
A verso portuguesa da Vita Christi, impressa em Lisboa em 1495, contm
um nmero bastante significativo de passagens que revelam a preocupao do
autor (e, em certos contextos, dos tradutores) em apresentar definies de tipo
lexicogrfico de determinados termos utilizados. Essas definies servem por
um lado para explicitar esses termos, e por outro para descrever os vrios
significados ou as vrias subdivises que um termo pode permitir.
No nosso estudo faremos uma sistematizao de tais definies.
Apresentamos alguns exemplos: E esta maneira de fallar he chamada yperboli-
ca que quer dizer muyto aficada; Prouerbio se chama quando per ha pallaura
se entende ou se diz outra assy como he a parauoa ou explo que per ha voz
que significa ha cousa he entendida outra; E chamasse triclinio de ha palau-
ra grega que he cline. e quer dizer lecto; amansado quer dizer aa mao acus-

Nunes, Jos Joaquim (1989). Compndio de Gramtica Histria Portuguesa. 9. ed.
Lisboa: Clssica Editora.
Saxnia, Ludolfo de (2010). Vita Christi I. Edio de Jos Barbosa Machado. Braga:
Edies Vercial. Edio de Jos Barbosa Machado.
Saxnia, Ludolfo de (2012). Vita Christi III. Edio de Jos Barbosa Machado. Braga:
Edies Vercial. Edio de Jos Barbosa Machado.
Verdelho, Telmo (1995). As Origens da Gramaticografia e da Lexicografia Latino-
Portuguesas. Aveiro: Instituto Nacional de Investigao Cientfica.
184 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Vilela, Mrio (1994). Estudos de Lexicologia do Portugus. Coimbra: Livraria Almedi-


A first history of Functional Grammar

VU University, Amsterdam, Netherlands

In a contribution to ICHoLS XIIIs coverage of contemporary linguistics,

for the first time (but see Anstey 2004) the history will be told of Functional
Grammar (FG; Dik 1978, 1989, 1997), as developed by Simon C. Dik of the
University of Amsterdam and his co-workers. The presentation will cover the
genesis of the theory, placing it in its multi-facetted intellectual context in both
Dutch and world linguistics, its development into an internationally recognized
theory of grammar, the illness and tragically early death (1995) of its originator
and main protagonist as well as Diks Nachleben in current linguistics, including
the emergence of a successor theory in Functional Discourse Grammar
(Hengeveld & Mackenzie 2008). With reference to documents from both the
press and academic journals, the paper will give an account of repeated attempts
in the Netherlands to challenge or even delegitimize Functional Grammar as
well as covering an assessment of FGs reception in linguistics and beyond as
evidenced in reviews and comments in the academic literature (notably in Butler
2003). At the same time, the paper will trace how Dik and his associates suc-
ceeded in establishing FG as an acknowledged force in linguistics with its own
research community, biennial conferences, book series, website and other accou-
trements of a successful school. There will be emphasis on FGs openness to
ideas from other sources and to interdisciplinary cooperation. On this basis an
attempt will be made to evaluate the contribution of Functional Grammar to
linguistic theory and descriptive practice. The author was a close collaborator of
Diks, a fact that will lend authenticity, commitment and here and there a subjec-
tive flavour to the account.

Anstey, Matthew P. 2004. Functional Grammar from its inception. In A New Architectu-
re for Functional Grammar, ed. J. Lachlan Mackenzie & Mara de los ngeles
Gomz-Gonzlez, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 2372.
Butler, Christopher S. 2003. Structure and Function: A Guide to Three Major Structu-
ral-Functional Theories. 2 parts. Amsterdam/Philadelphia PA: John Benjamins.
Dik, Simon C. 1978. Functional Grammar. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Dik, Simon C. 1989 The Theory of Functional Grammar. Part 1: The Structure of the
Clause. Dordrecht: Foris.
Dik, Simon C. 1997. The Theory of Functional Grammar. 2 parts. Ed. By Kees Hen-
geveld. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Conference Handbook 185

Hengeveld, Kees & J. Lachlan Mackenzie. 2008. Functional Discourse Grammar: A

Typologically-Based Theory of Language Structure. Oxford: Oxford University

Metaclases de palabras en gramticas espaolas del siglo XIX:

clases de palabras


Universidad de Salamanca, Espaa

Una buena parte de la produccin gramatical del XIX en Espaa refleja la

llegada de ideas procedentes de corrientes que venan desarrollndose en Europa
desde el siglo XVII, tras la publicacin de la Grammaire gnrale et raisonne
de Arnauld y Lancelot. La tarda recepcin de estas desemboc en que, con fre-
cuencia, se aceptasen simultneamente propuestas introducidas por Port-Royal
junto con las de autores de otras tendencias muy posteriores como el empirismo
ingls o las teoras de los idelogos franceses (Ridruejo 1997: 95). La adopcin
de estas ideas, por otra parte, se hizo en estricta convivencia con los planteami-
entos de corte tradicional, los heredados de la tradicin grecolatina, y represen-
tados entonces por la Real Academia Espaola (Eilers y Zollna 2012: 11; Girn
Alconchel 2007: 67).
En este contexto, ve la luz una serie de textos cuyos autores, partiendo del
paralelismo lgico-idiomtico procedente de las denominadas gramticas filo-
sficas, clasifican las palabras en grandes metaclases (tres o cuatro, segn auto-
res) de forma anloga a la clasificacin de las ideas. No abandonan, por el con-
trario, las partes de la oracin tradicionales sino que combinan los dos plan-
teamientos; por ello, estos particulares sistemas constituyen un ilustrativo ejem-
plo de ese eclecticismo caracterstico de la tradicin espaola decimonnica.
El trabajo que aqu se propone desarrolla investigaciones ya iniciadas y da-
das a conocer en anteriores congresos, donde se ofreci un panorama general de
estas propuestas clasificatorias, es decir, se centr la atencin en la configura-
cin de los sistemas y en las metaclases.
En esta ocasin el objeto de anlisis son las clases de palabras. Es aqu don-
de ms claramente se manifiesta esa convivencia de corrientes gramaticales en
las soluciones que adopta cada gramtico a la hora de definir las partes de la
oracin, especialmente interesantes cuando la concepcin perteneciente a los
nuevos planteamientos sobre los que han basado las metaclases difieren de la
descripcin tradicional.
En definitiva, se pretende con este anlisis mostrar, a travs del tratamiento
de las palabras, cmo se adoptaron o, ms bien, cmo se adaptaron en estos
sistemas las nuevas teoras a los planteamientos de corte tradicional que venan
186 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

predominando en las gramticas espaolas, y as dar una nueva cuenta del eclec-
ticismo doctrinal que caracteriza el siglo XIX espaol.

Palabras clave: Historiografa lingstica. Historia de las ideas gramaticales en

Espaa. Siglo XIX. Clases de palabras.

Referencias bibliogrficas
Eilers, V. & Zollna, E. (2012): Introduccin. V. Eilers, & I. Zollna, (eds.): La recep-
cin de la ideologa en la Espaa del siglo XIX. Mnster: Nodus Publikationen, 7-
Girn Alconchel, J. L. (2007): "Corrientes y perodos en la gramtica espaola". J. Dor-
ta, C. Corrales y D. Corbella (eds.): Historiografa de la lingstica en el mbito
hispnico. Madrid: Arco/Libros, 57-88.
Ridruejo, E. (1997): Los epgonos del racionalismo en Espaa. La aplicacin al castel-
lano de la Gramtica general de Gmez Hermosilla. Historiographia Lingstica,
XXIV: 1/2, 95-114.

Nomeaes e Designaes: a poltica de um nome

Tas da Silva MARTINS

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

O presente trabalho objetiva apresentar um recorte dos resultados analticos

obtidos a partir de nossa pesquisa sobre a disciplinarizao da Anlise de Dis-
curso no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), na qual temos entre os principais objetivos a
compreenso dos efeitos de sentido produzidos na disciplinarizao de uma
teoria. Cabe ressaltar que a questo da disciplinarizao enfocada, em nosso
trabalho, pelo deslocamento que ocorre de uma Teoria do Discurso, pensada por
M. Pcheux nos anos 1960, na Frana, disciplina Anlise de Discurso no Bra-
sil, a qual institucionalizada, nos anos 1980, nos Cursos de Letras do pas. O
recorte analtico que apresentamos refere-se especificamente configurao da
Anlise de Discurso enquanto disciplina no RS. Fazemos isso por meio da anli-
se de arquivos institucionais e pessoais a fim de traarmos um panorama histri-
co que constitui, antes de mais nada, redes de memria que, quando nos puse-
mos a ouvir, falam-nos da histria. Este arquivo composto de documentos
como, por exemplo, programas, ementas, bibliografias e dirios de classe das
duas instituies que primeiro ofertaram curso de doutorado em Letras em nosso
estado, a saber, a Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul
(PUCRS) e a Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Nesta apre-
sentao, trazemos a tona questo da configurao da Anlise de Discurso en-
quanto disciplina nos Cursos de Ps-Graduao em Letras do RS, por meio dos
movimentos de nomeaes e de designaes que ocorrem no interior destas ins-
tituies acadmicas. Para tanto, em nossa pesquisa procuramos tecer uma rela-
Conference Handbook 187

o entre AD e Histria das Ideias Lingusticas, pois nesse entremeio que nos
inscrevemos teoricamente. Inserimo-nos em uma perspectiva terica que pode
ser entendida ao modo de uma articulao entre AD e HIL, tal como formula
Nunes ao afirmar que h uma produtividade especfica quando a AD se posi-
ciona no entremeio com a HIL (2007, p.03). Esta articulao permite que, ao
tratarmos de temas abordados pela HIL, como conceitos, teorias, autores, insti-
tuies, periodizao, o faamos de maneira especfica, atravs de uma aborda-
gem discursiva.

Consideraciones lingsticas y culturales en la traduccin

al castellano del Cdice Florentino: anlisis de la astrologa judiciaria

Universidade Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, Mxico

El Cdice Florentino representa la nica versin ms completa y bilinge

de la Historia general de las cosas de Nueva Espaa y es la fuente ms completa
para conocer las costumbres y el pensamiento de los antiguos mexicanos.
Producto de un intenso trabajo intercultural efectuado por espacio de treinta
aos, 1547-1577, emprendido por fray Bernardino de Sahagn y sus colaborado-
res indgenas alumnos trilinges y sabios o tlamatinime, el manuscrito com-
puesto por doce libros y que recibi el ttulo del repositorio que por siglos lo ha
resguardado, est conformado por dos columnas: una en lengua nhuatl
elaborada inicialmente y otra en lengua castellana, redactada durante la etapa
final del proyecto. Esta ltima constituye una versin parafrstica, y en muchos
casos resumida, de la primera.
Desde hace varios aos, y despus de ms de cuatro siglos, en la Universi-
dad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico un grupo de investigadores nos encontramos
realizando la traduccin al castellano del apartado en nhuatl. El propsito de la
comunicacin que se pretende presentar est enfocado en la valoracin de los
criterios que se han adoptado en el trabajo de trasvase especficamente en el
libro correspondiente a la astrologa judiciaria o del arte adivinatoria, por ejem-
plo, en: el tratamiento de difrasismos, la conservacin de trminos nahuas y
nahuatlismos a la traduccin castellana como voces insustituibles de denomi-
nacin que caracterizan el espaol de Mxico desde pocas tempranas de la Co-
lonia, entre otros.
188 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Mining Foreign Language Teaching Materials

for the History of Pragmatics

University of Nottingham, U.K.

There is a long tradition, at least from the fifteenth century, of language le-
arning manuals to help Europeans to learn each others languages. Typically,
they consisted of a grammar (or, in the earliest versions, sample forms or senten-
ces from which patterns could be induced) and a number of dialogues. Recent
studies have begun to show the importance of such foreign language grammars
for understanding how the language structures of vernacular languages were
understood in late medieval and early modern times (e.g. Langer 2004,
ANONYMIZED 2001, 2004, 2008, 2012). There has also been some work on
the representations of the target culture in early foreign language textbooks
(e.g. Van der Lubbe 2008, Guthke 2011). This paper will examine these materi-
als as some of the earliest surviving materials to allow an insight into the history
of pragmatics, as the dialogues that they contain model not just language forms,
but also the relationship between form and function. For example, the art of ha-
ggling is modelled in a range of sources until, that is, bargaining over prices
ceases to be good manners at a certain point in the eighteenth century.
This paper draws on two different theoreical paradigms to examine the
pragmatics of a number of situations in selected language learning manuals from
1400 to 1800: the notion of the communicative genre, as used by Linke (2007) in
her study of nineteenth-century German bourgeous culture (for example, paying
a call); and the notion of negative politeness. It is anticipated that the nature of
the model dialogue whose authors tended to re-work and update earlier manu-
als, while following closely the basic routines of conversation may prove par-
ticularly valuable for tracing diachronic change in the area of pragmatics (e.g.
making, accepting and refusing requests). Just as in some areas of grammatical
description, foreign language grammars may prove to be ahead of the native
speaker grammatical tradition in their ability to explain rules or to capture chan-
ges in the language, it is anticipated that the same will be true of at least some
areas of pragmatics (e.g. recommendations for forms of address).
The corpus consists of a number of bilingual manuals (German-Italian, En-
glish-Dutch and German-English) used for teaching English, German and/or
Dutch to non-native speakers, from 1400 to 1800.
Conference Handbook 189

Konstanty Regamey An Exceptional Linguist and Musician

at the Crossroads of West and East

Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland

In my paper I focus on Konstanty Regamey, his scholarly career and ex-

traordinary life.
First of all, Regamey was a brilliant linguist in the area of Oriental studies.
His domain was mostly Indology but he had an active command of Sanskrit,
Pali, Tibetan, Aramaic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, Greek, Latin, French, Span-
ish, Italian, German, English, Polish, Russian and Czech. According to his con-
temporaries he could read in about 40 languages. This fact obviously allowed
him to work as a comparative linguist. Before the II World War he was a pro-
fessor at Warsaw University. After the war he moved to Switzerland where he
became a professor of Lausanne and Fribourg Universities. He acquired there
the positions of professor of general linguistics, comparative grammar studies
and of Oriental studies. Part of my paper I will devote to the description of his
research in this areas of his activities.
Simultaneously, Regamey, whose parents were both talented musicians,
was gifted for music. He became a brilliant composer of modern music, himself
played piano, was an art critic and theoretician. In his early years he was in
close contacts with Polish cultural elites, personally knowing and co-operated
with such composers as Karol Szymanowski or Witold Lutosawski.
In his many works he tried to join methods used in both Western and East-
ern traditions as far as language studies are concerned. He also made unusual
experiments with languages applied to particular musical forms. He was certain-
ly a man of Renaissance type, a brilliant scholar and musician. For this he should
not be forgotten.

Jastrzbowska, Elbieta, 2005, Konstanty Regamey rodem z Renesansu w Uniwersytecie
Warszawskim (1925 1939), in: Przegld Historyczny, vol. 16, pp. 91 97
Matter, Jean, 1979, Constantin Regamey, compositeur et humaniste, in: Revue Musicale
de Suisse romande, nb.1, pp. 23 25
Oblicza polistylizmu. Materiay sympozjum powiconego twrczoci Konstantego
Regameya, 1988, ed. K. Tarnowska Kaczorowska, Warszawa: SM ZKP
Regamey, Konstanty, 1933, Bibliographie analytique des travaux relatives aux elements
anaryens dans la civilization et les langues de lInde, in: Bulletin de lEcole Fran-
caise de Extreme-Orient
Regamey, Konstanty, 1948 (1973), Prba analizy ewolucji w sztuce, Krakw: Polskie
Wydawnictwo Muzyczne
190 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Gramticas para Crianas: sculos XIX/XX

Mrcia A. G. MOLINA
Universidade Federal do Maranho, Brasil

No final do sculo XIX e incio do XX ocorria tanto no Brasil quanto em

Portugal, importantes mudanas polticas: o Brasil passava do regime monrqui-
co ao republicano, instaurando-se uma crucial necessidade de apagamento do
passado, j que a Monarquia era vista por muitos como modelo de atraso, acultu-
rao e dependncia; em Portugal, as mudanas poltico-sociais tambm trans-
formavam a sociedade. Muitas correntes filosficas constituam o imaginrio
dos intelectuais portugueses e brasileiros, como o Positivismo, de August Com-
te, e o Evolucionismo, de Darwin e Spencer. Somem-se a isso os primeiros estu-
dos sobre Psicologia, mostrando que a criana, diferentemente do compreendido
at ento, no era um adulto em miniatura, fato que exigiu a elaborao de mate-
rial didtico adequado a ela. , pois, nesse momento histrico que se situa o
trabalho. Pretende-se discorrer sobre duas importantes gramticas de Lngua
Portuguesa destinadas infncia, uma, adotada no Brasil durante o primeiro
perodo republicano, surgida depois da de Jlio Ribeiro (1881) e do Programa
de Exames, elaborado pelo professor Fausto Barreto, do Colgio de Pedro II, a
Gramtica Portuguesa dedicada primeira infncia, de Joo Ribeiro e a outra,
publicada em Portugal, no mesmo perodo, a Gramtica a Infncia, de Cndido
de Figueiredo.
Entendendo o estudo dessas obras como parte da histria cultural, pretende-
se observar de que forma foram pensadas, compreendidas e escritas. Objetiva-se
no apenas historiar o passado, mas compreend-lo e o fazer por meio das pala-
vras daqueles estudiosos, no momento peculiar em que viveram e deixaram seu
importante legado para nossa sociedade.
Cotejar-se-o nessas obras suas definies, partio e exemplos, apontando-
se que, embora destinadas a estudantes de escola primria, seu contedo pouco
se diferenciava das de curso superior cujo objetivo era o de prescrever as nor-
mas do bem falar e escrever a Lngua Portuguesa. A anlise iluminada pela
Histria das Ideias Lingusticas.

CHARTIER, Roger. 1998. A ordem dos livros: leitores, autores e bibliotecas na Europa
entre os sculos XIV e XVIII. Traduo de Mary Del Priore, Braslia: Editora
FVERO, Leonor L.; MOLINA, M. A.G. (2006). As concepes lingusticas no sculo
XIX: a gramtica no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Lucerna.
LUZURIAGA Lorenzo.1973. Histria da Educao e da Pedagogia. So Paulo: Com-
panhia Editora Nacional.
PEREIRA, Eduardo Carlos. 1907[1919] Grammatica Expositiva (Curso Elementar). So
Paulo: Cia Editora Nacional.
Conference Handbook 191

RIBEIRO, Joo. 1886.[1913]. Grammatica Portuguesa (Curso Primrio). Rio de Janei-

ro: Livraria Francisco Alves.

La convergencia de las tradiciones espaola y tarasca

en los testamentos: el caso del testamento de Don Fernando
Titu Huitzimengari, 1632


Centro de Estudios Antropolgicos, El Colegio de Michoacn, Mxico

El testamento, prctica legal hispana que asegura la transmisin de

posesiones a las nuevas generaciones, se pone en prctica en el Nuevo Mundo
(Rojas Raviela 2000). Sin duda los cambios sociales, econmicos, polticos y
religiosos explican esta rpida respuesta al nuevo orden, El imperio tarasco que
abarcaba el actual estado de Michoacn y zonas aledaas no es una excepcin.
El testamento de Don Ferando Titu Huitzimengari, miembro de la hoy en
da llamada nobleza indgena de Michoacn ilustra las dificultades lingsticas
para comunicar en tarasco conceptos catlicos que el arquetipo legal requiere se
expresen as como las dificultades que se presentan respecto a la posesin de
tierras. En tiempos prehispnicos la relacin con la tierra no se conceba como
posesin por lo que en el testamento se notan expresiones diferenciadas para
referir a terrenos de recien adquisicin y a aquellos cuya posesin resulta de la
tradicin prehispnica. Con el propsito de lograr el mayor beneficio tanto espi-
ritual como material, el testamento escrito en tarasco hace un uso cauteloso de
prstamos castellanos.
Trataremos aqu de mostrar las dificultades de expresin y del manejo de
conceptos que enfrentan tanto el escribano como el testante para llevar a buen
trmino el proceso legal de un testamento.

Rojas Rabiela, Teresa, Elsa Leticia Rea Lpez y Constantino Medina Lima (coordinado-
res). 2000. Vidas y bienes olvidados. Testamentos indgenas novohispanos. Vol 3.

Reflexes ortogrficas do manuscrito oitocentista "Memria

Milena Borges de MORAES

Universidade de So Paulo, Brasil

O objetivo desta comunicao apresentar compreenses dos aspectos his-

tricos, sociais, culturais, lingusticos que envolvem as questes de natureza
192 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

ortogrfica no sculo XVIII, em Portugal, agregando conhecimentos para a in-

terpretao de aspectos ortogrficos de um manuscrito produzido no Brasil, nes-
te perodo. Assim, toma como corpus escrito de anlise, o manuscrito Memria
sobre o plano de guerra offensiva e deffensiva da Capitania de Matto Grosso,
um documento oficial escrito em 31 de janeiro de 1800, no Forte Coimbra, Capi-
tania de Mato Grosso, pelo Tenente-Coronel Engenheiro Ricardo Franco de
Almeida Serra, a pedido do ento Governador e Capito-general da Capitania de
Mato Grosso, Caetano Pinto de Miranda Montenegro. O cdice onde se encontra
esse manuscrito pertence ao Arquivo Pblico do Estado de So Paulo (APESP),
em So Paulo. Ressalte-se que o manuscrito Memria de grande relevncia
histrica e social para o estado de Mato Grosso, alm do valor lingustico que se
apresenta, no mbito nacional. Para a realizao deste estudo, ser utilizado as
edies fac-similar e semidiplomtica elaborada por Andrade, Santiago-
Almeida, Baronas (2012), pois credenciam-se em um corpus apropriado para a
investigao proposta. Buscar-se- embasamento terico em Feij (1734) e Ba-
cellar (1738) por serem considerados tratados, manuais relevantes aprendiza-
gem e correta utilizao da lngua portuguesa, oral e escrita poca em ques-
to; E outros estudiosos como Gonalves (1992, 2003); Marquilhas (1991), den-
tre outros que fizerem necessrio. Acreditamos que esta pesquisa contribua, por
um lado, para uma melhor compreenso do contexto lingustico e ortogrfico do
sculo XVIII, perodo em que houve uma modernizao do pensamento e, con-
sequentemente, da lngua influenciada pelas transformaes culturais e cientfi-
cas europias, por outro, para refletir a influncia de obras metaortogrficas na
prtica da escrita do escriba em estudo. No que tange ortografia, de acordo
com Pinto (1988, p. 16), esse sculo "herdara as contradies ortogrficas do
passado, geradas por mltiplas causas: a primeira, de natureza terica, foi a in-
deciso do ortografista, dividido entre a tradio ou o costume ortogrfico, a
etimologia (revalorizada pelo culto das letras e das tradies clssicas) e as rea-
lidades fonticas da lngua, que presenciava e procurava no ignorar". Este estu-
do est vinculado ao Programa de Ps-Graduao em Filologia e Lngua Portu-
guesa, Universidade de So Paulo, Departamento de Letras da Universidade do
Estado de Mato Grosso e Fundao de Amparo Pesquisa do Estado de Mato
Palavras-chave: Manuscrito oitocentista. Ortografia. Historiografia.

BACELLAR, Bernardo de Lima e Melo. Grammatica philosophica e orthografica raci-
onal da lngua portuguesa. Lisboa: Oficina de Simo Thadeo Ferreira, 1783.
FEIJO, Joo de Moraes Madureira. Orthographia, ou Arte de escrever, e pronunciar
com acerto a lingua portugueza. Lisboa Occidental: na Officina de Miguel Rodri-
gues, Impressor do Senhor Patriarca, 1734. Disponvel em: <http://purl.pt/13>.
Acesso em: out. 2013.
GONALVES, Maria Filomena. Madureira Feij, ortografista do sculo XVIII: para
uma histria da ortografia portuguesa. Lisboa: Ministrio da Educao. Instituto de
Conference Handbook 193

Cultura e Lngua Portuguesa, 1992. Disponvel em: <http://www.instituto-

camoes.pt/>. Acesso em: nov. 2013.
______. As ideias ortogrficas em Portugal: de Madureira Feij a Gonalves Viana
(1734-1911). Lisboa: Fundao Calouste Gulbenkian, 2003.
MARQUILHAS, Rita. Norma grfica setecentista: do autgrafo ao impresso, Lisboa:
INIC CLUL, 1991.
PINTO, Rolando Morel. Histria da Lngua Portuguesa. IV. Sculo XVIII. So Paulo:
tica, 1988.

Leffet Gagarine: linguistique et conqute spatiale en URSS


Sbastien MORET
Universit de Lausanne, Suisse

A la fin de lanne 1887, Guy de Maupassant publie un petit conte intitul

Lhomme de Mars ; il y raconte la visite impromptue, un soir, chez le narra-
teur, dun homme convaincu que la plante Mars est habite par de grands tres
ails et qui prtend avoir vu le premier navire sidral lanc dans linfini par
des tres pensants (Maupassant, 2000 [1887]: 319 et 320). Avec ce conte,
Maupassant participe sa manire lentre du monde dans ce que Sergej
Kuznecov a appel le paradigme cosmique (Kuznecov, 1995: 212). En effet,
ce conte parat quelques annes aprs la dcouverte, notamment par lItalien
Schiaparelli, des canaux de la plante Mars, qui donna naissance de nom-
breux mythes quant a la possible prsence dtres vivants sur la plante rouge, et
plus gnralement dans lensemble du cosmos.
Le paradigme cosmique prit un sens nouveau la fin des annes 1950 et au
dbut des annes 1960, quand les progrs techniques, essentiellement soviti-
ques au dbut, permirent de littralement toucher du doigt le cosmos, avec le vol
du premier homme dans lespace, Youri Gagarine, en avril 1961. Dans notre
expos, nous montrerons que cette avance humaine et technologique que furent
les dbuts de la conqute spatiale sovitique ne laissa pas indiffrents les linguis-
tes du pays et entrana la linguistique sovitique dans des directions nouvelles.
Linfluence de la conqute spatiale sur la science linguistique sovitique eut
deux aspects. Tout dabord, de nouvelles proccupations apparurent, et lon vit
ainsi, par exemple, certains linguistes sintresser la faon dont il faudrait
communiquer avec les extra-terrestres le moment venu. Mais la conqute spatia-
le eut aussi une influence pistmologique: les exploits extraordinaires rendus
possibles grce aux vaisseaux Sputnik et Vostok, entirement fabriqus par
lhomme, contriburent revaloriser lartificiel face au naturel (cf. Kedrov,
1958). Certains adeptes des langues artificielles en profitrent pour tenter de
relancer ces dernires dans un pays qui les avait nies et touffes depuis le d-
194 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

but des annes 1930, alors que dautres linguistes se mirent regarder dun il
nouveau la planification linguistique et le travail sur la langue.
Notre expos visera expliciter ce que nous avons appel l effet Gagari-
ne sur la linguistique sovitique.

Bibliographie slective
GRIGOREV, V. P., 1963: Kultura jazyka i jazykovaja politika, Voprosy kultury rei,
1963, n 4, 5-21.
KEDROV, B. M., 1958: Estestvennoe i iskusstvennoe v poznanii i v dejatelnosti
eloveka, Voprosy filosofii, 1958, n 11, 18-31.
KUZNECOV, S., 1995: Linguistica cosmica: la naissance du paradigme cosmique, His-
toire Epistmologie Langage, 17/2, pp. 211-234.
_____, 2001: Interlingvistiko en kosma dimensio: vojao inter kosmoglotiko kaj
kosmolingvistiko, in S. Fiedler & L. Haitao (Red.), Studoj pri interlingvistiko.
Festlibro por Detlev Blanke, Dobichovice (Praha): Kava-Pech, pp. 116-146.
MAUPASSANT, G. de, 2000 [1887]: Lhomme de mars, in Maupassant, Le Horla et
autres rcits fantastiques, Paris: Les Classiques de Poche, 312-321.
SVADOST, E. P., 1968: Kak vozniknet vseobij jazyk, Moskva: Nauka.

Work in process: J.R. Firths reading of A.N. Whitehead

Charles-Henry Morling
Universit Paris Diderot-Paris 7
& Laboratoire d'Histoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Connectionism, optimality theory, emergent grammar,

prototype theory, [...] are all notions in the air today
that Whitehead would have relished. (FORTESCUE, 2001: 4)

In Pattern and Process (2001), Michael Fortescue agues that Alfred North
Whiteheads work could be of use to current functional linguistics, as they ap-
pear to share a certain number of similar concerns. While this may be a rather
unconventional reference for American functionalists, British functionalism has
long been acquainted with Whitehead's work: both J.R. Firth and M.A.K. Halli-
day after him have acknowledged the influence of Whiteheads philosophy and
more specifically his notion of process on their work. The extent of this influ-
ence however is never described in any detail and Whitehead's work is only ever
mentioned in passing.
So as to better understand what use the London School of Linguistics made
of Whitehead's philosophy, I will examine Firths Linguistics Analysis as a
Study of Meaning which is the one article in which Firth cites Whitehead
recurrently in the light of Whiteheads Modes of Thought. Focusing specifical-
ly on the idea of process, I hope to clarify notions such as life process or so-
Conference Handbook 195

cial process, which can be found in fairly cryptic sentences as for instance:
The human being is a field of experience in which the life process is being
maintained in the social process. (FIRTH, 1952: 13). Firth's notion of process
requires further investigation, because although not necessarily as famous as his
notion of context (inherited from Malinowski), both are closely intertwined:
context of culture and context of experience are thus seen as necessary
abstractions when dealing with continuity and change (FIRTH, 1952:
13), or in other words, with processes. By studying Firths use of Whiteheads
book, I hope to offer a stepping-stone towards a historicized understanding of
Whiteheads possible contribution to functionalism and especially to the now
very current concept of emergence in linguistics.

ADAM, Jean-Michel. 2012. Le modle mergentiste en linguistique textuelle in L'In-
formation Grammaticale, l'mergence: un concept opratoire pour les sciences du
langage, n 134, June 2012. pp. 30-37.
ANDLER, Daniel, FAGOT-LARGEAULT, Anne, SAINT-SERNIN, Bertrand. 2002.
Philosophie des Sciences, vol. 2. Paris: Gallimard. 1334 p.
FIRTH, J.R. 1952. Linguistic analysis as a study of meaning in FIRTH, J.R., PALM-
ER, F.R., (ed.), Selected Papers of J.R. Firth 1952-59. 1956. London: Longmans.
pp. 12-26.
FIRTH, J.R. 1957. A synopsis of linguistic theory, 1930-1955 in FIRTH, J.R.,
PALMER, F.R., (ed.), Selected Papers of J.R. Firth 1952-59. 1956. London:
Longmans. pp. 168-205.
FORTESCUE, Michael. 2001. Pattern and Process: A Whiteheadian Perspective on
Linguistics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 311 p.
STENGERS, Isabelle. 2002. Penser avec Whitehead, Une libre et sauvage cration de
concepts. Paris: Editions du Seuil. 584 p.
WHITEHEAD, A.N. [1938] 1968. Modes of thought. New York: The Free Press. 179 p.
WHITEHEAD, A.N. [1929] 1978. Process and Reality, An essay in Cosmology. New
York: The Free Press. 413 p.

A pronncia das vogais na Grammatica franceza,

ou arte para aprender o francez por meio do portuguez,
regulada pelas notas e refflexoens da Academia de Frana

Teresa MOURA
Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal

A Grammatica franceza, ou arte para aprender o francez por meio do

portuguez, regulada pelas notas e refflexoens da Academia de Frana, de Lus
Caetano de Lima, publicada pela primeira vez em 1710, uma obra muito
importante no contexto da gramaticografia portuguesa do incio do sculo XVIII
196 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

em Portugal, na medida em que a primeira gramtica francesa escrita por um

autor portugus do seu tempo. Apesar de ter sido alvo de vrias edies, desde
1710 at 1756, uma gramtica praticamente desconhecida dos investigadores
em historiografia lingustica, j que at ao momento foi estudada apenas por
Moura (no prelo), no obstante j ter sido referenciada por outros autores.
A obra singular no s pela forma como os contedos so expostos, como
tambm pelo manancial de autores franceses a que o autor faz uma referncia
explcita . Assim, na nossa comunicao, pretendemos apresentar os principais
aspetos do captulo II, desta gramtica, intitulado da pronuncia das vogais,
confrontando as solues fonticas que o autor apresenta com os autores
franceses mais citados, em concreto de La Touche e Desmarais.

Desmarais, Franois Sraphin Regnier (1707 [1705]): Trait de la grammaire franoise.
Amsterdam: chez Henri Desbordes, Marchand Libraire, dans le Kalverstraat.
La Touche, Pierre de (1710 [1696]): Lart de bien parler franois. Amsterdam: chez R.
& G. Wetstein.
Lima, Lus (D.) Caetano de (1733): Grammatica franceza, ou arte para apprender o
francez por meyo da lingua portugueza, regulada pelas notas e refflexoooens da
academia de frana. Lisboa: Officina da Congregao do Oratorio.
Moura, Teresa (s.d.): A Grammatica franceza, ou arte para aprender o francez por
meio do portuguez, regulada pelas notas e refflexoens da Academia de Frana: a
primeira gramtica setecentista da lngua francesa em portugus: texto submetido
para publicao nas actes du 27e Congrs international de linguistique et de philo-
logie romanes, Nancy, 15-20 juillet 2013.
Schfer-Prie, Barbara (2005): Preliminares histria do ensino do francs em Portugal
no sc. XVIII, em: Associao Portuguesa para a Histria do Ensino das Lnguas
e Literaturas Estrangeiras (2005): Actas do II Colquio: O livro no ensino das ln-
guas e literaturas modernas em Portugal, do sculo XVIII ao final da Primeira Re-
pblica, Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra, pgs. 105-117.

Semntica e sintaxe no pensamento grego sobre a linguagem:

da filosofia gramtica

Maria Helena de Moura NEVES

Universidade Estadual Paulista Jlio de Mesquita Filho, Brasil

Um dos desafios de quem vai histria do pensamento grego sobre a lin-

guagem enquadrar suas interpretaes nas diferenas efetivas que configurem
os diversos campos de viso da lngua postos em exame (grosso modo: a filoso-
fia dos primeiros filsofos, a lgica clssica, a dialtica, a retrica, o encami-
nhamento para uma viso j mais centrada na lngua, o estabelecimento da gra-
mtica). So diferenas certamente baseadas nos mveis de sustentao e de
Conference Handbook 197

destinao de cada uma dessas vises particulares, tudo representando um per-

curso de pensamento que merece ser acompanhado, no geral e no particular.
Neste estudo, o que se busca, em particular, , subordinadamente a essas distin-
es ligadas natureza de cada campo de estudo, oferecer uma reflexo sobre o
modo como a viso da linguagem, no universo do pensamento grego (j possvel
de observar nas manifestaes literrias) penetrou nos componentes bsicos que
compem a gramtica responsvel pelos enunciados de uma lngua: ou seja, a
sintaxe (o construcional) e a semntica (naquele contexto, o nocional). Seria
temerrio falar na integrao do componente pragmtico em tal universo de an-
lise, mas a prpria indicao que acaba de ser feita sobre os diferentes mveis de
sustentao e de destinao dos diferentes campos de viso permite incluir inter-
pretaes ligadas ao contexto de cultura e ao contexto de situao (HALLIDAY,
1994) em que se produziram as obras dos pensadores que so examinados e in-
terpretados no estudo. Parte-se da hiptese de uma descoberta bastante precoce
da semntica e de uma descoberta tardia e tmida da sintaxe, nesse percurso, o
que se explica pela base lgica que conduziu a considerao do lgos. Entende-
se que, em tais condies, ficava naturalmente impossibilitada uma interpretao
da construo lingustica que no se contaminasse com essa forte vinculao da
linguagem expresso da apphansis (NEVES, 2005). A anlise a que se proce-
de, nesta apresentao, vai s proposies representativas das fases de constru-
o dessa vertente do pensamento gramatical ocidental, observadas diretamente
nas obras originais dos pensadores e dos estudiosos mais representativos, desde
os filsofos at os gramticos, de Herclito a Apolnio Dscolo, passando pela
sofstica e pela fora da retrica.

HALLIDAY, M.A.K. An introduction to Functional Grammar. 2 ed. London / New
York: Arnold , 1994.
NEVES, M.H.M. A vertente grega da gramtica tradicional: uma viso do pensamento
grego sobre a linguagem. So Paulo: Editora UNESP, 2005.

Histoire de lAnalyse du Discours franaise: les travaux tardifs

de Michel Pcheux et louverture vers les corpus oraux

Universit de Franche-Comt, Besanon, France

Cette communication se propose, par un travail darchives, de reconstituer

la pense en mouvement dploye dans les travaux tardifs du thoricien du dis-
cours Michel Pcheux (1938-1983), et notamment louverture opre par
lAnalyse du Discours franaise vers les corpus oraux, des annes 1980 au-
198 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Le courant de lAnalyse du Discours merge la fin de la dcennie 1960

autour de plusieurs ples scientifiques, dont lquipe du philosophe Michel
Pcheux, dans un contexte historique et thorique marqu par les vnements de
Mai 68.
Les premiers textes de Pcheux, publis en 1966 et 1968, rvlent une vise
thorique globale, un fantasme de totalit (Maldidier 1993: en ligne): il
sagissait darticuler linguistique, matrialisme historique et psychanalyse, en
oprant une rupture pistmologique permettant aux sciences sociales de se d-
tacher de lidologie dominante quelles reproduisaient au lieu den rendre com-
pte, et dtudier au contraire la dtermination des discours par leurs conditions
de production. Cette rupture peut avoir lieu selon Pcheux grce lapparition
de lexprimentation, de la quantification et des modles, permettant
dinstaurer une science des idologies, aux dpens des rsistances de la Te-
chnocratie et de lIdologie Philosophique (Herbert 1966: 146 et 165). La pu-
blication en 1969 dAnalyse automatique du discours pose les jalons de ce dis-
positif informatis danalyse du discours, de cette machine lire qui arracherait
la lecture sa subjectivit (Maldidier 1990: 13).
Luvre de Pcheux est faite de remises en cause, progressions et recons-
tructions: dans la dcennie 1970, progressivement, la thorie globale et cohren-
te, selon laquelle sous la domination de lidologie dominante, le sens se forme
dans la formation discursive linsu du sujet, qui, ignorant de son assujettisse-
ment lIdologie, se croit matre de son discours et source du sens (Maldidier
1993: en ligne), se fissure, au profit de la reconnaissance de la complexit in-
trinsque du discours. Les dernires propositions de Pcheux reconnaissent in
fine lhtrognit constitutive de toute production discursive, et permettent de
penser la fois lassujettissement et lmancipation possible du sujet parlant
(Guilhaumou 2004: en ligne). Cest notamment ltude des marques
dhtrognit discursive (Authier-Revuz 1982) qui conduira labandon de
cette grande construction thorique dans laquelle le sujet est trop bien assuje-
tti, et lidologie dominante domine trop bien (Maldidier 1993: en ligne).
A partir des annes 1980, il sagira pour Pcheux et ses collaborateurs-
trices (voire inspirateurs-trices) de dconstruire ce grand modle thorique au
profit dun travail empirique portant sur des corpus varis, attentif
lhtrognit des discours et la singularit du sujet.
Les derniers travaux de Pcheux expriment paralllement la volont
douvrir le choix des corpus aux textes crits ou oraux manant de sources non
lgitimes: il sagit, au-del de la lecture des Grands Textes (de la Science, du
droit, et de lEtat) de se mettre lcoute des circulations quotidiennes prises
dans lordinaire du sens (1983: 317), daccepter de se confronter cette m-
moire sous l'histoire qui sillonne l'archive non-crite des discours souterrains,
sous [ses] multiples formes orales (1981a: 7). Jacques Guilhaumou et Francine
Mazire notent ainsi que durant les dernires annes de travail de Pcheux, ses
collaborateurs-trices diversifiaient les corpus et commenaient travailler les
Conference Handbook 199

bribes y compris orales (2010: en ligne). La disparition prcoce de Pcheux

et la dispersion de son groupe de chercheur-se-s eurent cependant raison de la
visibilit de ce projet naissant, tourn vers les alas de lhistoire et les histoi-
res singulires (Maldidier 1993: en ligne).
Il sagira pour nous de reconstituer cette pense collective en construction
qui dans les annes 80 sorientait vers de nouvelles approches et interrogations,
ainsi que vers des nouveaux types de corpus, oraux et non-lgitimes. Nous exa-
minerons galement le devenir de cette AD (cf. Paveau 2012) sur corpus oraux
dans les travaux franais postrieurs jusqu la priode prsente.

Rfrences bibliographiques cites

Authier-Revuz J., 1982, Htrognit montre et htrognit constitutive: lments
pour une approche de lautre dans le discours, DRLAV, 26, 91-151
Guilhaumou J. & Mazire F., 2010, "Ainsi, nous sommes qui nous sommes dans le
Mississipi", Semen, 29, 69-88, [en ligne], http://semen.revues.org/8782
Guilhaumou J., 2004, O va lanalyse de discours ? Autour de la notion de formation
discursive, Texto, [en ligne], http://www.revue-texto.net/Inedits/Guilhaumou_
Herbert T., 1966, Rflexions sur la situation thorique des sciences sociales et, spci-
alement, de la psychologie sociale, Cahiers pour l'analyse, 2, 139-167
Maldidier D., 1990, (Re)lire Pcheux aujourdhui, in Maldidier D. (ed), L'inquitude
du discours. Textes de Michel Pcheux, Paris, Cendres, 7-91
Maldidier D., 1993, Linquitude du discours. Un trajet dans lhistoire de lanalyse du
discours: le travail de Michel Pcheux, Semen, 8, [en ligne],
Paveau M.-A., 2012, Que veut dire travailler en Analyse du Discours en France en
2011 ? Epistmologies, objets, mthodes, in Actes du colloque III Encontro In-
ternacional de Estudos da Linguagem, septembre 2011, Pouso Alegre, [en ligne],
http://www.cienciasdalinguagem.net/enelin/anais/ texts/87.pdf
Pcheux M., 1981a, Ltrange miroir de lanalyse de discours, Langages, 62, 5-8
Pcheux M., 1983, Le discours: structure ou vnement ?, in Maldidier D. (ed), 1990,
L'inquitude du discours. Textes de Michel Pcheux, Paris, Cendres, 303-323

A Inveno do Dicionrio Brasileiro:

do saber enciclopdico ao saber lingustico

Jos Horta NUNES

Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brasil

O objetivo deste trabalho apresentar uma anlise do Grande e Novssimo

Dicionrio da Lngua Portuguesa (GNDLP), de Laudelino Freire, publicado
pela Editora Jos Olympio, Rio de Janeiro, de 1939 a 1944. Trata-se do primeiro
grande dicionrio geral brasileiro, elaborado inicialmente como projeto da Aca-
demia Brasileira de Letras. Lendo o dicionrio como um discurso (COLLINOT
200 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

& MAZIRE, 1997; NUNES, 2006), efetuamos uma anlise do prefcio e de

algumas sries de verbetes, a fim de compreender: a) como ocorre a passagem
dos dicionrios de brasileirismos (nomes de elementos naturais, tribos e cos-
tumes indgenas, localidades), que prevaleceram no sculo XIX e incio do XX,
para os dicionrios de lngua? Como a lngua portuguesa significada? Que
teorias lingusticas so explicitadas ou pressupostas? Como se estabelece a rela-
o do discurso erudito, baseado em autores literrios consagrados, com os dis-
cursos populares em ascenso? Como as definies e exemplificaes produzem
sentidos? Que processos de autoria so observveis? Conforme S. Auroux
(1992), os instrumentos lingusticos so objetos tcnicos que se transferem,
combinam, reelaboram. Quando essas alteraes levam ao aparecimento de um
novo instrumento? Sustentamos que no sculo XX ocorre uma inveno do dici-
onrio geral brasileiro, vista no como fato pontual, mas como resultado de um
longo processo. Segundo E. Orlandi (2001), na histria da constituio da lngua
nacional tem lugar uma passagem da relao palavra-coisa, predominante na
poca Colonial, para a relao palavra-palavra, visvel j no sculo XIX com os
glossrios e pequenos dicionrios. Mostraremos que a passagem do saber enci-
clopdico para o lingustico ocorre mais amplamente com o GNDLP, no qual as
palavras em geral so consideradas brasileiras e no como brasileirismos que
complementariam os dicionrios portugueses. Nessa conjuntura, os dicionrios
gerais se consolidam, substituindo os dicionrios portugueses em um processo
de descolonizao lingustica.
Esta pesquisa est relacionada ao Programa Histria das Ideias Lingusticas
no Brasil (UNICAMP, coordenao de E. Orlandi e E. Guimares) e ao projeto
Enciclopdia Discursiva da Cidade: anlises e verbetes (Apoio FAPESP, proc.
n 2012/22219-0).

Referncias bibliogrficas
AUROUX, S. A Revoluo Tecnolgica da Gramatizao. Campinas: Editora da Uni-
camp, 1992.
COLLINOT, A. & MAZIERE, F. Un prt parler: le dictionnaire. Paris: Presses Uni-
versitaires de France, 1997.
ORLANDI, E. P. (Org.). Histria das Idias Lingsticas no Brasil. Campinas: Pontes;
Cceres: Unemat, 2001.
NUNES, J. H. Dicionrios no Brasil: anlise e histria. Campinas: Pontes; So Paulo:
Conference Handbook 201

Le primat accord la notion de rapport dans la dfinition

de la prposition allemande au XVIIIe sicle

cole doctorale Langage et langues,
Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3, France

Au dbut du XIXe sicle, dans le Wrterbuch der deutschen Sprache de

Joachim Heinrich Campe, le terme allemand Verhltniswort (mot de rapport)
est employ pour la premire fois pour dsigner la prposition (Polenz, 1994).
Cette innovation terminologique tmoigne de lenracinement et de la persistance
dune nouvelle dfinition de la prposition, largement hrite de la grammaire
gnrale franaise et adopte, partir des annes 1750, par la plupart des gram-
mairiens germanophones: la prposition est un mot indiquant, exprimant ou ta-
blissant les rapports (Verhltnisse) entre les choses.
Alors que la notion de rapport devient progressivement le premier trait
constitutif de la dfinition de la prposition, on constate, dune part, que les
autres critres entrant jusqualors dans sa dfinition tels que lantposition ou la
rection deviennent souvent secondaires, dautre part que le traitement de la
prposition comme classe de mots subit certains changements dans lordre des
parties du discours. Certains grammairiens effectuent, en effet, un rapproche-
ment entre prposition et cas, tandis que dautres rassemblent la prposition et la
conjonction dans une mme catgorie. La notion de rapport se diffuse ainsi
plusieurs classes de mots et devient alors la caractristique dun genre, celui des
mots de rapports, subsumant plusieurs classes jusqualors traites indpendam-
Nous nous proposerons donc, tout dabord, danalyser comment la notion
de rapport en vient tre centrale dans le traitement de la prposition allemande
dans la deuxime moiti du XVIIIe sicle. Nous considrerons ensuite le rle de
la notion de rapport dans les rapprochements effectus entre la prposition et
dautres parties du discours ; et nous tcherons enfin de comprendre en quoi
alors que cette notion se diffuse dautres classes de mots la prposition alle-
mande, se manifeste finalement comme son nom lindique comme le mot de
rapport par excellence.

HASSLER, Gerda, NEISS, Cordula (2009), Lexikon sprachtheoretischer Grundbegriffe
des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts, 2 t., Berlin/ New York, De Gruyter.
JELLINEK, Max Hermann (1913/1914), Geschichte der neuhochdeutschen Grammatik
von den Anfngen bis auf Adelung, 2 t., Heidelberg, Carl Winters Universittsbu-
POLENZ, Peter von (1994), Deutsche Sprachgeschichte, 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, Bd II,
Berlin/New York, De Gruyter, 498 p.
202 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

SCHNEIDER-MIZONY, Odile (2011), Le mot grammatical entre histoire et tech-

nique, Am Ende bleibt das Wort. Mlanges pour Jacques Poitou, Universit Lu-
mire Lyon 2, 9 p.

Modles du langage et de lhomme dans le milieu des Idologues

Universitt Potsdam, Deutschland

Cette communication traite des rflexions sur le langage et lhomme la fin

du 18e sicle. Le corpus est constitu dextraits de 23 manuscrits envoys ano-
nymement au concours de la deuxime Classe de lInstitut National (la classe
des sciences morales et politiques) des annes 1797 et 1799. Cette classe, et sa
premire section, la section de lanalyse des ides, taient instaures avec la
participation personnelle et conceptuelle des Idologues. Le concours a pour but
lune de leurs thmatiques centrales, linfluence des signes sur la pense. La
question pose tait formule ainsi: Est il bien vrai que les sensations ne puis-
sent se transformer en ides que par le moien des signes? Ou, ce qui revient au
mme, nos premires ides supposent-elles essentiellement le secours des
signes? L'art de penser seroit il parfait, si l'art des signes toit port sa perfec-
tion? (daprs Lancelin 1800: I, XII).
Au lieu de rpondre directement aux questions, une grande partie des au-
teurs prsentent dabord dautres thories. Au milieu de leurs exprimentations
hypothtiques se trouvent la question de lorigine de la langue humaine, celle de
lorigine de la civilisation humaine, et celle de la relation entre ces deux ques-
tions, ainsi que la question du dveloppement de toutes les facults cognitives de
lhomme. Bien que dans ces thories les auteurs anonymes font tous rfrence
des auteurs comme Condillac, Destutt de Tracy, Garat, Cabanis ou mme Rous-
seau, il y a une large gamme dopinions varies sur le rle du langage dans le
dveloppement humain. Cette gamme nest pas seulement varie, dans une
grande partie des manuscrits on peut mme sentir une certaine envie des auteurs
anonymes de prsenter et dvelopper leurs propres modles en se distinguant des
auteurs de rfrence, comme lcrit lauteur de la dissertation B1-4:
Jai e longtemps cette ide, et jy tais entretems par cet accord unanime
de tous les metaphisiciens a regarder comme obscures et inapprciables certaines
ides simples telles par exemple que lide deffort et plusieurs ides ngatives
qui sont tout aussi claires et tout aussi prcises quaucune de celles qui peuvent
entrer dans notre ame. Cette decouverte men fit faire une autre ; enfin aprs
bien des talonements et des mditations je crois tre parvenu cette importante
connaissance, cest ce resultat de mes traveaux que je vais maintenant soumettre
mes juges avec dautant plus de confiance quil ne contribuera pas peu, la
Conference Handbook 203

solution de la question quils ont propose. (B1-14 1797: 15-16) (nous souli-
Tout en prsentant les modles du langage et de lhomme dans le milieu des
idologues, nous montrerons dans notre communication ces jeux avec les mo-
dles pr-linguistiques que pratiquent les auteurs anonymes, qui sappuyent et se
distancient en mme temps des grands auteurs connus.

Mots cls: les Idologues, influence des signes sur la pense, smiotique.

Rfrences cites
Anonyme (B1-04). an IV [1797]: Quelle est l'influence des signes sur la formation des
ides. Archives de l'Institut de France, B1-4.
Lancelin, Pierre Franois. 1801-1803. Introduction l'analyse des sciences. Paris: Fir-
min Didot & Bleuet.

Lxico, Tempo e Enunciao em Benveniste

Sheila Elias de OLIVEIRA

Universidade Estadual de Campinas, So Paulo, Brasil

Em La notion dnonciation chez Emile Benveniste (Limoges: Lambert-

Lucas, 2007), Aya Ono se pergunta se o pensamento de Benveniste permite que
se desenhe a partir dele uma figura nica da enunciao, tal como nas leituras
habituais, centradas no conceito apresentado em O aparelho formal da enuncia-
o (Benveniste, 1970, p.82) como o colocar em funcionamento a lngua por
um ato individual de apropriao. Ela advoga que no, que h diferentes modos
de tratar a enunciao ao longo dos trinta anos de produo de Benveniste, e
mostra, por exemplo, que a enunciao pode ser ato de um indivduo ou de uma
instituio, e que estas duas possibilidades se configuram no sob o modo de
uma polarizao, mas em uma oscilao contnua no seu trabalho. Em sua anli-
se sensvel e provocativa, Ono aponta outra pista para uma nova leitura de Ben-
veniste: ela observa duas dimenses da temporalidade. A primeira delas parte da
enunciao como uma atualizao do sistema lingustico abstrato no tempo
histrico e social (Ono, ibidem, p.217) que a inscreve, como acontecimento
histrico, no tempo fsico, e que provoca a inscrio do locutor no tempo e ao
faz-lo, muda a natureza do tempo: ela o circunscreve, ela o transforma em
tempo subjetivo e social, ela lhe d um sentido (Ono, ibidem, p. 218). A outra
dimenso da temporalidade se constitui no tempo linear da sintagmatizao, esta
entendida como a formao da forma e do sentido da frase que, seguindo as
regras sintticas, se estende no tempo (Ono, idem, ibidem). Nos perguntamos
aqui em que medida este novo olhar sobre a temporalidade e a enunciao ben-
venisteanas pode iluminar a compreenso do trabalho de reconstruo semntica
204 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

realizado sobre o lxico, no qual o autor afirma tomar o tempo como dimenso
explicativa. Para responder a essa questo, tomaremos como objeto as anlises
realizadas entre as dcadas de 1940 e 1950 reunidas na seo Lxico e Cultura
dos Problemas de Lingustica Geral I, bem como a discusso terica que as pre-
cede na mesma seo, discusso esta apresentada no artigo de 1954 Problemas
semnticos da reconstruo. Buscaremos compreender, ento, o tempo na re-
construo semntica do lxico. Como ele se situa em relao s dimenses ca-
racterizadas por Ono? Como se inscrevem nele o tempo cronolgico e o tempo
da significao? Que categorias de anlise so mobilizadas no tratamento do
tempo como dimenso explicativa da histria do lxico, como parte da histria
da lngua? A partir destas perguntas, somos conduzidos a interrogar o que o
modo de tratamento do tempo na reconstruo semntica do lxico nos permite
compreender sobre a especificidade da lingustica benvenisteana e seu lugar na
lingustica do sculo XX.

Historical and modern views of Nahuatl:

on translation capacity and abstract thinking in a native language

Justyna OLKO
University of Warsaw, Poland

Universidad Nacional Autonma de Zacatecas,
Instituto de Docencia e Investigacin Etnolgica de Zacatecas, Mxico,
& University of Yale, U.S.A.

This paper examines translation and the construction of neologisms as a

means for delving into societal attitudes toward Nahuatl during the five centuries
of its existence as a colonized language in Mexico. Specifically we are interested
in the persisting ideas that all indigenous culture should be replaced by Western
culture, and that indigenous language lack the complexity needed to produce and
express abstract thought. We will contrast the use of Nahuatl as a tool of Christi-
anization in the 16th and 17th centuries with its use today as an instrument of
language and culture revitalization. This perspective offers new insights into the
history of linguistic ideas and the cultural history of an indigenous language.
After the Spanish conquest, Nahuatl became the strategic native language
employed for administration and religious instruction. However, Spanish offici-
als and friars weren't sure whether native people actually qualified as rational
human beings, or whether their language had the capacity to express European
ideas, material and intellectual culture and specifically, Christian terms and con-
cepts. While strongly advocating the use of Nahuatl as a linguistic vehicle for
Christianization, they encountered many problems attempting to translate fun-
Conference Handbook 205

damental religious concepts. We will focus on some of these problems in order

to show how colonial cross-cultural endeavors led to discussions concerning the
level of sophistication of the native language. We will also show how the new
conceptual terminology transferred pre-Hispanic religious and ritual concepts
into Christianity and involved stronger native participation in the creation of
neologisms than was generally understood.
Colonial attitudes negating the value of indigenous cultures and the acade-
mic capacity of indigenous languages continue in present day Mexico. Nahuatl
is no longer used in governmental administration, it has sparse presence in hi-
gher education and in mainstream mass media, and the number of native spea-
kers dwindles year by year. A few educational institutions, however, work mo-
nolingually with native speakers, preparing them as intellectuals who can deve-
lop concepts and terminology for modern life from within their culture. We will
examine how one of these institutions, IDIEZ, works with Nahua college stu-
dents to analyze the structure of their language and create neologisms for lin-
guistic terminology. Students at IDIEZ do not simply translate Western linguis-
tic terminology. Rather, they reflect on the structure of their language from
within the language itself, and simultaneously dialogue with international scho-
larship. In doing so, they offer an alternative to the colonial attitudes concerning
the value of indigenous culture and language.

Burkhart, Louise, The Slippery Earth: Nahua-Christian Moral Dialogue in Sixteenth-
Century Mexico. University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1989.
Griffiths, Nicholas, Fernand Cervantes eds., Interactions between Christianity and Nati-
ve Religions in Colonial America, University of Birmingham Press, Birmingham
Karttunen, Frances, James Lockhart, Nahuatl in Middle Years: Language Contact Phe-
nomena in Texts of the Colonial Period, University of California Press, Berkeley
Klor de Alva, Jorge, Language, Politics and Translation: Colonial Discourse and Clas-
sic Nahuatl in New Spain. In The Art of Translation, R Warren ed., pp. 143-62,
Northeastern Univ. Press, Boston 1989.
Lockhart, James, The Nahuas after the Conquest. A Social and Cultural History of the
Indians of Central Mexico, Sixteenth Through Eighteenth Centuries, Stanford Uni-
versity Press, Stanford 1992.
Sell, Barry D. Friars, Nahuas, and books: Language and expression in colonial Nahuatl
publications. PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles 1993.
Tavarez, David, Naming the Trinity: From Ideologies of Translation to Dialectics of
Reception in Colonial Nahua Texts, 1547-1571. Colonial Latin American Re-
view, Vol. 9, no. 1, 2000, p. 21-47.
Zimmermann, Klaus, Traduccin, prstamos y teora del lenguaje: la prctica transcul-
tural de los lingistas misioneros en el Mxico del siglo XVI, in: Missionary Lin-
guistics II/ Lingstica misionera II: Orthography and Phonology. O. Zwartjes, C.
Altman, Cristina eds., Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia 2005, 155-182.
206 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Lngua Portuguesa na dcada de Sessenta do Sculo XX:

Lingustica, Gramtica e Educao

Dieli Vesaro PALMA,

Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de So Paulo, Brasil

Maria Mercedes Saraiva HACKEROTT

Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de So Paulo, Brasil

Regina Helena Pires de BRITO

Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, So Paulo, Brasil

Esta exposio tematiza a apresentao do livro Histria Entrelaada 6,

produzido pelo Grupo de Pesquisa em Historiografia da Lngua Portuguesa da
Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de So Paulo (GPeHL), no binio 2010-2012.
Esse Grupo interinstitucional congrega pesquisadores de diferentes universida-
des e estudantes do lato e stricto senso. Tm produzido a cada dois anos obras
que refletem sobre o conhecimento lingustico produzido do sculo XVI ao scu-
lo XXI em documentos metalingusticos e no metalingusticos que tratam da
gramaticografia em Lngua Portuguesa, de materiais didticos sobre o ensino da
lngua materna e de fontes diversas, como cartas, obras literrias, anncios pu-
blicitrios, entre outras.
O presente trabalho trata da produo de obras metalingusticas gramti-
cas e manuais didticos em circulao nos anos sessenta do sculo XX, volta-
das ao ensino da lngua materna, seguindo os princpios propostos por Koerner
(1996) e os procedimentos metodolgicos do GPeHL e considerando ainda a
posio do pesquisador frente ao seu objeto de pesquisa, que assume, segundo
Swiggers (1990), o papel de observador de prticas.
Assim, objetiva-se nesta apresentao mostrar o trabalho historiogrfico re-
alizado pelo GPeHL da PUCSP. Para tanto, selecionamos trs trabalhos que
compe a obra, a saber: Mattoso Camara: a Gramtica do Curso da Lngua P-
tria ao Manual de Expresso Oral e Escrita, de Maria Mercedes Saraiva Ha-
ckerott e Miguel Eugnio Almeida, Flor do Lcio: a prtica da redao imitativa
e o ensino da produo escrita, de Dieli Vesaro Palma e Maria Ignez Salgado de
Melo Franco e Jnio Quadros: Curso Prtico de Lngua Portuguesa e sua Litera-
tura, de Marilena Zanon, Nancy Casagrande e Regina Pires de Brito, que possi-
bilitaro caracterizar as bases tericas adotadas pelo Grupo e os procedimentos
metodolgicos observados.
Os resultados dessas investigaes mostram que os autores estudados so-
frem influncias das ideias que constituem o esprito de sua poca, sobretudo as
concepes lingsticas, bem como influenciam o perodo em que publicam seus
trabalhos. Eles evidenciam tambm a defesa da norma padro como fundamento
do bem falar e do bem escrever, assim como seu ensino na escola.
Conference Handbook 207

La valeur linguistique et la monnaie chez Bhler

Marina De PALO
Universit la Sapienza di Roma, Italia

Cette relation vise remettre en discussion la mtaphore saussurienne de la

monnaie applique la valeur linguistique la lumire de la lecture quen pro-
pose Karl Bhler dans Die Krise der Psychologie (1927) et dans la Sprachtheo-
rie (1934).
Bhler (1927[1978]) est intress une intentionnalit qui soit un proces-
sus, une coordination dynamique qui puisse acqurir la fonction naturelle dun
levier de guidage, de faon que ltude objective du sens porte justement sur les
mcanismes de guidage. Mais si le concept de sens du langage nest pas
rductible au telos et au rapport avec le sujet, alors aussi le recours au concept de
sens en soi semble controvers ds quon compare le sens des mots et la va-
leur de largent:
le sens en soi spar de la communaut linguistique dans laquelle il est va-
lable, serait un concept non moins vide que celui de argent en soi spar de la
communaut conomique o il est valable (Bhler, 1927 [1978]:136).
La comparaison entre change de signes et commerce de marchandises est
loccasion pour comparer les trois lments de lchange (les produits de
marque, les pices de monnaie, les mots) et pour discuter des rapports entre
forme et matire (Bhler, 1934 [2009]:149). Ma si on se concentre sur la valeur
des mots, Cest lempreinte phonmatique de limage acoustique dun mot
quest associe, de manire analogue aux marques commerciales et au coin des
monnaies, une convention de communication (Bhler, 1934 [2009]:149).
La notion de valeur symbolique acquiert un sens nouveau ds quon
lassocie la notion de champ et quon linsre dans une action humaine
complexe (1934[2009]:171). Et pourtant la smatologie nest pas qualifie
pour se mler au passage des conceptions des thoriciens de la monnaie. Elle
serait cependant en droit dmettre quelques doutes si quelquun voulait de bout
en blanc classer la monnaie parmi les productions smiotiques de lhomo faber
(Bhler, 1934 [2009]:150).

Bhler. K. (1927) Die Krise der Psychologie, Jena, Fischer (trad. it., La crisi della psico-
logia, prf. de Rohracher, H., Roma, Armando,1978).
Bhler. K. (1934), Sprachtheorie. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache, Jena, Fischer
(trad. fr. Thorie du langage. La fonction reprsentationelle, dit par D. Samain
& J. Friedrich, prface de J. Bouveresse, Marseille, Agone, 2009).
208 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

The compass and the square.

The search of rules in 1920s Chinese grammatical studies

Tommaso PELLIN
Universit di Macerata, Italia

The earliest Chinese works which may be labeled as linguistic appeared as

early as 3rd century B.C.E.; in the following centuries, a very solid tradition of
linguistic studies was carried out, its main branches being philology, phonology,
rhetoric and the study of the characters. On the other hand, Chinese linguists did
not create any tradition of grammatical studies as it happened in Greece, Rome,
India or in other places. It is not hazardous to maintain that linguistic studies
until the beginning of the twentieth century altogether lacked a firm theoretical
framework, comparable, for instance, to Greek-Latin traditional and then Euro-
pean linguistics or to Indian linguistics.
During the decades at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning
of the twentieth century, Chinese linguists started to study Western grammar and
to try to apply Western grammatical categories to Chinese grammar.
In particular, due to the social and cultural importance attached to the deve-
lopment of a well-built system of grammatical structures for Chinese, Chinese
linguists of the first two decades of twentieth century stressed the importance of
understanding the rules of language in Western grammatical studies and of fin-
ding them in Chinese too.
In my contribution I want to highlight how some of the most important
grammarians of the first two decades of twentieth century showed the utmost
importance of the rules in linguistics, which had never been given much impor-
tance to before, and which linguistic rules they imported from contemporary
European and American grammatical studies, in the light of the more general
problem of the presence and development of a scientific thought and a scientific
method in China since the half of the nineteenth century.

Mashi wentong [Perfect knowledge of language by Mr. Ma] by Ma
Jianzhong (1895-1900).
Yingwen hangu [English language explained in Chinese] by Yan Fu
Hanwendian [Rules of the Chinese language], by Lai Yuxun
Zhongdeng guowendian [Grammar of the Chinese language for
middle schools] by Zhang Shizhao (1907)
Nashi Yingwenfa jiangyi [Comment on the English grammar
written by Mr. Nesfield] by Zhao Zhuo (1909)
Conference Handbook 209

Zhongguo wenfa tonglun [General overview of Chinese gram-

mar] by Liu Fu (1920)
Guowenfa caochuang [Basis for a Chinese grammar] by Chen
Chengze (1922)
Guowenfa zhi yanjiu [Study on Chinese grammar] by Jin Zhaozi
Xinzhu guoyu wenfa [New Chinese grammar] by Li Jinxi

Germanic Linguistics and the Linguistic Society of America,

1925 to the Present

University of Texas at Austin, U.S.A.

When the Linguistic Society of America was founded in 1924, Germanic

linguistics held a particularly strong position within the Society. Several of the
Signers of the Call were Germanic linguists, including Leonard Bloomfield
(cf. Pierce 2009) and Hermann Collitz (the first President of the Society). Mo-
reover, a number of teachers at the first Linguistic Institute, held in the summer
of 1929 at Yale under the direction of Edgar Sturtevant, were Germanic lin-
guists, e.g., George T. Flom, professor of Scandinavian at the University of Illi-
nois; Daniel Bussier Shumway, professor of Germanic philology at the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania; Hermann Collitz; and Eduard Prokosch, professor of Ger-
manic languages at Yale (whose first name was misspelled in the circular an-
nouncing the Institute). Several courses on Germanic topics were offered, inclu-
ding Gothic and comparative Germanic philology (taught by Collitz), Old Norse
(taught by Flom), and the history of German (taught by Shumway). Finally, one
of the Institutes ten public lectures was on a Germanic topic; Prokosch spoke on
The Origin and Trend of Vowel Mutation in Germanic. (See Joos 1986 for
The current situation is markedly different. At the 2013 Linguistic Institute,
held at the University of Michigan and directed by Andries Coetzee and Robin
Queen, there were no courses dedicated to Germanic linguistics. A similar situa-
tion prevailed at the most recent annual meeting of the Society, there were no
sessions devoted solely to Germanic topics, and only a handful of Germanic
papers scattered throughout the various sessions.
In this paper, I first review the historical background to todays situation
and then discuss some possible reasons for the change in the status of Germanic
linguistics, including the following. First, Germanic linguistics is increasingly
being marginalized within its traditional stronghold in Germanic departments,
210 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

resulting in an ever more dismal job market, and thus discouraging younger
scholars from entering the field. Second, an increasing interest in the study of
other languages has led to fewer scholars working on Germanic topics. Finally,
a decrease in historical awareness has led linguists in America away from their
intellectual ancestors, many of whom were Germanic linguists.

Joos, Martin. 1986. Notes on the development of the Linguistic Society of American,
1924 to 1950. Ithaca, NY: Linguistica.
Pierce, Marc. 2009. Leonard Bloomfields contributions to Germanic linguistics. Bei-
trge zur Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft 19: 121-140.

The Moscow Linguistic Circle and the Prague Linguistic Circle on

the Relationship Between Linguistics, Poetics and Semiotics

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia

The intellectual and organizational center of Moscow formalism, the Mos-

cow Linguistic Circle (MLC, 1915-24), is much less known than the Petrograd
association of Russian formalists, Opojaz (1916-23). In 1926 Roman Jakobson,
who was the first president of the MLC and he held this office until he left Rus-
sia in January 1920, became a co-founder of the Prague Linguistic Circle (PLC).
Hence post-formalism and structuralism started to spread over Europe and North
America. In his article on the MLC Jakobson demonstrated that, while for the
Petrograd formalists, poetics was based on the theory of literature, for the Mos-
cow formalists it was based on linguistics (with phonology as a paragon).
Ren Wellek categorized Russian formalism as a linguistic trend of twen-
tieth-century criticism. At the same time, a different approach was also born
within the MLC. In the early 1920s some of the young MLC members were
followers of Gustav pet, the main proponent of Husserls ideas in Russia. They
opposed themselves to the positivist branch who dominated in the Circle when
Jakobson was its president. In contrast to the positivists, the phenomenologists
wanted to build a system of poetics based not on phonology, but on semasiology
because they considered language a semiotic phenomenon par excellence. The
positivists conceived of poetics as part of linguistics (Jakobson, Boris Jarcho),
while the phenomenologists regarded poetics as part of semiotics (pet, Maksim
Although as late as 1960 Jakobson in his Linguistics and Poetics defined
poetics as an integral part of linguistics, he started to combine linguistic and
semiotic approaches to poetics from the mid-1930s, apparently under the influ-
ence of Jan Mukaovsk and other members of the PLC. At the same time he
Conference Handbook 211

developed the ideas of F. de Saussure who considered linguistique a part of s-

This paper also discusses the further expansion of linguistic and semiotic
methods into literary and cultural theory, including the Moscow-Tartu school
which was directly influenced by Jakobson.

Jakobson, Roman. An Example of Migratory Terms and Institutional Models (On the
fiftieth anniversary of the Moscow Linguistic Circle). In his Selected Writings, 2.
The Hague, 1971: 527-538.
apir, Maksim. M.M. Kenigsberg i ego fenomenologija sticha, Russian Linguistics,
18.1 (1994): 73-113.
Steiner, Peter. The Conceptual Basis of Prague Structuralism. In Sound, Sign and
Meaning: Quinquagenary of the Prague Linguistic Circle. Ann Arbor, 1976: 351-

Histria da Lingustica no Brasil:

o protagonismo dos Estudos de Lnguas Indgenas
a partir do Setor de Lingustica do Museu Nacional

Nicolas Alexandria PINHEIRO

Museu Nacional / Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Nossa perspectiva ser a de tratar a teoria lingustica, na inteface Lingusti-

ca/Antropologia, no mbito da definio da Antropologia em quatro campos: a
Lingustica, a Antropologia Social, a Antropologia Biolgica e a Arqueologia de
modo interdependente. Nessa organizao disciplinar, a discusso sobre lnguas
indgenas, e do comportamento comunicativo das populaes amerndias seguiu
um investimento no Brasil numa vinculao ao estruturalismo de Roman Jakob-
son e a lingustica antropolgica de Edward Sapir. Essa foi base, em termos
tericos, atravs do trabalho de Joaquim Mattoso Cmara Junior, que deu origem
ao Setor de Lingustica do Museu Nacional em 1958. Este o primeiro lcus de
pesquisa sistemtica em lingustica entre ns. Faremos uma tentativa de recenso
dessas escolhas epistemolgicas tomando como referncia o protagonismo dos
estudos de lnguas indgenas no processo de institucionalizao acadmica da
lingustica como uma disciplina autnoma no Brasil. Nosso interesse, nesse ar-
razoado histrico, ser o de problematizar alguns caminhos da lingustica con-
tempornea sobre a relao entre lngua e cultura. Nesse sentido, aqui ser reto-
mado o debate sobre universalismo da linguagem e a diversidade das lnguas,
ainda, numa aproximao entre lingustica, arqueologia e antropologia, em de-
trimento de uma orientao estadunidense que, a frceps, redefiniu o debate da
lingustica na sua interface com a psicologia cognitiva. Ao cabo, temos como
interesse problematizar e orientar criticamente nossa anlise para uma perspecti-
va terica que abra novas possibilidades, a partir dos discursos sobre incio da
212 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

nossa pesquisa lingustica dentro de uma preocupao histrica que incorpore,

sob o seu ponto de vista, as questes pertinentes lingustica antropolgica;
sem, no entanto, recobrirmos polmicas de comprovao cientfica sobre a
mesma no marco epistemolgico que a aproxima das cincias naturais e biolgi-
cas, nem tampouco levantarmos dvidas sobre a validade de olhares interdisci-
plinares para este problema num privilgio de anlise das cincias humanas e
sociais. Por outro lado, nos interessa um investimento no recorte da histria da
lingustica no Brasil e dos estudos voltados para o nosso passado e o percurso,
nesse contexto, dos estudos sobre lnguas indgenas brasileiras a partir do Setor
de Lingustica do Museu Nacional da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
UFRJ. Nessa direo, os recortes epistemolgicos dos seus criadores: Joaquim
Mattoso Cmara Junior e Luiz de Castro Faria, dos marcos tericos que orienta-
ram pesquisas desde o final da dcada de 1950 no Brasil, e sobretudo da tradio
cientfica que vincula o Museu Nacional problemtica da lingustica antropo-
lgica sero nosso foco nessa comunicao.

Palavras-Chave: Lingustica Antropolgica Lnguas Indgenas Brasileiras

Histria da Lingustica no Brasil

Complments dterminatifs, indirects et circonstanciels

au cours de la seconde moiti du XIXe sicle

Sophie PIRON
Universit du Qubec Montral, Canada

Cette communication sinscrit dans la perspective historique de la gram-

maire franaise et plus spcifiquement dans la grammaire scolaire de la seconde
moiti du XIXe sicle. La priode dont nous traiterons correspond ce quil est
convenu dappeler la deuxime grammaire scolaire. Celle-ci sest mise en place
au cours des annes 1845-1860 (Chervel 1977). Nous analyserons un corpus de
grammaires franaises publies partir des annes 1860, cest--dire au moment
o les choix de la thorie grammaticale en vigueur sont davantage fixs.
La deuxime grammaire scolaire met sur pied un systme de fonctions qui
remodle entre autres la notion de complment indirect et celle de complment
circonstanciel. De manire saisir les modifications que la grammaire scolaire
met en place, nous tudierons les analyses quelle propose au sujet des syn-
tagmes prpositionnels dans les squences suivantes: nom - syntagme prposi-
tionnel (la bont de Dieu), adjectif - syntagme prpositionnel (clment envers
ses ennemis), et verbe - syntagme prpositionnel (nuire quelqu'un, venir de
Rome, combattre avec courage, tre instruit par le matre).
Il sagira dune part dtudier comment les grammaires de cette poque ana-
lysent ces squences prpositionnelles (complment indirect, complment cir-
Conference Handbook 213

constanciel, complment dterminatif, etc.) et, dautre part, dtablir en quoi les
fonctions proposes par la seconde grammaire scolaire se diffrencient de celles
de la premire grammaire scolaire (Piron 2012).
La seconde grammaire scolaire fait entrer le complment circonstanciel
dans le domaine grammatical (Chervel 1979), mais nous verrons que les fonc-
tions, notamment celles de complment indirect et de complment circonstan-
ciel, reposent de plus en plus sur le sens. Si lanalyse logique est progressive-
ment dlaisse (Chevalier 1979), l'approche smantico-logique prend de plus en
plus de place dans le systme fonctionnel (Lauwers 2003).
Grce cette tude, nous esprons montrer lvolution de lanalyse des
complments prpositionnels et ce qui caractrise la deuxime grammaire sco-
laire ce sujet.

CHERVEL A. (1977) Et il fallut apprendre crire tous les petits Franais. His-
toire de la grammaire scolaire. Paris, Payot.
CHERVEL A. (1979) Rhtorique et grammaire. Petite histoire du circonstanciel. Langue
franaise 41: 5-19.
CHEVALIER J.-Cl. (1979) Analyse grammaticale et analyse logique. Examen dun
dispositif scolaire. Pratiques 22-23: 147-159.
LAUWERS P. (2003) Bidirectionnalit, discontinuits et conflit un nouveau regard sur
la grammaire traditionnelle franaise de la premire moiti du XXe sicle. Histoire
pistmologie Langage 25/I (2003): 87-128.
PIRON S. (2012) Les complments prpositionnels dans les grammaires franaises de la
premire moiti du XIXe sicle. NEVEU F., MUNI TOKE V., BLUMENTHAL P.,
2012 - Troisime Congrs mondial de linguistique franaise. Lyon, 4-7 juillet 2012,
Institut de linguistique franaise, EDP Sciences, pp. 773-788.

Difficulties to deal with continuities and discontinuities

in nineteenth century Brazilian grammars treatment of syntax:
a complex periodization

Bruna Soares POLACHINI

Universidade de So Paulo, Brasil

In our masters thesis, The treatment of syntax in nineteenth century Bra-

zilian grammars: a historiographical study (2013), we analyzed six grammars,
namely: Morais Silva (1806), Coruja (1873[1835]), Sotero dos Reis (1866),
Freire da Silva (1875), Ribeiro (1881) and Maciel (1902[1894]). Our goal was to
analyze the tension between continuities and discontinuities in the treatment of
syntax of those grammars. In order to do so, we employed the four layers, or
dimensions, which Swiggers (2004) distinguish regarding linguistic knowledge.
214 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

In the analysis of the theoretical layer, which corresponds to a global view of

language and the conception of the role of linguistic studies, the concepts of
grammar and language were analyzed. In the analysis of the technical layer,
which is related to the investigation techniques and methods of presenting data,
the approach of terms regarding the section of syntactic studies was conducted:
the definition of syntax, the sentence and its elements, agreement, hierarchy of
sentence items, figurative syntax and vices. The documental layer, defined by
Swiggers as linguistic and philological documentation (number of languages,
types of data sources, for example) on which the linguistic studies are based, led
to the analysis of the linguistic data selected as examples in the grammar books.
At last, the contextual layer gave rise to the treatment of external elements
which had some impact over the treatment of syntax in the works analyzed. In
this work we highlight two results we have after making the aforementioned
analysis. The first one is the complexity of technical layer in which we noted
elements that have a very strong continuity, as figurative syntax and agreement,
and other that changed more than once throughout the century, as, for example,
the hierarchy of sentence items. The second result we highlight in this work is
what we called a complex periodization. It is complex because we did not
think in traditions or only in transversal ruptures, as it is made in other purposes
of periodization of the same material we analyzed, as Nascentes (1939), Elia
(1975), Cavaliere (2002) and Parreira (2011); actually, as we already mentioned,
we employed the four layers purposed by Swiggers (2004). Therefore, some
layers may have had a rupture while others may not. Moreover, we distinguished
in all four layers four sorts of procedures: rupture, partial rupture, partial conti-
nuity, continuity. Thereby, in this work, our goal is to present some difficulties
we had to treat the continuity and discontinuity in the treatment of syntax of
nineteenth century Brazilians grammars and the means we employed in an at-
tempt to solve them.

O Lugar do Texto na Perspectiva Dialgica:

O Conceito e Algumas Contribuies

Nathlia Rodrighero Salinas POLACHINI

Universidade de So Paulo, Brasil

Os estudos lingusticos das ltimas dcadas tm levantado muitas questes

em torno do trabalho com os textos que materializam as prticas sociais. Nas
ltimas dcadas do sculo XX, o texto dentro do ensino de lnguas ganhou novas
abordagens embasadas por teorias lingusticas e gramaticais que chegaram s
universidades brasileiras, como a Sociolingustica, a Anlise da Conversao, a
Psicolingustica, a Lingustica Textual, a Anlise do Discurso etc. Embora os
significativos avanos cientficos tenham impulsionado importantes mudanas
Conference Handbook 215

nas prticas de compreenso e produo de textos, a escola ainda sofre uma de-
fasagem em relao exigncia, por exemplo, dos multiletramentos (ROJO;
MOURA, 2012). Essa problemtica nos leva a pensar, de modo geral, no lugar
em que ocupa o texto na especificidade do pensamento das cincias humanas, e,
em particular, no lugar em que ocupa o texto no ensino/aprendizagem de portu-
gus. Tendo essas questes como ponto de partida, nesta apresentao, o objeti-
vo discutir a concepo de texto na perspectiva dialgica de Bakhtin e o Crcu-
lo a fim de investigar como essa perspectiva enunciativa de linguagem se insere
dentro do histrico da disciplina lngua portuguesa no Brasil. Para tanto, em
primeiro lugar, abordaremos o conceito bakhtiniano de texto subjacente s con-
cepes de lngua/linguagem e discurso desenvolvidas por Bakhtin e o Crculo
no contexto sovitico do incio do sculo XX, que buscaram compreender a lin-
guagem a partir de sua natureza scio-histrica e ideolgica, permitindo a elabo-
rao de uma viso concreta do enunciado; em seguida, recuperaremos como a
contribuio dessa perspectiva trouxe novos paradigmas para o ensino de portu-
gus. Utilizaremos para a discusso terica as consideraes sobre o texto e o
enunciado em O Marxismo e Filosofia da Linguagem (BAKHTIN; VOLO-
CHINOV, 2002) e em O Problema do texto na lingustica, na filologia e em
outras cincias humanas (BAKHTIN, 2010), alm do trabalho de Magda Soares
(2004) em torno do histrico da disciplina portugus. Os resultados parciais
mostraram que o conceito de texto na perspectiva dialgica marcou a viso do
sujeito como um autor, um produtor ativo de textos, e possibilitou uma compre-
enso profcua para o trabalho na esfera didtica, uma vez que permitiu o inves-
timento nas condies de produo e recepo e materialidades verbais e verbo-
visuais, atendendo s exigncias dos parmetros e documentos oficiais que pro-
pem o envolvimento com as diversas linguagens proliferadas no mundo con-

Notas sobre la difusin en Portugal del

Libellus de constructione octo partium orationis (Londres 1513)
durante la primera mitad del siglo XVI


Universidade do Porto, Portugal

La comunicacin se ha trazado como objetivo estudiar la repercusin que

tuvo, en Portugal, el Libellus de constructione octo partium orationis (Chomarat
1981: I, 282-299), obra sintctica compuesta por el humanista ingls William
Lily (cc. 1468-1522) (Sandys 1908: 229) y revisada y ampliada, poco tiempo
despus, por Desiderius Erasmus (1469-1536), si bien se imprimi annimamen-
te, por vez primera, en Londres, el ao de 1513 (Cytowska 1973: 107). Dicho
opsculo disfrut de una gran difusin por toda Europa a travs de ediciones,
autorizadas o no por el humanista de Rotterdam, con comentarios de otros auto-
216 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

res o sin estos (Cytowska 1973: 107-112). Por lo que se refiere a los reinos de la
Pennsula Ibrica, se sabe que, por motivos extragramaticales, circul annima-
mente en Aragn (Garca Martnez 1986: 235-236), al tiempo que en Castilla
lleg a salir de las imprentas de Alcal de Henares, en 1553, con el nombre del
autor-revisor (Bataillon 1956: lvi); en Portugal, por el contrario, el libellus no
parece haberse publicado, no constando, a su vez, en los catlogos de libros de
los centros escolares de ciertas instituciones religiosas, como es el caso de la
Compaa de Jess (Ponce de Len 2002: 215-216). Sin embargo, el opsculo
sintctico en cuestin parece haber tenido bastante ms repercusin en tierras
portuguesas de lo que se podra esperar a la luz de los datos que sumariamente se
acaban de exponer. Partiendo de este supuesto, en la presente comunicacin se
analiza con detalle la penetracin doctrinal de dicho tratado sintctico entre los
gramticos que imprimieron sus artes en Portugal, encuadrados en lo que Telmo
Verdelho ha denominado perodo vernculo (1995: 98-122); en concreto, se
estudian los captulos sintcticos de las obras que ms se alejan de la influencia
ejercida por las Introductiones latinae (Salamanca 1481) de Antonio de Nebrija:
las Institutiones tum lucide tum compendiose latinarum literarum (Coimbra
1535) de Mximo de Sousa y las Institutiones grammaticae latinae (Braga 1538)
de Nicolaus Clenardus (Swiggers 2001: 147-168).

Referencias bibliogrficas
Bataillon, Marcel (1950). Erasmo y Espaa. Estudios sobre la historia espiritual del
siglo XVI. Mxico: Fondo de Cultura Econmica. Trad. de Antonio Alatorre.
Chomarat, Jacques (1981). Grammaire et rhtorique chez rasme. Vol. I. Paris: Belle
Cytowska, Maria (1973). Introduction. 107-116. Cf. Erasmus, Desiderius
Erasmus, Desiderius (1973[1513]). Libellus de constructione octo partium orationis, ed.
por Maria Cytowska, en Opera omnia Desiderii Erasmi Roterodami. Recognita et
adnotatione critica instructa notisque illustrata. Ordinis primi tomus quartus.
Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. 105-143
Garca Martnez, Sebastin (1986). El erasmismo en la Corona de Aragn en el siglo
XVI, en Jozef Ijsewijn & ngel Losada (eds.): Erasmus in Hispania. Vives in
Belgio. Acta Colloqui Brugensis, 23-26 IX 1985. Leuven: Peeters. 215-290.
Ponce de Len, Rogelio (2002). Textos gramaticales jesuticos para la enseanza del
latn en Portugal: el De constructione octo partium orationis (Coimbra 1555). Cu-
adernos de Filologa Clsica. Estudios Latinos, 22.1. 211-253.
Sandys, John Edwin (1908). A History of Classical Scholarship. Vol. II. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Swiggers, Pierre (2001). Les Institutiones grammaticae Latinae de Nicolas Clnard
(1538), en Wolfram Ax (org.): Von Eleganz und Barbarei: Lateinische Grammat-
ik und Stilistik in Renaissance und Barock. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 147-168.
Verdelho, Telmo (1995). As origens da Gramaticografia e da Lexicografia Latino-
Portuguesas. Aveiro: Instituto Nacional de Investigao Cientfica.
Conference Handbook 217

Langage intrieur, psittacisme, cholalies, nomanies, glossolalies,

pathologies: langage et thories de lesprit la charnire
des XIXme et XXme sicles

Christian PUECH
Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3
& Laboratoire dHistoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Limportance des travaux de Broca sur les localisations crbrales, celles

des travaux sur les aphasies (Broca, Charcot Wernicke) et leur influence sur la
linguistique sont relativement bien connues (tudes sur lEcole naturaliste
franaise par exemple, Piet Desmet, G. Bergounioux, Hecaen..).
Il semble quon ait t moins attentif une autre srie de travaux, apparen-
ts mais distincts qui concernent larticulation entre fonctionnement linguistique
et fonctionnement mental.
De ce point de vue, louvrage de E. B. Leroy (1905) - le langage. Essai sur
la psychologie normale et pathologique de cette fonction - pourrait pourtant
servir de repre dans une enqute qui se donnerait pour tche, en amont et en
aval, de reprer les changements qui affectent les reprsentations du foncti-
onnement de lesprit partir des pathologies mentales et langagires.
De fait Jules seglas (1892) semble offrir le premier trait de pathologie
mentale adoptant une nomenclature des affections base sur la varit des attein-
tes langagires (et non plus strictement comportementales, caractriologiques,
physiologiques). Cette transformation de la nosographie atteste dune articula-
tion diffrente de lesprit et du langage. Elle trouve sans doute un cho chez des
linguistes comme V. Henry, M. Bral, ou E. Pichon, mais reste relativement
inaperue de lhistoriographie courante.
On se propose dans cette communication de restituer quelques aspects de
cette configuration nouvelle des rapports langage et pense en essayant de me-
surer ses effets sur les thorisations linguistiques de lpoque.

BAILLARGER Jules, 1890, Recherches sur les maladies mentales, Paris, Masson.
BALLET Gilbert, 1897, Psychoses et affections nerveuses, Paris, Doin. fils.
DUGAS, Ludovic, 1896, Le psittacisme et la pense symbolique. Psychologie du nomi-
nalisme, Alcan.
EGGER, Victor, 1881-1904), La parole intrieure, Alcan.
HENRY, Victor, 1896, Antinomies linguistiques, Alcan. <Rdition Peeters, 2000>.
HENRY, Victor, 1901, Le langage martien, Maisonneuve <Rdition Peeters, 2000>.
LEROY, E. B. (1905) Le langage. Essai sur la psychologie normale et pathologique de
cette fonction, Alcan.
PAULHAN, Franois, 1886, Le langage intrieur et la pense, Revue de Philosophie,
n 22. Paris.
SEGLAS Jules, 1892, Des troubles du langage chez les alins, Paris, Rueff.
218 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

SEGLAS Jules, 1895, Leons cliniques sur les maladies mentales et nerveuses, Paris,
Asselin et Houzeau.
SOLLIER Paul, 1893, Guide pratique des maladies mentales, 4me Ed., Paris, Masson.

Historical and Modern Classifications of Megrelian Verb

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
& Giorgi Akhvlediani Society for the History of Linguistics, Tbilisi, Georgia

Megrelian (socio-linguistic status: dialect) verb is well studied by Georgian

linguists. All approaches of Megrelian verb are based on traditional classifica-
tion for the Georgian verb by A. Shanidze. According to the traditional point of
view the main classification unit for the Georgian verb is the semantic category
of the voice. Similarly to Georgian, the same category has been copied as a main
classification unit for Megrelian verb. Particularly: Arn. Chikobava:1936, G.
Machavariani: 1959, L. Nozadze: 1961, K. Danelia: 1976, R. Sherozia: 1980, M.
Margvelashvili: 1982, B. Jorbenadze: 1992, etc., all these researchers considered
that there are three voices: Active, Passive and Medium in Megrelian. Arn.
Chikobava in his late works considered only 2 voices: Active and Passive (Arn.
Chikobava: 1968). This is the traditional approach, that is supported by old and
contemporary grammars, as well.
The first points of view about the voice are supported in Art of Grammar
by Dionysius Thrax. These views became the basis of the old Georgian Gram-
mar text-books by Z. Shanshovani (in his work Short grammar of the Georgian
Language, 1737 he had mentioned 4 voices: Active, Passive, Medium and
Common), by Anthon the first Georgian Grammar, 1885 (there are three
voices according to Anton the first: Active, Passive and Medium).
Since 20-s of XX c. there begins the new stage of Georgian Grammatical
view: A. Shanidze, Arn. Chikobava, B. Jorbenadze, M. Sukhishvili, A. Davitia-
ni, D. Melikishvili etc. have published their points of view about the category of
voice. But most of them have shared the traditional approach automatically
adjusting the existing, traditional theory to the Georgian verbs. The reason was
the lack of statistical data and all these great scholars studied the language with
their unique scientific intuition. Maybe this three-voice theory is suitable for
European languages, but not for Caucasian ones, where the typical classification
unit is verb dynamicity vs stativity. A. Davitiani even coined the new terms for
this particular category: Real Voice for Active and Passive, Unreal Voice
for Medium. Some scholars stated, that the voices are only Active and Passive
and so called Medium verbs are just voiceless static verbs (Arn. Chikobava:
1968, K. Lomtatidze: 1952).
Conference Handbook 219

As we mentioned above, the category of voice for Georgian Language, as it

is considered by A. Shanidze, has been automatically copied for Megrelian: so,
all the scholarly works describing and considering Megrelian verbs are based on
the theory of three grammatical voices. According to this theory, only Passive
Voice is marked grammatically by the suffix -th.s-i in Georgian (th.s. = thematic
suffix) and its grammatical equivalent by the suffix -th.s-u(n) in Megrelian. So,
suffix -u(n) is considered as a marker of passive voice in Megrelian. According
to the traditional Grammar, other Voices (Active and Medium) do not have any
grammatical marker.
D. Melikishvili does not recognize the semantic opposition Active-Passive-
Medium for the Georgian verbs: In 2001 Prof. D. Melikishvili published her
theory taking into the consideration morphologically and syntactically expressed
categories: structure and construction of the Georgian Verb (based on statistical
data: 40 000 verbal forms): She has inferred, that Georgian verbs have clearly
expressed two morphological structures: R- and R-i (Melikishvili: 2001, 2010,
Jorbenadze:1983) and three syntactic constructions (Melikishvli:2001, 2010).
Despite the traditional classification, the advantage of contemporary one is
that there is no need to adjust the existing, traditional theory to the Georgian
verbs: we can use statistical data, nowadays. I have decided to verify the theory
of prof. Melikishvili on Megrelian data. First of all I have designed the repre-
sentative base of Megrelian verbs (from dictionaries and dialectal texts), then I
have grouped the units of similar morphological structure and syntactic con-
structions, not taking into the consideration the semantic categories. The rela-
tionship between the Megrelian verb structure and its construction became clear:
There are two main structures of the Megrelian verb R-(th.s)- (birs
sings) and R-(th.s)-u/e(n) (skid-u(n) dries. Of course, these two general
structures consist of sub-structures (using vowel prefixes, -d suffix and various
thematic suffixes). After analyzing the General Structures of Megrelian Verb I
have studied the verb construction, i.e. the cases of the subject of these structur-
ized verbs in the conjunction (1st, 2nd and 3rd) series.
Like literary Georgian verbs, Megrelian verbs could be of three constructi-
ons: (1) nom-erg-dat (nominative, ergative, dative), (2) nom-erg-nom and (3)
dat-dat. As a rule, the only structure of the verbs of nom-erg-dat construction is
R-(th.s.)- . The Only structure of the verbs of nom-erg-nom construction is R-
(th.s.)-u(n). As for the third construction dat-dat, it is the person-less construc-
tion - the Subject of the third construction is always in dative case and at the
same time, this Subject is the inversed object of the 1st or the 2nd constructions;
i.e.: the 3rd construction is inversed. That is why we have the both morphological
structures there. The unity of verb structure and construction is called Diathe-
sis (D. Melikishvili: 2001).
220 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Diathesis Construction Structure

I nom - erg dat R-(th.s.)-

II nom - erg nom R-th.s.-u/e(n)

III R-(th.s.)-
dat dat (inver-
sed) R-th.s.-u/e(n)

1. Anthon the first 1885: Georgian Grammar, Tbilisi, 1885
2. R. Asatiani 1991: The Morphological category of voice in Georgian and Kartvelian
Languages in: Typological Researches, Tbilisi, 1991
3. Arn. Chikobava 1936: Grammatical analysis of Chan, Tbilisi, 1936
4. Arn. Chikobava: 1968: The problem of the simple sentence, Tbilisi, 1968
5. K. Danelia 1976: Towards the production of passive voice in Kolkhian, Tbilisi State
University Works, vol.19, Tbilisi, 1976
6. I. Kipshidze 1994: Grammar of the Megrelian (Iverian) Language-1914.
St.Petersburg, republished by K. Danelia 1994.
7. Lomtatidze 1952: The history of verbs of tbeba type, Iberian Caucasian Linguis-
tics, vol.4., 1952
8. G. Machavariani 1959: Marker-less passive in Kartvelian Languages, The issues of
the structure of Kartvelian Languages, vol. 1., 1959
9. M. Margvelashvili 1982: Screeve formation in Megrelian, PhD work, Tbilisi, 1982
10. D. Melikishvili 2001: The conjunction system of Georgian Verb, Tbilisi, 2001
11. D. Melikishvili, D. Humphries, M. Kupunia: The Georgian Verb: A Morphosyntactic
Analysis, 2010
12. L. Nozadze 1961: Towards the relation between the passive voice prefix and suffix
forms, The issues of the structure of Kartvelian Languages, vol.2, 1961
13. Z. Shanshovani 1737: Short grammar of the Georgian Language, 1737
14. R. Sherozia 1980: The functions of some verbal suffixes in Megrelian dialect of Zan
Language in: The materials of the conference of the post graduate students and young
scholars, Arn. Chikobava Institute of linguistics, the Georgian national academy of
sciences, Tbilisi, 1980
15. Shanidze A. - The works, III, 1980
16. Jorbenadze B. the formation of the vowel prefixes of the verb,1983.
17. B. Jorbenadze 1992: Verb vowel-prefixes in Kartvelian languages in: Annual of the
Iberian-Cauvasian Linguistics, vol. 18-19, Tbilisi, 1992
Conference Handbook 221

Learning to read not only Malay, but also Arabic, Persian, Turkish
and other scripts under the Dutch East India Company

University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

The establishment of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in 1602 and its
subsequent activities in South Asia extended Dutch interest in oriental studies
well beyond Semitic languages. Although the company itself was at times more
interested in financing botanical studies than investigating linguistics (den Bes-
ten 2010), many of its overseas employees undertook their own private studies
of local languages.
The colonial language policy relating to the teaching of Dutch has been
well documented (Groeneboer 1993), but the practice and diligence among the
Dutch for describing exotic languages still await a systematic study. To de-
termine the scope of what could be tentatively called "VOC linguistics", a sur-
vey of all linguistic documents created under the auspices of the VOC must first
be undertaken. There is scattered information on grammar and dictionaries writ-
ten in Dutch but, to my knowledge, it has never been assembled in a single mo-
nograph, and many valuable works still await scholarly attention.
In my paper, I will present and discuss two language learning tools created
by VOC employees with the purpose of acquiring non-Latin scripts: that of Si-
nhala (Rull 1699) and the Perso-Arabic one (De Jager 1683). Both works con-
tain original and innovative methods of learning to read and write, but their fate
was much different: the former served as a basis for the first print in Sinhala; the
latter was never published and fell into oblivion.
The analysis of the content and the itineraries of the two texts will not only
add to the understanding of VOC's linguistic heritage, but will also give us an
insight into contacts and collaboration between the Dutch Orientalists working
within the Academia and the VOC amateur field workers.

Besten, Hans, den. 2010. A Badly Harvested Field: The Growth Of Linguistic Knowle-
dge And The Dutch Cape Colony Until 1796. In: Huigen, S., Jong, J., Kolfin, E.
(eds.). The Dutch Trading Companies as Knowledge Networks. Leiden: Brill. pp
Groeneboer, Kees. 1993. Weg tot het Westen. Het Nederlands voor Indie 1600-1950.
Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij.
222 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Linterjection et lanalyse de lnonc (XVIIe-XVIIIe sicles)

Valrie RABY
Universit Paris Diderot - Paris 7
& Laboratoire d'Histoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Dans le discours des grammairiens franais, linterjection connat entre le

XVIIe et le XVIIIe sicle une mutation spectaculaire : de partie de discours mi-
neure au statut catgoriel incertain et dont le traitement est souvent relgu la
fin des classements ou associ celui des adverbes , elle devient le prototype
de lnonc lmentaire et primitif dans les scnariis gntiques de dveloppe-
ment du langage et des langues. Quelles sont les consquences de cette promoti-
on pour la conception de lnonc, sur les plans syntaxique et pragmatique ?
Pour poser la question en des termes anciens, de quel genre doratio relve
lnonc interjectif ? est-il complet, et comment ? Ou bien, en des termes plus
modernes , quelle sorte de jugement est exprim par linterjection ? Enfin,
plus gnralement, comment la thorie du langage qui est alors, pour la gram-
maire gnrale, thorie des oprations de la pense traduites par le langage ver-
bal , saccommode-t-elle de ces signes naturels reprsentant des mouve-
ment de lme ? Cette forme dexpression de la subjectivit est-elle du mme
ordre que celle manifeste par les actes de langage ?
Nous proposons de revenir sur cet ensemble de questions pour prciser
larticulation entre le traitement de linterjection et les thories de lnonc aux
XVIIe et XVIIIe sicles.

Rfrences primaires
Arnauld et Lancelot 1660-1676, Beauze 1767, De Brosses 1765, Buffier 1709, Condil-
lac 1746 et 1775, Court de Gbelin 1774, Destutt de Tracy 1803, Girard 1747.

Quelques rfrences secondaires

Auroux, S. (1979) La smiotique des Encyclopdistes. Essai dpistmologie historique
des sciences du langage, Payot, Paris.
Formigari, L. (1992) Le langage et la pense , in Auroux S. (dir.), Histoire des ides
linguistiques, tome 2, Lige, Mardaga, 442-465.
Fournier, J.-M. et Raby, V. (2003) Iconicit et motivation dans les grammaires franai-
ses des XVIIe et XVIIIe sicles : le traitement de linterjection , Cahiers de lin-
guistique analogique n 1, Philippe Monneret (d.), A.B.E.L.L., Universit de
Bourgogne, pp. 173-205.
Conference Handbook 223

Anton Martys Philosophy of Language

and his Dialogue with Linguists

Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano, Italia

Is there historical evidence of a possible confluence of theoretical commit-

ment and empirical research within the language sciences? Not only in a single
authors research, but also among groups of authors, converging onto several
shared objectives? We argue that a positive conclusion comes from Martys
teleological empiricism, not only as a project, but also as a real and effective
This paper aims to highlight that in 2014, one century will have passed sin-
ce Anton Marty died in Prague on 1st October 1914, where he spent almost all of
his academic life. Marty was a Swiss pupil of the philosopher Franz Brentano
and was called to the German University in 1880, just before the division of the
medieval Universitas Carolina into the two German and Czech branches. Ac-
cording to Brentanos empirical standpoint, Marty devoted a great deal of his
philosophy of language to descriptive semasiology. His model intertwines
grammar (especially the universal / general), logic and psychology. His detailed
descriptions are conceived as basic premises for the critical evaluation of lin-
guistic performance. He develops his theory through tireless discussion of the
related philosophical, psychological and linguistic literature. Nevertheless, he
mentions linguists he feels close to because of their deep knowledge of linguistic
facts and rules and because, at the same time, they too are keen on enquiring
about language functions and invariant structures. The linguists are Michel
Bral, Eugen Frstemann, Ludwig Tobler, Wilhelm Scherer, Hugo Schuchardt,
Hermann Paul, Karl Brugmann, Julius Jolly, not to mention Wilhelm von Hum-
boldt. While dealing with Maya manuscripts and their decoding, with Sanskrit
grammar or with Swiss varieties of German etc., the authors demonstrated that
an intimacy with a large body of factual evidence not only did not prevent, but
rather strongly encouraged, a refined reflection upon how language, as such,
reveals and expresses a speakers attitudes and psychic life, thus suggesting the
addressees responsive cooperation. We simply outline this epistemological,
convergent movement towards an ideal integration of well-founded, empirical
competence and theoretical engagement, especially within the German-speaking
world, on the threshold of the 20th century.
224 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

N. W. Bokhove, S. Raynaud, "A bibliography of works by and on Anton Marty, in Mind,
Meaning, and Metaphysics: the Philosophy and Theory of Language of Anton
Marty, edited by K. Mulligan, Dordrecht, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
1990: p. [237]-284.
R. Rollinger, Philosophy of Language and Other Matters in the Work of Anton Marty:
Analysis and Translations, Amsterdam / New York: Rodopi, 2010.

Lus Simes da Fonseca, un philologue et dictionnariste brsilien en

France, et le concept de la prononciation figure ou comme ensei-
gner aux Franais la prononciation portugaise

Maria Helena Dias REBELO

Universidade da Madeira, Portugal

Thierry Proena dos SANTOS

Universidade da Madeira, Portugal

Philologue, dictionnariste, traducteur et pdagogue brsilien, Lus Simes

da Fonseca a divulgu la langue et la culture portugaises en France la fin du
XIXe sicle et au dbut du XXe sicle. En tant quauteur ou coauteur, il a publi
des ouvrages, tels que Abrg de la grammaire portugaise avec un cours gradu
de thmes (Plcido de Souza; L. Simes da Fonseca, Paris: Garnier Frres, [1880
?]), Nouveau vocabulaire Franais-Portugais e Portugais-Franais, contenant
tous les mots usuels avec leur prononciation figure (Paris: Garnier Frres,
[s.d.], Sries: Vocabulaires Garnier), Diccionario Encyclopedico da lingua por-
tugueza (Paris: Garnier, [192-]), Novo diccionario encyclopedico illustrado da
lingua portugueza vocabulos vernaculos, provincialismos, vocabulos dialectaes,
brasileirismos, peregrinismos e vozes estrangeiras introduzidas na lingua: his-
toria, biographia, bibliografia: lingua antiga, geographia, historia natural,
artes e sciencias em geral: numerosos mapas, plantas e gravuras, etc. (L.
Simes da Fonseca e Joo Ribeiro, Paris: P. Dupont, 1926), entre autres.
Dans une approche caractre exploratoire, nous nous proposons de dcrire
son Abrg de la grammaire portugaise et son Nouveau vocabulaire Franais-
Portugais et Portugais-Franais, de manire dgager les principales lignes de
sa pense sur la langue portugaise ainsi que sur sa mthode de lenseigner un
public franais. Pour ce faire, notre intervention se divisera en deux parties:
1. contextualisation du philologue en question et de son uvre (biographie,
prsupposs didactiques appliqus, conceptions des ouvrages dtudes
de la langue portugaise) et
2. rflexions sur le concept de prononciation figure trs en vogue cette
poque en France (ex.: derrogao drogaa'on, f. drogation; desabri-
Conference Handbook 225

damente > dzabridamin't, ad. rudement ; montanhez montagns, m. et

f. et ad. montagnard; mosquiteiro moskiteilro, m. moustiquaire).

Towards a History of the Real Academia Galega: Contemporary

Research on Galician Sociolinguistics and Lexicography

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, U.S.A.

The Real Academia Galega (Royal Academy of the Galician Language),

founded over one hundred years ago, has been undertaking research on Socio-
linguistics and Lexicography since the 1980s, as a part of the process of contem-
porary revival of the Galician language.
Although the Real Academia Galega (RAG) has been publishing reference
materials on language, linguistics, literature and history since 1906, a revival of
the institution followed the creation of the Institute for the Galician Language at
the University of Santiago de Compostela in 1971, and the subsequent incorpo-
ration of college-trained linguists from the Language School of Santiago de
Compostela to the institution.
This paper aims to undertake a critical analysis of the publications on Soci-
olinguistics and Lexicography published by the RAG upon the publication of the
1982 orthographic agreement (Normas Ortogrficas e Morfolxicas do Idioma
Galego). I propose to connect in this paper research trends and interests with the
lines proposed by organizational and academic leaders in Galician linguistics.
Although the main research lines in Galician linguistics since 1971 have
been Dialectology, Historical Linguistics, Synchronic Grammar, Lexicography
and, to a certain extent, Language Pedagogy, a promising additional line on So-
ciolinguistics and Sociology of Language has been developed, in particular,
since the early 1990s.
An analysis of the interaction between the RAG and the scholars from
college-level institutions (in particular the University of Santiago de Composte-
la) will also be undertaken, discussing their relevance and leadership in the Aca-

Fernndez, Mauro (1997). Los orgenes de la Sociolingstica, in Miguel Casas G-
mez (dir.) & Jacinto Espinosa Garca (ed.) II Jornadas de Lingstica, 1996. Uni-
versidad de Cdiz, Servicio de Publicaciones, 105132.
Garca, Constantino (1980). Actividades do Instituto da Lingua Galega, in Dieter
Kremer & Ramn Lorenzo, eds. Tradicin, actualidade e futuro do galego. Actas
do Coloquio de Trveris (Trveris 1980). Consellera de Educacin, Xunta de Gali-
cia, Santiago de Compostela.
226 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Iglesias, Ana (1999). Os estudios empricos sobre a situacin sociolingstica do gale-

go. Cadernos de lingua 19.
Joseph, John E. (1995). The structure of linguistic revolutions, in Historiographia
Lingstica XXII:3, 379399.
Koerner, E.F.K. (1995). Professing linguistic historiography. John Benjamins, Amster-
Murray, Stephen O. (1994). Theory Groups and the Study of Language in North Ameri-
ca. John Benjamins, AmsterdamPhiladelphia.
Murray, Stephen O. (1998) American Sociolinguistics. John Benjamins, Amsterdam
Regueira, Xos L. (1996). Os estudios de lingstica galega. Homenaxe profesora
Pilar Vzquez Cuesta. Universidade de Santiago, Servicio de Publicacins, 4767.
Rei-Doval, Gabriel (1999). Breve aproximacin historia da sociolingstica galega
(1967-1997). Unpublished MPhil Thesis, University of Santiago de Compostela.
Rei-Doval, Gabriel (2000) Matriaux pour une histoire de la sociolinguistique galicien-
ne. Antcedents et tudes macrosociolinguistiques empiriques (19671997), in
Lengas (special number entitled Planification et recherche sociolinguistique en
Galice) 47 (2000): 159191.
Santamarina, A. (1989). Estado e tarefas da lingstica galega, in D. Kremer (ed.):
Actes du XVIIIe Congrs International de Linguistique et de Philologie Romanes.
Universit de Trves (Trier) 1986. Tbingen: Niemeyer, 7, 289310.
Seminario de Sociolingstica (1993). Estudio sociolingstico da comarca ferrol. Real
Academia Galega, A Corua.
Seminario de Sociolingstica (1994). Lingua inicial e competencia lingstica en Gali-
cia. Real Academia Galega, A Corua.
Seminario de Sociolingstica (1995). Usos lingsticos en Galicia. Real Academia
Galega, A Corua.
Seminario de Sociolingstica (1996). Actiudes lingsticas en Galicia. Real Academia
Galega, A Corua.
Tucker, G.Richard (1997). The Development of Sociolinguistics as a Field of Study:
Concluding Observations, in Paulston & Tucker, eds. 1997, pp. 317324.

The so-called Remigius or Dominus quae pars: a Central European

parsing grammar tradition from the later Middle Ages

University of Helsinki, Finland

The first extant Latin parsing grammar is Priscians Partitiones duodecim

uersuum Aeneidos principalium from the early sixth century AD in which the
opening verses of the twelve books of Virgils Aeneid are analysed word by
word. Although the parsing method appears also in a couple of other late antique
and early medieval texts (see, e.g., the grammars of Pompey and Julian of Tole-
do), as a separate genre of grammars it gains momentum in the ninth century
with the appearance of copies of Priscians Partitiones as well as medieval pars-
Conference Handbook 227

ing grammars. Most of the parsing grammars from the central Middle Ages (c.
800-1100) only survive in a few manuscripts or even just one copy (cf., e.g.,
Law 2000: 29-30), but in the later medieval period two more widespread tradi-
tions emerge in the form of the so-called Ianua and Remigius texts.
The Ianua texts (with the incipit Poeta quae pars) were mostly copied in It-
aly, and this tradition has been studied by, e.g., Robert Black (2001). Much less,
however, has been written on the Central European Remigius (or Dominus quae
pars) tradition. A facsimile edition with some commentary of one such text was
published in 1982 by Jan Pinborg, but many questions about these texts, for in-
stance, as to their relationships, their intended audience, the nature of their con-
tent and their sources, remain unanswered. While the so-called Remigius texts
from the later Middle Ages, a tradition exemplified by the text Pinborg pub-
lished, contain many of the same basic grammatical concepts concerning the
eight parts of speech, also more advanced material can be found in some of these
texts, containing as they do also, e.g., influences from Modistic grammar.

Black, Robert (2001): Humanism and Education in Medieval and Renaissance Italy.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Law, Vivien (2000): Memory and the Structure of Grammars in Antiquity and the Mid-
dle Ages. Manuscripts and Tradition of Grammatical Texts from Antiquity to the
Renaissance, vol. 1. Ed. M. De Nonno, P. De Paolis, L. Holtz. Cassino: Universit
degli Studi di Cassino.
Pinborg, Jan (1982): Remigius, Schleswig 1486, A Latin Grammar in Facsimile Edition
with a Postscript. Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab
Historisk-filosofiske Meddelelser 50: 4.

Teoria Sociolingustica Variacionista Laboviava:

o caso de Conceio de Ibitipoca (Minas Gerais, Brasil)

Terezinha Cristina Campos de RESENDE

Faculdade SENAI de Tecnologia de Juiz de Fora
& Rede Municipal de Ensino de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil

As pesquisas lingusticas na rea da Teoria da Variao e Mudana Lingus-

tica, tambm denominada Sociolingustica Variacionista Laboviana, que tem
como objeto de estudo a variao e mudana da lngua no contexto social da
comunidade de fala, vm abrindo cada vez mais espao para o estudo da histori-
ografia da linguagem, apontando que a variabilidade no uso da lngua (sincronia)
reflete diferentes tipos de significados sociais que levam mudana lingustica
(diacrnica). As investigaes a respeito das relaes entre lngua e sociedade,
desenvolvidas por Labov tm como propsito estudar a evoluo da lngua no
228 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

contexto social, no sentido de verificar o que o uso da lngua (parole) revela

sobre a estrutura lingustica (langue).
dentro deste quadro terico que o presente estudo fundamenta sua anlise,
tendo como base a concordncia verbal de 3 pessoa dos nativos de Conceio
de Ibitipoca e seu entorno, uma das povoaes mais antigas de Minas Gerais
(Brasil), que nasceu do ciclo do ouro, no final do sculo XVII, permanecendo
em relativo isolamento at 1973, quando foi criado, a 3 km da vila, o Parque
Estadual do Ibitipoca. O trabalho investiga a influncia do contato dialetal entre
nativos de Conceio de Ibitipoca e turistas, que a cada dia so mais numerosos
no lugar, apontando a relao entre os vnculos dos nativos com a regio e o uso
de suas variantes lingusticas locais, com o intuito de saber at que ponto esses
falantes nativos esto incorporando hbitos lingusticos decorrentes do turismo,
e em que medida essa nova realidade pode lev-los a fazer maior uso da variante
padro. Nele trabalha-se a hiptese do conflito entre orientao para o prestgio
e orientao para a identidade, em consonncia com a pesquisa realizada por
Labov (1972), na ilha de Marthas Vineyard, no Estado de Massachussetts,
USA. Aqui se abre discusso para o processo de formao do portugus popular
brasileiro, apontando a transmisso lingustica irregular como motor das altera-
es na concordncia verbal, principalmente no portugus falado em localidades
rurais, que tiveram em sua constituio a presena do indgena, do negro e do
colonizador portugus, como se sucedeu na comunidade de fala investigada.

Palavras-Chave: Contato Dialetal. Mudana em Progresso. Histria do portugus

brasileiro. Variao Lingustica.

La gramtica tagala (1878) de Toribio Minguella:

para personas que, por su profesin, no necesitan conocer el latn


Universidad de Vigo, Espaa

Los destinatarios de las gramticas tagalas de Francisco Blancas de San Jo-

s o de Sebastin de Totans, al igual que ellos mismos, haban sido formados en
la tradicin gramatical latina. Por ello, estos autores, an siendo conscientes de
las diferencias tipolgicas, tratan de ajustar la descripcin del tagalo, con mayor
o menor acierto, a los moldes clsicos.
Aunque no se puede ignorar el peso de la ortodoxia cristiana, este modo de
entender el oficio de gramtico tena una clara orientacin pedaggica, que se
ver reforzada por las continuas referencias al uso que los naturales hacan de su
lengua. No obstante, el exceso de gramaticalismo, converta el aprendizaje de la
lengua en una proeza solo al alcance de una minora.
Conference Handbook 229

Los profundos cambios socioeconmicos, culturales, educativos, etc. obli-

gan, sobre todo a partir del siglo XIX, a replantearse el mtodo de codificacin
de las lenguas filipinas. El Ensayo de Gramatica Hispano-Tagala de Toribio
Minguella evidencia, de forma notoria, esa fractura en la tradicin lingstica
misionera en el Archipilago.
El propsito de esta comunicacin es dar a conocer las estrategias metodo-
lgicas de las que se sirve Minguella para intentar satisfacer las nuevas necesi-
dades comunicativas de los espaoles aprendientes de tagalo, en esos ltimos
aos del periodo colonial.

Fuentes primarias
Blancas de San Jos, Francisco (1997[1610]). Arte y Reglas de la Lengua Tagala. Por el
Padre .F. Fray Francisco de .S. Ioseph de la Orde de .S. Domingo Predicador Ge-
neral en la Prouincia de .N. Seora del Rosario de las Islas Filipinas. En el Partido
de Bataan. Por Thomas Pinpin Tagalo, Ao 1610. Estudio y edicin crtica de An-
tonio Quilis, Ediciones de Cultura Hipnica. A. E. C. I., Madrid.
Minguella, Toribio (1878). Ensayo de Gramatica Hispano-Tagala compuesto por el M.
R. P. Ex-Definidor Fr. Toribio Minguella de las Mercedes de la Congregacion de
los Agustinos Recoletos de Filipinas, Comisario actual y Procurador en la Corte
de Madrid, Manila, Establecimiento Tipogrfico de Plana y Cia, 1878.
Totans, Sebastin de (1745). Arte de la Lengua Tagala, y Manual Tagalog, para la
administracion de los Santos Sacramentos, que de orden de sus superiores com-
puso Fray Sebastian de Totanes, Hijo de la apostolica, y Seraphica Provincia de S.
Gregorio Magno, de Religiosos Descalzos de la Regular, y mas estrecha Obser-
vancia de nuestro Seraphico Padre San Francisco de las islas Philipinas, Para ali-
vio de los religiosos de la misma Santa Provincia, que de nuevo se dedican
aprender este Idioma, y son Principiantes en la Administracion Espiritual de las
Almas. Impresso en la imprenta del vso de dicha Santa Provincia, sita en el Con-
vento de Nra. Seora de Loreto en el Pueblo de Sapaloc Extra-muros de la Ciudad
de Manila, Ao de 1745.

Darwin and the Language Instinct

Universit de Genve, Suisse

Citing Horne Took, Darwin affirms in The Descent of Man that language is
both an art and an instinct (Darwin (1874): 86). However, numerous contempo-
raneous theories of language seem to focus practically exclusively on the instinc-
tive characteristics of language. For instance, Chomsky maintains that the study
of E-Language is unscientific (Chomsky (1986): 15-50), while Pinker (1994) has
popularised an ultra-Darwinian account of the Origin of language based on the
selection of a particular structure in the human brain. The aim of this presenta-
230 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

tion is twofold: an explanation of Darwins theory of language and the study of

its compatibility with nativist theories of language.
In order to explain Darwins theory of language, it is necessary to study the
Darwinian definition of instinct, which requires a consideration of Darwins
ethology, based on an anthropomorphic approach of the animals. Such a Darwin-
ian ethology and its concept of instinct, which is not necessarily dependent on
natural selection, have to be applied to the study of communication developed in
The Descent of Man and in The Expression of the Emotion in Man and Animals.
A distinction between mere physiological cries and the conscious use of the
voice is made by Darwin in order to reconstruct the phylogeny of human lan-
guage, its first words being based on both onomatopoeias and interjections (Al-
ter 1999, Radick 2007).
The compatibility between Darwins theory of language and nativist ac-
counts of the faculty of language will appear as meagre for two main reasons.
First of all, the Darwinian ethology is in itself only feebly nativistic, contrarily to
mainstream objectivist and cognitive ethology used in the study of animal com-
munication (Hauser 1996). Secondly, Darwins focus is not on the faculty of
language but on the expression of this faculty. In other words, Darwins study of
language is based on E-language. In sum, the instinctive characteristic of lan-
guage does not imply a purely nativist approach.

S.G. Alter (1999), Darwinism and the Linguistic Image, Baltimore: The John Hopkins
University Press
N. Chomsky (1986), Knowledge of Language, Wesport: Praeger
C. Darwin (1874), The Descent of Man [2nd edition], London: John Murray
Id. (1890), The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals [2nd edition], London:
John Murray
M.D. Hauser (1996), The Evolution of Communication, Cambridge: MIT Press
S. Pinker (1994), The Language Instinct, New York: HarperPerrenial
G. Radick (2007), The Siminan Tongue, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press

Norme et usage dans les premires grammaires de guarani

Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brasil

Lobjectif de ce texte est de determiner quelques caractristiques du fonc-

tionnement de la norme dans les premires grammaires du guarani, crites par
des missionnaires jsuites aux XVIIe et XVIIIe sicles dans le contexte de la
colonisation espagnole dans les missions de la Province Jsuitique du Paraguay.
La finalit de ces grammaires tait lapprentissage de la langue par les mission-
naires trangers, afin de permettre la communication quotidienne avec les In-
Conference Handbook 231

diens et leur instruction religieuse. Nous cherchons comprendre, dune part, de

quelle faon cette finalit affecte les mcanismes de validation des rgles et leur
rapport lusage. Cest montrer la langue plutt que dmontrer les rgles qui est
le but ultime du grammarien, qui en cas de difficults les formuler les remplace
par le renvoi lusage: Y esto baste de arte y reglas, porq la mas general y cier-
ta es hablar y oir hablar al Yndio (Assez dart et de rgles, parce que la rgle la
plus gnrale et certaine est de parler et dcouter les Indiens parler) ; lo qual
ensear el vso (lequel sera enseign par lusage) ; el uso y observacion de la
lengua dir lo demas (lusage et lobservation de la langue diront le reste).
Dautre part, nous essaierons de dterminer comment se dfinie dans ces gram-
maires le caractre normatif des rgles, ds lors que celles-ci ne se prsentent
pas comme une tentative dpuration de la langue sur la base dun usage valori-
s, mais quelles correspondent une description de lusage commun des In-
diens (Il faut respecter ce que les Indiens utilisent ; les Indiens approuvent;
ils napprouvent pas) destin tre imit par les apprentis trangers pour pou-
voir comprendre et tre compris par eux, valeur utilitaire de la langue qui sest
maintenue jusquaux derniers travaux grammaticaux des missionnaires.

Auroux, S. 1998. Le langage, la raison et les normes. Paris: PUF.
Auroux, S, Orlandi, E. et Mazire F. 1998. L'hyperlangue brsilienne, in Langages, 130,
Paris: Larousse.
Orlandi, E. 2002. Lngua e conhecimento lingstico: para uma histria das idias no
Brasil. So Paulo: Corts.
Rodrguez-Alcal, C. et Nunes, J. H. 2008. Langues amrindiennes la Renaissance:
norme et exemples dans les descriptions du tupi et du guarani, Les langues du
monde la Renaissance. Revue Histoire, Epistmologie, Langage, 30/2 (dir.
Bernard Colombat), p. 25-70.

Views of polysemy in Chilean 19th century linguistics:

Ideology and Attitudes


Universidad de Chile

Polysemy is an inherent semantic feature of human language (Nerlich &

Clarke 2003: 5). Despite this, in some historical contexts, and especially among
laymen, polysemy has been the object of negative linguistic attitudes (Trudgill
1998). In our paper we analyze views of polysemy in the works of Chilean Span-
ish-speaking grammarians and lexicographers from the 19th century (belonging
to pre-scientific Chilean linguistics, according to Matus 1994). These views are
mainly negative. For instance, the Chilean-Venezuelan grammarian Andrs Bel-
lo (1847), asserted that giving new meanings to known words was a linguistic
232 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

vice. In the same vein, the lexicographer Zorobabel Rodrguez (1979 [1875])
discussed many examples in which he criticized the adding of new meanings to
Spanish words, considering this practice as bad language.
Within the frame of the historiography of language ideologies (Blommaert
1999), we interpret the negative attitudes of Chilean linguists of the 19th century
towards polysemy as an outcome of their ideology of language, a context-
specific version of the standard language ideology (Milroy 2001). Standardiza-
tion processes focus on the reduction of variation (Milroy & Milroy 1999: 22).
We can conclude, then, that speakers concerned with the fulfillment of standard-
ization show a negative attitude towards polysemy because this linguistic feature
implies the existence of more than one meaning for a lexical form, this is, sema-
siological variation The prevalence of this way of conceiving language, in turn,
can be explained within the frame of the standardization process that Chilean
Spanish was undergoing during the 19th century (Matus, Dargham & Samaniego
We discuss in detail examples taken from Rodrguezs Diccionario that
show that he has different attitudes towards two different kinds of polysemous
lexical items. On the one hand, he shows a neutral attitude towards cases of pol-
ysemy where the two or more meanings involved are used in the same variety
(this variety usually is Chilean Spanish). On the other, he shows a negative atti-
tude towards instances of polysemy where the new or added meaning is used
only in Chile (or other Spanish-speaking countries in Latin America) and is add-
ed to a meaning used in Spain or registered in general dictionaries (such as the
Diccionario of the Spanish Royal Academy). This shows the influence of stand-
ard language ideology, according to which regional or non-standard variants are
the object of negative attitudes.

Bello, A. (1847). Prlogo. In Gramtica de la lengua castellana destinada al uso de los
americanos (pp. v-xiii). Santiago, Chile: Imprenta del Progreso.
Blommaert, J. (1999). The debate is open. En J. Blommaert (Ed.), Language Ideological
Debates (pp. 1-38). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Matus, A. (1994). Perodos en la lexicografa diferencial del espaol de Chile. En Actas
del X Congreso de la Asociacin de Academias de la Lengua Espaola (pp. 189-
199). Madrid: Real Academia Espaola/Espasa Calpe.
Matus, A., Dargham, S. & Samaniego, J. L. (1992). Notas para una historia del espaol
en Chile. En C. Hernndez A. (Coord.), Historia y presente del espaol de Amrica
(pp. 543-564). Valladolid: Junta de Castilla y Len / PABECAL.
Milroy, J. (2001). Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization. Journal
of Sociolinguistics, 5(4), 530-555.
Milroy, J. & Milroy, L. (1999). Authority in Language: Investigating Standard English.
London: Routledge.
Nerlich, B. & Clarke, D. D. (2003). Polysemy and flexibility: introduction and overview.
In B. Nerlich, Z. Todd, V. Herman & D. D. Clarke (Eds.), Polysemy: Flexible Pat-
Conference Handbook 233

terns of Meaning in Mind and Language (pp. 3-30). Berlin/New York: Mouton de
Rodrguez, Z. (1979 [1875]). Diccionario de chilenismos. Ed. facsimilar. Valparaso:
Editorial Universitaria de Valparaso.
Trudgill, P. (1998). The Meaning of Words Should Not be Allowed to Vary or Change.
In L. Bauer & P. Trudgill (Eds.), Language Myths (pp. 1-8). London: Penguin.

Revendo uma proposta de escrita para o quimbundo

Maria Carlota ROSA

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Para o trabalho missionrio no Brasil e em Angola, a Companhia de Jesus

apresentou uma proposta de escrita dessa lngua. As primeiras observaes sobre
as convenes adotadas surgem no catecismo de Pacconio & Couto (1642); cer-
ca de 50 anos mais tarde, Pedro Dias (1697) traar semelhanas entre a escrita
do quimbundo, a do latim e a do portugus nas pginas iniciais de sua gramtica.
Para os leitores potenciais a que essas obras se dirigiram missionrios da
Companhia propunha-se uma escrita de segunda lngua (SEL2) que partia da
experincia com o sistema da primeira lngua (SEL1): direo, tipo, caracteres
facilitariam a tarefa de leitura de L2 para os novos leitores. Mas que nvel de
leitura se esperava desse leitor potencial? Esta a questo que este trabalho fo-
caliza. Procura-se evidenciar que a finalidade dos materiais escritos em quim-
bundo pelos missionrios jesutas para outros membros da mesma ordem no
era, primordial ou necessariamente, a compreenso (que podia ser extrada das
tradues), mas a vocalizao. Os materiais analisados foram: (a) em Dias, os
exemplos em quimbundo; e (b) em Pacconio & Couto (1642), a Declarao do
quarto Sacramento (fols. 43v-47) e o Dilogo duodecimo da declarao do
Padre nosso (fols. 77-82). A separao de palavras por espaos em branco, j
ento parte da escrita em portugus, nem sempre assinala essa unidade lingusti-
ca em quimbundo, criando longas sequncias alfabticas que dificultam a extra-
o de informao morfolgica e semntica.

DIAS, Pedro. Arte da lingva de Angola,/ oeferecida [sic]/ a Virgem Senhora N. do/ Rosa-
rio, My, & Senhora dos mesmos/ Pretos. Lisboa: Officina de Miguel Deslandes,
Impressor de Sua Magestade. Anno 1697.
PACCONIO, Francesco & Antonio do COUTO. Gentio de Angola sufficientemente instrui-
do nos mysterios de nossa sancta F. Obra posthuma, composta pello Padre Fran-
cisco Pacconio da Companhia de Iesu. Redusida a methodo mais breve & accomo-
dado capacidade dos sogeitos, que se instruem pello Padre Antonio do Couto da
mesma Companhia. Lisboa: Domingos Lopes Rosa, 1642.
234 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Lalphabet phontique de labb Rousselot:

vecteur de la phontique exprimentale?

Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle-Paris 3, France

Si Honorat Rambaud a imagin, ds la fin du XVIe sicle (Dclaration des

abus quon commet en escrivant, Lyon, 1578), un sistme dcriture fontique
libr, ou peu sen faut, de la tradition de lalfabet latin., cest bien avec lAbb
Rousselot et Paul Passy, en France, Daniel Jones en Grande-Bretagne, Alexander
Melville Bell et son Visible Speech, que naissent au XIXe sicle les premiers
alphabets qui tentent de retranscrire de manires explicites les mcanismes in-
trinsques de larticulation des phonmes, et par extension de la parole.
Ces modlisations phontiques sont issues des observations des mcanis-
mes physiologiques engags lors de lacte de parole, tentatives de modlisations
de la parole vivante dans la directe filiation des travaux du docteur Claude Ber-
nard. On peut trs certainement parler dune forme de modlisation qui devient
invitablement une mathmatisation superficielle quand elle fonctionne comme
simple encodage formel de donnes non critiques ? Si ces alphabets inscrivent
dans un premier temps les mcanismes cachs de la physiologie de la parole
dans une forme descriptive qui sapproche au plus prs de la ralit organique de
sa production, cest bien en les exploitant dans le cadre de la phontique expri-
mentale quils prennent tous leurs intrts.
Cette communication tentera donc de montrer en quoi lalphabet phontique
de Rousselot (mais aussi celui de Passy) est une forme de modlisation non seu-
lement physiologique mais aussi linguistique de la parole et que cette modli-
sation tient moins de la mathmatisation des savoirs qu des questions pist-
mologiques plus gnrales puisquil est lun des vecteurs menant de la phonti-
que exprimentale pratique la fin du XIXe et au dbut du XXe sicle la
phonologie structurale telle que la dfinit en 1930 l'cole de Prague autour de
Troubetzkoy et Jakobson.

Ressources Bibliographiques
Bell, Alexander Melville (1867), Visible Speech: The Science of Universal Alphabe-
tics Simkin, Marshall & CO, London.
Bral, Michel (1893), De lenseignement des langues vivantes, Paris.
Galazzi, E. (1992): 1880-1914. Le combat des jeunes phonticiens: Paul Passy, Cahi-
ers Ferdinand de Saussure, 46, pp. 115-129.
Passy, P. (1887): Les sons du franais. Leur formacion, leur combinaizon, leur reprzen-
tacion. Paris: Firmin-Didot, 5e dition, 1899.
Rosset, Th. (1905): Un enseignement exprimental de la prononciation franaise,
Revue Internationale de lEnseignement, 15 avril.
Conference Handbook 235

Rosset, Th. (1911): Les origines de la prononciation moderne tudie au XVIIe sicle
daprs les remarques des grammairiens et les textes en patois de la banlieue parisi-
enne. (Thse principale). Paris: Armand Colin.
Rosset, Th. (1911): Recherches exprimentales pour linscription de la voix parle.
(Thse complmentaire). Facult des lettres de lUniversit de Paris. Paris: Armand
Productions de lAbb Rousselot:
1891, La mthode graphique applique la recherche des transformations incons-
cientes du langage, Revue des patois gallo-romans, t. 4, pp. 209-213.
1892, Les modifications phontiques du langage tudies dans le patois dune fa-
mille de Cellefrouin (Charente): troisime partie, modification historique de
lancien fonds du patois, Revue des patois gallo-romans, supplment au t.
5, pp. 9-62.
1894, Phontique exprimentale (note sur le tambour inscripteur), Le matre
phontique, pp. 16-17.
1894, La phontique exprimentale, Bulletin de lInstitut catholique de Paris,
novembre, pp. 366-fin
1897-1901, Principes de phontiques exprimentale 2 parties en 1 vol, Paris &
Leipzig: Welter, 640 p.
1899, Notes sur les volutions phontiques, La Parole Revue internationale de
rhinologie, otologie, laryngologie et phontique exprimentale, nouvelle s-
rie t. 1 , pp. 127-136.
1899, Recherches de phontique exprimentale sur la marche des volutions pho-
ntiques, daprs dialectes bas-allemands, La Parole Revue internationale
de rhinologie, otologie, laryngologie et phontique exprimentale, I, pp.
1905, La prononciation du latin, Revue du Clerg franais, t. 41, pp. 307-310.
1911, Phontique exprimentale et Instrumentalphonetik, Revue de phontique, t.
1, pp. 11-16.
1911, Classification des voyelles orales. Designation des nuances de timbres et
signes pour les reprsenter (avec 3 fig.), Revue de phontique, t. 1, pp. 17-
1911, Critiques dexpriences (avec 16 fig.), Revue de phontique, t. 1, pp. 201-
SCRIPTURE (1806), Eugene, Researches in experimental phonetic, the study of speech
curves, Washington.

Bakhtin e Heidegger: A Linguagem como Experincia Pensante

Maria Cristina Hennes SAMPAIO

Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil

O presente estudo tem como objetivo examinar em que consiste a experin-

cia com a linguagem, nos pensamentos de dois filsofos do sc. XX: o russo
Mikhail Bakhtin (1895-1975) e o alemo Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), partin-
236 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

do-se das premissas de que uma coisa so os conhecimentos cientficos e filo-

sficos que detemos sobre a linguagem e outra as experincias pensantes que
fazemos com ela (HEIDEGGER, 1959/2003) (Unterwegs zur Sprache; A cami-
nho da linguagem) e de que historicamente a linguagem cresceu a servio do
pensamento participativo e dos atos realizados, j que o ser-evento requer a
plenitude da palavra, conforme postulado em K filosofii postupka (Hacia una
filosofia del acto tico) (BAJTIN, 1920/1997); e que a linguagem a casa do
ser, em Sein und Zeit (HEIDEGGER, 1927/2010); Wegmarken (Marcas do
caminho)(HEIDEGGER, 1976/2008). Enquanto nas cincias o caminho para o
saber subordinado ao mtodo e nele que reside todo o poder e a violncia do
saber, conforme sugerido em Seminrios de Zollikon: Protocolos, dilogos,
cartas (HEIDEGGER, 1987/2006), o caminho da experincia pensante com a
linguagem pressupe a escuta da palavra que vem ao nosso encontro, em sua
essncia vigorosa, enquanto saga do dizer e do ato responsvel. Para tanto
preciso que percamos o hbito de s ouvir o que j compreendemos. Para Hei-
degger a linguagem fala, mas essa fala no cessa naquilo que falado: o homem
fala somente na medida em que ele realiza o trabalho da escuta da linguagem.
Pensar e ser, na vida, agir e o ser requisita este pensar para realizar o trabalho
de escuta da palavra e dizer a verdade do ser. Assim, para Heidegger, se a
verdade do ser se tornou digna de ser pensada pelo pensar, tambm a reflexo
sobre a essncia da linguagem deve alcanar um outro nvel e no pode
continuar sendo simplesmente filosofia da linguagem, j que seu esvaziamento
corri no apenas a responsabilidade esttica e moral em qualquer uso da pala-
vra como tambm ameaa a essncia do homem, como postulado em Brief ue-
ber den Humanismus (Carta sobre o Humanismo) (1947/2010, ) e Unterwegs
zur Sprache (A caminho da linguagem) (1959/2003). Em contrapartida, para
Bakhtin (1997), a palavra viva e completa, no designa meramente um objeto
como uma entidade pronta, mas expressa a nossa atitude valorativa sobre ela,
deixando, em aberto, aquilo que ainda est para ser determinado nela. Conclui-se
que, para ambos os filsofos, a linguagem parece pertencer mais prxima vizi-
nhana do ser.

Palavras-Chave: experincia; linguagem; Bakhtin; Heidegger.

La oracin, objetivo principal de la Gramtica /

la oracin, objetivo nico de la Gramtica


Universidad de Extremadura, Cceres, Espaa

En la historia de la Gramtica la Sintaxis ha ido ganando terreno a las otras

partes de la misma a lo largo de los siglos. La mayor o menor importancia que se
Conference Handbook 237

d a la Sintaxis en una Gramtica es indicio de mayor o menor modernidad. Y,

dentro de la Sintaxis, la importancia que se da, ya a las partes de la oracin, ya a
la oracin misma, es tambin indicio de mayor o menor modernidad. Los gram-
ticos racionales de los siglos XVI y XVII (Sanctius, Scioppio, los de Port Royal)
dan gran importancia en sus Gramticas a la oracin; Orationem esse totius
Grammaticae ultimum scopum, dice el gramtico Saturnio, al que sigue Sanc-
tius. Pero todava en estos gramticos se insiste, no slo en la oracin, sino tam-
bin en las partes de la oracin. En lo que se conoce, sin embargo, como Filoso-
fa del lenguaje del siglo XVIII, el objetivo nico es la oracin: la Lgica estudia
los juicios que se generan en la mente humana; y la Gramtica estudia la ora-
cin, que es la expresin de esos juicios. La proposicin u oracin es el objetivo
nico de la Filosofa del Lenguaje.
Pretendemos en este trabajo analizar el paso de las gramticas racionales de
los siglos XVI y XVII a las gramticas de la Filosofa del lenguaje (Condillac,
Du Marsais, Beauze) en lo que al anlisis de la oracin se refiere.

Palabras clave: Oracin; Sintaxis; Gramtica racional; Sanctius; Port Royal;

Gramtica filosfica; Condillac, Du Marsais, Beauze.

Da conceptualizao e da operacionalidade de instrumentos

metalingusticos destinados anlise da sintaxe
na centria portuguesa de Oitocentos

Maria Helena Pessoa SANTOS

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal

Muitos dos estudos metalingusticos do portugus publicados no sculo

XIX refletem a inevitvel ancoragem a uma tradio gramaticogrfica de matriz
latina que foi constantemente retomada ao longo da alta e da baixa Idade Mdia,
apesar da permeabilizao a influxos epistemolgicos exgenos e do recorrente
desiderato de autonomia manifesto desde que foi publicado o primeiro instru-
mento de normalizao da lngua verncula portuguesa, em 1536, por Ferno de
Oliveira, de cuja pena ainda no logrmos encontrar o tratado de sintaxe que,
nesse ano, promete vir a publicar.
Com efeito, no deixam de ecoar nos referidos estudos os diversos feixes
epistmicos do contexto histrico e intelectual geral do perodo de que so pro-
duto, sendo introduzidas, na metalinguagem gramatical, novidades hauridas no
polifacetado movimento da gramtica geral do sculo XVII e do sculo XVIII,
bem como inovaes metodolgicas e conceptuais decorrentes do conhecimento
e da valorizao do mtodo histrico-comparativo.
Algumas dessas novidades consubstanciam-se na submisso das estruturas
lingusticas a dois tipos de anlise que os gramticos tendem a separar, designa-
238 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

damente, uma anlise de cariz lgico, por um lado, e uma anlise de cariz gra-
matical, por outro lado, e, consequentemente, na utilizao, de forma, no raro,
intercambivel, do termo proposio, do termo frase e/ou do termo sentena,
bem como na adoo do termo complemento, em detrimento do termo tradicio-
nal regime.
Sob nosso escopo temos, precisamente, o escrutnio de um corpus de obras
gramaticais representativas das diversas dcadas dos trs primeiros quartis da
centria portuguesa de Oitocentos, para, em funo da observncia de princpios
norteadores da prtica historiolgica e historiogrfica em Lingustica, a saber, o
princpio que impe a clarificao do/dos clima/climas de opinio respons-
vel/responsveis pela emergncia das obras em causa, o princpio da imanncia,
que determina a fiel reconstruo da terminologia aplicada nessas obras, e o
princpio (anunciado com as devidas reservas epistemolgicas) de adequao de
aproximaes terminolgicas modernas arquitetura terminolgica reconstruda,
cumprirmos com os seguintes objetivos:

a) rastrear os traos smicos dos conceitos que inerem aos termos proposi-
o, frase e/ou sentena;
b) assinalar o grau de sistematicidade de ocorrncia desses termos;
c) rastrear os constituintes considerados integrantes de estruturas lingusti-
cas classificadas como proposio, ou como frase, ou como sentena, ou
nelas integrveis;
d) verificar da caracterizao da funcionalidade sinttica de cada um desses
e) sinalizar a arquitetura terminolgica utilizada para nomear tais consti-
f) sistematizar as propostas aventadas, denunciando as influncias epist-
micas endgenas e/ou exgenas explicitamente reclamadas ou simples-
mente indiciadas.

CHISS, Jean-Louis & Christian PUECH (1997): Fondations de la linguistique: tudes
dhistoire et dpistmologie, 2.me ed. Louvain-la-Neuve: Duculot.
KOERNER, E. F. Konrad (1994): Historiography of Linguistics. In: R. E. Asher (edi-
tor-in-chief), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, volume 3. Oxford/
New York/ Seoul/ Tokyo: Pergamon Press Ltd.: 1570, col. 2 - 1578, col. 2.
SWIGGERS, Pierre (1992): HISTORY OF LINGUISTICS: An Overview. In: William
Bright (editor in chief), International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, volume 2. New
York/Oxford: Oxford University Press: 140, col. 1 - 141, col. 2.
Conference Handbook 239

O Conceito de Lngua em Bahktin e Volochinov e a Atualizao

desse Conceito nos Parmetros Curriculares Nacionais PCN

Snia Sueli Berti SANTOS

Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, So Paulo, Brasil

O presente trabalho insere-se em um projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido no

Programa de Mestrado em Lingustica da Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul -
UNICSUL, na Linha de Pesquisa Texto, discurso e ensino: processos de leitura
de produo do texto escrito e falado, em que os orientandos desenvolvem pes-
quisa. Esse projeto intitula-se Linguagens, Tecnologia e Ensino: Contribuies
da Anlise Dialgica do Discurso para a Formao de Leitores Crticos e visa ao
estudo de prticas de leitura, escrita e oralidade em textos verbais e verbo-
visuais e verbo-visuais sonoros proposto em diferentes mdias e esferas discursi-
vas. A proposta desse projeto trabalhar as diferentes linguagens e recursos
tecnolgicos, com o objetivo de contribuir para a formao de leitores crticos
nos diversos nveis de letramento, tomando com base terico-metodolgica a
Anlise dialgica do discurso, especialmente os conceitos bakhtinianos e do
Crculo, de lngua, linguagem, unidades discursivas. Como primeiro passo, nesse
projeto, como princpio basilar, visa-se estudar o conceito de lngua, partindo
das postulaes de Bakhtin e Volochinov em documentos histricos, nas gram-
ticas e nos Parmetros Curriculares Nacionais - PCN e depois partir para os es-
tudos dos outros conceitos. Para essa etapa preliminar, foram elaboradas as se-
guintes questes de pesquisa: (1) analisando o conceito de lngua para Bakhtin e
Volochinov; (2) as categorias de Volochinov sobre lngua; (3) a questo de ln-
gua viva e social e (4) as formas como tais conceitos aparecem nos documentos
pesquisados. Pretendemos observar qual o conceito de lngua prescrito nesses
documentos antigos e mais recentes e investigar como chegam ao professor e ao
aluno e qual a interferncia causada pela aplicao desses conceitos no ensino-
aprendizagem e na leitura profcua de enunciados. Para fundamentar as respostas
para essas questes, a anlise pautar-se- nos conceitos de Bakhtin/Volochinov
(2004) que consideram que a lngua vive e evolui historicamente e, portanto, a
atividade de leitura e produo escrita deve considerar isso. A articulao dos
conceitos de lngua, linguagem, enunciado concreto interliga as prticas de leitu-
ra, escrita e estudo da lngua. Os tericos entendem que a linguagem um
fenmeno social disposto em uma cadeia comunicativa contnua. Assim, em
qualquer situao discursiva h enunciados que respondem a outros, em dilogo
e, nessa perspectiva dialgica, o estudo da lngua inseparvel das interaes
discursivas cotidianas em que os sujeitos se inter-relacionam. Para Ba-
khtin/Volochinov (2004), todo produto ideolgico possui um significado, refe-
rindo-se a algo que lhe exterior, assim tudo que ideolgico um signo.
(BAKHTIN/VOLOCHINOV, 2004, p. 31).
Palavras-Chave: Lngua, linguagem, Anlise dialgica do Discurso, Leitura
240 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Insights into the historiography of missionary linguistics

in Venezuela

University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

Once the New World was discovered, the evangelization process did not
come easy for the first missionaries in the Americas. When they arrived to Ori-
nocos banks in Venezuela they encountered a vast diversity of different lan-
guages among the indigenous tribes sheltered today under the name of Karaib
Linguistic family stock apud Adelaar&Muysken (2004).
In order to trespass the linguistic frontier, the missionaries created and de-
veloped numerous linguistic works, essentially translations of sacred texts - cat-
echisms, homilies and sermons - that facilitated the evangelization through the
access to indigenous languages in Venezuela during colonial time. Jesuit, Fran-
ciscan and Capuchin missionaries began describing the indigenous languages
and established the systems of these languages by drafting and producing gram-
mars and dictionaries, for which they first had to alphabetise or give a written
form to oral languages, and in this way commenced a great tradition in the histo-
ry of Hispanic-American linguistics.
However, while the Hispanic bibliography on historical lexicography con-
tinues to grow, the linguistic work of the Venezuelan missionaries is virtually
unknown. As a result of the revitalization of these old manuscripts, our aim is to
deepen the study of missionary linguistic works and to produce a monograph
beginning by cataloguing and describing the most representatives of them.
Furthermore, we claim an obvious need for a detailed descriptive analysis,
based on listed differences, adaptations and zooming of these texts at all linguis-
tic levels (phonetic, morphological, syntactical and lexical) in order to under-
stand the methodological approach, the treatment of difficult or unknown lin-
guistic phenomena, bilingual lexicography and teaching strategies.
The linguistic corpus of texts selected for this analysis is composed by: Arte
y vocabulario de la lengua de los indios chaymas, cumanagotos, cores, parias y
otros diversos de la Provincia de Cuman o Nueva Andaluca by Francisco de
Tauste [1680], Arte y tesoro de la lengua cumanagota,by Matas Ruiz Blan-
co[1690], Principios y reglas de la lengua cumanagota by Manuel
Yanges [1683], Grammaire de la langue des Carabes by Breton, [1667], Dic-
tionnaire Galibi prsent sous deux formes prced dun essai de grammaire by
M. de Prefontaine [1763].
A fresh outlook to the historiography of missionary linguistics is invaluable
for the development of language documentation and an integrated framework for
the reconstruction of the Karaib linguistic family (history of languages) is fun-
Conference Handbook 241

La lexicologie colingue de Butet de la Sarthe

cole doctorale Langage et langues
Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3, France

Cette communication portera sur (i) le mmoire indit que Butet de la Sar-
the (1769-1825) a soumis en rponse une question mise au concours par
lInstitut National en 1797: dterminer linfluence des signes sur la formation
des ides ; (ii) les ouvrages de lexicologie et de lexicographie quil a publis
par la suite (Butet, 1801 et passim) ; (iii) les articles quil a fait paratre dans les
Annales de grammaire (1818). On sattachera identifier les raisons pour les-
quelles ce grammairien, proche des Idologues, a t reconnu la fin du 19e
sicle comme un prcurseur de la lexicologie scolaire. Ces raisons tiennent ce
qu la diffrence des ouvrages antrieurs du mme type, ils conjoignent
lanalyse linguistique une vise explicitement didactique. Dans le prolongement
des travaux de De Brosses et de Beauze, Butet construit une thorie des racines
fondamentales monosyllabiques. Approche principalement smantique, reposant
sur le postulat que toutes les langues sont rgies par les mmes mcanismes de
drivation et de composition, la lexicologie de Butet dbouche sur un dispositif
colingue dapprentissage coordonn du latin et du franais. Un dispositif qui
rompt en grande partie avec les principes didactiques relevant de la Grammaire

Annales de grammaire par la Socit Grammaticale de Paris (1818 -), Paris, Bchet.
Mmoires de lInstitut National des Sciences et des Arts Sciences morales et politiques.
2e classe. 1798. vol. 1, Paris.
BOURQUIN, Jacques. 1977. Un prcurseur de la lexicologie scientifique. Le Cours de
lexicologie de Butet de la Sarthe (1801), Linguistische Arbeitsberichte Leipzig 18:
BRANCA-ROSOFF, Sonia, SAVATOVSKY, Dan. 2007. La Lexicologie, un savoir
scolarisable ?, in D. Kibbee (ed.), History of Linguistics 2005. Selected papers
from the tenth ICHoLS, Amsterdam, J. Benjamins: 356-371.
BUTET DE LA SARTHE, Pierre, R. F., An IX-1801a. Lxicographie latine et franaise,
Paris, Imprimerie de Crapelet.
. An IX-1801b. Lxicologie latine et franaise. Paris, Impr. de Crapelet.
. 1818. Cours pratique dInstruction lmentaire, Paris, Impr. dverat.
ROUSSEAU, Jean. 2004. Humboldt et les morphmes. Sa lecture de la Lexicologie de
P. R. F. Butet en 1801, in S. Bsch, M. Meling (eds), Kodikas/Code. Ars Semei-
otica. An International Journal of Semiotics 27 (1-2): 65-79.
SCHFFNER, Wolfgang. 2000. Medialitt der Zeichen. Butet de la Sarthe und der
Concours Dterminer linfluence des signes sur la formation des ides, in I.
Baxmann, M. Franz, W. Schffner (eds), Das Laokoon-Paradigma ; Zeichenregime
im 18. Jahrhundert, Berlin, Akademie Verlag: 274-290.
242 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Universalist Grammar in the 17th century:

The Impact of Religious Denomination

Universitt Mnchen, Deutschland

When taking a look at the 17th Century grammarians in Catholic and

Protestant areas, it becomes apparent that they follow, at least nominally,
different models. In short, Catholic grammarians generally refer to Catholic
sources whereas Protestant grammarians follow Protestant models (in the latter
case an additional distinction between Lutherans and Calvinists needs to be
made); only the references to pre-Reformation grammarians are common to both
parties. It is interesting to note that in spite of this fundamental separation,
several texts of very similar content, combining universalist language theory
with the promotion of mother-tongue instruction, were published simultaneously
at the beginning of the 17th century in the Catholic and Protestant area, without
an apparent common source. This issue will be discussed considering the works
of Amaro de Roboredo, Gonzalo Correas, Wolfgang Ratke and Christoph

Histoire et mmoire disciplinaire:

le savoir sur la langue partir des ides linguistiques europennes

Amanda Eloina SCHERER

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

Pour reprendre aux thmes de la Confrence de 2014, nous proposons

comme communication une rflexion sur les effets de loral dans la construction
dun savoir sur la langue franaise au moment de llaboration et de lutilisation
des matriels pdagogiques dans un lieu et une poque bien spcifique et, en
mme temps, nous comptons prsenter comment ils peuvent expliciter
linfluence des ides linguistiques europennes dans la constitution/description
de ce mme savoir. Nous cherchons vrifier quelles sont les conditions et les
formes disciplinaire qui font surgir loral comme rpresentation dun franais dit
de civilisation dans le sud du Brsil, ds la fin du XIX et jusqu la moit des
annes 50. Nous voudrions galement rapprocher lvolution des sciences du
langage et lvolution de linstitution pdagogique dans la formations des en-
seignants dans un champs disciplinaire trs important dans cette rgion. Nous
proposons notre rflexion par lanalyse des instruments linguistiques matriels
didactiques, politiques linguistiques, programmes denseignement, dictionnaires
et grammaires didactiques. Par l, nous pouvons comprendre la textualit de
cette pratique, savoir comment ce processus a eu lieu: produit de subjectivit
dans la relation du sujet avec la la langue imaginaire lintrieur dun espace
Conference Handbook 243

dtermin de production et dordre discursif divers/diffrent de celle en cours.

Les questions que nous nous posons pour guider notre expos sont: quest-ce qui
a donn forme cette textualit ? Quest-ce qui a fond le discours de cette pra-
tique comme outil pdagogique ? Quelles sont les ides linguistiques de base de
cette construction imaginaire et partir de quel prsuppos thorique ? Il faut
prciser que depuis une dizaine dannes nous nous trouvons dans une dmarche
complexe et en mme temps fascinante en essayant de retracer lhistoire disci-
plinaire de la langue franaise dans le sud de lAmrique Latine au travers des
diffrentes oprations discursives, savoir: a) les diffrents moments historiques
qui ont produit les processus dinterprtation sur ce qutait enseigner le fran-
ais ; b) les nombreuses modalits de rceptions, dont le statut de la langue et les
diffrents savoirs sur la langue ; c) les divers stratgies de lgitimation ou con-
tre-lgitimation de lacte disciplinaire lui-mme qui se sont fondes en tant que
discours sur la discipline. Enfin, ce que nous cherchons donc est de savoir quel-
les sont les conditions et les formes que ds la fin du XIXe jusquau dbut du
XXe sicle font surgir loral comme exercice scolaire.

Monodimensionale und bidimensionale Anstze in der Geschichte

der romanistischen Forschung zur Aspektualitt

Sarah Dessi SCHMID

Eberhard Karls Universitt Tbingen, Deutschland

In der traditionellen aspektologischen Forschung unterscheidet man in der

Regel sehr streng zwischen den verbalen Kategorien des Aspekts und der Ak-
tionsart: Beides Kategorien, die Informationen ber die interne zeitliche Struk-
turierung von Sachverhalten kodifizieren. Aspekt gilt danach als obligatorische
grammatikalische (morphosyntaktische) Kategorie des Verbs, die folglich in
denjenigen Sprachen, deren Verbalsystem sie vorsieht, ausgedrckt werden
muss. Aktionsart stellt im Unterschied dazu eine rein lexikalische und insofern
optionale Kategorie des Verbs dar, die keinen einzelsprachlichen Beschrnkun-
gen dieser Art unterliegt.
Einer solchen in der Linguistik majoritren und in der Romanistik fast
ausschlielich vertretenen bidimensionalen Sichtweise (u.v.a. Bertinetto
1986, Smith 1991, Squartini 1998) steht ein seltenerer monodimensionaler
Zugang gegenber (Comrie 1976, De Miguel 1999, Verkuyl 1972, 1993). Dieser
geht von der tieferen semantischen Einheit dessen aus, was sich in der einzel-
sprachlichen linguistischen Analyse gegebenenfalls als Aspekt (grammatika-
lisch) und Aktionsart (lexikalisch) darstellt.
Der historisch und methodologisch ausgerichtete Beitrag widmet sich zu-
nchst den traditionellen meist einzelsprachlich und semasiologisch konzipier-
ten Definitionen von Tempus, Aspekt und Aktionsart als Verbalkatego-
244 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

rien. In einem zweiten Schritt werden dann verschiedene bidimensionale Anst-

ze, in denen eine substantielle Trennung innerhalb des aspektualen Bereichs
vertreten wird, wie auch einige monodimensionale Anstze, die eben diese ver-
neinen, kritisch betrachtet. Historische Voraussetzungen und Besonderheiten,
methodologische Vorteile und Nachteile beider Herangehensweise werden mit-
einander verglichen und die jeweilige Kritik beider Seiten aneinander dargestellt.
Schlielich wird als Fazit eine alternative Analyse der Aspektualitt aus onoma-
siologischer Sicht skizziert, die eine neue Lsung einiger der zuvor dargestellten
Probleme auf der Basis aktueller Forschungsergebnisse erlaubt. Dies wird vor-
rangig anhand der romanischen Sprachen Italienisch, Franzsisch, Spanisch und
Katalanisch dargestellt, immer wieder aber auch mit einem Seitenblick auf das

Bertinetto, P. M. (1986): Tempo, aspetto e azione nel verbo italiano. Il sistema
dellindicativo, Florenz: Accademia della Crusca.
Comrie, B. (1976): Aspect, Cambridge, C.U.P.
Dahl, . (Hrsg.)(2000): Tense and Aspect in the Languages of Europe, Berlin/New
York: Mouton de Gruyter.
De Miguel, E. (1999): El aspecto lxico, in: Bosque, I./Demonte, V. (dir. por):
Gramtica Descriptiva de la Lengua Espaola. 3 vol, Madrid: Espasa, 2, 2977-
Dess Schmid, S. (2012): Aspektualitt. Eine onomasiologische Untersuchung aspektua-
ler Strukturierung von Sachverhalten in den romanischen Sprachen, Habilitations-
Sasse, H.-J. (2002): Recent activity in the theory of aspect: Accomplishments, achie-
vements, or just non-progressive state?, in: Linguistic Typology 6, S. 199-
271.Smith, C. (1991): The parameter of Aspect, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Squartini, M. (1998): Verbal Periphrases in Romance. Aspect, Actionality and
Grammaticalisation. Berlin/New York: Mouton De Gruyter.
Talmy, L. (1996): The windowing of attention in language, in: Shibatani
M./Thompson, S. (Hrsg.): Grammatical Constructions. Their Form and Meaning.
Oxford: Clarendon, 235-287.
Verkuyl, H. J. (1972): On the Compositional Nature of the Aspects, Dordrecht: Reidel
(Foundations of language: Suppl. ser. 15).
Verkuyl, H. J. (1993): A Theory of Aspectuality. The Interaction between Temporal and
Atemporal Structure, Cambridge: C.U.P.
Conference Handbook 245

Serafim da Silva Neto:

entre a constituio e circulao de saberes lingusticos

Caroline Mallmann SCHNEIDERS

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

A reflexo que propomos para esta comunicao vincula-se aos estudos que
vimos desenvolvendo acerca da produo cientfica de Serafim da Silva Neto.
Interessa-nos tal estudioso, devido a sua expressividade e importncia para o
desenvolvimento dos estudos sobre a lngua portuguesa junto aos anos de 1940 e
1950, os quais, poca, estavam embasados, sobretudo, pelo vis da Filologia, a
qual se colocava como o domnio de saber dominante, no Brasil, at a primeira
metade do sculo XX. Para esta reflexo, temos como objetivo trazer algumas
consideraes sobre o modo como os estudos filolgicos de Serafim da Silva
Neto articulam-se aos pressupostos dos estudos da linguagem do final do sculo
XIX e incio do sculo XX, fazendo ressoar as ideias que estavam em circulao
e que nortearam as condies de produo do Cours de linguistique gnrale, de
Ferdinand de Saussure. Tal interesse decorre do fato de que, nas obras de Sera-
fim da Silva, encontram-se materializada uma constante citao do Cours, bem
como de estudiosos importantes dessa conjuntura, o que nos permite compreen-
der que o discurso filolgico, em questo, atravessado por saberes que se rela-
cionam constituio da Lingustica enquanto cincia. Como objeto de anlise,
selecionamos a obra Manual de Filologia Portugusa, de 1952, uma importante
obra que objetiva destacar uma viso geral do que envolve a perspectiva da filo-
logia portuguesa que subsidia tanto as produes acadmicas quanto o ensino
superior da poca. A partir de tal materialidade, compreenderemos como o pro-
cesso discursivo determinado historicamente, pois, ao se referenciar e ressoar
s condies de produo que envolvem o perodo em que se desenvolve a cin-
cia Lingustica, possvel explicitar a tomada de posio do sujeito do discurso
frente a esse domnio de memria e o efeito de sustentao junto formulao
do discurso (ORLANDI, 2004; AUROUX, 2008; CHISS & PUECH, 1997).
Com essa reflexo, buscamos, portanto, analisar os ecos e as ressonncias de
significao dos j ditos no fio do discurso, alm de observar o atravessamento
de saberes que pertencem a outras conjunturas e retornam, encadeando-se no fio
do discurso enquanto um efeito do interdiscurso sobre si mesmo, ou seja, pelo
funcionamento do discurso-transverso (PCHEUX, 2009; COURTINE, 2009).
Tal proposta de comunicao ancora-se, pois, na perspectiva da Histria das
Ideias Lingusticas e nos pressupostos terico-metodolgicos da Anlise de Dis-
curso de orientao pecheuxtiana, tal como ambas vm se realizando no Brasil,
nos ltimos tempos.
246 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Grammar as contemplation of imitation:

a curious definition of

University of Turku, Finland

The grammarian Tyrannion, originally from Pontos, worked in Rome from

about 68 BC onwards. He was a successful and influential grammarian, and
probably played a part in the Alexandrian scholarship becoming known and
popular in Rome. Tyrannions definition, preserved in the Byzantine Scholia to
Dionysius Thrax, reads , grammar is con-
templation of imitation (Grammatici Graeci 1.3 121,1617). We do not know
the original source of the definition; Tyrannions grammatical oeuvre included
works on Homeric prosody, the Roman dialect, orthography and a treatise called
that was dedicated to the assignment of
words to their proper class (the fragments of Tyrannion have been edited by W.
Haas [1977]). The Scholiast cites Tyrannions definition as an example of an
invalid definition. The definitions of grammar raised discussion and even de-
bate in Antiquity, and it seems Tyrannions definition (albeit not one of the
most famous definitions) was discussed critically as well. In the tradition of the
ancient definitions of grammar, Tyrannions definition stands out: it does not
resemble any existing definition, the most famous of which is probably

(GG1.1 5,23) by Dionysius Thrax and, as rendered to Latin by
Varro, ars grammatica scientia eorum quae a poetis historicis oratoribusque
dicuntur ex parte maiore (GRF 234). In my paper, I shall examine the meaning
of Tyrannions definition of grammar and the origins of his concepts. It is pe-
culiar that Tyrannion uses the word in his definition, a word originally
heavily loaded with ancient divine meanings, and later, with significant philo-
sophical burden (intellectual seeing; contemplation). Another curiosity is
, a word not otherwise met in our grammatical sources. It is very likely
that the Aristotelian notion of is behind Tyrannions choice of words.

Lnigme des ressemblances:

lanalogie comme mthode cognitive dans la linguistique en Russie

Patrick SERIOT
Universit de Lausanne, Suisse

Le monde intellectuel francophone, issu de la tradition des Lumires, a pour

tradition dexpliquer lvolution des phnomnes par le critre de causalit: ce
qui vient aprs est la consquence de ce qui tait avant. En Russie, au contraire,
Conference Handbook 247

cest souvent en terme de tendances dvolution (Troubetzkoy) ou

dorientation vers un but (Jakobson) que se pense le changement en langue.
Mais il y a plus: si pour A. Meillet, une analogie de formes entre langues
non apparentes nest quune amusette, pour Troubetzkoy et Jakobson en
revanche, partant du principe quaucune ressemblance ne peut tre due au
hasard, elle est la preuve dune affinit, cest--dire dune tendance
Cette diffrence dapproche aussi bien de la diachronie compare des lan-
gues que de leur rpartition gographique a donn lieu une riche tradition de
typologie linguistique en Russie (cf. lcole de V. Khrakovskij Lningrad).
Mais ce qui est moins connu est lorigine intellectuelle de lide quune similitu-
de de forme est ncessairement signifiante.
Cette origine est double. Elle provient dune part de la thologie de licne
dans lEglise orientale, dans laquelle licne nest pas signe de la divinit, mais
prsence effective de la divinit. Cette thologie a trouv une manifestation ex-
trme dans lhsychasme au dbut du XXe sicle, attitude religieuse qui a pour
principe que le nom de Dieu est Dieu, et qui a dbouch sur une philosophie
du langage affirmant que le nom de la chose est la chose elle-mme (S. Bulga-
kov, A. Losev).
La seconde source est la Naturphilosophie allemande de lpoque romanti-
que, qui a rendu floue la frontire entre sciences de la nature et sciences de la
culture (ou de lesprit). Sa variante russe au XXe sicle attache les langues
un sol particulier, refusant tout alatoire dans leur rpartition.
Enfin, la troisime source est une tonnante collusion entre le cratylsime du
refus de larbitraire et un anti-darwinisme virulent venu dune biologie orthog-
ntique nomme en Russie nomogense, ou volution fonde sur des lois.
Ces trois courants intellectuels, unis par le refus du hasard et la qute passi-
onne de lunitotalit des objets de recherche et de la synthse des savoirs,
sont une cl pour comprendre et expliquer des particularits de la linguistique en
Russie qui rendent difficilement comprhensibles et particulirement ambigus de
nombreux passages de jakobson ou de Voloshinov, pourtant abondamment lus et
comments en Occident.
Cette communication a pour but de prsenter des voies daccs ces as-
pects paradoxaux de la linguistique et de la philosophie du langage en Russie.

248 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Portuguese as a Foreign Language in the 19th century:

Babads Compiled Grammar Portuguese and English Grammar
1820 edition

Ana Alexandra SILVA

Universidade de vora, Portugal

This paper aims to be a contribution to the history of linguistics, analysing

in detail one grammar of the Portuguese and English languages. Two features
stand out from this grammar: for one is a compilation, and for another is a sim-
plified version for the use of students. These will be the two aspects to have in
mind when analysing this particular manual of languages (or better, languages).
In the Dedication the author appreciates the kindness of Don Jos Correia
da Serra, Consellour of H.M. the King of Portugal and Brazil, in supporting this
project, () in order to facilitate to the young students of this country, and to
the public at large, the acquisition of the beautiful language of Camoes, Vieyra
(). The Preface justifies the importance of Portuguese language in the United
States of America, comparing it with Spanish. The main purpose of learning the
language is, in fact, trade. However the author gives also relevance to Portu-
guese Literature enhancing the beautiful work of so many Portuguese authors.
So, the purpose is explained in the Preface: This grammar, therefore, excluding
the scientific and systematic definitions, commonly met with in works of this
kind, is merely confined to the task of arranging the articles, nouns, pronouns,
verbs, adverbs, etc. of the Portuguese language corresponding to those of the
English idiom () The main focus is, as seen in the citation, to present some
rules and examples that will help to understand the rules. The question that rais-
es is why P. Babad uses other grammarians and that he also explains in the Pref-
ace: The whole is faithfully compiled from the best Portuguese grammars, that
have reached the hands of the editor: such as those of Lobato, Durham, Sane and
Vieyra. Indeed most of it has been copied from the last edition of Vieyras
grammar () However, the authors warns that he did not always agreed with
the grammarians used, so he had to look for other explanations, that he thought it
would suit better his public. Just after the Preface, P. Babad explains he rules of
pronunciation, which he finds of great difficulty to his students. This introducto-
ry part finishes up with a Notice to the user: As the knowledge of a language
cannot be acquired, by the rules that govern it, but necessity requires that the
learners should read and translate books well written in the language, and also
write exercises prepared for the application of the rules and principles of the
grammar (). Again, P. Babad recommends the use of Vieyra for this purpose.
This paper will take a closer look at the organization of this grammar.
Composed within 230 pages, the manual is divided into three parts. The first part
presents the parts of speech, naming its features in nine chapters. The second
part is dedicated to Syntax, and it is divided into eight chapters. The final part of
Conference Handbook 249

the grammar contains The most elegant phrases of the Portuguese Language,
as well as a Collection of Portuguese Proverbs. It is also included in this part,
what the author identifies as Familiar Dialogues and a more practical perspec-
tive on the Letters and models of writing on mercantile affairs.

Babad, Peter (1820): A Portuguese and English Grammar, compiled from those of Loba-
to, Durham, Sane and Vieyra, and simplified for the use of students, Baltimore:
Published for the author, by Fielding Lucas, Jun'r.
Cardoso, Simo (1994): Historiografia Gramatical (1500-1920): Lngua Portuguesa -
Autores Portugueses, Porto: Faculdade de Letras do Porto (Revista da Faculdade de
Letras, Srie Lnguas e Literaturas; 5.5, Anexo 7).
Cunha, Euclides da (2003): Portuguese Self-Taught (Thimm's system) with Phonetic
Pronunciation, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
De Porquet, Louis Philippe R. Fenwick (1840): The Portuguese Tresor; or the Art of
translating easy English into Portuguese, at sight: London: Fenwick De Porquet.
Dias, Augusto Epifnio da Silva (1918): Syntaxe Historica Portuguesa, Lisboa: Livraria
Clssica Editora de A. M. Teixeira.
Midosi, Lus Francisco (1831): O Expositor Portuguez, ou Rudimentos de Ensino da
Lingua Materna, Londres: Impresso por R. Greenlaw.
Midosi, Lus Francisco (1832): A New Grammar of the Portuguese and English Lan-
guages, in Two Parts: Adapted to Both Nations, Arranged on a Philosophical Sys-
tem, containing a list of Verbs and Nouns Spelt Alike but differently Pronounced,
and also an Useful Appendix, London: Printed for A. A. de Bea.
Rodrigues, A[ntnio] Gonalves (1951): A lngua portuguesa em Inglaterra nos sculos
XVII e XVIII, em Biblos XXVII, pgs. 43-76.
Santos, Maria Helena Pessoa (2010): As Ideias lingusticas Portuguesas na Centria de
Oitocentos, Lisboa: Fundao Calouste Gulbenkian; Fundao para a Cincia e a
Tecnologia; Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (Textos Universi-
trios de Cincias Sociais e Humanas).
Smith, Robert C. (1945): A Pioneer Teacher: Father Peter Babad and his Portuguese
Grammar, em: Hispania 28/3, pgs. 330-363.
Vieira, Antnio (1768): A New Portuguese Grammar in four parts, London: Printed for
J. Nourse.
Vieira, Antnio (1811): A New Portuguese Grammar in four parts, The eighth edition,
London: Printed for F. Wingrave.
Woodhouse, Richard (1815): Grammar of the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian Lan-
guages, London: Black and Co.
250 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Portuguese as foreign language in the 19th century:

Contrasting Portuguese and English Grammars Pierre Babad
(1820), Lus Francisco Midosi (1832), Porquet (1840)

Ana Alexandra SILVA

Universidade de vora, Portugal

Maria Joo MARALO

Universidade de vora, Portugal

This paper aims to be a contribution to the history of linguistics, analyzing

Portuguese grammars for foreigners from the 19th century.
The selected corpus gathers grammars that contrast Portuguese and English,
trying to find contact points between the two languages. Babad, Midosi and Por-
quet aimed at teaching portuguese to an eclectic public, from scholars to mer-
chants and business people in general. We are dealing with very practical works,
especially Porquet who wishes to provide a self-learning method. In contrast
Midosi presents a grammar arranged on a philosophical system. Babad, profes-
sor of Spanish and Portuguese languages, in St. Marys College, Baltimore,
compiles information from Lobato, Durham, Sane and Vieira, setting its ground
on a more academic tradition. This is a simplified version of the authors used by
Babad, because it is written for the use of students. It was published in 1820 and
dedicated to Don Jos Correa da Serra, Counselor of His Majesty the King of
Portugal and Brazil.
Midosi expresses in the Preface of his grammar a very modern vision about
learning languages. He states that The study of the living tongues having be-
come, within these last years, a very essential branch of education (...), The
grammar in itself displays an important role in this process. His work is present-
ed (...) a work equally adapted to both nations Portugal and England - , in
order to facilitate the acquirement of either language.

Babad, Peter (1820): A Portuguese and English Grammar, compiled from those of Loba-
to, Durham, Sane and Vieyra, and simplified for the use of students, Baltimore:
Published for the author, by Fielding Lucas, Jun'r.
Cardoso, Simo (1994): Historiografia Gramatical (1500-1920): Lngua Portuguesa -
Autores Portugueses, Porto: Faculdade de Letras do Porto (Revista da Faculdade de
Letras, Srie Lnguas e Literaturas; 5.5, Anexo 7).
Coseriu, Eugenio (1978): Gramtica, semntica universales: Estudios de ling.stica
funcional, Madrid: Editorial Gredos (Biblioteca Romnica Hispnica: Estudios y
Ensayos; 280).
Cunha, Euclides da (2003): Portuguese Self-Taught (Thimm's system) with Phonetic
Pronunciation, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
Conference Handbook 251

De Porquet, Louis Philippe R. Fenwick (1840): The Portuguese Tresor; or the Art of
translating easy English into Portuguese, at sight: London: Fenwick De Porquet.
Dias, Augusto Epifnio da Silva (1918): Syntaxe Historica Portuguesa, Lisboa: Livraria
Clssica Editora de A. M. Teixeira.
Midosi, Lus Francisco (1831): O Expositor Portuguez, ou Rudimentos de Ensino da
Lingua Materna, Londres: Impresso por R. Greenlaw.
Midosi, Lus Francisco (1832): A New Grammar of the Portuguese and English Lan-
guages, in Two Parts: Adapted to Both Nations, Arranged on a Philosophical Sys-
tem, containing a list of Verbs and Nouns Spelt Alike but differently Pronounced,
and also an Useful Appendix, London: Printed for A. A. de Bea.
Rodrigues, A[ntnio] Gonalves (1951): A lngua portuguesa em Inglaterra nos sculos
XVII e XVIII, em Biblos XXVII, pgs. 43-76.
Snchez Escribano, Francisco Javier (2006): Portuguese in England in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, em Sederi 16, pgs. 109-132.
Santos, Maria Helena Pessoa (2010): As Ideias lingusticas Portuguesas na Centria de
Oitocentos, Lisboa: Fundao Calouste Gulbenkian; Fundao para a Cincia e a
Tecnologia; Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (Textos Universi-
trios de Cincias Sociais e Humanas).
Smith, Robert C. (1945): A Pioneer Teacher: Father Peter Babad and his Portuguese
Grammar, em: Hispania 28/3, pgs. 330-363.
Torre, Manuel Gomes da (1988): O interesse pelo estudo do ingls em Portugal no
sculo XVIII, em: Torre, Manuel Gomes da / Homem, Rui Carvalho / Castilho,
Maria Teresa / Maia, Belinda Sousa (Orgs.) (1988): Actas do Colquio Comemora-
tivo do VI Centenrio do Tratado de Windsor (de 15 a 18 de Outubro de 1986),
Porto: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto; Instituto de Estudos Ingleses,
pgs. 41-54.
Vieira, Antnio (1768): A New Portuguese Grammar in four parts, London: Printed for
J. Nourse.
Vieira, Antnio (1811): A New Portuguese Grammar in four parts, The eighth edition,
London: Printed for F. Wingrave.
Woodhouse, Richard (1815): Grammar of the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian Lan-
guages, London: Black and Co.

A analogia e o sujeito falante em Saussure

Karen Alves da SILVA

Faculdade de Tecnologia de Jundia, Campinas, So Paulo, Brasil

Pretendemos, nessa comunicao, verificar a natureza e o funcionamento da

analogia na teorizao de Ferdinand de Saussure para tecer consideraes sobre
a atividade do sujeito falante. Valer-nos-emos do Curso de Lingustica Geral
(1916) e dos manuscritos saussurianos, com destaque edio de Komatsu e
Wolf (1997), pois contm as anotaes dos alunos durante o segundo curso de
lingustica geral (1908-1909), perodo em que Saussure dedicou-se sistematica-
mente anlise do fenmeno analgico.
252 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Nesse perodo, ao tratar das relaes associativas e sintagmticas, Saussure

delineou o funcionamento da analogia: ela ocorre na sincronia a partir da combi-
nao e comparao de elementos latentes que esto no seio psquico da lngua,
segundo o modelo da quarta proporcional: "aimer / aimable = entamer / x (enta-
mable)" (Saussure 1997:147). Para Saussure, ela no sinnimo de criao de
uma forma irregular/errnea, mas de modelo gramatical para a formao de no-
vas unidades que se enquadrem nos padres de formao e flexo existentes.
Entretanto, preciso considerar que Saussure (apud Engler 1989:42) atribu-
iu ao sujeito falante a atividade combinatria: "Est de lIndividu (...) tout ce qui
est combinaison". Quanto analogia, Normand (2009:52) sinaliza a tenso entre
o funcionamento associativo-sintagmtico da lngua e a atividade do sujeito
falante: "as formas aparecem agindo por si mesmas (...) e, ao mesmo tempo, pelo
vis do sujeito falante, a quem se atribui, independentemente dele, a iniciativa do
Essa tenso sobrelevada se considerada a questo da conscincia: por um
lado, enquanto fenmeno que renova os fatos lingusticos psquicos, a analogia
requer "un acte <inconscient> de comparaison non seulement pour crer mais
pour comprendre les rapports" (apud Engler 1989:376), por outro, ela foi carac-
terizada por Saussure (2004:139) como ato consciente, sinnimo de "operaes
inteligentes, em que possvel descobrir um objetivo e um sentido".
Resta a questo: se a analogia envolve concomitantemente o universo ps-
quico da lngua e atividade do sujeito falante originada na fala, qual a natureza
desse fenmeno colocado entre conscincia e inconscincia dos fatos lingusti-
cos? Pretendemos, em nosso trabalho, encaminhar as reflexes aqui apresenta-

NORMAND, Claudine. 2009. Convite Lingustica. So Paulo: Contexto.
SAUSSURE, Ferdinand de. 2004. Escritos de Lingustica Geral. Edio por Engler e
Bouquet. So Paulo, Cultrix.
______ . 1997. Deuxime cours de linguistique gnrale (1908-1909). dition par Ko-
matsu e Wolf. Pergamon.
______. 1989. Cours de Linguistique Gnrale. dition par Engler. tomo 1. Wiesbaden:
Otto Harrassowitz.

Cartilhas: uma representao do portugus como lngua nacional

Mariza Vieira da SILVA

Universidade Catlica de Braslia, Brasil

Esta comunicao objetiva apresentar e discutir como a cartilha de alfabeti-

zao - um instrumento lingustico que descreve e instrumentaliza a lngua
(AUROUX, S. A revoluo tecnolgica da gramatizao, 1992) - contribui para
Conference Handbook 253

estabilizar uma srie heterognea de enunciados, que funcionam sob diferentes

regimes lingustico-discursivos, e construir determinada representao do objeto
lngua como algo externo ao sujeito falante em sua relao com a sociedade. No
Brasil, a cartilha foi, desde a segunda metade do sculo XIX, material didtico
fundamental para a iniciao dos brasileiros no mundo da escrita, para o acesso a
determinadas estruturas e funcionamentos da lngua portuguesa como lngua
nacional, para a construo de um imaginrio sobre o que seja aprender a ler e a
escrever, conferindo uma identidade para os conhecimentos lingusticos. Este
trabalho parte de uma pesquisa mais ampla, sob a perspectiva terica e meto-
dolgica da Histria das Ideias Lingusticas e da Anlise de Discurso
(PCHEUX, M. O discurso: estrutura ou acontecimento, 1990; ORLANDI, E.
P. Interpretao: autoria, leitura e efeitos do trabalho simblico, 1996), em que
tomamos como corpus as cartilhas mais usadas em escolas pblicas brasileiras
na primeira metade do sculo XX. Nesse sentido, vimos observando como se d
a construo discursiva de referentes aliando a linguagem verbal e a no-
verbal, a descrio e a narrao -; as operaes de anlise e de sntese, de com-
binao e decomposio de palavras e frases; a construo em termos lexicais,
fonolgicos e morfossintticos de redes de memrias em que se fecham espaos
possveis de interpretao, de derivas para sentidos outros. Disso resulta, a pro-
duo de conceitos de palavra e de frase em seu carter discreto e sequencial,
marcados por mecanismos reducionistas, cujos efeitos se faro sentir no interior
de uma mesma lngua o portugus do Brasil -, em termos de estabelecimento
dos fatos gramaticais, de sua aquisio e de sua compreenso em um sistema
dual de escolarizao - o primrio e o secundrio -; de construo de um portu-
gus elementar para facilitar o ensino-aprendizagem (BALIBAR, R. e LAPOR-
TE, D. Le franais national: politique et pratique de la langue nationale sous la
Revolution, 1974). Uma diviso discursiva (do prprio) da lngua entre as signi-
ficaes estabilizadas e as transformaes do sentido que escapam s normas
estabelecidas pedagogicamente.

Gramtica da Lngua Portuguesa no Brasil:

Um Estudo da Gramaticografia Brasileira Pr-NGB (1930-1960)

Maurcio SILVA
Universidade Nove de Julho, So Paulo, Brasil

Embora incipientes, tem havido ultimamente uma relativa expanso de es-

tudos acerca da gramaticografia brasileira, no sentido estrito de se apreender os
substratos ideolgicos e lingusticos que fundamentaram nosso saber gramatical,
bem como esclarecer as principais linhas de fora tericas e prticas que condu-
ziram o processo de consolidao da escrita gramatical no Brasil. Assim, cada
vez mais, busca-se desvelar as fontes nas quais os gramticos brasileiros teriam
254 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

se inspirado ao escrever suas obras, alm de compreender a lgica segundo a

qual suas ideias so organizadas e apresentadas aos utentes do idioma. Um dos
perodos mas importantes na histria da produo gramatical no Brasil aquele
que, podendo ser chamado de intermedirio, vai do declnio da gramtica de
inspirao histrico-comparatista, por volta de 1930, at a instaurao da No-
menclatura Gramatical Brasileira (NGB), por volta de 1960. Sem uma filiao
terica definida e inserindo-se nas polticas lingusticas do Estado Brasileiro, a
NGB constitui-se num processo que resulta na reduo do papel social do gra-
mtico, na medida em que, ao impor uma transformao e uma padronizao do
discurso gramatical, obriga-o a ser uma espcie de comentarista da nomenclatu-
ra. O gramtico, portanto, perde espao e importncia dentro da dinmica social
na qual se inscreve o saber metalingustico, e a gramtica passa, muitas vezes,
condio de um mero repositrio de dados lingusticos previamente arrolados
pela nomenclatura oficial. Imbudo, portanto, de um poder legal, a NGB repre-
senta o encerramento de uma ampla etapa de nossa gramaticografia com im-
plicaes considerveis at mesmo no estatuto autoral do gramtico e o incio
de uma nova fase que, se por um lado, marca a decadncia de um iderio grama-
tical especfico, deliberadamente assentado na normatividade dos fatos da ln-
gua, por outro lado assinala a intercorrncia de teorias lingusticas sobretudo
com o advento do Estruturalismo que dariam novo rumo a nossa escritura
gramatical. O objetivo deste estudo tratar dos mais relevantes princpios teri-
cos da gramaticografia brasileira durante do perodo pr-NGB (1930-1960),
destacando suas linhas de fora ideolgicas e suas tendncias lingsticas, a par-
tir dos pressupostos tericos da Historiografia Lingstica.

Palavras-Chave: Gramtica, Lngua Portuguesa, Historiografia Lingustica, NGB

Referncias Bibliogrficas
ALTMAN, Cristina. A Pesquisa Lingstica no Brasil (1968-1988). So Paulo, Humani-
tas, 1998.
ORLANDI, Eni P. Lngua e Conhecimento Lingstico. Para Uma Histria das Idias
no Brasil. So Paulo, Cortez, 2002.
ROCA-PONS, J. Introduccin a la Gramtica. Barcelona, Teide, 1976.
STEFANINI, Jean. Histoire de la Grammare. Paris, CNRS, 1994.
Conference Handbook 255

Espao de Enunciao, Textualidade e Poltica de Lngua:

A Lngua Polonesa no Paran(Brasil) na Relao com
A Lngua Portuguesa do Brasil A Constituio do Lxico

Soeli Maria Schreiber da SILVA

Universidade Federal de So Carlos, Brasil

Neste estudo proponho-me a mostrar como se d a relao da Lngua Polo-

nesa no Paran-Brasil com a Lngua Portuguesa no Brasil, especialmente na
constituio do lxico. Esse tema ser discutido com base nos conceitos de tex-
tualidade e argumentao.Os conceitos sero tratados por meio de uma semnti-
ca enunciativa que observa a lngua, o sentido e o sujeito numa perspectiva his-
trica: a Semntica do Acontecimento.(Guimares, 2002)
Observar esses processos por este vis considerar um funcionamento s-
cio-histrico, que gerencia modelos, saberes, modos de acesso palavra, que
determinam o funcionamento das lnguas relativamente a seus falantes, e assim,
observar de que modo os dizeres significam as lnguas, os seus falantes e a na-
o, mostrando espaos especficos de funcionamento das lnguas.Os estudos de
Seriot sobre lngua e nao tambm apontam questes metodolgicas para tra-
tarmos do discurso sobre a lngua.
E, ainda, a literalizao do idioma e sua relao com a identidade nacio-
nal constituem-se como causas para o desenvolvimento dos saberes lingusticos
(...) a literalizao dos idiomas e a relao com a identidade nacional vm agen-
ciados no modo de dizer Auroux, 2009: p.31.
O espao enunciativo configura-se privilegiando a Lngua Portuguesa na
lngua escrita e escrever e traduzir palavras em polons no so uma simples
tcnica. Trata-se de uma transferncia na prtica escrita relacionada a um saber
social .
Exemplo disso e o modo de dizer da Locutora Imigrante DLA, Coordena-
dora, um modo de dizer universal e rememora a exaltao da identidade polo-
nesa que se distribui num saber lingustico para transferir o lxico do polons
para a Lngua Portuguesa do Brasil.
No espao de enunciao h um embate determinado pela lngua polonesa
da locutora imigrante na relao com a lngua polonesa no Paran. Prevaleceu o
modelo civilizado da Lngua Polonesa , argumento presente na enunciao da
locutora dividida pelo lugar social de imigrante e de algum que tem nova p-
tria . Nessa distribuio a exaltao da identidade nacional de polonesa hierar-
quizada. A disparidade expe a transferncia de um saber lingustico constitudo
por um lxico da lngua polonesa.

Referncias Bibliogrficas
AUROUX, E. A Revoluo Tecnolgica da Gramatizao.Trad. Brasilei-
ra.Campinas,SP, Editpora da Unicamp,1992
256 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

GUIMARES, E. Semntica do Acontecimento. Campinas-SP, Pontes, 2002

ORLANDI, E. Poltica Lingustica no Brasil. Campinas-SP, Pontes, 2007
SERIOT,P. Conferncias realizadas em Seminrios, em So Carlos-BR Site

Ferdinand de Saussure e a construo mltipla

dos conceitos no manuscrito 'L'essence double du langage'

Eliane Mara SILVEIRA

Universidade Federal de Uberlndia, Minas Gerais, Brasil

Neste trabalho apresentaremos uma anlise dos manuscritos de Ferdinand

de Saussure reunidos sob o nome L'essence double du langage, produzidos
pelo linguista suio na ltima dcada do sculo XIX, descobertos e arquivados
na Biblioteca de Genve quase um sculo aps serem escritos.
Esse manuscrito trata especificamente de questes tericas sobre a natureza
da lngua - lanando mo, por vezes, do funcionamento especfico de algumas
lnguas e das semelhanas e/ou diferenas entre elas - com o objetivo de explici-
tar os elementos pertencentes lngua em geral. preciso notar especialmente
que nesses manuscritos se reconhece muito do contedo das aulas ministradas
por Saussure entre 1907 e 1912, em Genve, e que deram origem edio dos
cadernos dos alunos que as assistiram, resultando na publicao, em 1916, do
livro "Curso de Lingustica Geral" que, de fato, levou as teorias de Saussure ao
grande pblico e o consagrou como fundador da Lingustica Moderna. Ou seja,
as idias expostas nos manuscritos em questo, esto em grande medida, no
Curso de Lingustica Geral, seja de forma integral, seminal, lateral ou mesmo em
sentido oposto.
Descobertos h pouco mais de uma dcada, esses manuscritos atraem para
si um grande nmero de pesquisadores e ensejam polmicas em relao sua
datao, ttulo e sequncia das folhas; a importncia evidente do material, bem
como a precariedade em que foi encontrado, favorecem a polmica. As quase
trs centenas de folhas que formam esse conjunto de manuscritos so imensa-
mente atraentes pelo seu contedo e pela fora de uma escrita que margeia os
contornos do intocvel na lngua, uma escrita que persegue a natureza ainda
obscura da lngua, desconhecida de todos e buscada por Saussure de uma manei-
ra contundente nesses escritos. Apresentaremos um exame desses manuscritos
apontando algumas de suas especificidades no que diz respeito ao seu histrico,
seu percurso entre alguns estudiosos da fortuna saussuriana e alguns aspectos do
seu contedo com o objetivo maior de apontar o movimento de Saussure na
construo de alguns conceitos capitais Lingustica.
Especificamente no que diz respeito construo terica do mestre gene-
brino, nos deteremos em uma caracterstica do seu processo na elaborao dos
Conference Handbook 257

conceitos capitais da Lingustica. Trata-se da forma como o linguista concebe a)

os conceitos de signo e seus componentes; b) a teoria de valor; c) o conceito de
unidade e a d) arbitrariedade do signo. Uma anlise primeira indica que, nesses
manuscritos, esses conceitos no foram elaborados isoladamente, mas sim con-
comitantemente. Assim, apresentaremos algumas das maneiras utilizadas por
Saussure nessa complexa forma de construo dos conceitos, bem como as suas
implicaes na formulao geral de Ferdinand de Saussure.

CHIDICHIMO, A. & GAMBARARA, D. "Trois chapitres de 'L'esence double du
langage'". In Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure Revue suisse de linguistique gnrale,
no.61. p.113-129. Publicado por Cercle Ferdinand de Saussure. Genve: Librairie
Droz S.A., 2008.
SAUSSURE, F. L'essence double du langage. In 'Archives de Ferdinand de Saussure',
372: 'Les Manuscrits'. Bibliotque de Genve, 1891.
_____________ Science du langage: de la essence double du langage ditions des crits
de Linguistique Gnrale tablie par REN AMACKER. Librarie Droz, 2011.
____________. "De l'essence double du langage". Transcription diplomatique tablie
par Rudolf Engler d'aprs le manuscrit dpos la Bibliothque de Genve (1996).
In Texto! dcembre 2004 - juin 2005 [en ligne]. Disponible sur: <http://www.revue-
texto.net/Saussure/De_Saussure/ Essence/Engler.html>. Consultado em 28 de agos-
to de 2011.

Reflexes sobre a histria da gramatizao da lngua portuguesa:

o caso da linguagem gauchesca ao sul do Brasil

Verli Ftima Petri da SILVEIRA

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

A histria da gramatizao da lngua portuguesa no e do Brasil objeto de

estudo de nosso grupo de pesquisa desde 2006, quando teve incio o projeto
intitulado A constituio do sujeito na e pela lngua: investigaes acerca do
processo de gramatizao, manuteno e atualizao do saber nos e sobre os
instrumentos lingusticos, o que tem resultado em dissertaes de mestrado
(SURDI, 2010; SIVERIS, 2012); livro publicado (PETRI, 2010); captulos de
livros e artigos publicados em peridicos cientficos. Nosso trabalho o de in-
vestigar instrumentos lingusticos que podem dar pistas para a recuperao da
histria da constituio e da institucionalizao da lngua portuguesa no sul do
Brasil. Dessa perspectiva, tomamos os dicionrios (e as gramticas) como im-
portantes pilares de nosso saber metalingustico (AUROUX, 1992, p. 65). Para
essa apresentao selecionamos recortes de trs obras, em diferentes momentos
histricos, que carregam em si mesmas marcas de diferentes fases da gramatiza-
o lingustica no Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil), so elas: Viagem ao Rio Grande
258 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

do Sul, de Auguste Saint-Hilaire (1887), o Popularium sulriograndense e o dia-

lecto nacional, de Appolinario Porto Alegre (1870), e o Dicionrio de Regiona-
lismos do Rio Grande do Sul, de Nunes (1984). A obra de Saint-Hilaire traz lista
de palavras anotadas e definidas por ele, a partir de seu contato com habitantes
do sul do Brasil daquela poca; j em Apollinario encontramos a proposta de
uma nomenclatura geral (PETRI & MEDEIROS, 2013) e no Dicionrio de Re-
gionalismos encontramos palavras e sentidos atualizados na lngua (PETRI,
2008). H um sujeito que faz emergir a lngua, ele o viajante, o historiador, o
folclorista: ele o produtor de discursos sobre a lngua e por isso nos interessa
tanto. Trata-se de autores que ao mesmo tempo em que relatam fatos, contam
uma histria e produzem um saber metalingustico atravs da elaborao de uma
lista de palavras (sculo XIX) ou da construo de um dicionrio de regionalis-
mos (sculo XX).

Referncia bibliogrfica:
AUROUX, S. A revoluo tecnolgica da gramatizao. Campinas, SP: ed. da Uni-
camp, 1992.
Obras em estudo:
NUNES, R.; NUNES, Z. Dicionrio de regionalismos do Rio Grande do Sul. Porto
Alegre: Martins Livreiro, 1984.
PORTO ALEGRE, A. Popularium sul-rio-grandense. Reorganizao de Lothar Hessel.
Porto Alegre: Editora da UFRGS, 1980.
SAINT- HILAIRE, A. Viagem ao Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre: ERUS, 1987.

La linguistique urbaine en Union Sovitique dans les annes 1920

Universit de Lausanne, Suisse

Cette communication abordera les recherches sovitiques sur le parler ur-

bain, entreprises dans les annes 1930.
Elle a pour but de revenir sur ces sujet qui passionnait les linguistes sovi-
tiques des annes 1920-1930, savoir ltude de la langue de la ville. A
lintrieur de ce sujet gnral, leurs tudes ont port sur la koin de la ville, le
bilinguisme, les sociolectes dune mme ville en leur interaction, la diffrentia-
tion linguistique ville vs campagne, ainsi que sur largot des marins et celui des
voleurs et des criminels.
Il sagira de suivre en dtail comment la linguistique urbaine sovitique
dune part se place dans une tradition europenne reprsente par L. Sainan, et
dautre part, dveloppe ses propres mthodes et styles de recherche, et inspire
mme toute une gnration de linguistes, jusqu W. Labov.
Conference Handbook 259

Where linguistics meets biology:

the concept of organism in past and present theories of language

Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia

The concept of organism was introduced into linguistics by the German lin-
guist August Schleicher (1821-1868) who is considered the founder of linguistic
naturalism. Schleicher is commonly believed to have been under a strong influ-
ence of Charles Darwins evolutionary theory. Schleicher, indeed, read On the
Origin of Species and replied to it with the famous paper entitled Die Darwi-
nische Theorie und die Sprachwissenschaft. However, the scholar claimed that
he had come to his theory of language change independently from Darwins
Schleicher compared languages to organisms, but there remains a question con-
cerning the interpretation of the word organism. It is normally thought that the
scholar meant living things. Nevertheless, there are also instances when he se-
ems to have used the word in a more general sense, captured by the following
definition from Merriam Webster Dictionary: organism a complex structure
of interdependent and subordinate elements whose relations and properties are
largely determined by their function in the whole. Moreover, it is in this very
sense that the word organism, according to the Russian linguist Agnija Desnits-
kaja (1971), was customarily employed in the first half of the 19th century.
The choice of interpretation has far-reaching implications for linguistics.
Setting the notion of organism sui generis against man-made mechanism, the
latter option simply recognizes the existence of immanent laws governing lin-
guistic evolution and argues for a holistic approach to the study of language. By
contrast, the treatment of languages as living organisms is much more binding.
The idea that language exists on its own, independently from human mind and
society, and can be examined similarly to natural objects has provoked conside-
rable scepticism and resistance among scholars in different countries.
However, recent decades have witnessed a rebirth of linguistic naturalism.
Parallels with biology are explicitly advanced by biolinguistics, a host of biolo-
gical metaphors are used in ecolinguistics, and cognitivists argue that linguistics
should make alliance with biology rather than formal sciences. Perhaps best of
all this spirit is embodied in Ronald Langackers (1988: 4) statement that a
language is more accurately likened to a biological organism. Thus things have
come full circle.

Desnitskaja, Agnija V. 1971. O lingvisticheskoj teorii Avgusta Shlejkhera. In Voprosy
jazykoznanija 6: 3-15. (in Russian)
260 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Langacker, Ronald W. 1988. An overview of cognitive grammar. In B. Rudzka-Ostyn

(ed.). Topics in Cognitive Linguistics. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Histria da Lngua e Poltica: A Inveno da Lusofonia

Jos Simo da Silva SOBRINHO

Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Brasil

Esta apresentao parte de um projeto de pesquisa mais abrangente que

analisa o funcionamento discursivo do Museu da Lngua Portuguesa, inaugurado
na cidade de So Paulo, Brasil, em 2006. Na referida pesquisa, buscamos com-
preender, na perspectiva terico-metodolgica da Histria das Ideias Lingusti-
cas, associada Anlise de Discurso, os efeitos de sentidos desse museu. Meto-
dologicamente, observamos o recorte que o museu opera: o que ele mostra como
sendo a lngua dos brasileiros e o que no mostra, atentando para os efeitos de
sentidos produzidos nesse jogo entre o dizer/mostrar e o no dizer/no mostrar.
Dessa investigao mais ampla, escolhemos falar, nessa comunicao, sobre a
anlise que fizemos dos sentidos que o museu conforma para a histria da Ln-
gua Portuguesa e para a lusofonia no painel Histria da Lngua Portuguesa
Linha do Tempo, um dos artefatos da exposio permanente. Reproduzindo um
historicismo que nega a espessura e opacidade da histria, o artefato apaga, no
sentido discursivo, as lnguas africanas, indgenas e de imigrao como prticas
significantes, por um gesto terico e poltico que reduz os contatos entre lnguas
a fatos de emprstimos lingusticos. Por essa via, filiando sentidos, produz-se um
efeito de continuidade (uma linha do tempo) entre o Latim e a Lngua Portu-
guesa do Brasil. Inventa-se, desse modo, uma tradio para a lngua dos brasilei-
ros inscrita na memria do Portugus europeu. Conclumos, pela anlise desse
artefato e de outros mais, que o Museu da Lngua Portuguesa produz relaes
equvocas e contraditrias entre lngua, sujeito e Estado no Brasil.

Palavras-chave: Histria das Ideias Lingusticas; Polticas Lingusticas; Museu

da Lngua Portuguesa; Lngua Portuguesa; Lngua Brasileira.

Slavic and English Early Translation Schools through Centuries:

a Case Study

Novosibirsk State University, Russia

The paper presents a new approach to the history of translation, not by na-
tional schools but by chronological cuts across borders. The approach was al-
Conference Handbook 261

ready discussed at ICHOLS-XI, and this particular presentation will focus on

one case study, namely, Slavic and English translation schools and individual
translators during several periods of medieval and new history. The following
translation schools and individual translators will be considered: Cyril and
Methodius as the initiators of translation activity among Slavs and their English
contemporary King Alfred; the Preslav translation school and its leading figure
John Exarch in comparison with an outstanding English scholar Aelfric; the so
called free translations of Kiev Rus and those of Medieval England (concern-
ing primarily secular literature); the South Slavonic literary schools of the XIV
century with their tendency to keep as close to the original as possible versus the
translation manner of John Wycliff; the grammar translation theory and focus on
clear expression of Maxim the Greek (Michael Trivolis) and the reaction to his
scholarly as well as political activity in Moscovite Russia in the XVI century and
the activities (both scholarly and political) of William Tyndale and the discus-
sion about the ways of sacral translation between Gregory Martin and William
Fulk later in the XVI century; and finally, the XVII century when both cultures
witnessed the impassioned arguments between the partisans of word for word
translation and the advocates of lucid and comprehensible rendering and transla-
tors freedom (though to various degrees depending on the character of the text
and the personality of the author) which ended up in some kind of synthesis of
both approaches formulated towards the end of the century by Dryden in English
culture with emphasis on some spiritual affinity between the author and the
translator, the statement echoed in some decades (also poetically) by a Russian
playwright and poet Sumarokov.

Amos, Flora Ross Early Theories of Translation. NY, 1973. 184 pp.
Bruce F.F. History of the Bible in English. NY., 1979. 274 pp.
.. .
. ., 1971. 255 .
. Praha, 1976 144 .
.. .. . . 2008. 413 .

The Prudent connection between creolists and the semi-creoles

Slvio Moreira de SOUSA

Karl Franzens Universitt Graz, Austria

What has Prudent (1980) to do with the understanding of semi-creoles in

the period between 1880 and 1920? Because of the assertions of Coelho (1881),
Schuchardt (1883), Dalgado (1900; 1902/1903), and Vasconcelos (1901), the
262 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

varieties of Portuguese spoken in Brazil and Goa were not regarded as creoles.
However, there was no consensus about their nature.
Schuchardt (1883:318) presents a definition of creole and makes a couple of
remarks about Brazilian Portuguese in a bibliography of the French-based creo-
les. Vasconcelos (1901), while taking the first step in the development Portugue-
se dialectology, divided all Portuguese dialects into three categories. He placed
those spoken in Brazil and Goa in the same group with Sephardic Portuguese
and the creoles spoken in Upper Guinea or the Gulf of Guinea. On the other
hand, Dalgado (1900) makes no theoretical comment whatsoever in his descrip-
tion of Goan Portuguese. In fact, the only theoretical conclusion stated by Dal-
gado about the variety of Portuguese spoken in Goa can be found in his account
of the Indo-Portuguese of Daman (Dalgado 1902/1903; 1998:69).
A premise for analyzing the issue at hand is the distinction between cro-
listes de cabinet and hommes du terrain, as Prudent (1980) put it. Other terms
sometimes used when dealing with creolists of the late 19th and early 20th cen-
tury are armchair creolists and nave creolists. Creolists like Schuchardt,
Coelho and Vasconcelos, despite their good knowledge of contemporary linguis-
tics, are often dubbed as armchair creolists, due to the absence of fieldwork in
their studies. They were never in loco, for example in Cape Verde or Macau.
Their material was rather gathered by informants who lived in those places. So-
me of these informants, who may have had no background in linguistics, ended
up writing articles of their own and are commonly described as nave creolists,
e. g. Brito, Barros and Pereira.
Based on this distinction, the aim of this study is to establish a clearer idea
of the understanding of what was considered a semi-creole at the beginning of
the 20th century, in order to contribute to contemporary research on the subject.
Another goal of this study is to test the limits of Prudents assertions (Prudent

Aspectos polticos e lingusticos da histria

da Lingustica Indgena no Brasil

Tania Conceio Clemente de SOUZA

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

O entusiasmo que toma conta do Brasil na segunda metade dos anos 50 faz
acolher, com bom grado, os ecos da cultura americana em todos os setores. Sob
esse clima, a Lingustica americana se dissemina no pas, vindo a se tornar o
campo das lnguas indgenas um terreno frtil a esta expanso. Nosso trabalho
tem por objetivo, por um lado, levantar aspectos polticos em torno da fundao
oficial da Lingustica Indgena no Brasil, e, por outro, discutir no s o papel do
acordo firmado entre o Summer Institute of Linguistics e o Museu Nacional,
Conference Handbook 263

bem como fazer um breve balano dessa parceria. A insero terica de nosso
trabalho se d no campo da escola francesa de Anlise de Discurso.
Trabalhos como os de Sapir tiveram grande repercusso no mago da Lin-
gustica e da Antropologia, entretanto, no Brasil, o estudo das lnguas indgenas
se inicia pelo vis do estruturalismo americano. A organizao de um novo Setor
o Setor Lingstico da Diviso de Antropologia do Museu Nacional -, tendo
como responsvel o lingista Mattoso-Cmara, ao lado do Acordo lavrado com
o Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL), em 1959, instituem o rumo dado pes-
quisa com as lnguas indgenas brasileiras. A parceria entre essas duas institui-
es trouxe conseqncias, no s ao desenvolvimento das lnguas indgenas,
como tambm implementao de cursos de especializao em Lingstica,
como o Curso de Lingstica Aplicada s lnguas indgenas, ministrado ainda
no final dos anos 50.
Que consequncias de ordem poltica e de ordem cientfica resultam da pre-
sena do Summer no Brasil? Qual o papel de linguistas brasileiros, como o re-
nomado professor Mattoso-Cmara, na instituio das pesquisas com as lnguas
indgenas brasileiras? Quais as razes para o rompimento com o Acordo? E co-
mo ainda se insinua a penetrao do Summer, apesar de rompido o Acordo, em
rea indgena brasileira hoje em dia?

KRISTEVA, J. Histria da Linguagem. Lisboa: Edies 70, 1969
ORLANDI, E. e SOUZA, T.C.C. de. A Lngua Imaginria e a Lngua Fluida: Dois
Mtodos de Trabalho com a Linguagem, Poltica Lingstica na Amrica Latina,
Campinas: Pontes, 1988
PCHEUX, M.. Les Vrits de la Palice, Paris, Maspero, 1975. Traduo brasileira:
Semntica e Discurso, Capinas: UNICAMP, 1988
SOUZA, T.C.C. de. A questo discursiva e a elaborao de cartilhas em lnguas indge-
nas, Lingstica Indgena e Educao na Amrica Latina, Campinas: UNICAMP,

Pour une histoire des grammaires italiennes

entre XVIIIme et XIXme sicles

Universit della Calabria, Italia

Le processus de la grammatisation des langues vulgaires entre les sicles

XVIme et XVIIIme, suppose naturellement lcriture et les dbats autour de
lcriture mais pour la langue italienne il nest pas seulement question dcriture
au sens de transcription en caractres et donc dorthographie. En effet, la gram-
matisation est axe sur la notion de rgle mais il faut ltablir pour une langue
qui face, une grande varit dusages parls, na pas le pendant dune commu-
naut langagire en tant que nation doue dunit politique mais, plutt, celui
264 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

dune unit littraire qui soppose aux dialectes. Cest ce que, en 1706, Muratori
appelle le seul et vrai eccellente Linguaggio dItalia [] quel Gramaticale che
dai Letterati sadopera ed comune a tutti gli Italiani studiosi3. Cest pour cette
raison que lidentit de notre langue est dfendue et illustre partir de ses atti-
tudes lcriture et de sa pliabilit aux raison de la posie et/ou de certains
genres littraires, un terrain sur lequel on ouvre la comparaison avec les autres
langues romanes.
tant donne cette spcialit du cas italien, il sera ici question de parcourir
lhistoire des grammaires italiennes entre le XVIIIme et le XIX sicle, et sur-
tout au moment de lunit nationale, pour vrifier le rapport entre le parl et
lcrit quant la description de la langue et la fixation du bon usage.

Mots-Cls: Grammaires, Langue crite et parle, Langue italienne.

Ciro Trabalza, Storia della grammatica, Milano, Hoepli, 1908.
Stefano Gensini, Volgar favella. Percorsi del pensiero linguistico italiano da Robortello
a Manzoni, Firenze, La Nuova Italia, 1993.

Voices from the Field: Sapir's early Amerindian field work

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium

In preparing the edition of volumes 1 and 2 of the Collected Works of Ed-

ward Sapir, I have examined the extensive correspondence between Franz Boas
and his student Edward Sapir who, after his studies in Germanic philology,
turned to linguistic anthropology and, more particularly, to the study of Ameri-
can Indian languages. The correspondence exchanged between Boas and Sapir in
the latter half of the first decade of the 20th century and in the early 1910s is
primarily related to Sapir's first field work experiences, viz. his study of Washo
and Takelma. It is especially the correspondence concerning the Takelma lan-
guage, a language which became extinct and for which Sapir's grammar and
published text materials remain our main source of information that we will
analyse in our communication. More particularly, we will focus on Sapir's re-
ports, directly from the field, on his informants, on the sound system of Takel-
ma, and on his coming to grips with the grammatical categories of this language
isolate. A comparison will be made with the grammatical description provided
by Sapir in the grammar of Takelma he published several years after his field-
work trips.

Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Della perfetta poesia italiana spiegata con varie osserva-
zioni, Modena, Bartolomeo Soliani, 2 vol., II, p. 104.
Conference Handbook 265

A variedade nipo-brasileira do Distrito Federal Brasil:

a variao histrica e lingustica em questo

Yuko Kawazoe TAKANO

Universidade de Braslia, Brasil

No presente estudo apresentamos o resultado averiguado das duas comuni-

dades nipo-brasileiras da capital brasileira: Brazlndia e Vargem Bonita. Essas
comunidades esto situadas na Regio Administrativa do Distrito Federal e so
consideradas regies no urbanas. Brazlndia uma das regies mais antigas do
Distrito Federal e a (i)migrao japonesa contribuiu para o povoamento e desen-
volvimento da regio. Vargem Bonita pertence Regio Administrativa deno-
minada Park Way e essa comunidade representativa, visto que os primeiros
imigrantes japoneses oriundos da regio de Okinawa vieram para a produo
agrcola deste local e contriburam para o povoamento e desenvolvimento eco-
nmico da regio. Consideramos, neste estudo, as referncias geogrficas e his-
tricas da regio em que a comunidade de estudo se encontra, pois esses aspec-
tos podem justificar as ocorrncias lingusticas do nosso objeto de estudo. Bus-
camos como fundamentao terica a orientao da Geolingustica, da Sociolin-
gustica e da Historiografia lingustica sob a perspectiva semntico-lexical para
registrar e descrever o objeto de estudo. Os nipo-brasileiros do Brasil, vivendo
h mais de um sculo em solo brasileiro, ao longo de suas vidas, tiveram seu
repertrio lingustico modificado, pois os valores culturais e lingusticos do pas
de origem foram paulatinamente se modificando e criando seu prprio universo
lingustico/cultural. medida que ocorre o distanciamento dos costumes e dos
hbitos, deu-se a desvinculao da lngua japonesa, e, consequentemente, os
nipo-brasileiros esto perdendo traos tnicos de origem e absorvendo elementos
da outra lngua, criando, nesse contato, o falar que sustentado pela prpria
situao do bilinguismo. A experincia lingustica se acumula no convvio social
e retrata o trnsito livre das duas lnguas que se intercalam, configurando, dessa
forma, um falar prprio que denominamos, neste estudo, de variedade nipo-
brasileira. Essa variao lingustica observada na comunidade acima citada
demonstra a evoluo da lngua no seu percurso natural de lngua em movimen-
to, cujo resultado, indica a ocorrncia da adaptao nova situao lingustica
de determinados itens lexicais, expresses, entre outros fenmenos. Elabora-
mos o Questionrio semntico-lexical visual (QSLV) para a coleta de dados,
com intuito de colher as respostas de forma padronizada. O questionrio se-
mntico-lexical visual (QSLV) composto de 219 figuras. Para este estudo re-
cortamos o corpus das respostas das duas regies mencionadas e os itens lexicais
foram analisados luz do fenmeno contato de lnguas, cujo contexto, contem-
pla a mudana de cdigo e o emprstimo lexical. Recorremos tambm ao estudo
da variao histrica que possibilita uma anlise de contraste entre a lngua ante-
266 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

rior e a lngua posterior para a investigao dos traos distintos e peculiares des-
sa variedade.
E, por fim, recorremos aos procedimentos metodolgicos da Geolingustica
para descrever em cartograma lingustico os itens lexicais estudados. A pesquisa
ancora-se nos pressupostos acima citados, ressaltando os estudos, entre outros de
Amaral (1955), Alvar (1979), Coseriu (1982), Grosjean (1982), Pottier (1983),
Mase (1986), Chambers e Trudgill (1984), Thomason e Kaufman (1991), Bran-
do (1996), Garcez e Ribeiro (1998), Rastier (2005), Santos (2005).

Palavras-Chave: Sociolingustica; Geolingustica; Contato de Lnguas; Variao

Histrica; Semntico-lexical.

Uvular theory of the origin of Indo-European languages

Victor V. TEN
St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and law, Russia

The problem of phonetic source of Indo-European languages is still unsol-

ved. Ferdinand de Saussure proposed laryngeal theory, which postulated the
origin of the phonetic system from syllabic sonants involving laryngeal (Mmoi-
re sur le systme primitif des voyelles dans les langues indo-europennes
//Memoir on the Primitive System of Vowels in Indo-European Languages,
Leipzig: Teubner,1879).
It has been replaced by the glottal theory (Gamkrelidze T. and Ivanov V.
Linguistic Typology and reconstruction of the Indo-European occlusives / / Con-
ference on comparative grammar of Indo-European languages. Moscow, 1972;
Hopper P.J. Glottalized and murmured occlusives in Indo-European // Glossa.
An International Journal of Linguistics, 1973, Vol. 7, 2). Most clearly the
glottal theory is set forth in the seminal work of T Gamkrelidze T. and Ivanov V.
Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans (Publishing house of the Tbilisi state
University, 1984).
The basis for a paradigm shift has become the contradiction: "are not detec-
ted languages with series sonorous aspirates without simultaneous existence in
the system of series deaf aspirates. In this sense, the traditional redeveloped (ba-
sed on the laryngeal theory V.T.) system of Indo-European occlusives is in
clear contradiction with the data synchronous typology "(Ibid, p.11, 12).
Glottal theory is based on the denial of guttural syllabic sonants, which the
form of laryngeal constituted the phonetic basis of Indo-European language (ac-
cording to the laryngeal theory). In exchange has been proposed a series of voi-
celess occlusives spiratit, which typical of Kartvelian languages. It appears that
the complete rejection of primordial Indo-European guttural refutes the indispu-
table diachronic data about the movements of consonants "forward" from guttu-
Conference Handbook 267

ral in the development of Indo-European languages (laws of Rask-Grimm and

Pedersen). Furthermore, it calls into question the fact satem palatalization
making satem languages the more ancient comparison with centum.
In my opinion, the solution of the problem of initial aspirates phonemes of
the Indo-European language can be found in the search for ancient gutturals. At
the same time, it cannot be laryngeal sonants. According to the synchronic data,
about 1 \ 3 of Indo-European words contain guttural consonants and they are not
laryngeal which left no apparent reflections in any of the Indo-European langua-
ges (Maslova V. The origins of Proto-Slavic phonology. Moscow: "Progress-
Tradition", 2004). The search for of initial guttural led the author to the formula-
tion uvular theory of the origin of Indo-European languages.

Potique saussurienne, Potique jakobsonienne: Quel(s) rapport(s)?

Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3, France

Les relations entre la pense de Roman Jakobson et celle de Ferdinand de

Saussure ont t abondamment tudies. Il reste cependant un domaine o cel-
les-ci demeurent insuffisamment interroges : la potique. Si la potique consti-
tue un champ revendiqu comme tel par Jakobson, lidentification dune po-
tique saussurienne est une opration rtrospective et non stabilise. Des tra-
vaux manuscrits du linguiste genevois dcouverts titre posthume au premier
rang desquels ceux relatifs aux anagrammes pourraient souscrire une telle
appellation. Or, la connaissance de ces travaux est tardive dans litinraire de
Jakobson. Elle intervient dans le milieu des annes 60, alors mme que les prin-
cipes fondamentaux de sa potique sont poss. Jakobson salue dans les ana-
grammes Saussures most daring and lucid discoveries 4 et va jusqu consi-
drer que si ces manuscrits de Saussure navaient pas t si longtemps ddai-
gns et traits de digressions futiles, il ne fait pas de doute que llaboration
dune science de la potique en aurait reu une impulsion bnfique .5 Les ana-
grammes deviennent ds lors une rfrence constante de ses travaux de potique
et reconfigurent la relation, on le sait, complexe, que Jakobson entretient avec la
pense saussurienne. Ltude critique de cette relation sur le terrain de la poti-
que sera lobjet de notre communication. Quelles sont les fonctions de ces rf-
rences, nombreuses, aux travaux de potique de Saussure dans luvre de Ja-
kobson ? En quoi sa lecture des anagrammes influence-t-elle sa potique ? Quel

R. Jakobson, Selected Writings IV, Slavic Epic Studies, The Hague, Mouton & Co,
1966, p. 686.
R. Jakobson et L. Waugh, La Charpente phonique du langage, trad. A. Kihm, Paris,
Minuit, 1980 (1979), p. 269.
268 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

rle y joue la perspective tlologique et dautolgitimation ? On tchera de

rpondre ces questions en examinant les convergences pistmologiques de ces
deux potiques le souci mtrique, lhypostase de la symtrie dans le langage
mais aussi ce qui fait leur spcificit respective.

Indications bibliographiques:
DOMINICY M., Potique de lvocation, Paris, Garnier, 2011.
HARRIS R., Saussure and his Interpreters, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press,
JAKOBSON R., Selected Writings I-VIII, The Hague, Mouton & Co, 1962-1985.
RUWET N., GOUVARD J.-M., DOMINICY M. (ds.), Linguistique et potique : aprs
Jakobson, Langue franaise 110, 1996.
STAROBINSKI J., Les Mots sous les mots. Les anagrammes de Ferdinand de Saussure,
Paris, Gallimard, 1971.

El tratamiento de la sintaxis en la gramtica escolar argentina



Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina


Universidad de Valencia, Espaa

El captulo destinado a la sintaxis en los libros de gramtica es, sin duda, el

que ms cambios y ampliaciones experimenta en la historia de la gramtica es-
paola (Calero 2007; Iglesias Bango 2011; Garca Folgado 2002 y 2013); preci-
samente, es durante el siglo XIX, merced a la influencia de la gramtica filosfi-
ca, cuando se produce el cambio de una gramtica centrada en la palabra a una
reflexin sobre la oracin, sus constituyentes e, incluso, sobre las estructuras
supraoracionales. Significativamente, la gramtica escolar ser uno de los moto-
res de ese cambio al introducir entre sus contenidos el anlisis lgico (Calero
2008 y 2009, Calero y Zamorano 2010, Garca Folgado 2011 y 2013).
En la Argentina, parece observarse un proceso de similares caractersticas,
al menos por lo que toca a la introduccin del anlisis lgico como contenido
didctico (Garca Folgado 2010, Lidgett 2011, Battista y Lidgett e. p., Garca
Folgado y Toscano y Garca, e. p.).
En este trabajo, abordamos el anlisis del captulo Sintaxis en las gram-
ticas escolares argentinas publicadas entre 1863 y 1922, es decir, en el perodo
que va desde la primera legislacin escolar destinada a regular la enseanza de la
gramtica en el pas hasta la institucionalizacin de los estudios lingsticos que
se produce con la creacin del Instituto de Filologa de la Universidad de Buenos
Aires. Nos proponemos, en trminos generales, analizar de qu modo se con-
Conference Handbook 269

forma la seccin sintctica en las gramticas de este corpus, en especial los pro-
cesos de incorporacin y reformulacin a los que somete a un conjunto de pers-
pectivas tericas (el logicismo, la doctrina acadmica o la gramtica de Bello,
principalmente). Para ello, nos centramos en dos aspectos: la finalidad que los
distintos autores otorgan al captulo sintctico y su estructuracin, y las unidades
de anlisis que consideran.

Du rapport son/sens la commutation

Anne-Galle TOUTAIN
Laboratoire d'Histoire des Thories Linguistiques, France

Cette communication tudierait la constitution progressive de la quadripar-

tition glossmatique, telle quelle est lisible au fil des premiers textes de Hjelms-
lev (1928-1939), la lumire, en particulier, dun texte peu connu car publi en
danois et traduit seulement en espagnol, Sprogsystem og sprogforandring (sries
de confrences donnes luniversit dAarhus en 1934, et parues en 1972), et
qui tmoigne dun moment crucial dans cette constitution. Dans les Principes de
grammaire gnrale (1928), malgr une problmatique demble structurale, le
cadre du signe est trs prsent, au point que Hjelmslev sy fait le hraut dune
dmarche inductive (smasiologique), quil abandonnera en 1936 au profit de la
dmarche dductive glossmatique. La quadripartition glossmatique (for-
me/substance, expression/contenu) connat quant elle sa premire expression,
aprs la Synopsis of an Outline of Glossematics (1936), dans l Essai dune
thorie des morphmes , datant galement de 1936. Sprogsystem og sprogfo-
randring fait figure dintermdiaire entre ces deux tats de la thorie, puisquil
nous donne lire une double tripartition : trois types dunits (phonmes, for-
mes, concepts), correspondant trois systmes distincts (phonmatique, gram-
matical, smantique), y sont envisags de trois points de vue diffrents (expres-
sion ou structure, forme et contenu ou signification), cependant que la forme sy
trouve atteinte par lexamen du rapport son/sens, premire approche du principe
de la commutation. Cest l une tape importante dans la dsintrication et
lordonnance des deux distinctions, indissolublement mles dans les premiers
textes, entre forme et substance et entre son et sens, en quoi consiste la constitu-
tion de la glossmatique, et ce texte fait ainsi remarquablement apparatre la
spcificit de la thorie hjelmslevienne, notamment dans ce qui loppose celles
des phonologues : le primat de la structure sy double certes, comme chez les
phonologues, dune problmatique des rapports son/sens, mais impose celle-ci
une forme particulire, qui la ddouble, et construit la forme hjelmslevienne
comme un substitut du rapport son/sens.
270 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Bibliographie succincte:
AMACKER, R. (1985). La notion de phonme dans Les Principes de grammaire
gnrale , in Caputo, C. & Galassi, R. (d.), Louis Hjelmslev. Linguistica, Semio-
tica, Epistemologia, p. 29-47. Lecce.
HJELMSLEV, L. (1928). Principes de grammaire gnrale. Copenhague.
(1971). Essais linguistiques. Paris.
(1972a). La Catgorie des cas. tude de grammaire gnrale I et II. Munich.
(1972b). Sprogsystem og Sprogforandring. Copenhague.
(1973). Essais linguistiques II. nhague.
& ULDALL, H. J. Synopsis of an Outline of Glossematics. s.l.s.d.

Grammatical gender in ancient linguistics:

issues involving gender agreement

University of Turku, Finland

Gender agreement is essential in defining gender and establishing the genders of

a language (see Greville Corbett, Gender, Cambridge University Press 1991
[repr. 1999], 105 ff.). No notion of agreement is involved in the definition of
gender in ancient linguistics, and for obvious reasons. There was no part of spe-
ech corresponding to our adjective, no distinction between what Corbett calls
controller genders, the genders into which nouns are divided and target gen-
ders, the genders which are marked on adjectives, verbs and so on (Corbett,
151). Borrowing Pierre Swiggers and Alfons Wouters phrasing in their preface
to the Syntax in Antiquity (edited by P. Swiggers and A. Wouters, Or-
bis/Supplementa, Peeters 2003, 5), it can be said that syntactic issues are obli-
quely, fragmentarily or cryptically present in ancient texts. That the Greek and
Latin adjectives, pronouns and participles agree in gender and that there are spe-
cial problems related to this are, nonetheless, issues that were touched upon in
ancient linguistics, although with insufficient metalanguage and in diverse con-
texts. While the context of an implicit involvement of gender agreement is often
a discussion of solecism, Apollonius refers to agreement in gender and number
in connection with transitivity, for instance (Synt. GG II.2 281, 7 ff.).
In this paper, I will discuss the ways in which gender agreement or gender
in construction is visible in ancient sources. The focus is very much on the con-
texts and motives for discussing these matters. The sources are both those that
approach the matter from the point of view of theory and mostly use gender
agreement as an example in defining solecism, and those that represent a practi-
cal approach to texts. Among the latter are Dionysius of Halicarnassus critical
treatises (see Casper de Jonge, Between Grammar and Rhetoric, 2008; e.g. 266
ff. for examples), Servius commentary on Vergil (see Jaana Vaahtera, `On
grammatical gender in ancient linguistics the order of genders, Arctos 42,
Conference Handbook 271

2008, 258), and the scholia on Homer. To give just one example from the last
mentioned, we may learn, for instance, that is said instead of
in Od. 3,184: Or he [Homer] adapted it to the meaning: for
child is dear [masculine] even if the word is neuter. Or the masculine is
due to the synonym child [masculine or feminine].

Mood (mode) and modality: a pair (triplet) apart


Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgium

The talk traces the current understanding of mood (or mode, modus) and
modality (modalitas) back in time, in the Western tradition, giving pride of place
to F.R. Palmer, G.H. von Wright for the 20th century, to I. Kant in the premodern
period, and all the way back to Boethius, Priscian, Quintilian, Dionysius Thrax,
Apollonius Dyscolus, and Protagoras. It sketches how there were and still are
several notions of mood (and mode), the crucial ones being (i) a kind of speech
act catogory (Protogoras), (ii) a typically morphological property of the verb
relating to an inclination of the speakers mind (Dionysius Thrax), and (iii) a
sentence operator (Boethius). I will show how these notions were problematic,
how they got intertwined and, most importantly for 21st century linguistics, how
their domain was progressively taken over by a notion of modality. I will show
how the confusion that characterizes current thinking is not exceptional and that
one can learn from the earlier confusions.

Kant, Immanuel. 1934. Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by J.M.D. Meiklejohn. Lon-
don: Dent.
Lallot, Jean (1989). La grammaire de Denys le Thrace. Paris: Centre national de recher-
che scientifique.
Malter, Sasha, 2004 Enklisis: Modusterminologie und Modusbegriff in der antiken
griechischen Grammatik. Doctoral dissertation Johannes Gutenberg-Universitt
Nuchelmans, Gabriel. 1973. Theories of the proposition. Ancient and medieval concep-
tions of the bearers of truth and falsity. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Padley, G.A. 1976. Grammatical theory in Western Europe. 1500-1700. The Latin tradi-
tion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Palmer, F.R. 1979. Modality and the English Modals. London: Longman.
272 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Protestant pioneers in Sanskrit studies (ca. 17001750):

An overlooked chapter in South- Indian missionary linguistics


Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium

Sanskrit plays a notable role in the history of the language sciences. Its in-
tensive study at the turn of the nineteenth century went hand in hand with the
institutionalization of linguistics as an independent academic discipline. The
nature and significance of this connection are a debated issue even today. My
paper aims at reconstructing the earliest Sanskrit studies which protestant mis-
sionaries conducted during their missions to Tranquebar (Tamil-Nadu, South-
India) in the frame of the so-called Dnisch-Hallesche Mission from 1706 on-
wards. In contrast to Jesuits such as Heinrich Roth and Johann Ernst Hanxleden,
the protestant missionaries did not leave us full-blown manuscript grammars.
Importantly, however, some of them (only to mention Bartholomaeus Zieg-
enbalg, Benjamin Schultze, and Christophorus Theodosius Walther) eagerly
gained a firm command of this language. On the basis of unpublished manu-
script sources, my paper will investigate these protestants underlying motives,
the practical and ideological burdens they had to overcome, and the many incen-
tives they received from scholars working in Europe. In conjunction with this,
the paper will investigate to what extent this overlooked chapter in early Sanskrit
philology may shed light on the specific role of Sanskrit in the institutionaliza-
tion of linguistics.

Dharampal, Gita. 1994. Indien im Spiegel deutscher Quellen der Frhen Neuzeit (1500-
1750): Studien zu einer interkulturellen Konstellation. Tbingen: Niemeyer.
Duverdier, Grald. 1975. ber die Bedeutung unbedeutender Drucke: die ersten tamili-
schen Drucke zu Halle (1712-1713). Wiss Z Univ Halle 5.103126.
Liebau, Heike & Kurt Liebau. 2003. Der Missionar Benjamin Schultze: Eine Notiz zu
seiner Korrespondenz und sein Beitrag zur Herausbildung der vergleichenden
Sprachwissenschaft. Zeichen und Wunder: Geheimnisse des Schriftenschranks in
der Kunst- und Naturalienkammer der Franckeschen Stiftungen: kulturhistorische
und philologische Untersuchungen, Kleine Schriftenreihe der Franckeschen Stif-
tungen, ed. by Heike Link & Thomas J. Mller-Bahlke, 94110. Halle (Saale): Ver-
lag der Franckeschen Stiftungen.
Milewska, Iwona. 2003. First European Missionaries on Sanskrit Grammar. Christians
and Missionaries in India: Cross-Cultural Communication since 1500, ed. by Rob-
ert Eric Frykenberg & Alaine M. Low, 6269. Michigan / London: William B. Eer-
dmans / Routledge.
Rocher, Rosane. 2001. The Knowledge of Sanskrit in Europe until 1800. History of
the Language Sciences. An international handbook on the evolution of the study of
language from the beginnings to the present (vol. II), ed. by Sylvain Auroux,
Conference Handbook 273

E.F.K. Koerner, Hans-Josef Niederehe, and Kees Versteegh, 11561163. Berlin &
New York: De Gruyter.

The ancient Greek and Byzantine notion of dialektos:

some new perspectives


Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium

The ancient Greek and Byzantine notion of dialect and the term used for
it, dialektos, have received some attention in scholarly literature (e.g. Hains-
worth 1967; Cassio 1984; Morpurgo Davies 1987; Lambert 2009). However, an
extensive treatment, based on modern methods, still seems desirable (cf. e.g.
Alinei 1984: 169). The main focus of my paper will be on explicit theoretical
considerations expressed by Greek and Byzantine scholars (thus complementing
the account of Colvin 1999, which chiefly discusses implicit attitudes toward the
individual Greek language varieties). By chronologically studying their different
definitions of dialektos, I aim at contributing to tracing the vicissitudes of this
term and the concept that is intertwined with it.
In particular, my paper will
(a) show that Hellenistic authors conceived of dialektos as (1) an ethnically
and/or (2) a diatopically restricted speech form; as (3) an anomalous variety of
the koin (common speech), or as (4) a speech form characterized by a certain
peculiarity which is not further explained;
(b) study how Byzantine authors enriched this tradition by developing addi-
tional definitions and criteria (by, for example, opposing dialektos to
glssa/gltta and, to a lesser extent, to phn);
(c) emphasize the pivotal role of the widely used image of kharaktr in the
ancient Greek and Byzantine conceptualization of dialektos, which has barely
received any attention up till now. Early scholars, such as Diogenes of Babylon
(ca. 240 150 BC) and probably also Clemens of Alexandria (ca. 140/150 220
AD), still recognized the Grundbedeutung of the term kharaktr ('to sharp-
en/stamp' < kharass/kharatt). In later times, however, the more recent mean-
ing of 'character' comes into play.

Alinei, Mario. 1984. 1. Dialetto: un concetto rinascimentale fiorentino. In Lingua e
dialetti: struttura, storia e geografia, 169199. Bologna: Societ Editrice Il Mulino.
Cassio, Albio Cesare. 1984. Il carattere dei dialetti greci e lopposizione Ioni-Dori.
[]. . Annali del Dipartimento di Studi del Mondo Classico e del Mediterraneo
Antico. Sezione linguistica 6: 113136.
Colvin, Stephen. 1999. Dialect in Aristophanes and the Politics of Language in Ancient
Greek Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
274 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Hainsworth, J. B. 1967. Greek Views of Greek Dialectology. Transactions of the Phil-

ological Society 65: 6276.
Lambert, Frdric. 2009. Les noms des langues chez les grecs. Histoire pistmologie
Langage 31 (2): 1527.
Morpurgo Davies, Anna. 1987. The Greek Notion of Dialect. Verbum 10: 728.

Cartilhas: Joo de Barros, Joo de Deus e Benedita Stahl Sodr

Um Percurso

Maria Lcia Marcondes Carvalho VASCONCELOS

Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, So Paulo,
& Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de So Paulo, Brasil

Nancy dos Santos CASAGRANDE

Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de So Paulo, Brasil

Neusa Maria Oliveira Barbosa BASTOS

Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, So Paulo,
& Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de So Paulo, Brasil

Por um estudo historiogrfico das idias pedalingusticas contidas nas carti-

lhas de Lngua Portuguesa, iniciando pela Cartinha para aprender leer de Joo
de Barros, passando pela Cartilha Maternal de Joo de Deus e finalizando pela
Cartilha Sodr de Benedita Stahl Sodr, buscamos dialogar com as obras dos
autores representativos do sculos XVI, XIX e XX, com o objetivo de alcanar
um entendimento mais amplo dos contedos lingusticos e dos mtodos pedag-
gicos expressos nas obras selecionadas.
A Cartinha para aprender leer de Joo de Barros visa ao ensino dos meni-
nos nobres, pois a questo do ensino/aprendizagem de lngua sempre foi o obje-
tivo primeiro do autor escolhido, que manifestava sua pretenso didtica imedia-
ta no sculo XVI, propondo a sistematizao seletiva da ortografia, de forma a
tornar a obra assimilvel e acessvel a espritos inexperientes. Ensinar a ler faz
parte de um projeto com pretenso didtica, dirigido no s aos meninos nobres,
mas tambm aos gentios. Seus objetivos didticos levaram organizao de uma
obra de grande dimenso, surgida em momentos de expanso territorial portu-
A Cartilha Maternal ou A Arte de Leitura, um novo mtodo de leitura, do
poeta portugus, Joo de Deus, foi criada com o intuito de substituir os abeced-
rios habituais, tendo sido publicada em 1876 e tendo se disseminado rapidamen-
te, a ponto de, no mesmo ano, por volta de duzentas escolas j ensinarem se-
guindo seus ditames em Portugal. No Brasil, no final da dcada de 1870, a carti-
Conference Handbook 275

lha conhecida nas provncias do Rio de Janeiro e So Paulo e divulgada com

A Cartilha Sodr, de Benedita Stahl Sodr, um dos mtodos realmente
brasileiros de alfabetizao em portugus, destinada a ajudar a aprendizagem da
leitura criana. Publicada pela primeira vez em 1940, surpreende pelo nmero
de edies que teve em 11 anos, 219 edies o que significa a mdia de 19 edi-
es por ano. Um livro de iniciao leitura, a maioria das cartilhas foi utilizada
em sala de aula.
Aps tais consideraes acerca das obras selecionadas, podemos salientar
que o conceito de lngua fica subentendido nas cartilhas e oscila entre sistema de
representao do pensamento por meio de palavras e sistema de senten-
as/palavras passvel de fragmentao.

Lhistoire des ides linguistiques transpose dans la littrature:

sur les erreurs des crivains linguistes rates

Universit de Lausanne, Suisse

Mme si les crivains ne transposent que trs rarement la linguistique dans

leurs uvres, quelques rgularits de cette transposition se retrouvent dun livre
lautre. Lune de ces rgularits consiste dans le fait que, quelques exceptions
prs, les crivains ne font pas de graves erreurs en transposant les thories lin-
guistiques dans la littrature, ce qui sexplique par leur propre intrt pour la
linguistique. Et sil y a des erreurs quand mme (une datation errone; une inter-
prtation fallacieuse dune thorie linguistique importante pour son poque;
lattribution dune citation trs connue un savant clbre qui nen tait pas
lauteur; linvention dun livre ou dun manuscrit; une description fantastique
dune langue relle mais peu connue, etc.), elles sont souvent conscientes, faites
en correspondance avec la logique interne des uvres littraires.
Dans notre expos, nous le montrerons en nous appuyant, entre autres, sur
les uvres littraires suivantes: P. Mrime, Lokis [1869] (thorie linguistique
prsente: A. Schleicher et le naturalisme linguistique); G.B. Shaw, Pygma-
lion [1912 / 1916] (la notion de crise en linguistique et les origines de la phon-
tique exprimentale); V. Kaverine, Le faiseur de scandales ou les soires de lle
Vassilevski [1928] (la nouvelle thorie du langage de N.Ja. Marr, ainsi que les
problmes principaux de ldification linguistique en URSS dans les annes
1920-1930); K. Vaginov, Le chant du bouc [1928] (courants dits anti-
structuralistes dans la linguistique sovitique des annes 1920-1950);
A. Solzhenitsyn, Le premier cercle [1957 / 1968] (lintervention stalinienne et la
linguistique sovitique dans les annes 1950); A. N. Strougatski,
276 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

B. N. Strougatski, Tentative de fuite [1962] (la linguistique applique dans la

deuxime moiti du XXme sicle: la traduction automatique).
Une partie de notre expos sera consacre la mthodologie pour
lenseignement de lhistoire des ides linguistiques luniversit: corriger les
erreurs des crivains constitue un type dexercices qui est particulirement
apprci par les tudiants.

E. Velmezova, Lhistoire de la linguistique dans lhistoire de la littrature: expos
dune mthodologie pour lenseignement de lhistoire des ides linguistiques, in
Velmezova E. (d.), Langue(s). Langage(s). Histoire(s). (Cahiers de lILSL, 2011,
31), p. 223-246.
E. Velmezova, Istorija lingvistiki v istorii literatury: sluajnoe i zakonomernoe, in
T.D. Kuzovkina et al. (eds), Sluajnost i nepredskazuemost v istorii kultury. Tal-
linn, Izdatelstvo TLU, p. 222-237 [Lhistoire de la linguistique dans lhistoire de la
littrature: du hasard et des rgularits]

De las Partes de la Oracin en las Gramticas Filosficas

del Siglo XIX Espaol


Universidad de Barcelona, Espaa

El objeto de la gramtica, cualesquiera que

sean sus fundamentos tericos, es descubrir la
razn por la cual un enunciado lineal es algo
ms que una agrupacin accidental
Delgado (1977: 86)

Pocos campos han quedado tan descuidados como la gramtica filosfica

(Padilla 2009: 324). Si bien tuvo un desarrollo importante, sobre todo, durante el
siglo XIX, es un hecho que ha dejado de tener pujanza y se ha convertido en un
mbito descuidado. Bsicamente, quien se dedic al estudio de la gramtica
filosfica fue el empirismo lgico de Husserl, Carnap, Russel y Wittgenstein a
comienzos del siglo XX. Pero la gramtica filosfica , como es bien sabido,
arrancan de las propuestas de Snchez de las Brozas. En l hallamos la primera
aportacin al estudio de la Gramtica general, al considerar todos los fenmenos
del lenguaje a travs del pensamiento lgico. De la Minerva, a travs de la Gra-
mtica de Port-Royal, se sucede la Gramtica racionalista o lgica. Voltaire,
Rousseau, Leibniz, Condillac, etc. vean en el lenguaje un paralelo del pensar.
Espaa estar al margen de este movimiento gramatical hasta bien entrado el
siglo romntico. Segn Lzaro Carreter, solo en el ltimo tercio del siglo XVIII
se empiezan a vislumbrar los primeros influjos de la Gramtica raisonne. La
Conference Handbook 277

primera obra de esta ndole en Espaa fue los Elementos de Gramtica Castella-
na de Juan Manuel Calleja (1818), quien sigue muy de cerca la doctrina de Des-
tutt. Las enseanzas de Condillac La Grammaire (1775) fueron recogidas
por Jos de Jess Muoz Capilla en su Gramtica filosfica de la lengua es-
paola, la cual no es ms que una mera adaptacin al espaol de la obra de Con-
dillac. En el siglo XIX florecen las gramticas filosficas o generales hasta lle-
gar a E. Benot (1910) quien, en su obra pstuma, cierra en cierta medida el in-
ters por este enfoque gramatical, muy alejado del empirismo alemn.
El presente trabajo pretende un acercamiento a la gramtica filosfica del
XIX en su conjunto, y a travs del estudio de las partes de la oracin. Para ello
se han consultado las obras de Calleja (1818), Jess Muoz (1831), Lacueva
(1832), Gmez de Hermosilla (1835), Noboa (1839), Flrez (1856), Benedetti
(1871) y Benot (1919) con un doble objetivo: esclarecer qu entiende el XIX
espaol por gramtica filosfica y cmo enfocan los autores el estudio de las
partes de la oracin.

Benedetti, Antonio (1871): Gramtica analtica, prctica y filosfica de la lengua es-
paola, Pars, Francisco de Zubiria y Compaa.
Benot, Eduardo (1910): Arte de haglar. Gramtica filosfica de la lengua castellana,
intro. de R. Sarmiento, ed. facs., Barcelona, Anthropos.
Calero Vaquera, Mara Luisa (1986): Historia de la gramtica espaola 1847-1920),
Madrid, Gredos.
Chabaneau, Francisco (1790): Elementos de ciencias naturales, Madrid, Imprenta de la
Viuda de Ibarra.
Corrales Zumbado, Cristbal, Dorta, Josefa et al. (eds.) (2004): Nuevas aportaciones
sobre Historiografa lingstica. 2 volmenes. Madrid: Arco/Libros.
Delgado, Feliciano (1977): Gramtica clsica, gramtica espaola, historia de la
lingstica, SEL, Vol. 7,2, pp. 81-96.
Flrez, Jos Segundo (1856): Gramtica filosfica de la lengua espaola, 2 ed. Pars, C.
Denn Schmitz.
Garca, Constantino (1960): Contribucin a la historia de los conceptos gramaticales.
La aportacin del Brocense, Madrid, CSIC.
Girn Alconchel, Jos Luis (2000): Historia de la gramtica en Espaa. M. Alvar (ed.),
Introduccin a la lingstica espaola, Barcelona, Ariel, pp. 69-91.
Gmez de Hermosilla, Jos (1835): Principios de gramtica general, Madrid, Imprenta
Jess Muoz, Jos de (1831) Gramtica filosfica de la lengua espaola, Madrid, Im-
prenta de J. Espinosa.
Calleja, Juan Manuel (1818): Elementos de gramtica castellana, Bilbao, Pedro Antonio
de Apraiz.
Lacueva, Francisco (1832): Elementos de gramtica general, Madrid, Imprenta de. J.
Lzaro Carreter, Fernando (1949): Las ideas lingsticas en Espaa durante el siglo
XVIII, Barcelona, Crtica, 1985.
278 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Lope Blanch, Juan Miguel (1990): Estudios de historia lingstica hispnica, Madrid,
Arco Libros.
Monroy, Juan Antonio (1835): Filosofa de la Gramtica, Crdoba, Imprenta Sqntal,
Canalejas y Compaa.
Mourelle-Lema, Manuel (1968): La teora lingstica en la Espaa del siglo XIX, Ma-
drid, Prensa espaola.
Noboa, D.A.M. (1839): Nueva gramtica de la lengua castellana segn los principios de
la filosofa gramatical, Madrid, Imprenta de Eusebio Aguado.
Padilla, Jess (2012): Reflexionando acerca de la Gramtica filosfica, Aret, Vol.
XXIV, N 2, 2012, pp. 323-349
Pealver Castillo, Manuel (1993): Estudios de historia de la lingstica espaola, Alme-
ra, Instituto de Estudios Almerienses
Sarmiento, Ramn (1986): The Grammatical Doctrine of the Real Academia Espaola
(1854), en A. Quilis & H-J. Niederehe (eds.), The history of linguistics in Spain,
Amsterdam / Philadelphia, Hohn Benjamins Publishing Company.

Juan de Ormazas and Vicente Salazars Grammars,

Dictionaries and Doctrines in Isinay Language


Universidad de Granada, Espaa


Centro del Profesorado de El Ejido, Almera, Espaa

This paper aims to study and value the translating tasks and language stud-
ies of Isinay language carried out by the Dominicans in the Philippine Islands.
During the XVIII century most translating tasks took place in the forests of Lu-
zon Island, a plurilingual enterprise taken by the missionaries in direct contact
with the natives. Our objective is to analyse how these missionaries were trained
to learn the native languages, which were oral and totally strange to the Europe-
ans, ignorant of the Philippine culture and languages.
We present first, a brief biographical outline of the Dominicans Juan de
Ormaza and Vicente de Salazar, focussing on their tasks in the Buhay mission,
and contextualising their lives and works among the Isinay natives, throwing
some light upon the situation in which grammars, dictionaries and doctrines
were written to evangelise the natives. Later we continue with a description of
their works, some of them unknown, we have located in Madrid National Li-
brary: Thesauro castellano [Manuscript] / translated into Isinay language by
Friar Juan de Ormaza; Vocabulario Ysinay / written by Father Juan Ormaza;
Libro de la doctrina [Manuscript] / of Ormaza, and Arte de la lengua Ysinay in
Ituy mission by Vicente Salazar.
Conference Handbook 279

FERNNDEZ RODRGUEZ, Rebeca (2012). Lexicografa de la lengua ilocana. Estudio
de una obra manuscrita del siglo XVII: el Calepino ilocano. Tesis doctoral indita
presentada en la Universidad de Valladolid
RAFAEL, Vicente L. (1993). Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society
under Early Spanish Rule. Durhan: Duke UP
SUEIRO, Joaqun (2002). Fray Andrs Lpez, un terico de la traduccin del siglo XVII
en la lingstica espaola en Filipinas. Traduccin y comunicacin 3: 125162.
VILLORIA, Secundino y VILLORIA, Javier (1998). Los otros traductores: el intrprete
en el descubrimiento y colonizacin de Filipinas. EstudiosHumansticos, 20: 103

La biolinguistique chomskienne et le statut de lobjet dtude

en linguistique

Lorenzo VITRAL
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil

Ce travail a, comme sujet, le parcours de la dfinition de lobjet dtude de

la thorie gnrative, depuis son dbut, cest--dire, depuis le trs clbre
compte-rendu de Chomsky concernant le livre Verbal Behavior de Skinner,
jusqu sa formulation actuelle qui est appele la biolinguistique. On a divis
notre approche en deux priodes: (1) avant la formulation de la biolinguistique;
(2) aprs la formulation de la biolinguistique. Le critre permettant de distinguer
les deux priodes est celui du changemente du lcus des principes qui font partie
de la facult de langage. Dans la premire priode ci-dessus, on considre que
ces prncipes sont spcifiques la facult de langage. Aprs la biolinguistique,
les principes sont de nature cognitive plus large et ne sont plus spcifiques au
langage. Certaines consquences de ce changement de perspective sont
explores: (1) lachvement de la naturalisation de lobjet dtude gnrativiste,
cest--dire, les aspects psychologiques, ou les reprsentations mentales lies au
langage, sont vus comme des epiphnomnes dtermins par des propriets
biologiques; (2) le statut des phnomnes qui intressent la pratique empirique
de la biolinguistique sont ceux qui permetent dtablir les principes cognitifs
plus larges. Cest le cas, par exemple, de lanalyse des noncs interrogatifs qui
propose la validit des principes de lconomie, lesquels sont daplicabilit
cognitive plus large; (3) laggiornamento de la discussion traditionnelle entre
les positions raliste et nominaliste ayant pour base la thorie gnrative. On sait
que faire la caractrisation de la position chomskienne par rapport cette
dichotomie nest pas une tche facile. On la fait en prenant en compte les deux
sujets suivants: (a) les notions conceptuellement ncessaires versus les notions
notationnelles, distinction labore par Chomsky (1995). On discute, par rapport
ce sujet, largumentation favorable llimination des niveaux de
280 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

reprsentation, cest--dire, la structure-D et la structure-S, dans le modle

Minimaliste. Comme je le montre, dans cette discussion, Chomsky semble tre
du ct de la position raliste; (b) les perspectives drivationnelle et
reprsentationnelle de la thorie syntaxique. Dans cette discussion, formule
dans les annes 80, surtout par Brody, Chomsky raffirme la premire
perspective et ce choix va vers la position nominaliste. Je montre enfin que
Chomsky squilibre entre les deux positions ayant les avantages tout en vitant
les inconvnients des deux perspectives.

Brody,M.(2003), Towards an Elegant Syntax.London:Routledge.
Chomsky, N.(1995), The Minimalist Program. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Di Sciullo,A.M. & Boeckx,C.(2011), The Biolinguistic Enterprise.New Perspectives on
the Evolution and Nature of the Human Language Faculty. Oxford: Oxford
Univesity Press.

Sigwart's Logic and its meaning for linguistic thought

Frank VONK
HAN University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands

The Tbinger professor of philosophy Christoph Sigwart (1830-1904) pub-

lished his two volumes on Logic (the first volume in 1873 on judgments, con-
cepts and inferences, the second volume in 1878 on methodology) in an era
where we find hundreds of Logics written by almost every contemporary philos-
opher or psychologist. Sigwart was mainly known for his lectures on the history
of philosophy at the University of Tbingen, his studies on Bacon and modern
science, his discovery of Spinoza's short Treatise on God, Man and his Happi-
ness, Papers on ethical matters, and an appraisal of Schleiermacher's epistemol-
His Logic raised the interest of contemporary philosophers, mainly Gottlob
Frege (1848-1925) and Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) who took his Logic to be a
fine example of what they called a psychologistic approach towards logic which
did not take into account the real, logical object of thinking (cf. Picardi 1997). It
was translated into English (1895) by Helen Dendy (1860-1926) thus coming
back to the country where, according to Sigwart, empirical and psychological
logic started with John Stuart Mill's (1806-1873) System of Logic (1843), the
main source for his Logic.
What makes Sigwart's Logic, as well as some other Logics published in the
second half of the 19th century relevant for language theory is his idea that lan-
guage functions as a kind of intermediate between mental acts, like presenta-
Conference Handbook 281

tions, and the world of objects and events which present themselves to the per-
ceiving, speaking, thinking, etc. subject.
The most interesting part of mainly volume 1 of his Logic is the discussion
of contemporary thought on logic and language which elucidates his own point
of view, among others on language, psychology and formal logic, mainly the
ongoing discussions on the relations between subject and predicate in sentences
or concepts in judgments and their interrelationships, for instance in subjectless
sentences. In my paper I will highlight some of these discussions with Husserl,
Anton Marty (1847-1914), Hermann Paul (1846-1921), Franz von Miklosich
(1813-1891), and Wilhelm Schuppe (1836-1913) and outline the main underly-
ing linguistic principles throughout his logical work.

Picardi, Eva (1997). "Sigwart, Husserl and Frege on Truth and Logic, or is Psychologism
Still a Threat". European Journal of Philosophy 5, 2, 162-182.
Sigwart, Christoph (19043). Logik. Erster Band. Die Lehre vom Urteil, vom Begriff und
vom Schluss. [mit einer Einleitung vom Herausgeber, Heinrich Maier]. Tbingen:
Verlag von J.C.B. Mohr.
--- (19245). Logik. Zweiter Band. Die Methodenlehre. Tbingen: Verlag von J.C.B.
Mohr [5., durchgesehene Auflage, mit Anmerkungen von Dr. Heinrich Maier, Pro-
fessor der Philosophie an der Universitt Berlin].

Problema de codificao da grafia nas gramticas italianas

e portuguesas do sculo XVI

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia

A codificao dos vernculos constitua uma das tendncias principais da

lingustica europeia do sc. XVI. Aquele processo desenvolvia-se ao passo que
se formavam os estados nacionais centralizados e a autoconscincia nacional. A
este tema esto destinados vrios estudos de carcter geral (Kukenheim 1932,
1974; Vitale 1960; Pozzi 1988, Carvalho Buescu 1979), os estudos que tratam
monumentos lingusticos concretos (Patota 2003, Lieber 2000, Vallance 2009,
Kossrik 2002, Carvalho Buescu 1975) e aspectos mais particulares da codifi-
cao (Gonalves 2003, Hartmann 1997, Coluccia 2002). Gostariamos de prestar
mais ateno a um problema que no deixa de ser interessante, o problema de
codificao da grafia nos monumentos lingusticos renascentistas portugueses (J.
Barros, F. Oliveira, D. Nunes de Leo et al.) e italianos (L.B. Alberti, G. Trissi-
no, C. Tolomei et al.) do sculo XVI.
A codificao da lngua escrita fica impossvel sem ter resolvido os pro-
blemas da grafia. As gramticas italianas e portuguesas apresentam um material
282 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

interessante para a comparao. Podemos ressaltar algumas tendncias comuns

apesar das abordagens diferentes da codificao da lngua.
Os problemas relacionados grafia, discutidos na Itlia e em Portugal no
sculo XVI, so, em geral, os seguintes:
alguns grafemas latinos passaram a ser polissmicas na grafia romnica;
surgiu uma necessidade da representao grfica dos sons que estavam
ausentes do latim;
alguns grafemas ficaram excessivos; surgiu a questo de extra-las do al-
fabeto ou de dot-las de novas funes;
resolvia-se o problema de delimitao de funes de grafemas que esta-
vam em variao livre;
surge a questo da razoabilidade de manter a escrita especfica de hele-
resolve-se a questo de conjunto de diacrticos e a razoabilidade de seu
aparece uma srie de projetos corajosos da sistematizao ortogrfica que
visam aperfeioar a representao na escrita novos traos da fontica ro-
Graas aos esforos dos codificadores na Itlia e em Portugal resolve-se
efetivamente o problema de representao na escrita de sons novos; no se trata-
va da soluo do problema de cima para baixo, antes, da escolha das variantes
j empregues na prtica da escrita. Pelo contrrio, a tentativa de reformar radi-
calmente a ortografia (introduo dos grafemas gregos, em particular) no teve
bom xito. Em ambas as lnguas foram delimitadas u e v, encontrou seu emprego
o vaziu h; no que diz respeito ao uso de y; j e digramas e diacrticos os gram-
ticos italianos e portugueses afastam-se. Resumindo podemos dizer que em Por-
tugal a codificao foi mais sistemtica que na Itlia. Isso deve-se, em parte, s
diferenas na situao lingustica nesses pases.

The Mexicanismos in Missionary Grammars of Nahuatl

University of Amsterdam, Netherlands


University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

It is generally assumed that pre-modern missionary grammars were ar-

ranged according to the conventions of the Greco-Roman models. Although this
is true for a large part of the structure of missionary grammars, the final chapters
of these works include topics that classical grammarians did not incorporate in
Conference Handbook 283

their grammars. In classical grammars, these topics were part of other arts of the
trivium (in the case of topics related to rhetoric and dialectic) or even of the
quadrivium (such as arithmetic and music). The study of the last chapter of vari-
ous missionary leads to the conclusion that most grammarians used this section
freely, including topics as poetry, poetics, music and even dance songs, whereas
others used this final section to incorporate specific translation problems, point-
ing at syntactic idiosyncrasies of the indigenous languages.
In the case of Nahuatl grammars composed between 1547 and 1765, nearly
all the grammarians use the term mexicanismo (also maneras/modos de hablar)
in their final sections, presenting and explaining deviating linguistic construc-
tions. The concept of mexicanismo thus holds a close relationship to soloecism
and barbarism, both inherited from Antiquity. However, the concept of mexican-
ismo lacks the negative meaning of vice and is closer related to the concept of
The fact that they were considered neutral or elegant expressions stresses
the extent to which the focus of these missionary grammars was on the didactics
of translation. Evidently, the mexicanismos were worth to be studied first and
then to be translated appropriately. The fact that mexicanismos were not consid-
ered as vices, but even carried a positive meaning, reveals the absence of a
purely ethnocentric attitude of the missionary grammarians, ascan be illustrated
by Lagunas:
Y no nos marauillemos ni riamos, porque si nos parece que ellos en esto
hablan al reues: la propia opinin, o reputacin ternan ellos de nosotros pues que
los lenguajes tienen cada qual su orden modo y manera (Lagunas 1983[1574]:
In this paper the following questions will be analysed:
- Which grammatical idiosyncrasies were included and labeled as mex-
- How are they described and classified?
- Why are these features described in a separate chapter and why are they
particular features labeled as mexicanismos, and other syntactic or
translation problems not?
- Is there a systematical approach to these features and can we see a cer-
tain evolution of these ideas during the period under study? (1547-

Conference Handbook 285

Addresses of Participants

Lia Abuladze Cristina Altman

Institut fr Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft Universidade de So Paulo
Universitt Mnster FFLCH / CEDOCH
Aegidiistrae 5 Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 403
48143 Mnster Cidade Universitria
Deutschland 05508-900 So Paulo, SP
E-mail: labulad@uni-muenster.de Brasil
E-mail: altman@usp.br
Tsiuri Akhvlediani
36, Chavchavadze ave, build. V, room 231 Mark Amsler
Department of French Philology, English Drama Writing Studies
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Arts
0179 Tbilisi, University of Auckland
Georgia Private Bag 92019
E-mail: tsiuriakhvlediani@yahoo.com Auckland 1142, Aotearoa
New Zealand
Astrid Alexander-Bakkerus E-mail: m.amsler@auckland.ac.nz
Van Ouwenlaan 32
2597 CW Den Haag Maria Lcia da Cunha Victrio de Olivei-
Nederland ra Andrade
E-mail: A.Alexander-Bakkerus@uva.nl Rua Dr. Joo Batista de Lacerda, 261, apto. 21
03177-010 So Paulo, SP
Maria Aurora Consuelo Alfaro Lagorio Brasil
Rua Lopes Trovo, 247, apt. 301, Icarai E-mail: maluvictorio@uol.com.br
24.220-070 Niteroi, RJ
Brasil Rossana de Angelis
E-mail: consueloalfaro@hotmail.fr via San Giovanni 37
87040 San Benedetto Ullano (CS)
Vladimir Mikhailovich Alpatov Italia
Institute of Linguistics, E-mail: rossana.deangelis@gmail.com
Russian Academy of Sciences,
125009, Moscow, Jos Edicarlos de Aquino
Bol'shoy Kislovskiy Pereulok, 1. SHIS QI 28 Conjunto 11 Casa 04,
Russia 71670-310 Braslia, DF
E-mail: v-alpatov@ivran.ru Brasil.
E-mail: edicarlos_aquino@yahoo.com.br
286 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Sylvie Archaimbault Lauro Jos Siqueira Baldini

EUR'ORBEM Universidade Estadual de Campinas
CNRS/Paris Sorbonne Instituto de Estudos da Linguagem
9, rue Michelet Rua Srgio Buarque de Holanda, 571
75006-Paris 13083-859 Campinas, SP
France Brasil
E-mail: archaimb@linguist.univ-paris- E-mail: ljsbaldini@gmail.com
Anabela Leal de Barros
Carlos Assuno Universidade do Minho
Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro Instituto de Letras e Cincias Humanas
Centro de Estudos em Letras Campus de Gualtar
Quinta de Prados 4700-057 Braga
5000-801 Vila Real Portugal
Portugal E-mail: aldb@ilch.uminho.pt
E-mail: cassunca@utad.pt
Clara Barros
milie Aussant Faculdade de Letras
Laboratoire d'histoire des thories linguistiques Universidade do Porto
Universit Paris Diderot Paris 7 Via Panormica, s/n
Case 7034 4100-564 Porto
5 rue Thomas Mann Portugal
75013 Paris E-mail: mbarros@letras.up.pt
E-mail: eaussant@linguist.univ-paris-diderot.fr Diana Luz Pessoa de Barros
Rua Pamplona, 1364, casa 9,
Wendy Ayres-Bennett 01405-002 So Paulo, SP
Murray Edwards College Brasil
Cambridge, CB3 0DF E-mail: dianaluz@usp.br
United Kingdom
E-mail: wmb1001@cam.ac.uk Hans Basbll
Solvangen 5
Eun Mi Bae 5260 Odense S
Heilongjiang University Denmark
International Politeness and Culture Ex- E-mail: hba@sdu.dk
change Research Institute
Gartnerveien 9c Neusa Bastos
0678 Oslo Rua Gabriel de Lara, 425
Norway 04582-050 So Paulo, SP
E-mail: baeeunmi@yahoo.no Brasil
E-mail: nmbastos@terra.com.br
Conference Handbook 287

Elena Battaner Moro Evandro Bonfim

Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Aulario 3, Despacho 008 Departamento de Antropologia
Camino del Molino, s/n, Museu Nacional
28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Quinta da Boa Vista, So Cristvo
Espaa 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ
E-mail: elena.battaner@urjc.es Brasil
E-mail: evandrobonfim@hotmail.com
Emiliano Battista
Maza 2279, 1 B. Brengre Bouard
1240 Buenos Aires Universit de Lorraine
Argentina Campus Lettres et Sciences Humaines
E-mail: ironlingua@hotmail.com UFR Lettres
23 boulevard Albert 1er - BP 13397
Edouard Belaga 54015 Nancy
228, route des Romains France
67200 Strasbourg E-mail: berengere.bouard@univ-lorraine.fr
E-mail: edouard.belaga@math.unistra.fr Luiza Katia Andrade Castello Branco
Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Michel Berr Instituto de Estudos da Linguagem
Universit de Mons Rua Srgio Buarque de Holanda, 571
20, place du Parc 13083-859 Campinas, SP
7000 Mons Brasil
Belgique E-mail: luizakcb@gmail.com
E-mail: michel.berre@umons.ac.be
Regina Helena Pires de Brito
Valentina Bisconti Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie,
33, Rue Gazan Ps Graduao, Letras
75014 Paris Rua da Consolao, 896,
France Edificio Joo Calvino, 8 andar, sala 87,
E-mail: valentinabisconti@yahoo.it 01302-907 So Paulo, SP
Tinatin Bolkvadze E-mail: reginahelena.brito@mackenzie.br
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University,
Giorgi Akhvlediani Society for the His- Aline Maria Freitas Bussons
tory of Linguistics Universidade Regional do Cariri
Dept. of General and Comparative Linguistics Centro de Humanidades
1, I. Chavchavadze Avenue, Departamento de Lnguas e Literaturas
0128 Tbilisi Rua Cel. Antnio Luis, 1161, Pimenta
Georgia 63105-00 Crato, CE
E-mail: tinatin.bolkvadze@hotmail.com Brasil
E-mail: alinebussons@hotmail.com
288 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Ana Lcia Furquim Campos-Toscano Larissa Montagner Cervo

Uni-FACEF Centro Universitrio de Franca Rua Silvino Jacob Zimerman, 3010, Apto 305,
Av. Dr. Ismael Alonso Y Alonso, 2400 97105-380 Santa Maria, RS
Bairro So Jos Brasil
14403-096 Franca, SP E-mail: laricervo@gmail.com
E-mail: anafurquim@yahoo.com Csar Chaparro Gmez
Facultad de Filosofa y Letras
Maria Ins Batista Campos Universidad de Extremadura
Rua Cardoso de Almeida, n. 962 apto 82 Departamento de Ciencias de la Antigedad
05013-001 So Paulo, SP Campus Universitario, s/n, Despacho 36,
Brasil 10071 Cceres
E-mail: maricamp@usp.br Espaa
E-mail: chaparro@unex.es
Giorgio Casacchia
Consulate General of Italy Alessandro Chidichimo
989 Changle Rd, Universit de Genve
Xuhui, Shanghai, Facult de Psychologie et Sciences de l'ducation
China 40, boulevard du Pont-d'Arve
E-mail: giorgiocasacchia@libero.it 1211 Geneve 4
Nancy dos Santos Casagrande E-mail: alessandrochidichimo@gmail.com
Pontifcia Universidade Catlica
Faculdade de Filosofia, Comunicao, Craig Christy
Letras e Artes, University of North Alabama
Departamento de Portugus UNA Box 5074
Rua Monte Alegre, 984, Perdizes, Florence, Alabama
05014-901 So Paulo, SP 35632-0001
Brasil U.S.A.
E-mail: nancy.casagrande@gmail.com E-mail: tcchristy@una.edu

Claudia Regina Castellanos Pfeiffer Brbara Cifuentes Garca

Universidade Estadual de Campinas Escuela Nacional de Antropologa e Historia
Ncleo de Desenvolvimento da Criatividade Perifrico Sur y Zapote s/n,
Laboratrio de Estudos Urbanos Col. Isidro Fabela, Delegacin Tlalpan,
Rua Caio Graco Prado, 70 14030 Mxico
Cidade Universitria Mxico
13081-970 Campinas, SP E-mail: barbaracfts@gmail.com
E-mail: claupfe@yahoo.com Micaela Coelho
Universidade Federal de Uberlndia
Ricardo Stavola Cavaliere Instituto de Letras e Lingustica
Rua Gis Monteiro, 8 bl. F 1801 Av. Joo Naves de vila, 2121, Sala 1U-206,
22290-080 Rio de Janeiro, RJ Bairro Santa Mnica
Brasil 38408-144 Uberlndia, MG
E-mail: cavaliere@oi.com.br Brasil
E-mail: micaelapafume@yahoo.com.br
Conference Handbook 289

Snia Coelho Maria Iraci Sousa Costa

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Centro de Estudos em Letras Departamento de Letras Clssicas, Filolo-
Quinta de Prados gia e Lingstica
5000-801 Vila Real Av. Roraima, n 40, Campus Universitrio
Portugal 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS
E-mail: ccoelho@utad.pt Brasil
E-mail: iraciscosta@yahoo.com.br
Joyce Palha Colaa
Universidade Federal de Sergipe Thas de Arajo da Costa
Centro de Educao e Cincias Humanas Universidade Federal Fluminense
Departamento de Letras Estrangeiras Departamento de Cincia da Linguagem
Cidade Universitria Prof. Jos Alosio de Campos Rua Miguel de Frias, n.9, Icara
Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n, 24220-900 Niteroi, RJ
Jardim Rosa Elze, Brasil
49100-000 So Cristvo, SE E-mail: araujo_thais@yahoo.com.br
E-mail: joy.palha@gmail.com David Cram
University of Oxford
Bernard Colombat Jesus College
Universit Paris Diderot - Paris 7 Turl Street
UFR Linguistique - UMR CNRS 7597 Oxford
Histoire des thories linguistiques OX1 3DW
Case 7034 United Kingdom
5, Rue Thomas Mann E-mail: david.cram@jesus.ox.ac.uk
75205 Paris Cedex 13
France Mrcio Alexandre Cruz
E-mail: bernard.colombat@linguist. Universidade Federal de Alagoas
univ-paris-diderot.fr Faculdade de Letras
Av. Lourival Melo Mota, s/n,
John Considine Cidade Universitria
Department of English 57072-900 Macei, AL
3-5 Humanities Centre Brasil
University of Alberta E-mail: marcioalexandrecruz@ hotmail.com
Edmonton, AB T6G 2E5
Canada Anamaria Curea
E-mail: jc18@ualberta.ca 25, rue Somesului,
407280 Floresti (Cluj)
Mara Jos Corvo Snchez Roumanie
Universidade de Vigo E-mail: anamariacurea@yahoo.fr
Facultade de Filoloxa e Traducin
Praza das Cantigas s/n Giuseppe D'Ottavi
36310 Campus Universitario Vigo Institut des Textes et Manuscrits Modernes
Espaa 45 rue d'Ulm
E-mail: mcorvo@uvigo.es 75005 Paris
E-mail: giuseppe.dottavi@gmail.com
290 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Andriy Danylenko Nino Doborjginidze

Dept. of Modern Languages and Cultures Ilia State University
Pace University Center of linguistic Research
41 Park Row, 11th Floor, Room 1116 Kakutsa Cholokashvili Ave 3/5
New York, NY 10038 0162 Tbilisi
U.S.A. Georgia
e-mail: adanylenko@pace.edu E-mail: nino_doborjginidze@iliauni. edu.ge

Satarupa Dattamajumdar (Saha) Julia Dorokhova

120A, Dr.A.K.Pal Road, National Research University "Higher
Behala, Kolkata-700034, West Bengal, School of Economics"
India 20, Myasnitskaya str.,
E-mail: dattamajumdardrs@gmail.com Moscow, 101990
Tim Denecker E-mail: julia.dorokhova@mail.ru
Center for the Historiography of Linguistics
University of Leuven - KU Leuven Franoise Douay
Faculty of Arts (pb 3308) 26 bd de la Libration
Blijde-Inkomststraat 21 84240 La Tour d'Aigues
3000 Leuven France
Belgium E-mail: fran.douay@wanadoo.fr
E-mail: Tim.Denecker@arts.kuleuven.be
Francesca M. Dovetto
Felipe Dezerto Universit di Napoli Federico II
Praia de Botafogo, 96 apto 403, Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici
22250-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ Via Porta di Massa 1,
Brasil 80133 Napoli
E-mail: fbdezerto@hotmail.com Italia
E-mail: dovetto@unina.it
Juciele Pereira Dias
Estrada dos Bandeirantes, 8041, bl. 01, Snia Duarte
Apto 612, Centro de Lingustica da Faculdade de Letras
22783-115 Rio de Janeiro, RJ Universidade do Porto
Brasil Via Panormica, s/n
E-mail: jucieledias@hotmail.com 4150-564 Porto
Alexander N. Dmitriev E-mail: duarte.sonia@sapo.pt
Center for the History of Ideas and Socio-
logy of Knowledge Els Elffers
Poletayev Institute for Theoretical and Mozartkade 11
Historical Studies in the Humanities 1077 DJ Amsterdam
20, Myasnitskaya str., Nederland
Moscow, 101990, E-mail: els.elffers@uva.nl
E-mail: alex.n.dmitriev@gmail.com
Conference Handbook 291

Miguel ngel Esparza Torres Rosa Atti Figueira

Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Camino del Molino s/n Instituto de Estudos da Linguagem
Edificio Departamental III, Desp. 005 Rua Srgio Buarque de Holanda, 571,
28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid 13083-859 Campinas, SP
Espaa Brasil
E-mail: miguelangel.esparza@urjc.es E-mail: rosattie@yahoo.com.br

Zarina Estrada Fernndez Patrick Flack

Departamento de Letras y Lingstica Charles University in Prague
Universidad de Sonora Faculty of Arts
Edificio 3-A nm. Jana Palacha 2,
Rosales y Blvd. Luis Encinas s/n 116 38 Praha 1
Col. Centro Czech Republic
83000 Hermosillo, Sonora E-mail: patrick@flack.ch
E-mail: zarinaef@gmail.com Maria do Cu Fonseca
Universidade de vora
Leonor Lopes Fvero Escola de Cincias Sociais
Rua Dom Henrique, 326, Departamento de Lingustica e Literaturas
04032-120 So Paulo, SP Largo dos Colegiais
Brasil Apartado 94
E-mail: lplfavero@uol.com.br 7002-554 vora
Gonalo Fernandes e-mail: cf@uevora.pt
Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Centro de Estudos em Letras Susana Fontes
Quinta de Prados Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro
5000-801 Vila Real Centro de Estudos em Letras
Portugal Quinta de Prados
E-mail: gf@utad.pt 5000-801 Vila Real
Rebeca Fernndez Rodrguez E-mail: sfontes@utad.pt
Av. Huertas del Sacramento, 13, 4D
24402 Ponferrada (Len) Jean-Marie Fournier
Espaa Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3
E-mail: rebecafr@utad.pt Dpartement de Littrature et Linguistique
Franaises et Latines
Ana Cludia Fernandes Ferreira Centre Censier
Faculdade de Filosofia, Cincias e Letras 13, rue Santeuil
Eugnio Pacelli 75231 Paris
Universidade do Vale do Sapuca France
Av. Pref. Tuany Toledo, 470 E-mail: jean-marie.fournier@univ-paris3.fr
37550-000 Pouso Alegre, MG
E-mail: anaclau@ymail.com
292 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Jos Ribamar Bessa Freire Sima Garca Gaspar

Rua Lopes Trovo, 247, apt. 301 Facultad de Filosofa y Letras
Icarai, Universidad de Extremadura
24220-070 Niteroi, RJ Departamento de Ciencias de la Antigedad
Brasil Campus Universitario de Cceres s/n
E-mail: bessa_18@hotmail.com 10071 Cceres
Manuel Galeote E-mail: simagarciagaspar@gmail.com
Departamento de Filologa Espaola I,
Romnica e Italiana Jos Mara Garca Martn
Facultad de Filosofa y Letras Universidad de Cdiz
Universidad de Mlaga Facultad de Filosofa y Letras
Campus de Teatinos, s/n Avda. Doctor Gmez Ulla, s/n
29071 Mlaga 11003 Cdiz
Espaa E-mail: josemaria.garcia@uca.es,
E-mail: galeote@uma.es
Joaqun Garca-Medall
Giusy Gallo Facultad de traduccin e Interpretacin
Universit della Calabria, Universidad de Valladolid
Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, Campus Duques de Soria s/n.
87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Cs) 42004 Soria
Via Pietro Bucci, Cubo 28/B, II piano Espaa
Italia E-mail: garmed@lesp.uva.es
E-mail: giusy.gallo@unical.it
Mariarosaria Gianninoto
Mara de los ngeles Garca Aranda Universit Stendhal Grenoble 3
Departamento de Lengua espaola y Teo- Laboratoire de Linguistique et Didactique
ra de la Literatura des Langues Etrangres et Maternelles
Facultad de Filologa BP 25 - 38040 Grenoble cedex 9
Universidad Complutense de Madrid France
Ciudad Universitaria, s/n E-mail: Mariarosaria.Gianninoto@u-
28040 Madrid grenoble3.fr
E-mail: magaranda@filol.ucm.es Tom Glanc
Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin
Mara Jos Garca Folgado Philosophische Fakultt II
Universidad de Valencia Department of Slavic Studies
Facultad de Magisterio Unter den Linden 6,
Departamento de la Lengua y la Literatura 10099 Berlin
Av. de los Naranjos, 4 Deutschland
46022 Valencia E-mail: tomas.glanc@gmail.com
E-mail: garfolma@uv.es
Conference Handbook 293

Giovanni Gobber Juan Mara Gmez Gmez

Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore Facultad de Filosofa y Letras
Facolt di Scienze Linguistiche e Lettera- Universidad de Extremadura
ture Straniere Departamento de Ciencias de la Antigedad
Largo A. Gemelli, 1 Campus Universitario, s/n, Despacho 104,
20123 Milano 10071 Cceres
Italia Espaa
E-mail: giovanni.gobber@unicatt.it E-mail: juanmgg@unex.es

Thomas Godard Filomena Gonalves

St John's College Universidade de vora
Cambridge CB2 1TP Escola de Cincias Sociais
United Kingdom Dep. de Lingustica e Literaturas
E-mail: tg289@cam.ac.uk Largo dos Colegiais
Apartado 94
Batrice Godart-Wendling 7002-554 vora,
Laboratoire d'histoire des thories linguistiques Portugal
Universit Paris Diderot Paris 7 E-mail: mfg@uevora.pt
Case 7034
5 rue Thomas Mann Hortncia de Abreu Gonalves
75013 Paris Universidade Tiradentes,
France Centro de Cincias do Homem e da Natu-
E-mail: godart@linguist.univ-paris-diderot.fr reza, Campus II.
Av. Dr. Jos Thoms d vila Nabuco, 300
Rejane Centurion Gambarra e Gomes Farolndia
Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso 49030-270 - Aracaju, SE
Campus Universitrio de Tangar da Serra Brasil
Rodovia MT - 358, Km 07 E-mail: ensino.pesquisa@yahoo.com.br
Jardim Aeroporto
78300-000 Tangar da Serra, MT Aarn Grageda Bustamante
Brasil Departamento de Letras y Lingstica
E-mail: rejanecenturion@usp.br Universidad de Sonora
Edificio 3-A
Jos J. Gmez Asencio Rosales y Blvd. Luis Encinas s/n
Departamento de Lengua Espaola Col. Centro
Facultad de Filologa C.P. 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora
Universidad de Salamanca Mxico
Plaza Anaya s/n. E-mail: agrageda@sociales.uson.mx
37008 Salamanca
Espaa Dmitri Gurevich
E-mail: gasencio@usal.es Lomonosov Moscow State University
Faculty of Philology, Humanities Building
119991, Moscow,
GSP-1, 1-51 Leninskie Gory, 1
E-mail: caipira@yandex.ru
294 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Maria Mercedes Saraiva Hackerott Stefania Montes Henriques

Pontifcia Universidade Catlica Rua Padre Lafaiete, nmero 515
Faculdade de Filosofia, Comunicao, Bairro Centro,
Letras e Artes 38440-220 Araguari, MG
Rua Joo Ramalho, 182, Perdizes Brasil
05008-000 So Paulo, SP E-mail: temontess@gmail.com
E-mail: ceda.hackerott@uol.com.br Mara do Carmo Henrquez Salido
Faculdade de Cincias da Educao
Camiel Hamans As Lagoas Campus Universitrio
Adam Mickiewicz University 32004 Ourense
Faculty of English Espaa
Dept. of Dutch and Afrikaans E-mail: mcsalido@uvigo.es
Ul. Wieniawskiego 1
61-712 Pozna Ascensin Hernndez Trivio
Poland Instituto de Investigaciones Filolgicas
E-mail: hamans@telfort.nl Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico
Circuito Mario de la Cueva s. n.
Vera Lucia Harabagi Hanna Ciudad Universitaria,
Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Delegacin Coyoacn,
CCL - Centro de Comunicao e Letras. 04510 Mxico
Rua da Consolao, 896, Mxico
01302-907 So Paulo, SP E-mail: atrivino@unam.mx
E-mail: verahanna@uol.com.br Mara del Carmen Herrera Meza
Direccin de Lingstica,
Gerda Haler Instituto Nacional de Antropologa e Historia
Universitt Potsdam Museo Nacional de Antropologa
Institut fr Romanistik Reforma y Gandhi s/n, Col. Polanco
Am Neuen Palais 10, Haus 19 06100 Mxico D.F.
14469 Potsdam Mxico
Deutschland E-mail: yaocihua@gmail.com
E-mail: hassler@uni-potsdam.de
Bernhard Hurch
Anja Hennemann Institut fr Sprachwissenschaft
Universitt Potsdam Universitt Graz
Institut fr Romanistik Merangasse 70
Am Neuen Palais 10, Haus 19 8010 Graz
14469 Potsdam sterreich/Austria
Deutschland E-mail: bernhard.hurch@uni-graz.at
E-mail: henneman@uni-potsdam.de
Manuel Gustavo Isaac
1, rue Victor Basch
92120 Montrouge
E-mail: isaac.manuelgustavo@gmail.com
Conference Handbook 295

Viggo Bank Jensen Lia Karosanidze

Department of English, Germanic and Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
Romance Studies 1, Chavchavadze Ave.,
University of Copenhagen 0179 Tbilisi
Njalsgade 128, Georgia
2300 Copenhagen S E-mail: l.karosanidze@gmail.com
E-mail: vbj@hum.ku.dk Kateryna Karunyk
Gvardiytsiv Shyronintsiv Str. 59g - 107
Marina Jikia 61146 Kharkiv
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Ukraine
1, Chavchavadze Ave., E-mail: karunyk@gmail.com
0179 Tbilisi
Georgia Viacheslav B. Kashkin
E-mail: jikiamarika@hotmail.com Voronezh State University
1 Universitetskaya pl.,
Muriel Jorge Voronezh, 394006
Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 Russia
cole Doctorale 268 "Langage et Langues" E-mail: kashkin2000@mail.ru
1, rue Censier
75005 Paris Rolf Kemmler
France Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro
E-mail: muriel.jorge@gmail.com Centro de Estudos em Letras
Quinta de Prados
Kenichi Kadooka 5000-801 Vila Real
12-17 Korien-yamanote, Portugal
Hirakata 5730087 E-mail: kemmler@utad.pt
E-mail: shakuanjuu@gmail.com Nadia Kerecuk
Garden Flat
Maja Kalezi 3 Mycenae Road
Etymological research Department Blackheath
Institute for the Serbian language, London SE3 7SF
Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts United Kingdom
Knez Mihailova 36/1, E-mail: nadia.kerecuk@gmail.com
11000 Belgrade,
Serbia Douglas A. Kibbee
E-mail: maja3m@yahoo.com 2090 Foreign Languages Building, MC-158
University of Illinois
Alexander M. Kalkhoff 707 South Mathews Avenue
Universitt Regensburg Urbana IL 61801
Institut fr Romanistik U.S.A.
D-93040 Regensburg E-mail: dkibbee@illinois.edu
E-mail: alexander.kalkhoff@ur.de
296 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Marcin Kilarski E.F.K. Koerner

Faculty of English, Cantianstr. 11
Adam Mickiewicz University, D-10437 Berlin
Al. Niepodlegoci 4 Deutschland
61-874 Pozna E-mail: mail@efk-koerner.berlin
E-mail: kilarski@amu.edu.pl Marina Kossrik
Starobitsevskaia 23-3-13
Sung Do Kim 111726, Moscow
Korea University Russia
145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, E-mail: olissipo@yandex.ru
Seoul, 136-701
Korea George Kuparadze
E-mail: dodo@korea.ac.kr 36, Chavchavadze ave, build. V, room 231
Department of English Philology,
Emi Kishimoto Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University,
Faculty of Letters 0179 Tbilisi
Kyoto Prefectural University Georgia
1-5, Hangi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, E-mail: gkuparadze@yahoo.com
Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-8522
Japan Djamel Eddine Lachachi
E-mail: kishimoto@kpu.ac.jp Universit d'Oran
Facult des Lettres, Langues et Arts
Yuri Kleiner Dpart. des Langues Anglo-Saxonnes
Saint-Petersburg State University BP 1524, 31.000 Oran
Faculty of Philology Algrie
Department of General Linguistics E-mail: dlachachi@yahoo.fr
11, Universitetskaya Emb.
199034, St. Petersburg Suzy Lagazzi
Russia Universidade Estadual de Campinas
E-mail: yurikleiner@hotmail.com Instituto de Estudos da Linguagem
Rua Srgio Buarque de Holanda, 571
Anthony J. Klijnsmit 13083-859 Campinas, SP
Advanced Linguistic & Editorial Services Brasil
Middenweg 25/2 E-mail: slagazzi@gmail.com
1098 AB Amsterdam
Nederland Aime Lahaussois
E-mail: a.j.klijnsmit@upcmail.nl Laboratoire d'histoire des thories linguistiques
Universit Paris Diderot Paris 7
Carita Klippi Case 7034
University of Tampere 5 rue Thomas Mann
School of Language, Translation and 75013 Paris
Literary Studies France
Kanslerinrinne 1, Pinni B-building E-mail: aimee.lahaussois@linguist.univ-
33014 Tampereen paris-diderot.fr
E-mail: carita.klippi@uta.fi
Conference Handbook 297

Nadge Lechevrel Johann-Mattis List

Laboratoire d'histoire des thories linguistiques Philipps-Universitt Marburg
Universit Paris Diderot Paris 7 Institut fuer germanistische Linguistik
Case 7034 Wilhelm-Rpke-Str. 6a,
5 rue Thomas Mann 35032 Marburg
75013 Paris Deutschland
France E-mail: mattis.list@uni-marburg.de
E-mail: nadege.lechevrel@ehess.fr
Anke de Looper
Marli Quadros Leite John Benjamins Publishing Company
Rua Professor Picarolo, 115, ap. 9B P.O. Box 36224
Bela Vista 1020 ME Amsterdam
01332-020 So Paulo, SP Nederland
Brasil E-mail: anke.delooper@benjamins.nl
E-mail: mqleite@usp.br
Marjorie Lorch
Jacqueline Lon School of Social Science, History and
Laboratoire d'histoire des thories linguistiques Philosophy
Universit Paris Diderot Paris 7 Birkbeck, University of London
Case 7034 26 Russell Square,
5 rue Thomas Mann London WC1B 5DQ
75013 Paris United Kingdom
France E-mail: m.lorch@bbk.ac.uk
E-mail: jleon@linguist.univ-paris-diderot.fr
Marlene Loureiro
Esteban Lidgett Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Universidad de Buenos Aires Departamento de Letras, Artes e Comunicao
Facultad de Filosofa y Letras Quinta de Prados
Instituto de Lingstica 5000-801 Vila Real
25 de Mayo 217/221, 1 piso Portugal
1406 Buenos Aires E-mail: mloureiro@utad.pt
E-mail: elidgett@filo.uba.ar Anneli Luhtala
Department of World Cultures
Michael Link 00014 University of Helsinki
Freie Universitt Berlin Finland
Department of Philosophy and Humanities E-mail: aluhtala@mappi.helsinki.fi
Habelschwerdter Allee 45,
14195 Berlin Carolina de Paula Machado
Deutschland Universidade Federal de So Carlos
E-mail: Michael.link@fu-berlin.de Centro de Educao e Cincias Humanas
Rodovia Washington Lus, Km 235 - SP
310 - Jardim Guanabara,
13.565-905 So Carlos, SP
E-mail: carolinapmac@yahoo.com.br
298 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Jos Barbosa Machado Patrcia Martins

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Centro de Estudos em Letras Gabinete de Relaes Internacionais e Mobilidade
Quinta de Prados Edifcio Pedrinhas, Quinta de Prados
5000-801 Vila Real 5000-801 Vila Real
Portugal Portugal
E-mail: jleon@utad.pt E-mail: martinspatricia22@gmail.com

J. Lachlan Mackenzie Tas da Silva Martins

Faculty of Humanities Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
VU University Departamento de Letras Clssicas, Filolo-
De Boelelaan 1105 gia e Lingstica
1081 HV Amsterdam Av. Roraima, n 40, Campus Universitrio
Nederland 9710-590, Santa Maria, RS
E-mail: lachlan_mackenzie@hotmail.com Brasil
E-mail: taissmartins1@gmail.com
Maria Joo Maralo
Universidade de vora Pilar Mynez
Escola de Cincias Sociais Facultad de Estudios Superiores Acatln
Departamento de Lingustica e Literaturas Universidade Nacional Autnoma de Mxico
Largo dos Colegiais Santa Cruz Acatln,
Apartado 94 Estado de Mxico, 56-23-15-25
7002-554 vora, Mxico
Portugal E-mail: pilar_unam@hotmail.com
E-mail: mjm@uevora.pt
Nicola McLelland
Allana Cristina Moreira Marques School of Cultures, Languages & Area Studies
Rua Charqueada, n 250 University of Nottingham NG7 2RD
Bairro Jardim Botnico Nottingham,
38410579 Uberlndia, MG United Kingdom
Brasil E-mail: nicola.mclelland@nottingham.ac.uk
E-mail: lanacrismm@yahoo.com.br
Iwona Milewska
Carolina Martn Gallego Jagiellonian University
Departamento de Lengua Espaola Department of Indology
Facultad de Filologa Institute of Oriental Studies
Universidad de Salamanca Al. Mickiewicza 9/11,
Plaza Anaya s/n. 31-120 Krakw
37008 Salamanca Poland
Espaa E-mail: milewska.iwona@gmail.com
E-mail: carol.martin.gallego@gmail.com
Conference Handbook 299

Mrcia Antnia Guedes Molina Johannes Gregor Mcke

Universidade Federal do Maranho Institut fr Sprachwissenschaft
Centro Tecnolgico Universitt Graz
Avenida dos Portugueses Merangasse 70
Vila Bacanga 8010 Graz
65080-805 So Lus, MA sterreich/Austria
Brasil E-mail: johannes.muecke@uni-graz.at
E-mail: maguemol@yahoo.com.br
Sophie Mujiri
Cristina Monzn Garca 36, Chavchavadze ave, build. V, room 231
Centro de Estudios Antropolgicos Department of German Philology,
El Colegio de Michoacn Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University,
Martnez de Navarrete 505, Fracc. Las 0179 Tbilisi
Fuentes, 59699, Zamora, Mich., Mxico Georgia
E-mail: cmonzon@colmich.edu.mx E-mail: s_mudshiri@yahoo.com

Milena Borges de Moraes Maria Helena de Moura Neves

Rua Comandante Quintela, 194, Avenida Osrio 120 Ap. 121
Bairro So Miguel, 14.801-308 Araraquara, SP
78200-000 Cceres, MT Brasil
Brasil E-mail: mhmneves@uol.com.br
E-mail: milenaborges@usp.br
Hans-J. Niederehe
Sbastien Moret Hauptstr. 135
Universit de Lausanne 54318 Mertesdorf
Facult des Lettres Deutschland
Section des langues et civilisations slaves E-mail: hans-j@niederehe.de
et de l'Asie du Sud
Btiment Anthropole Sandra Nossik
1015 Lausanne Universit de Franche-Comt
Suisse UFR Sciences du langage, de l'homme et
E-mail: Sebastien.Moret@unil.ch de la socit
30 rue Mgevand
Charles-Henry Morling 25000 Besanon
63 rue du Commerce France
75015 Paris E-mail: sandra.nossik@gmail.com
E-mail: chmorling@gmail.com Jos Horta Nunes
Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Teresa Moura Laboratrio de Estudos Urbanos
Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro Caixa Postal 6166
Centro de Estudos em Letras 13083-892 Campinas, SP
Quinta de Prados Brasil
5000-801 Vila Real E-mail: j.h.n@live.com
E-mail: tmoura@utad.pt
300 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Marie Odoul Tommaso Pellin

Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 Universit degli Studi di Macerata
cole doctorale "Langage et langues" Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici
Centre Bivre, Palazzo Ugolini, Corso Cavour 2
1 rue Censier, 62100 Macerata
75005 Paris Italia
France E-mail: tommaso.pellin@unimc.it
E-mail: m.odoul@hotmail.fr
Marc Pierce
Kerstin Ohligschlaeger Department of Germanic Studies
Institut fr Romanistik University of Texas at Austin
Universitt Potsdam 2505 University Ave, C3300
Am Neuen Palais 10, Haus 19, 4.34a Austin, Texas 78712-1802
14469 Potsdam U.S.A.
Deutschland E-mail: mpierc@austin.utexas.edu
E-mail: ohligsch@uni-potsdam.de
Igor Pilshchikov
Sheila Elias de Oliveira Lomonosov Moscow State University
Universidade Estadual de Campinas Faculty of Philology, Humanities Building
Instituto de Estudos da Linguagem Institute for World Culture, Dept of Rus-
Rua Srgio Buarque de Holanda, n 571, sian Culture
13083-859 Campinas, SP 119991, Moscow
Brasil GSP-1, 1-51 Leninskie Gory, 1
E-mail: sheilaelias@yahoo.com Russia
E-mail: pilshch@gmail.com
Justyna Olko
University of Warsaw Nicolas Alexandria Pinheiro
ul. Nowy Swiat 69, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
00-046 Warszawa Departamento de Antropologia
Poland Museu Nacional
E-mail: jolko@al.uw.edu.pl Quinta da Boa Vista, So Cristvo
20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Dieli Vesaro Palma Brasil
Pontifcia Universidade Catlica E-mail: nicolas.alexandria@gmail.com
Faculdade de Filosofia, Comunicao,
Letras e Artes, Sophie Piron
Rua Joo Ramalho, 182, Perdizes Dpartement de linguistique
05008-000 So Paulo, SP Universit du Qubec Montral
Brasil C.P. 8888, Succ. Centre-Ville
E-mail: dieli@uol.com.br Montral (Qc) H3C 3P8
Marina de Palo E-mail: piron.sophie@uqam.ca
Universit la Sapienza di Roma
Facolt di Lettere e Filosofia Bruna Soares Polachini
Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, Av. Nova Cantareira, 4211, Apto. 93A
00185 Roma, 02341-002 So Paulo, SP
Italia Brasil
E-mail: marina.depalo@uniroma1.it E-mail: bpolachini@gmail.com
Conference Handbook 301

Nathlia Polachini Carmen Quijada Van den Berghe

Universidade de So Paulo Facultad de Filologa
Fac. de Filosofia, Letras e Cincias Humanas Universidad de Salamanca
Depto. de Letras Clssicas e Vernculas Plaza Anaya s/n.
Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 403 37008 Salamanca
Cidade Universitria Espaa
05508-010 So Paulo, SP E-mail: carmenq@usal.es
E-mail: nathpolak@hotmail.com Valrie Raby
Laboratoire d'histoire des thories linguistiques
Rogelio Ponce de Len Romeo Universit Paris Diderot Paris 7
Faculdade de Letras Case 7034
Universidade do Porto 5 rue Thomas Mann
Via Panormica, s/n 75205 Paris cedex 13
4100-564 Porto France
Portugal E-mail: valerie.raby@wanadoo.fr
E-mail: rromeo@letras.up.pt
Layla Rad
Christian Puech Universit de Picardie Jules Verne UFR
Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 Sciences humaines, sociales et philosophie
Dpartement de Littrature et Linguistique Campus Bt. E Chemin du Thil
Franaises et Latines 80025 Amiens Cedex 1
Centre Censier, Bureau 435 France
13, rue Santeuil E-mail: Layla.Raid@u-picardie.fr
75231 Paris
France Vanessa Lacerda da Silva Rangel
E-mail: cpuech50@yahoo.fr Universidade Federal Fluminense
Departamento de Cincia da Linguagem
Natia Putkaradze Rua Miguel de Frias, n 9, Icara,
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 24220-900, Niteroi, RJ
1, Chavchavadze Ave., Brasil
0179 Tbilisi E-mail: v.rangel@yahoo.com.br
E-mail: natia.putkaradze@tsu.ge Savina Raynaud
Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Anna Pytlowany Fac. di Scienze linguistiche e letterature straniere
Universiteit van Amsterdam Largo A. Gemelli, 1
Romaanse Taalkunde 20123 Milano
Spuistraat 134 Italia
1012 VB Amsterdam E-mail: savina.raynaud@unicatt.it
E-mail: a.pytlowany@gmail.com Maria Helena Dias Rebelo
Universidade da Madeira
Centro de Comp. de Artes e Humanidades
9000-390 Funchal
E-mail: helenreb@uma.pt
302 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Gabriel Rei-Doval Daro Rojas Gallardo

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee University of Chile
Department of Spanish and Portuguese Faculty of Philosophy and Humanities
Curtin Hall, 709 Department of Linguistics
P.O. Box 413 Capitan Ignacio Carrera Pinto 1025,uoa
Milwaukee, WI 53201-0413 Santiago (RM) 7800284
U.S.A. Chile
E-mail: reidoval@uwm.edu E-mail: darioroj@u.uchile.cl

Anna Reinikka Maria Carlota Rosa

University of Helsinki Rua Flack, 101, Bloco 3, Apto. 201
P.O. Box 33 (Yliopistonkatu 4) Riachuelo
00014 University of Helsinki 20960-150 Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Finland Brasil
E-mail: anna.reinikka@helsinki.fi E-mail: mcarlota.rosa@gmail.com

Terezinha Cristina Campos de Resende Angelika Rter

Rua Francisco Vaz de Magalhes, Nodus Publikationen
828/301, Bairro Cascatinha Postfach 5725
36.033-340 Juiz de Fora, MG 48031 Mnster
Brasil Deutschland
E-mail: teca.resende@gmail.com E-mail: dutz.nodus@t-online.de

Mara Dolores Riveiro Lema Franois Saint-Grand

C/ Sanjurjo Bada, 128, 1 A Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3
36207-Vigo (Pontevedra) Dpartement de Littrature et Linguistique
Espaa Franaises et Latines
E-mail: lolariveiro@yahoo.es Centre Censier,
13, rue Santeuil
Thomas Robert 75231 Paris
Universit de Genve France
Dpartement de philosophie E-mail: francois.sg@gmail.com
Rue de Candolle 2 (4e tage)
1211 Genve 4 Maria Cristina Hennes Sampaio
Suisse Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
E-mail: thomas-robert@live.fr Departamento de Letras
Centro de Artes e Comunicao
Carolina Rodrguez-Alcal Av. Acadmico Hlio Ramos, s/n
Laboratrio de Estudos Urbanos 50670-901 Recife - Pernambuco
Ncleo de Desenvolvimento da Criatividade Brasil
Universidade Estadual de Campinas E-mail: mc.hennes@hotmail.com
Caixa Postal 6166
13083-892 Campinas, SP Eustaquio Snchez Salor
Brasil C/ Gmez Becerra, 13, 1 B,
E-mail: carolina@unicamp.br 10001 Cceres
E-mail: esanchez@unex.es
Conference Handbook 303

Maria Helena Pessoa Santos Amanda Eloina Scherer

Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Centro de Estudos em Letras Departamento de Letras Clssicas, Filolo-
Quinta de Prados gia e Lingustica
5000-801 Vila Real Av. Roraima, n 40, Campus Universitrio
Portugal 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS
E-mail: hpessoa@utad.pt Brasil
E-mail: amanda.scherer@gmail.com
Sonia Sueli Berti-Santos
Av. Jaguaribe, 947, apto 72, bloco 02. Sarah Dess Schmid
Vila Jaguaribe - Osasco, Romanisches Seminar
06065-170 So Paulo, SP Eberhard Karls Universitt Tbingen
Brasil Wilhelm Str. 50
E-mail: soniasul@uol.com.br 72074 Tbingen
Thierry Proena dos Santos E-mail: sarah.dessi@uni-tuebingen.de
Centro de Comp. de Artes e Humanidades
9000-390 Funchal Caroline Mallmann Schneiders
Portugal Rua Elpdio Almeida Lima, 620, apto 302
E-mail: thierry@uma.pt Bairro Camobi,
97105-220, Santa Maria, RS
Roxana Sarion Brasil
Duin en Kruidberg, 27 E-mail: carolletras2005@yahoo.com.br
1187 JJ, Amstelveen
E-mail: sarionroxana@gmail.com Minna Seppnen
Department of Classics
Dan Savatovsky 20014 University of Turku
cole doctorale "Langage et langues" Finland
Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 E-mail: mielse@utu.fi
Centre Bivre,
1 rue Censier, Patrick Seriot
75005 Paris Universit de Lausanne
France Facult des Lettres
E-mail: dan@savatovsky.net Btiment Anthropole
1015 Lausanne
Barbara Schfer-Prie Suisse
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen E-mail: patrick.seriot@unil.ch
Institut fr Romanische Philologie
Schellingstr. 3 VG Ana Alexandra Silva
80799 Mnchen Rua Imperador Augusto, 2
Deutschland Vila Acadmica
E-mail: bascha@arcor.de 7000-969 vora
E-mail: aasilva@uevora.pt
304 13th International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences

Karen Alves da Silva Elena Simonato

Centro Estadual de Educao Tecnolgica Universit de Lausanne
Paula Souza Facult des lettres
Faculdade de Tecnologia de Jundia Btiment Anthropole, Bureau 5096,
Avenida Unio dos Ferrovirios, 1760 Quartier UNIL-Dorigny,
Ponte de Campinas 1015 Lausanne
13201-160 Jundia, SP Suisse
Brasil E-mail: elena.simonato@unil.ch
E-mail: karenals@yahoo.com.br
Tatiana Skrebtsova
Mariza Vieira da Silva Saint-Petersburg State University,
Universidade Catlica de Braslia Faculty of Philology and Arts,
Pr-Reitoria de Ps-Graduao e Pesqui- Department of Mathematical Linguistics
sa, Curso de Letras Universitetskaya emb. 11,
Q.S. 07 - Lote 01 - EPCT 199034 St. Petersburg,
Taguatinga, guas Claras Russia
72030-170 Brasilia, DF E-mail: t.skrebtsova@yandex.ru
E-mail: marizavs@uol.com.br Jos Simo da Silva Sobrinho
Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul.
Maurcio Silva Avenida Presidente Getlio Vargas, n
Rua General Rondon, 44 - Ap. 10 609, Ed. Engemed, 2 andar
01204-010 So Paulo, SP 89812-000 Chapeco, SC
Brasil Brasil
E-mail: maurisil@gmail.com E-mail: jose-simao@uol.com.br

Soeli Maria Schreiber da Silva Anna Solomonovskaya

Abraho Joo 55, casa 17 Novosibirsk State University
Jardim Bandeirantes Department of Foreign Languages
13560-150 So Carlos, SP 2 Pirogova Str.
Brasil 630090, Novosibirsk-90
E-mail: xoila@terra.com.br Russia
E-mail: asolomonovskaya@mail.ru
Eliane Mara Silveira
Universidade Federal de Uberlndia Slvio Moreira de Sousa
Instituto de Letras e Lingustica Merangasse 70
Av. Joo Naves de vila, 2121, 8010 Graz
Bloco U, sala 221 Austria
38.408-100 Uberlndia, MG E-mail: silvio_niklas@hotmail.com
E-mail: eliane.m.silveira@gmail.com Tania Clemente
Praia do Flamengo 224/702
Verli Ftima Petri da Silveira 22210-065 Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Rua dos Andradas, 725 Brasil
97010-031 Santa Maria, RS E-mail: tania.clemente@mn.ufrj.br
E-mail: verli.petri72@gmail.com
Conference Handbook 305

Claudia Stancati Pierre-Yves Testenoire

Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici Universit Paris 3, dpartement LLFL
Universit della Calabria 13 rue de Santeuil,
Via Adige 40 75005 Paris
87100 Cosenza France
Italia E-mail: pytestenoire@yahoo.fr
E-mail: stancaticlaudia@libero.it
Margaret Thomas
John Sullivan Department of Slavic & Eastern Langua-
Universidad Autnoma de Zacatecas ges & Literatures
Instituto de Docencia e Investigacin 210 Lyons Hall
Etnolgica de Zacatecas, A.C. Boston College
Francisco Garca Salinas 604 Chestnut Hill MA 02467
Colonia CNOP U.S.A.
Zacatecas, Zac. 98053 E-mail: thomasm@bc.edu
E-mail: idiez@me.com Guillermo Toscano y Garca
Universidad de Buenos Aires
Pierre Swiggers Facultad de Filosofa y Letras
Center for the Historiography of Linguistics Instituto de Lingstica
University of Leuven - KU Leuven 25 de Mayo 217/221, 1 piso
Faculty of Arts (pb 3308) 1406 Buenos Aires
Blijde-Inkomststraat 21 Argentina
3000 Leuven E-mail: gtoscano@filo.uba.ar
E-mail: pierre.swiggers@arts.kuleuven.be Anne-Galle Toutain
59, rue de la Chine,
75020 Paris,
Yuko Kawazoe Takano France
Campus Universitrio Darcy Ribeiro E-mail: annegaelletoutain@yahoo.fr
Colina Bloco A, apto 25,
70904101 Braslia, DF Jaana Vaahtera
Brasil Department of Classics
E-mail: yukotk@gmail.com 20014 University of Turku
Victor V. Ten E-mail: jaana.vaahtera@utu.fi
St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Eco-
nomic Relations, Econ