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The term teacher leadership refers to that set of skills demonstrated by teachers

who continue to teach students but also have an infl uence that extends beyond
their own classrooms to others within their own school and elsewhere (Danielson,
2006: 12)

These arrangements recognize the essential role of teachers as key players in the
broader effort toward enhanced student achievement. Such roles are not created to
engage teachers primarily in establishing schools as democratic societies. Rather,
they are created to distribute the work of running schools to others besides the
principal and to enlist teachers as partners in school improvement (Danielson,
2006: 18)

The following are the five need categories in Maslows hierarchy of needs theory:
Physiological needs are the basic requirements of the human body: food, water,
and sleep. Safety needs are the desires of a person to be protected from physical
or economic harm. Healthy adults normally avoid harm and seek safety.
Belongingness and love needs include the desire to give and receive affection and
to be in the company of others. This is also called a social or affiliation need. This
need, described early in this chapter, helps people work in teams. Esteem needs
deal with a persons self-confidence and sense of self-worth. Esteem needs are of
two types. Esteem from others is the valuation of worth that a person gets from
others. Self-esteem is the feeling a person has about himself, a feeling of self-
confidence and self-respect. Self-actualization needs describe the desire for self-
fulfillment. According to Maslow, self-actualization is the desire to become more
and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming
(Champoux, 2010: 156)

Kepemimpinan secara luas sebagai proses sosial dengan individu atau kelompok
yang memengaruhi tujuan bersama; kepemimpinan tersebar luas dalam organisasi
baik secara formal dan informal dan mempunyai andasan rasional, sosial, dan
emosional (Hoy, 2014: 636)
Ralph M mengelompokkan faktor-faktor pribadi yang berkaitan dengan
kepemimpinan menjadi lima kategori umum berikut ini:
a. kemampuan: kecerdasan, kesiagaan, kemampuan verbal, keaslian,
penilaian
b. prestasi: sifat keilmiahan, ilmu pengetahuan, prestasi atletik
c. tanggung jawab: kebiasaan diandalkan, daya prakarsa, kegigihan, sifat
agresif, kepercayaan diri, hasrat untuk unggul
d. partisipasi: aktivitas, keramahtamahan, kerja sama, kebisaan beradaptasi,
humor
e. status: posisi sosioekonomi, popularitas (Hoy, 2014: 638)

Viteles equated motivation with employee performance and morale. The inference
drawn from attitude surveys as well as from the Hawthorne studies was that the
worker who is highly productive is a worker who has positive attitudes toward the
job (Latham, 2007: 28)

A central elementary in many definition of leadership is that there is a process of


influence (Bush, 2011: 5)

Kinerja adalah unjuk kerja seseorang yang ditunjukkan dalam penampilan,


perbuatan, dan prestasi kerjanya sebagai akumulasi dari pengetahuan,
keterampilan, nilai dan sikap yang telah dimilikinya (Mulyasa, 2013: 88)

Leadership is the process of persuasion or example by which an individual (or


eadership team) induces a group to pursue objectivew held by the leader or shared
by the leader and his or her followers (Grogan, 2013: 17)