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1 Introduction to Tensors

In elementary physics, we often come across two classes of quantities, namely scalars and
vectors. Mass, density and temperature are examples of scalar quantities, while velocity
and acceleration are examples of vector quantities. A scalar quantitys value does not de-
pend on the choice of the coordinate system. Similarly, although the components of a vector
depend on a particular choice of coordinate system, the vector itself is invariant, and has
an existence independent of the choice of coordinate system. In this chapter, we generalize
the concept of a scalar and vector, to that of a tensor. In this general framework, scalars
are considered as zeroth-order tensors and vectors as first-order tensors. Tensor quantities
of order two and greater, similar to scalars and vectors, have an existence independent
of the coordinate system. Their components, however, just as in the case of vectors, de-
pend on the choice of coordinate system. We will see that the governing field equations
of continuum mechanics can be written as tensorial equations. The advantage of writing
the field equations in such coordinate-free notation is that it is immediately obvious that
these equations are valid no matter what the choice of coordinate system is. A particular
coordinate system is invoked only while solving a particular problem, whence the appro-
priate form of the differential operators and the components of the tensors with respect to
the chosen coordinate system are used. It must be borne in mind, however, that although
using tensorial notation shows the coordinate-free nature of the governing equations in a
given frame of reference, it does not address the issue of how the equations transform under
a change of frame of reference. This aspect will be discussed in greater detail later in this
book.
We now present a review of tensors. Throughout the text, scalars are denoted by light-
face letters, vectors are denoted by boldface lower-case letters, while second and higher-
order tensors are denoted by boldface capital letters. As a notational issue, summation over
repeated indices is assumed, with the indices ranging from 1 to 3. Thus, for example, ui vi
represents u1 v1 + u2 v2 + u3 v3 , and Tij n j represents Ti1 n1 + Ti2 n2 + Ti3 n3 . The quantity on
the right-hand side of a := symbol defines the quantity on its left-hand side. A function
on V V to V means that the function is defined in terms of two elements that belong to
V, and the result is also in V.

1.1 Vector Spaces


In what follows, we consider only real vector spaces. We denote the set of real numbers
by <. A vector space (or linear space) is a set, say V, equipped with an addition function
on V V to V (denoted by +), and a scalar multiplication function on < V to V, which
satisfy the following conditions:

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2 Continuum Mechanics

1. Commutativity: For all u, v V,

u + v = v + u.

2. Associativity: For all u, v, w V,

( u + v ) + w = u + ( v + w ).

3. Existence of a zero element: There exists 0 V such that

u + 0 = u.

4. Existence of negative elements: For each u V, there exists a negative element de-
noted u in V such that

u u = 0.

5. Distributivity with respect to addition of vectors: For all <, and u, v V,

(u + v) = u + v.

6. Distributivity with respect to scalar addition: For all , <, and for all u V,

( + )u = u + u.

7. Associativity: For all , <, and for all u V,

( u) = ()u.

8. Identity in scalar multiplication: For all u V,

1u = u.

Since a vector space is a group with respect to addition (see Section 1.12) with 0 and u
playing the roles of the neutral and reverse elements, respectively, all the results derived
for groups are applicable for vector spaces. In particular, the zero element of V, and the
negative element u corresponding to a given u V are unique. Note also that u + v
V for all , <, and all u, v V.
Perhaps, the most famous example of a vector space is the n-dimensional coordinate
space <n , which is defined by

<n := {(u1 , u2 , . . . , un ) : ui <} .

For <n , addition and scalar multiplication are defined by the relations

u + v : = ( u1 + v1 , u2 + v2 , . . . , u n + v n ),
u := (u1 , u2 , . . . , un ).

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Introduction to Tensors 3

If p is a positive real number, then another example of a vector space is the space
 Z 1 
p p
L [0, 1] := f : | f | dx < ,
0

with addition and scalar multiplication defined by

( f + g)( x ) := f ( x ) + g( x ), x [0, 1],


( f )( x ) := [ f ( x )], x [0, 1].

To show that L p [0, 1] is a vector space, we need to show that f + g L p [0, 1] if f , g


L p [0, 1]. This follows from the inequality

| f + g| p [2 max(| f | , | g|)] p 2 p | f | p + | g| p .
 

A subset {u1 , u2 , . . . , um } of V is said to be linearly dependent if and only if there exist


scalars 1 , 2 , . . . , m , not all zero, such that

1 u1 + 2 u2 + + m um = 0.

Thus, a subset {u1 , u2 , . . . , um } of V is linearly independent if and only if the equation

1 u1 + 2 u2 + + m um = 0,

implies that 1 = 2 = = m = 0. A subset, say {u1 , u2 , . . . , um , 0}, which includes the


zero element is always linearly dependent even when the subset {u1 , u2 , . . . , um } is linearly
independent, since the coefficient of the zero element can be taken to be nonzero.
A subset {e1 , e2 , . . . , en } of V is said to be a basis for V if

1. {e1 , e2 , . . . , en } is linearly independent, and

2. Any element of V can be expressed as a linear combination of {e1 , e2 , . . . , en }, i.e., if


u V, then

u = u1 e1 + u2 e2 + + u n e n ,

where the scalars u1 , u2 , . . . , un are known as the components of u with respect to the
basis {e1 , e2 , . . . , en }.

If the bases have a finite number of elements, we have the following theorem:

Theorem 1.1.1. All bases for a given vector space contain the same number of elements.
Proof. Suppose that {e1 , e2 , . . . , en } and {e1 , e2 , . . . , em } are bases for a vector
space. Every ei , since it is an element of the vector space, can be expressed
in terms of the basis {e1 , e2 , . . . , en } as ij e j , ij <. Thus,

i ei = ij i e j = 0

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4 Continuum Mechanics

implies, by the linear independence of {e1 , e2 , . . . , en }, that

ij i = 0 i = 1, 2, . . . , m, j = 1, 2, . . . , n.

Let m > n. Then, the number of unknowns i is more than the number of equa-
tions, so that it is possible to find a nontrivial solution. Thus, there exist 1 , 2 ,
. . ., m , not all zero such that

i ei = 0,

i.e., {e1 , e2 , . . . , em } is linearly dependent, contradicting the fact that it is a basis.


Hence, m n. Next, suppose that m < n. Now reverse the roles of {ei } and
{ei } in the above argument to conclude that m n. Hence, m = n.

In view of the above result, a vector space V is said to be n-dimensional if it contains a


basis with n elements. If no such finite integer n exists, then the vector space is said to be
infinite-dimensional. For example, <n is finite-dimensional with

e1 = (1, 0, 0, . . . , 0),
e2 = (0, 1, 0, . . . , 0),
...
en = (0, 0, 0, . . . , 1),

as the canonical or natural basis. On the other hand, L p [0, 1] is an infinite-dimensional


vector space. Note that even in the finite-dimensional case, the basis need not be unique.
When V is finite-dimensional, using the linear independence of {e1 , e2 , . . . , en }, it is easy to
show that the components of any element u are unique.
Let V be an n-dimensional vector space. A subset { f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f m } of V, where

1. m > n cannot be a basis for V, since, as can be shown by following the same method-
ology as used in the proof of Theorem 1.1.1, it is linearly dependent.

2. m < n cannot be a basis for V, since by Theorem 1.1.1, any basis has n elements.
Although, the subset { f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f m } can be linearly independent in this case, an
arbitrary element of V cannot be expressed in terms of the elements of this subset.

Thus, m = n is a necessary condition for the subset { f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f m } to be a basis. The


following theorem is useful in finding if a given subset with n elements is a basis for an
n-dimensional vector space:

Theorem 1.1.2. Let { f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f n } be a subset of an n-dimensional vector space V,


one of whose bases is given by {e1 , e2 , . . . , en }. Since { f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f n } is a subset of V,
each f i can be expressed as a linear combination of the basis vectors {e1 , e2 , . . . , en }, i.e.,
f i = ij e j , i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n, ij <. The following statements are equivalent:

1. { f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f n } is a basis.

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Introduction to Tensors 5

2. { f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f n } is linearly independent.
3. det [ ij ] 6= 0.
Proof. We prove that (i) = (ii) = (iii) = (i).
If { f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f n } is a basis, then it is linearly independent by definition.
To prove that (ii) = (iii), we show that not (iii) = not (ii). Thus, let
det [ ij ] = 0. From matrix algebra, it follows that there exist i , i = 1, 2, . . . , n,
not all zero, such that ij i = 0. Thus, there exist i , not all zero, such that

i f i = i ij e j = 0,

which implies that the set { f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f n } is linearly dependent.


To prove that (iii) = (i), note that i f i = ij i e j = 0, implies, since
{e1 , e2 , . . . , en } is a basis (and hence a linearly independent set), that ij i = 0,
i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n, and since det [ ij ] 6= 0, it follows that all the i are zero,
thus showing that { f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f n } is linearly independent. In addition, since
det [ ij ] 6= 0, the matrix [ ij ] is invertible. Let [ij ] denote the components of this
inverse, i.e., ij jk = ik . Then

ij f j = ij jk ek = ik ek = ei .

Since {e1 , e2 , . . . , en } is a basis of V, every element u of V can be expressed as


ui ei , so that on using the above relation, we have

u = ui ei = ij ui f j .

Thus, the set { f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f n } satisfies the two conditions for qualifying as a basis.

A nonempty subset Vs of a vector space V is said to be a linear subspace if a linear com-


bination of any two of its elements also lies in Vs , i.e., if (u + v) Vs for any arbitrary
u, v Vs , and , <. For example, <2 is a linear subspace of <3 . By assuming the op-
erations of addition and scalar multiplication to be the same as that for the parent space
V, it can be shown by verifying the defining axioms that a linear subspace is itself a vector
space.
The set of all linear combinations of a subset {u1 , u2 , . . . , um } of V is called the linear
span of {u1 , u2 , . . . , um }, i.e.,
Lsp{u1 , u2 , . . . , um } := {u : u = 1 u1 + 2 u2 + + m um , i <}.
From this definition, it immediately follows that Lsp{u1 , u2 , . . . , um } is a linear subspace
of V.
An inner product space (or Euclidean space) is a vector space V equipped with a function
on V V to <, denoted by (u, v), and called the inner product (also called scalar product or
dot product) of u and v, that satisfies the following conditions:
(u, v) = (v, u) u, v V, (1.1a)
(u + v, w) = (u, w) + (v, w) , < and u, v, w V, (1.1b)

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6 Continuum Mechanics

(u, u) 0 u V with (u, u) = 0 if and only if u = 0, (1.1c)

The magnitude |u| is defined by

|u| := (u, u)1/2 .

From the above definition, and the properties of the inner product it is obvious that

|u| = || |u| < and u V,


(1.2)
|u| 0 with |u| = 0 if and only if u = 0.

Both <n and L2 [0, 1] are inner product spaces. In the case of <n , the inner product can
be defined by

(u, v) := u1 v1 + u2 v2 + + un vn .

The choice of inner product is not unique. If S is a symmetric, positive definite n n matrix,
then another choice of inner product for <n is
n n
(u, v) := Sij ui v j .
i =1 j =1

The canonical inner product for L2 [0, 1] is defined by


Z 1
( f , g) := f ( x ) g( x ) dx.
0

We now prove the following important inequality:

Theorem 1.1.3 (CauchySchwartz Inequality). Let V be an inner product space.


Then

(u, v)2 (u, u)(v, v) u, v V, (1.3)

with equality if and only if u and v are linearly dependent.

Proof. If (u, v) = 0, then the above inequality is obvious. If it is not zero, then u
and v are nonzero vectors, so that (u, u) and (v, v) are nonzero. By Eqn. (1.1c),
we have

(u v, u v) 0 <.

Expanding this equation using the properties of the inner product, we get

(u, u) 2(u, v) + 2 (v, v) 0 <. (1.4)

The left-hand side of the above inequality is a quadratic function in , with a


minimum at = (u, v)/(v, v). Substituting this value of into Eqn. (1.4), we

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Introduction to Tensors 7

get Eqn. (1.3). Alternatively, one can use a modified form of Eqn. (5.128a) that
includes equality to directly obtain Eqn. (1.3).
If u and/or v is the zero element, then by the remark following the defini-
tion of linear independence, u and v are linearly dependent, and we also have
equality in Eqn. (1.3). If they are linearly dependent and nonzero, then there
exists < such that u = v, and equality in Eqn. (1.3) follows immediately.
Conversely, if there is equality in Eqn. (1.3), and if u and/or v is the zero ele-
ment, then they are linearly dependent. If there is equality, and both u and v are
nonzero, then by letting = (u, v)/(v, v), we see that

(u v, u v) = 0,

which in turn implies that u = v.

Applying the CauchySchwartz inequality to <n and L2 [0, 1], we get


!2 ! !
n n n
ui vi u2i v2i ,
i =1 i =1 i =1
Z 1
2 Z 1
 Z 1

2 2
f ( x ) g( x ) dx f ( x ) dx g( x ) dx .
0 0 0

Using the CauchySchwartz inequality, we now prove the following:

Theorem 1.1.4 (Triangle inequality). Let V be an inner product space. Then

|u + v| |u| + |v| u, v V.

Proof.

|u + v|2 = (u + v, u + v)
= |u|2 + 2(u, v) + |v|2
|u|2 + 2 |(u, v)| + |v|2
| u |2 + 2 | u | | v | + | v |2 (by the CauchySchwartz inequality)
2
= (|u| + |v|) .

Taking the square-root of both sides, we get the desired result.

A vector space V is a normed vector space, if we assign a nonnegative real number, kuk,
called the norm of u, to each u V such that

kuk = || kuk < and u V,


kuk 0 u V with kuk = 0 if and only if u = 0,
ku + vk kuk + kvk .

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8 Continuum Mechanics

One can show that L p [0, 1], p 1 is a normed vector space. From Eqns. (1.2) and the
triangle inequality, it is clear that an inner product space is a normed vector space with the
norm defined by

kuk := |u| = (u, u)1/2 .

Since continuum mechanics is primarily the study of deformable bodies in


three-dimensional space, we now specialize the results of this section to the case n = 3,
and henceforth present results only for this case.

1.2 Vectors in <3

From now on, V denotes the three-dimensional Euclidean space <3 . Let {e1 , e2 , e3 } be a
fixed set of orthonormal vectors that constitute the Cartesian basis. We have

ei e j = ij ,

where ij , known as the Kronecker delta, is defined by


(
0 when i 6= j,
ij := (1.5)
1 when i = j.

The Kronecker delta is also known as the substitution operator, since, from the definition,
we can see that xi = ij x j , ij = ik kj , and so on. Note that ij = ji , and ii = 11 + 22 +
33 = 3.
Any vector u can be written as

u = u1 e1 + u2 e2 + u3 e3 , (1.6)

or, using the summation convention, as

u = ui ei .

The inner product of two vectors is given by

(u, v) = u v := ui vi = u1 v1 + u2 v2 + u3 v3 . (1.7)

Using Eqn. (1.6), the components of the vector u can be written as

ui = u ei . (1.8)

Substituting Eqn. (1.8) into Eqn. (1.6), we have

u = ( u ei ) ei . (1.9)

We define the cross product of two base vectors e j and ek by

e j ek := eijk ei , (1.10)

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Introduction to Tensors 9

where eijk are the components of a third-order tensor E known as the alternate tensor
(which we will discuss in greater detail in Section 1.7), and are given by

e123 = e231 = e312 = 1


e132 = e213 = e321 = 1
eijk = 0 otherwise.

Taking the dot product of both sides of Eqn. (1.10) with em , we get

em (e j ek ) = eijk im = emjk .

Using the index i in place of m, we have

eijk = ei (e j ek ). (1.11)

The cross product of two vectors is assumed to be distributive, i.e.,

(u) ( v) = (u v) , < and u, v V.

If w denotes the cross product of u and v, then by using this property and Eqn. (1.10), we
have

w = uv
= (u j e j ) (vk ek )
= eijk u j vk ei . (1.12)

It is clear from Eqn. (1.12) that

u v = v u.

Taking v = u, we get u u = 0.
The scalar triple product of three vectors u, v, w, denoted by [u, v, w], is defined by

[u, v, w] := u (v w).

In indicial notation, we have

[u, v, w] = eijk ui v j wk . (1.13)

From Eqn. 1.13, it is clear that

[u, v, w] = [v, w, u] = [w, u, v] = [v, u, w] = [u, w, v] = [w, v, u] u, v, w V.


(1.14)

If any two elements in the scalar triple product are the same, then its value is zero, as
can be seen by interchanging the identical elements, and using the above formula. From
Eqn. (1.13), it is also clear that the scalar triple product is linear in each of its argument
variables, so that, for example,

[u + v, x, y] = [u, x, y] + [v, x, y] u, v, x, y V. (1.15)

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10 Continuum Mechanics

As can be easily verified, Eqn. (1.13) can be written in determinant form as



u1 u2 u3
[u, v, w] = det v1 v2 v3 . (1.16)

w1 w2 w3

Using Eqns. (1.11) and (1.16), the components of the alternate tensor can be written in
determinant form as follows:

e i e1 e i e2 e i e3 i1 i2 i3
 
eijk = ei , e j , ek = det e j e1 e j e2 e j e3 = det j1 j3 . (1.17)

j2
e k e1 e k e2 e k e3 k1 k2 k3

Thus, we have

i1 i2 i3 p1 p2 p3
= det j1 j2 j3 det q1 q2

eijk e pqr q3
k1 k2 k3 r1 r2 r3

i1 i2 i3 p1 q1 r1
= det j1 j2 j3 det p2 q2 (since det T = det( T T ))

r2
k1 k2 k3 p3 q3 r3

i1 i2 i3
p1 q1 r1
= det j1 j2 j3 p2 q2 (since (det R)(det S) = det( RS))

r2



k1 k2 k3 p3 q3 r3

im mp im mq im mr
= det jm mp jm mq jm mr

km mp km mq km mr

ip iq ir
= det jp jq jr . (1.18)

kp kq kr

From Eqn. (1.18) and the relation ii = 3, we obtain the following identities (the first of
which is known as the e identity):

eijk eiqr = jq kr jr kq , (1.19a)


eijk eijm = 2km , (1.19b)
eijk eijk = 6. (1.19c)

Using Eqn. (1.12) and the e identity, we get

(u v) (u v) = eijk eimn u j vk um vn
= (jm kn jn km )u j vk um vn

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Introduction to Tensors 11

= (um vn um vn u j vm um v j )
= (u u)(v v) (u v)2 . (1.20)

We now have the following result:

Theorem 1.2.1. For any two vectors u, v V, u v = 0 if and only if u and v are
linearly dependent.

Proof. If u and v are linearly dependent, and u and/or v is zero, then it is obvious
that u v = 0. If they are linearly dependent and nonzero, then there exists a
scalar such that v = u. Hence

u v = u u = 0.

Conversely, if u v = 0, then

0 = (u v) (u v)
= (u u)(v v) (u v)2 , (by Eqn. (1.20))

which implies that

(u, v)2 = (u, u)(v, v).

But by Theorem 1.1.3, this implies that u and v are linearly dependent.

The vector triple products u (v w) and (u v) w, defined as the cross product of


u with v w, and the cross product of u v with w, respectively, are different in general,
and are given by

u (v w) = (u w)v (u v)w, (1.21a)


(u v) w = (u w)v (v w)u. (1.21b)

The first relation is proved by noting that

u (v w) = eijk u j (v w)k ei
= eijk ekmn u j vm wn ei
= ekij ekmn u j vm wn ei
= (im jn in jm )u j vm wn ei
= ( u n w n v i u m v m wi ) e i
= (u w)v (u v)w.

The second relation is proved in an analogous manner.


For scalar triple products, we have the following useful result:

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12 Continuum Mechanics

Theorem 1.2.2. The scalar triple product [u, v, w] is zero if and only if u, v and w are
linearly dependent.

Proof. Since

u = u1 e1 + u2 e2 + u3 e3 ,
v = v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 ,
w = w1 e 1 + w2 e 2 + w3 e 3 ,

by Theorem 1.1.2, {u, v, w} is linearly independent if and only if (see Eqn. (1.16))

u1 u2 u3
[u, v, w] = det v1 v2 v3 6= 0,

w1 w2 w3

which is equivalent to the statement of the theorem.

Another proof of the above theorem may be found in [43].

1.3 Second-Order Tensors


A second-order tensor is a linear transformation that maps vectors to vectors. We shall
denote the set of second-order tensors by Lin. If T is a second-order tensor that maps a
vector u to a vector v, then we write it as

v = Tu. (1.22)

T satisfies the property

T ( ax + by) = aT x + bTy, x, y V and a, b <.

By choosing a = 1, b = 1, and x = y, we get

T (0) = 0.

From the definition of a second-order tensor, it follows that the sum of two second-order
tensors defined by

( R + S)u := Ru + Su u V,

and the scalar multiple of T by <, defined by

(T )u := ( Tu) u V,

are both second-order tensors. The two second-order tensors R and S are said to be equal
if

Ru = Su u V. (1.23)

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Introduction to Tensors 13

The above condition is equivalent to the condition

(v, Ru) = (v, Su) u, v V. (1.24)

To see this, note that if Eqn. (1.23) holds, then clearly Eqn. (1.24) holds. On the other hand,
if Eqn. (1.24) holds, then using the bilinearity property of the inner product, we have

(v, ( Ru Su)) = 0 u, v V.

Choosing v = Ru Su, and using Eqn. (1.1c), we get Eqn. (1.23).


If we define the element Z as

Zu = 0 u V,

then we see that Z Lin, and is the zero element of Lin since

( T + Z )u = Tu + Zu = Tu u V,

which, by the definition of the equality of tensors, implies that

T + Z = T.

Henceforth, we simply use the symbol 0 to denote the zero elements of both Lin and V.
With the above definitions of addition, scalar multiplication, and zero, Lin is a vector space,
and hence, all the results that we have derived for vector spaces in Section 1.1 are valid for
Lin.
If we define the function I : V V by

Iu := u u V, (1.25)

then it is clear that I Lin. I is called as the identity tensor.


Choosing u = e1 , e2 and e3 in Eqn. (1.22), we get three vectors that can be expressed as
a linear combination of the base vectors ei as

Te1 = 1 e1 + 2 e2 + 3 e3
Te2 = 4 e1 + 5 e2 + 6 e3 (1.26)
Te3 = 7 e1 + 8 e2 + 9 e3 ,

where i , i = 1 to 9, are scalar constants. Renaming the i as Tij , i = 1, 3, j = 1, 3, we get

Te j = Tij ei . (1.27)

The elements Tij are called the components of the tensor T with respect to the base vectors
e j ; as seen from Eqn. (1.27), Tij is the component of Te j in the ei direction. Taking the dot
product of both sides of Eqn. (1.27) with ek for some particular k, we get

ek Te j = Tij ik = Tkj ,

or, replacing k by i,

Tij = ei Te j . (1.28)

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14 Continuum Mechanics

By choosing v = ei and u = e j in Eqn. (1.24), it is clear that the components of two equal
tensors are equal. From Eqn. (1.28), the components of the identity tensor in any orthonor-
mal coordinate system ei are

Iij = ei Ie j = ei e j = ij . (1.29)

Thus, the components of the identity tensor are scalars that are independent of the Carte-
sian basis. Using Eqn. (1.27), we write Eqn. (1.22) in component form (where the compo-
nents are with respect to a particular orthonormal basis {ei }) as

vi ei = T (u j e j ) = u j Te j = u j Tij ei ,

which, by virtue of the uniqueness of the components of any element of a vector space,
yields

vi = Tij u j . (1.30)

Thus, the components of the vector v are obtained by a matrix multiplication of the com-
ponents of T, and the components of u.
The transpose of T, denoted by T T , is defined using the inner product as

( T T u, v) := (u, Tv) u, v V. (1.31)

Once again, it follows from the definition that T T is a second-order tensor. The transpose
has the following properties:

( T T )T = T,
(T )T = T T ,
( R + S)T = RT + ST .

If ( Tij ) represent the components of the tensor T, then the components of T T are

( T T )ij = ei T T e j
= Tei e j
= Tji . (1.32)

The tensor T is said to be symmetric if

T T = T,

and skew-symmetric (or anti-symmetric) if

T T = T.

Any tensor T can be decomposed uniquely into a symmetric and an skew-symmetric part
as (see Problem 5)

T = T s + T ss , (1.33)

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Introduction to Tensors 15

where
1
Ts = ( T + T T ),
2
1
T ss = ( T T T ).
2
The product of two second-order tensors RS is the composition of the two operations R
and S, with S operating first, and defined by the relation
( RS)u := R(Su) u V. (1.34)
Since RS is a linear transformation that maps vectors to vectors, we conclude that the
product of two second-order tensors is also a second-order tensor. From the definition
of the identity tensor given by (1.25) it follows that RI = IR = R. If T represents the
product RS, then its components are given by
Tij = ei ( RS)e j
= ei R(Se j )
= ei R(Skj ek )
= ei Skj Rek
= Skj (ei Rek )
= Skj Rik
= Rik Skj , (1.35)
which is consistent with matrix multiplication. Also consistent with the results from matrix
theory, we have ( RS) T = S T R T , which follows from Eqns. (1.24), (1.31) and (1.34).

1.3.1 The tensor product


We now introduce the concept of a tensor product, which is convenient for working with
tensors of rank higher than two. We first define the dyadic or tensor product of two vectors
a and b by
( a b)c := (b c) a c V. (1.36)
Note that the tensor product a b cannot be defined except in terms of its operation on a
vector c. We now prove that a b defines a second-order tensor. The above rule obviously
maps a vector into another vector. All that we need to do is to prove that it is a linear map.
For arbitrary scalars c and d, and arbitrary vectors x and y, we have
( a b)(cx + dy) = [b (cx + dy)] a
= [cb x + db y] a
= c(b x) a + d(b y) a
= c[( a b) x] + d [( a b)y] ,
which proves that a b is a linear function. Hence, a b is a second-order tensor. Any
second-order tensor T can be written as
T = Tij ei e j , (1.37)

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16 Continuum Mechanics

where the components of the tensor, Tij are given by Eqn. (1.28). To see this, we consider
the action of T on an arbitrary vector u:

Tu = ( Tu)i ei = [ei ( Tu)] ei


  
= ei T ( u j e j ) ei
  
= u j ei ( Te j ) ei
  
= (u e j ) ei ( Te j ) ei
  
= ei ( Te j ) (u e j )ei
  
= ei ( Te j ) (ei e j )u
 
= ei ( Te j ) ei e j u.

Hence, we conclude that any second-order tensor admits the representation given by
Eqn. (1.37), with the nine components Tij , i = 1, 2, 3, j = 1, 2, 3, given by Eqn. (1.28). The
dyadic products {ei e j }, i = 1, 2, 3, j = 1, 2, 3 constitute a basis of Lin since, as just men-
tioned, any element of Lin can be expressed in terms of them, and since they are linearly
independent (Tij ei e j = 0 implies that Tij = ei 0e j = 0).
From Eqns. (1.29) and (1.37), it follows that

I = ei ei , (1.38)

where {e1 , e2 , e3 } is any orthonormal coordinate frame. If T is represented as given by


Eqn. (1.37), it follows from Eqn. (1.32) that the transpose of T can be represented as

T T = Tji ei e j . (1.39)

From Eqns. (1.37) and (1.39), we deduce that a tensor is symmetric (T = T T ) if and only
if Tij = Tji for all possible i and j. We now show how all the properties of a second-order
tensor derived so far can be derived using the dyadic product.
Using Eqn. (1.27), we see that the components of a dyad a b are given by

( a b)ij = ei ( a b)e j
= ei ( b e j ) a
= ai b j . (1.40)

The components of a vector v obtained by a second-order tensor T operating on a vector u


are obtained by noting that

vi ei = Tij (ei e j )u = Tij (u e j )ei = Tij u j ei , (1.41)

which in equivalent to Eqn. (1.30).


Convention regarding complex vectors: In what follows, we will often encounter the
dyadic product of two complex-valued vectors. We note here that we use the same def-
inition for the dyadic product of complex-valued vectors as that for real-valued vectors,
namely, the definition given by Eqn. (1.36). Using Eqn. (1.40), we get the components of
a b as ai b j . However, it is possible to follow another convention in defining the dyadic
product, namely ( a b)c = (b c) a (with the hat denoting complex conjugation), whereby

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Introduction to Tensors 17

one obtains the components as ai b j . We will follow this rule of using the same definitions
for the real and complex case even when we define the dyadic products A B and A  B
of two complex-valued second-order tensors A and B. The advantage of our convention is
that all relations that we derive for the real case are also valid for the complex case, since
the definitions are the same. If we used the alternate convention, one would need to re-
derive all the relations for the complex case, and this can be quite cumbersome, since we
will be deriving dozens of relations (including rules for differentiation) involving tensor
products. We emphasize that both conventions are correct, and, as long as one sticks to one
convention consistently in all the derivations, the particular choice made is just a matter of
convenience.

1.3.2 Principal invariants of a second-order tensor

Theorem 1.3.1. If (u, v, w) and ( a, b, c) are two pairs of linearly independent vectors,
and T is an arbitrary tensor, then
[ Tu, v, w] + [u, Tv, w] + [u, v, Tw] [ T a, b, c] + [ a, Tb, c] + [ a, b, Tc]
= , (1.42a)
[u, v, w] [ a, b, c]
[ Tu, Tv, w] + [u, Tv, Tw] + [ Tu, v, Tw] [ T a, Tb, c] + [ a, Tb, Tc] + [ T a, b, Tc]
= , (1.42b)
[u, v, w] [ a, b, c]
[ Tu, Tv, Tw] [ T a, Tb, Tc]
= . (1.42c)
[u, v, w] [ a, b, c]

Proof. Since u = ui ei , v = v j e j and w = wk ek , the left-hand side of Eqn. (1.42a)


can be written as
     
ui v j wk Tei , e j , ek + ei , Te j , ek + ei , e j , Tek
LHS =
[u, v, w]
eijk ui v j wk {[ Te1 , e2 , e3 ] + [e1 , Te2 , e3 ] + [e1 , e2 , Te3 ]}
=
[u, v, w]
= [ Te1 , e2 , e3 ] + [e1 , Te2 , e3 ] + [e1 , e2 , Te3 ] .

Since the choice of vectors u, v and w is arbitrary, Eqn. (1.42a) follows. Equa-
tions (1.42b) and (1.42c) are proved in a similar manner.

As a consequence of Theorem 1.3.1, corresponding to an arbitrary tensor T, there exist


three scalars, I1 , I2 and I3 such that
[ Tu, v, w] + [u, Tv, w] + [u, v, Tw] = I1 [u, v, w] , (1.43a)
[ Tu, Tv, w] + [u, Tv, Tw] + [ Tu, v, Tw] = I2 [u, v, w] , (1.43b)
[ Tu, Tv, Tw] = I3 [u, v, w] . (1.43c)

The above equations are valid even when [u, v, w] = 0. To see this, consider Eqn. (1.43a).
Following the proof of Theorem 1.3.1, we see that if [u, v, w] = 0, then
[ Tu, v, w] + [u, Tv, w] + [u, v, Tw] = [u, v, w] {[ Te1 , e2 , e3 ] + [e1 , Te2 , e3 ] + [e1 , e2 , Te3 ]} = 0.
Equations (1.43b) and (1.43c) can be proved analogously.

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18 Continuum Mechanics

The scalars I1 , I2 and I3 are called the principal invariants of T. The reason for calling
them as the principal invariants is that any other scalar invariant of T can be expressed in
terms of them. The first and third invariants are referred to as the trace and determinant of
T, respectively, and written as

I1 = tr T, I3 = det T.

Using the properties of the scalar triple product, it is clear that the trace is a linear operation,
i.e.,

tr (R + S) = tr R + tr S , < and R, S Lin.

To get the component form for tr T, choose u = e1 , v = e2 and w = e3 in Eqn. (1.43a):

tr T = e1 Te1 + e2 Te2 + e3 Te3 = T11 + T22 + T33 = Tii . (1.44)

Similarly, we have

tr T T = e1 T T e1 + e2 T T e2 + e3 T T e3
= e1 Te1 + e2 Te2 + e3 Te3
= tr T. (1.45)

By letting T = a b in Eqn. (1.44), we obtain

tr ( a b) = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 = ai bi = a b. (1.46)

Using the linearity of the trace operator, and Eqn. (1.37), we get

tr T = tr Tij ei e j = Tij tr (ei e j ) = Tij ei e j = Tii ,

which agrees with Eqn. (1.44).


To prove

tr ( RS) = tr (SR),

we choose u, v and w to be an orthonormal basis, so that

tr ( RS) = ( RSu, u) + ( RSv, v) + ( RSw, w)


= (Su, R T u) + (Sv, R T v) + (Sw, R T w).

Substituting

R T u = ( R T u, u)u + ( R T u, v)v + ( R T u, w)w


= (u, Ru)u + (u, Rv)v + (u, Rw)w,

and similar expressions for R T v and R T w, we get

tr ( RS) =(u, Ru)(u, Su) + (u, Rv)(v, Su) + (u, Rw)(w, Su)+
(v, Ru)(u, Sv) + (v, Rv)(v, Sv) + (v, Rw)(w, Sv)+

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Introduction to Tensors 19

(w, Ru)(u, Sw) + (w, Rv)(v, Sw) + (w, Rw)(w, Sw).


Interchanging R and S in the above equation gives an expression for tr (SR), which is the
same as that for tr ( RS), thus yielding the desired result. The proof using indicial notation
is left as an exercise (Problem 6).
Similar to the vector inner product given by Eqn. (1.7), we can define a tensor inner
product of two second-order tensors R and S, denoted by R : S, by

( R, S) = R : S := tr ( R T S) = tr ( RS T ) = tr (SR T ) = tr (S T R) = Rij Sij . (1.47)

The fact that R : S satisfies the inner product conditions in Eqn. (1.1) can be easily verified.
Thus, Lin equipped with the above inner product is an inner product space, and enjoys all
the properties derived in Section 1.1. In particular, if the magnitude associated with the
inner product is given by

| T | = ( T : T )1/2 ,
then by the CauchySchwartz inequality, we get

|( R, S)| | R| |S| .
We have the following useful property:

R : (ST ) = (S T R) : T = ( RT T ) : S = ( T R T ) : S T , (1.48)

since

R : (ST ) = tr (ST ) T R = tr T T (S T R) = (S T R) : T = ( R T S) : T T
= tr S T ( RT T ) = ( RT T ) : S = ( T R T ) : S T .
From Eqn. (1.43c), it can be seen that

det I = 1,
det(T ) = 3 det T.

It also follows from Eqn. (1.43c) that

det( RS) [u, v, w] = [ RSu, RSv, RSw]


= det R [Su, Sv, Sw]
= (det R)(det S) [u, v, w] .
Choosing u, v and w to be linearly independent, the above equation leads us to the relation

det( RS) = (det R)(det S), (1.49)

from which we also conclude that det( RS) = det(SR).


By choosing u = e j ek = eijk ei , v = e j and w = ek in Eqn. (1.43c), so that [u, v, w] =
eijk eijk = 6 (by Eqn. (1.19c)), and using the fact that Tei = Tpi e p , we get

1 1
det T = eijk e pqr Tpi Tqj Trk = eijk e pqr Tip Tjq Tkr , (1.50)
6 6

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20 Continuum Mechanics

where the second relation is obtained by interchanging the dummy indices. From Eqn. (1.50),
it is immediately obvious that (see Section 1.3.4 for a proof without using indicial notation)

det T T = det T. (1.51)

By choosing u = e p , v = eq and w = er in Eqn. (1.43c), and using Eqn. (1.51), we also have

e pqr (det T ) = eijk Tip Tjq Tkr = eijk Tpi Tqj Trk . (1.52)

By choosing ( p, q, r ) = (1, 2, 3) in the above equation, we get

det T = eijk Ti1 Tj2 Tk3 = eijk T1i T2j T3k .

Using Eqns. (1.16), (1.49), (1.51), (1.340) and (1.341), we have

[u, v, w] [ p, q, r ] = {det [e1 u + e2 v + e3 w]} {det [e1 p + e2 q + e3 r ]}


= det {[u e1 + v e2 + w e3 ] [e1 p + e2 q + e3 r ]}
= det [u p + v q + w r ] . (1.53)

We now prove the following important theorem:

Theorem 1.3.2. Given a tensor T, there exists a nonzero vector n such that Tn = 0 if
and only if det T = 0.
Proof. If det T = 0, then by Eqn. (1.43c),

[ Tu, Tv, Tw] = 0 u, v, w V,

which, by Theorem 1.2.2, implies that Tu, Tv, Tw are linearly dependent. This
means that there exist scalars , and , not all zero, such that

Tu + Tv + Tw = T (u + v + w) = 0.

Thus, Tn = 0, where n = u + v + w.
Conversely, if there exists a nonzero vector n such that Tn = 0, choose v and
w such that n,v and w are linearly independent, i.e., [n, v, w] 6= 0. Then, by
Eqn. (1.43c), we have

det T [n, v, w] = [ Tn, Tv, Tw] = [0, Tv, Tw] = 0,

which implies that det T = 0.

1.3.3 Inverse of a tensor


In order to define the concept of a inverse of a tensor, it is convenient to first introduce the
cofactor tensor, denoted by cof T, and defined by the relation

cof T (u v) := Tu Tv u, v V. (1.54)

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Introduction to Tensors 21

cof T obviously maps a vector to a vector. To prove linearity, note that every nonzero vec-
tor w can be expressed as u v for some nonzero u, v V (e.g., take v as a unit vector
perpendicular to w, and u = v w). We now show that if w1 and w2 are two arbitrary
nonzero vectors, they can be expressed as u1 v and u2 v. If w1 and w2 are linearly
dependent, then w2 = w1 , <, and then u2 = u1 . If w1 and w2 are linearly in-
dependent, then let v = (w1 w2 )/ |w1 w2 |2 . Using Eqn. (1.21a), we can show that
u1 = (w1 w2 )w1 + |w1 |2 w2 and u2 = |w2 |2 w1 + (w1 w2 )w2 yield u1 v = w1 and
u2 v = w2 . Noting that T Lin, we now have

cof T (w1 + w2 ) = cof T [(u1 + u2 ) v]


= [ T (u1 + u2 )] Tv
= [Tu1 + Tu2 ] Tv
= ( Tu1 Tv) + ( Tu2 Tv)
= cof T (u1 v) + cof T (u2 v)
= cof T w1 + cof T w2 ,

thus proving that cof T Lin.


Using Eqn. (1.54), we now prove the following explicit formula for the cofactor:

(cof T )T = I2 I (tr T ) T + T 2 . (1.55)

Replacing u in Eqn. (1.43a) by Tu, we get


h i
tr T [ Tu, v, w] = T 2 u, v, w + [ Tu, Tv, w] + [ Tu, v, Tw] ,

which on rearranging yields


h i
[ Tu, Tv, w] + [ Tu, v, Tw] = tr T [ Tu, v, w] T 2 u, v, w . (1.56)

Using Eqn. (1.43b) and (1.54), we have


h i
I2 [u, v, w] = [ Tu, Tv, w] + [ Tu, v, Tw] + (cof T ) T u, v, w . (1.57)

Substituting Eqn. (1.56) into (1.57), using the fact that u, v and w are arbitrary, and invoking
equality of tensors, we get Eqn. (1.55).
It immediately follows from Eqn. (1.55) that cof T corresponding to a given T is unique.
We also observe that

cof T T = (cof T ) T , (1.58)

and that

(cof T )T T = T (cof T )T . (1.59)

The components of the cofactor tensor are given by

1
(cof T )ij = e e Tmp Tnq . (1.60)
2 imn jpq

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22 Continuum Mechanics

To prove this, let u = eq e j and v = eq in Eqn. (1.54), and use Eqn. (1.21b) to get u v =
2e j . On the right-hand side of Eqn. (1.54), use the relations eq e j = e pqj e p , Te p = Tmp em
and Teq = Tnq en . Taking the dot product with ei of both sides of the relation so obtained,
we get the desired result. Equation (1.60) when written out explicitly reads

T22 T33 T23 T32 T23 T31 T21 T33 T21 T32 T22 T31
[cof T ] = T32 T13 T33 T12 T33 T11 T31 T13 T31 T12 T32 T11 . (1.61)

T12 T23 T13 T22 T13 T21 T11 T23 T11 T22 T12 T21

Equation (1.54) can be used to get a simple expression for I2 , the second invariant of a
tensor. We first write Eqn. (1.43b) as
I2 [u, v, w] = [u, Tv, Tw] + [v, Tw, Tu] + [w, Tu, Tv] ,
and then use Eqn. (1.54) to write the above equation as
h i h i h i
I2 [u, v, w] = (cof T ) T u, v, w + (cof T ) T v, w, u + (cof T ) T w, u, v
h i h i h i
= (cof T )T u, v, w + u, (cof T )T v, w + u, v, (cof T )T w
= tr (cof T )T [u, v, w] ,
where the last step follows from Eqn. (1.43a). Using Eqn. (1.45), and choosing u, v and w
to be linearly independent (so that [u, v, w] 6= 0), we get
I2 = tr (cof T ). (1.62)
An alternative expression for the I2 can be found by directly taking the trace of both sides
of Eqn. (1.55). Using Eqns. (1.45) and (1.62), and the fact that the trace is a linear operator,
we get

I2 = 3I2 (tr T )2 + tr T 2 ,
which implies that
1h i
I2 = (tr T )2 tr T 2 . (1.63)
2
The equivalence of the two formulae for I2 given by Eqns. (1.62) and (1.63) can also be
shown using indicial notation (see Problem 10).
Substituting Eqn. (1.54) into Eqn. (1.43c), we get
( Tu, cof T (v w)) = det T ( Iu, v w) u, v, w V,
which implies that

((cof T )T Tu, v w) = ((det T ) Iu, v w) u, v, w V.


Any arbitrary vector z can be expressed as v w for some v, w V (take w as a unit vector
perpendicular to z, and v = w z), so that from Eqn. (1.24), it follows that (cof T ) T T =
(det T ) I, which when combined with Eqn. (1.59) yields

T (cof T ) T = (cof T ) T T = (det T ) I. (1.64)

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Introduction to Tensors 23

Similar to the result for determinants, the cofactor of the product of two tensors is the
product of the cofactors of the tensors (see also Problem 9), i.e.,

cof ( RS) = (cof R)(cof S).

This is because

[cof R cof S] T RS = (cof S)T (cof R)T RS


= (det R)(cof S)T IS (by Eqn. (1.64))
= (det R)(det S) I (by Eqn. (1.64))
= det( RS) I, (by Eqn. (1.49))

and since the cofactor matrix is unique, the result follows.


The inverse of a second-order tensor T, denoted by T 1 , is defined by

T 1 T = I, (1.65)

where I is the identity tensor. A characterization of an invertible tensor is the following:

Theorem 1.3.3. A tensor T is invertible if and only if det T 6= 0. The inverse, if it


exists, is unique.
Proof. Assuming T 1 exists, from Eqns. (1.49) and (1.65), we have
(det T )(det T 1 ) = 1, and hence det T 6= 0.
Conversely, if det T 6= 0, then from Eqn. (1.64), we see that at least one inverse
exists, and is given by

1
T 1 = (cof T )T . (1.66)
det T

Let T 11 and T 21 be two inverses that satisfy T 11 T = T 21 T = I, from which


it follows that ( T 11 T 21 ) T = 0. Choose T 21 to be given by the expression in
Eqn. (1.66) so that, by virtue of Eqn. (1.64), we also have T T 21 = I. Multiplying
both sides of ( T 11 T 21 ) T = 0 by T 21 , we get T 11 = T 21 , which establishes
the uniqueness of T 1 .

From Eqns. (1.64) and (1.66), we have

T 1 T = T T 1 = I. (1.67)

Another characterization of an invertible tensor is the following:

Theorem 1.3.4. A tensor T is invertible if and only if the equation

Tu = v,

has a unique solution u V for each v V.

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24 Continuum Mechanics

Proof. If T is invertible, then multiplying v = Tu by T 1 , we get

T 1 v = T 1 Tu
= Iu
=u

Since T 1 is unique, u is unique.


To prove the converse, note that if u1 and u2 are two solutions of the equation
Tu = v, then, by the assumed uniqueness, u1 = u2 . Also, by assumption, for
every v V, there exists a u such that Tu = v. Thus, the mapping T : V V is
one-to-one and onto, and hence, T 1 : V V exists.

Summarizing, if T is invertible, we have

Tu = v u = T 1 v, u, v V.

By the above property, T 1 clearly maps vectors to vectors. Hence, to prove that T 1 is a
second-order tensor, we just need to prove linearity. Let a, b V be two arbitrary vectors,
and let u = T 1 a and v = T 1 b. Since I = T 1 T, we have

I (u + v) = T 1 T (u + v)
= T 1 [ T (u + v)]
= T 1 [Tu + Tv]
= T 1 (a + b),
which implies that

T 1 (a + b) = T 1 a + T 1 b a, b V and , <.
The inverse of the product of two invertible tensors R and S is

( RS)1 = S1 R1 , (1.68)

since the inverse is unique, and

S1 R1 RS = S1 IS = S1 S = I.

Similarly, if T is invertible, then T T is invertible since det T T = det T 6= 0. The inverse of


the transpose is given by

( T T ) 1 = ( T 1 ) T , (1.69)

since

( T 1 )T T T = ( T T 1 )T = I T = I.
Hence, without fear of ambiguity, we can write

T T : = ( T T ) 1 = ( T 1 ) T .

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Introduction to Tensors 25

From Eqn. (1.69), it follows that if T Sym, then T 1 Sym.


Although, no easy expression for ( T 1 + T 2 )1 is known, the following Woodbury for-
mula gives an expression for a particular kind of perturbation on an invertible tensor T,
and which holds for any underlying space dimension n:

( T + UCV )1 = T 1 T 1 U (C 1 + V T 1 U )1 V T 1 . (1.70)
U  A1 B1
To prove this formula, consider the inversion of the matrix VT
  
C 1
. If C 1 D1 represents
the inverse of this matrix, then the condition
" #" # " #
A1 B1 T U I 0
= ,
C 1 D 1 V C 1 0 I

leads to the equations

A1 T + B1 V = I, (1.71a)
1
A1 U + B1 C = 0. (1.71b)

From Eqn. (1.71b), we get B1 = A1 UC, which on substituting into Eqn. (1.71a) yields

A1 = ( T + UCV )1 . (1.72)

On the other hand, from Eqn. (1.71a), we have

A 1 = T 1 B 1 V T 1 , (1.73)

which on substituting into Eqn. (1.71b) yields

B 1 = T 1 U ( C 1 + V T 1 U ) 1 .

Substituting this expression into Eqn. (1.73) yields

A 1 = T 1 T 1 U ( C 1 + V T 1 U ) 1 V T 1 . (1.74)

Comparing Eqns. (1.72) and (1.74), we get Eqn. (1.70). If C = 1, then we get the following
ShermanMorrison formula:
T 1 ( u v ) T 1
( T + u v ) 1 = T 1 . (1.75)
1 + v T 1 u

1 + v T 1 u should be nonzero for T + u v to be invertible.


Let S Sym be an invertible tensor, and let u = S1 u and v = S1 v. Note that because
of the symmetry of S, we have u v = u v. By applying Eqn. (1.75) twice, we get

1
( S + u v + v u ) 1 = S 1 + [(u u)v v + (v v)u u (1 + u v)(u v + v u)] ,
D
where

D = (1 + u v)2 (u u)(v v).

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26 Continuum Mechanics

D should be nonzero for S + u v + v u to be invertible.


As a corollary, for S = I, we get
1 h 2 i
( I + u v + v u ) 1 = I + |u| v v + |v|2 u u (1 + u v)(u v + v u) ,
D
where

D = (1 + u v )2 | u |2 | v |2 .

Consider the tensor

H = I + u v, (1.76)

and let the underlying space dimension be n. Let {e1 , e2 , . . . , en1 } be n 1 unit vectors that
are perpendicular to v, and mutually perpendicular to each other. Then from Eqn. (1.76),
it is immediately evident that (1, e1 ), (1, e2 ), . . . , (1, en1 ), (1 + u v, u/ |u|) are eigenval-
ues/eigenvectors of H. If u v 6= 0, then all the eigenvectors are linearly independent,
while if u v = 0, then the first n 1 eigenvectors are linearly independent, while the last
can be expressed in terms of them. The characteristic equation is

( 1)n1 ( 1 u v) = 0.
On applying the CayleyHamilton theorem (see Theorem 1.3.5), we get

[ H I ]n1 [ H (1 + u v) I ] = 0.
The minimal polynomial is

[ H I ][ H (1 + u v) I ] = 0,
which can be immediately verified by using Eqn. (1.76). Multiplying the eigenvalues of H,
we get

det H = 1 + u v.

Now consider the tensor that occurs in Eqn. (1.75), which is a generalization of the
tensor H, namely,

M = T + u v,

which can be written as T [ I + ( T 1 u) v], assuming T to be invertible. Thus,

det M = det T [1 + ( T 1 u) v].

The result for arbitrary T is obtained by taking the limit in the above equation. We get

det M = det T + u [(cof T )v],

with cof T given by Eqn. (J.12).


Consider a symmetric perturbation to I:

K = I + u v + v u.

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Introduction to Tensors 27

Let {e1 , e2 , . . . , en2 } be n 2 unit vectors that are perpendicular to u and v. Then (1, e1 ),
(1, e2 ), . . . , (1, en2 ), (1 + u v + |u| |v| , u/ |u| + v/ |v|), (1 + u v |u| |v| , u/ |u| v/ |v|)
are the eigenvalues/eigenvectors of K, so that

det K = (1 + u v + |u| |v|)(1 + u v |u| |v|) = (1 + u v)2 |u|2 |v|2 . (1.77)

By virtue of the CauchySchwartz inequality,

det K 1 + 2u v.

Let S be a symmetric positive definite tensor, and let U = S be its symmetric positive
definite square-root. If Z is defined by

Z := S + u v + v u,

then it can be written as U [ I + (U 1 u) (U 1 v) + (U 1 v) (U 1 u)]U, so that on using


Eqn. (1.77), we get
 2
det Z = det S[ 1 + (S1 u) v (u S1 u)(v S1 v)].

Although our proof assumed S to be positive definite, actually, the above result holds for
any invertible S Sym.

1.3.4 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of tensors


If T is an arbitrary tensor, a vector n is said to be an eigenvector of T if there exists such
that

Tn = n. (1.78)

Writing the above equation as ( T I )n = 0, we see from Theorem 1.3.2 that a nontrivial
eigenvector n exists if and only if

det( T I ) = 0.

This is known as the characteristic equation of T. Using Eqn. (1.43c), the characteristic equa-
tion can be written as

[ Tu u, Tv v, Tw w] = 0,

for linearly independent vectors u, v and w. Using Eqns. (1.14) and (1.15), we can write the
characteristic equation as

3 I1 2 + I2 I3 = 0, (1.79)

where I1 , I2 and I3 are the principal invariants given by Eqns. (1.43). Since the principal
invariants are real, Eqn. (1.79) has either one or three real roots. If one of the eigenval-
ues is complex, then it follows from Eqn. (1.78) that the corresponding eigenvector is also
complex. By taking the complex conjugate of both sides of Eqn. (1.78), we see that the com-
plex conjugate of the complex eigenvalue, and the corresponding complex eigenvector are

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28 Continuum Mechanics

also eigenvalues and eigenvectors, respectively. Thus, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, if


complex, occur in complex conjugate pairs. If 1 , 2 , 3 are the roots of the characteristic
equation, then from Eqn. (1.79), it follows that

I1 = tr T = T11 + T22 + T33 ,


= 1 + 2 + 3 , (1.80a)

1h i T T12 T22 T23 T11 T13
I2 = tr cof T = (tr T )2 tr ( T 2 ) = 11 + +

2

T21 T22 T32 T33 T31 T33
= 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 , (1.80b)
1h i
I3 = det( T ) = (tr T )3 3(tr T )(tr T 2 ) + 2tr T 3 = eijk Ti1 Tj2 Tk3
6
= 1 2 3 , (1.80c)

where |.| denotes the determinant. The set of eigenvalues {1 , 2 , 3 } is known as the
spectrum of T.
If is an eigenvalue, and n is the associated eigenvector of T, then 2 is the eigenvalue
of T 2 , and n is the associated eigenvector, since

T 2 n = T ( Tn) = T (n) = Tn = 2 n.

In general, n is an eigenvalue of T n with associated eigenvector n. The eigenvalues of T T


and T are the same since their characteristic equations are the same.
An extremely important result is the following:

Theorem 1.3.5 (CayleyHamilton Theorem). A tensor T satisfies an equation hav-


ing the same form as its characteristic equation, i.e.,

T 3 I1 T 2 + I2 T I3 I = 0 T. (1.81)

Proof. Multiplying Eqn. (1.55) by T, we get

(cof T )T T = I2 T I1 T 2 + T 3 .

Since by Eqn. (1.64), (cof T ) T T = (det T ) I = I3 I, the result follows.

By taking the trace of both sides of Eqn. (1.81), and using Eqn. (1.63), we get
1h i
det T = (tr T )3 3(tr T )(tr T 2 ) + 2tr T 3 . (1.82)
6
From the above expression and the properties of the trace operator, Eqn. (1.51) follows.
We have

i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3 I T = 0 tr ( T ) = tr ( T 2 ) = tr ( T 3 ) = 0. (1.83)

The proof is as follows. If all the invariants are zero, then from the characteristic equation
given by Eqn. (1.79), it follows that all the eigenvalues are zero. If all the eigenvalues are
zero, then from Eqns. (1.80a)(1.80c), it follows that all the principal invariants I T are zero.

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Introduction to Tensors 29

If tr ( T ) = tr ( T 2 ) = tr ( T 3 ) = 0, then again from Eqns. (1.80a)(1.80c) it follows that the


principal invariants are zero. Conversely, if all the principal invariants are zero, then all
j
the eigenvalues are zero from which it follows that tr T j = 3i=1 i , j = 1, 2, 3 are zero.
Consider the second-order tensor u v. By Eqn. (1.60) or by writing u v as u v +
0 0 + 0 0 and using Eqn. (1.333), it follows that

cof (u v) = 0, (1.84)

so that the second invariant, which is the trace of the above tensor, is zero. Similarly, on
using Eqn. (1.53), we get the third invariant as zero. The first invariant is given by u v.
Thus, from the characteristic equation, it follows that the eigenvalues of u v are (0, 0, u
v). If u and v are perpendicular, u v is an example of a nonzero tensor all of whose
eigenvalues are zero.

1.4 Skew-Symmetric Tensors


Let W Skw and let u, v V. Then

(u, W v) = (W T u, v) = (W u, v) = (v, W u). (1.85)

On setting v = u, we get

(u, W u) = (u, W u),

which implies that

(u, W u) = 0. (1.86)

Thus, W u is always orthogonal to u for any arbitrary vector u. By choosing u = ei and


v = e j , we see from the above results that any skew-symmetric tensor W has only three
independent components (in each coordinate frame), which suggests that it might be re-
placed by a vector. This observation leads us to the following result:

Theorem 1.4.1. Given any skew-symmetric tensor W, there exists a unique vector w,
known as the axial vector or dual vector, corresponding to W such that
Wu = w u u V. (1.87)
Conversely, given any vector w, there exists a unique skew-symmetric second-order
tensor W such that Eqn. (1.87) holds.
Proof. A skew-symmetric tensor W, like any other tensor, has at least one real
eigenvalue, say . Let p be the associated eigenvector. Then W p = p, and on
taking the dot product of both sides with p, we get = p (W p). By virtue
of Eqn. (1.86), = 0 (we show later in this section that this is the only real
eigenvalue). Let q, r be unit vectors that form an orthonormal basis with p. We
have
p = q r, q = r p, r = p q. (1.88)

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30 Continuum Mechanics

Since W p = p = 0, we have (q, W p) = (r, W p) = 0, and by Eqn. (1.85), we


also have ( p, W q) = ( p, Wr ) = 0. Thus, using W = Wij ei e j referred to the
basis { p, q, r }, we get

W = (r q q r ),

where = r (W q) must be nonzero if W 6= 0. Let w = p, and let u be an


arbitrary vector. Then

W u w u = {(r q)u (q r )u p [(u p) p + (u q)q + (u r )r ]}


= [(u q)(r p q) (u r )(q + p r )]
= 0,

where the last step follows from Eqn. (1.88). Thus, associated with every skew-
symmetric tensor W, there is a vector w such that Eqn. (1.87) holds.
Conversely, given w, let q and r be unit vectors such that w/ |w|, q and r form
an orthonormal basis. Then

W = | w | (r q q r ), (1.89)

is a skew-symmetric tensor with w as the axial vector of W, a fact that can be


checked easily by verifying that W u = w u for any arbitrary vector u.
Given W, uniqueness of the axial vector w can be shown by assuming the
existence of two vectors w1 and w2 . Now we have W u = w1 u and W u =
w2 u for all vectors u. Hence,

(w1 w2 ) u = 0 u V.

If w1 w2 is a nonzero vector, then we can choose u to be perpendicular to


w1 w2 , so that (w1 w2 ) u is nonzero. But this leads to a contradiction
with the above property. Hence w1 = w2 , and the uniqueness of the axial vector
is established.
Similarly, given w, uniqueness of the corresponding W can be established by
assuming the existence of two tensors W 1 and W 2 , such that W 1 u = w u and
W 2 u = w u for all vectors u. Now we have

(W 1 W 2 )u = 0 u V,

which implies that W 1 = W 2 .

Note that W u = 0 if and only if u = w, <, since if u = w then W u = w w =


0, while conversely, if W u = w u = 0, then u is a scalar multiple of w by Theorem 1.2.1.
This result justifies the use of the terminology axial vector used for w. Also note that by
virtue of the uniqueness of w, the vector w, <, is a one-dimensional subspace of V.
Similarly, W 2 u = 0 if and only if u = w, <, since if W 2 u = 0, by the above result,
W u = w u = w, which is only possible when u = w and = 0.

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Introduction to Tensors 31

By choosing u = e j and taking the dot product of both sides with ei , Eqn. (1.87) can be
expressed in component form as

Wij = eijk wk ,
1 (1.90)
wi = eijk Wjk .
2

More explicitly, if w = (w1 , w2 , w3 ), then



0 w3 w2
W = w3 0 w1 .

w2 w1 0

From Eqns. (1.89) or (1.90), it follows that W : W = tr (W 2 ) = 2w w. Since tr W =


tr W T = tr W and det W = det W T = det W, we have tr W = det W = 0. The second
invariant is given by I2 = [(tr W )2 tr (W 2 )]/2 = (W : W )/2 = w w. Thus, from the
characteristic equation, we get the eigenvalues of W as (0, i |w| , i |w|), and the spectral
resolution as

W = i |w| (n n n n),

where n is the eigenvector corresponding to i |w|, and n is its complex conjugate. Note
that we have used the convention outlined at the end of Section 1.3.1 in writing the above
result.

1.5 Orthogonal Tensors


A second-order tensor Q is said to be orthogonal if Q T = Q1 , or, alternatively by
Eqn. (1.67), if

Q T Q = QQ T = I, (1.91)

where I is the identity tensor.

Theorem 1.5.1. A tensor Q is orthogonal if and only if it has any of the following
properties of preserving inner products, lengths and distances:

( Qu, Qv) = (u, v) u, v V, (1.92a)


| Qu| = |u| u V, (1.92b)
| Qu Qv| = |u v| u, v V. (1.92c)

Proof. Assuming that Q is orthogonal, Eqn. (1.92a) follows since

( Qu, Qv) = ( Q T Qu, v) = ( Iu, v) = (u, v) u, v V.

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32 Continuum Mechanics

Conversely, if Eqn. (1.92a) holds, then

0 = ( Qu, Qv) (u, v) = (u, Q T Qv) (u, v) = (u, ( Q T Q I )v) u, v V,

which implies that Q T Q = I (by Eqn. (1.24)), and hence Q is orthogonal.


By choosing v = u in Eqn. (1.92a), we get Eqn. (1.92b). Conversely, if
Eqn. (1.92b) holds, i.e., if ( Qu, Qu) = (u, u) for all u V, then

(( Q T Q I )u, u) = 0 u V,

which, by virtue of Problem 29, leads us to the conclusion that Q Orth.


By replacing u by (u v) in Eqn. (1.92b), we obtain Eqn. (1.92c), and, con-
versely, by setting v to zero in Eqn. (1.92c), we get Eqn. (1.92b).

As a corollary of the above results, it follows that the angle between two vectors u
and v, defined by := cos1 (u v)/(|u| |v|), is also preserved. Thus, physically speaking,
multiplying the position vectors of all points in a domain by Q corresponds to rigid body
rotation of the domain about the origin.
From Eqns. (1.49), (1.51) and (1.91), we have det Q = 1. Orthogonal tensors with de-
terminant +1 are said to be proper orthogonal or rotations (henceforth, this set is denoted
by Orth+ ). Since det( R) = (1)3 det R = 1 for R Orth+ , R is an orthogonal tensor
that is not a rotation. On the other hand, if Q is an orthogonal tensor that is not a rota-
tion, Q is a rotation. Thus, when the underlying vector space dimension is odd (which
includes n = 3), every orthogonal tensor is either a rotation, or the product of a rotation
with I:

Orth = { R; R Orth+ }.
0 1
This result is not true when the dimension n is even, as the example Q = 10 , which
cannot be written as R, where R Orth+ , shows. For Q Orth+ , we have

cof Q = (det Q) QT = Q, (1.93)

so that by Eqn. (1.54),

Q(u v) = ( Qu) ( Qv) u, v V. (1.94)

A characterization of a rotation is as follows:

Theorem 1.5.2. Let {e1 , e2 , e3 } and {e1 , e2 , e3 } be two orthonormal bases. Then
Q = e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 ,
is a proper orthogonal tensor. Conversely, every Q Orth+ can be represented in the
above manner.
Proof. If {e1 , e2 , e3 } and {e1 , e2 , e3 } are two orthonormal bases, then
QQ T = [e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 ] [e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 ]

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Introduction to Tensors 33

= [e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 ] (by Eqn. (1.341))

= I, (by Eqn. (1.38))

and, by Eqn. (1.53),

det Q = [e1 , e2 , e3 ] [e1 , e2 , e3 ] = 1.

Conversely, if Q Orth+ , and {e1 , e2 , e3 } is an orthonormal basis, then

Q = QI
= Q [e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 ] (by Eqn. (1.38))

= ( Qe1 ) e1 + ( Qe2 ) e2 + ( Qe3 ) e3 (by Eqn. (1.343))

= e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 ,

{e 1 ,e 2 , e3 } = { Qe1 , Qe2 , Qe3 } is an orthonormal basis since |ei | =
where
Qe = e = 1 for each i, and since, by virtue of Eqn. (1.94),
i i

e j ek = ( Qej ) ( Qek ) = Q(ej ek ) = eijk Qei = eijk ei .

As a result of the above characterization, we have the following theorem.

Theorem 1.5.3. Every T Lin can be expressed as a linear combination of proper


orthogonal tensors, i.e.,

Lin = span{Orth+ }.

Proof. Let {e1 , e2 , e3 } denote the canonical Cartesian basis vectors. Then

1
e1 e1 = [ I + (e1 e1 e2 e2 e3 e3 )] ,
2
1
e1 e2 = [(e e2 + e2 e3 + e3 e1 ) + (e1 e2 e2 e3 e3 e1 )] ,
2 1
with similar expressions for the remaining combinations of dyadic products.
Thus, the tensor T = Tij ei e j can be expressed as i i Qi , where Qi
Orth+ .

If {ei } and {ei } are two sets of orthonormal basis vectors, then they are related as
ei = Q T ei , i = 1, 2, 3, (1.95)
where Q = ek ek is a proper orthogonal tensor by virtue of Theorem 1.5.2. The compo-
nents of Q with respect to the {ei } basis are given by Qij = ei (ek ek )e j = ik ek e j =
ei e j . Thus, if e and e are two unit vectors, we can always find Q Orth+ (not necessarily

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34 Continuum Mechanics

unique), which rotates e to e, i.e., e = Qe. Let u and v be two vectors. Since u/ |u| and
v/ |v| are unit vectors, there exists Q Orth+ such that
 
v u
=Q .
|v| |u|

Thus, if u and v have the same magnitude, i.e., if |u| = |v|, then there exists Q Orth+
such that u = Qv.
We now study the transformation laws for the components of tensors under an or-
thogonal transformation of the basis vectors. Let ei and ei represent the original and new
orthonormal basis vectors, and let Q be the proper orthogonal tensor in Eqn. (1.95). From
Eqn. (1.9), we have

ei = (ei e j )e j = Qij e j , (1.96a)


ei = (ei e j )e j = Q ji e j . (1.96b)

Using Eqn. (1.8) and Eqn. (1.96a), we get the transformation law for the components of a
vector as

vi = v ei = v ( Qij e j ) = Qij v e j = Qij v j . (1.97)

In a similar fashion, using Eqn. (1.28), Eqn. (1.96a), and the fact that a tensor is a linear
transformation, we get the transformation law for the components of a second-order tensor
as

Tij = ei T e j = Qim Q jn Tmn . (1.98)

Conversely, if the components of a matrix transform according to Eqn. (1.98), then they all
generate the same tensor. To see this, let T = Tij ei e j and T = Tmn em en . Then

T = Tij ei e j
= Qim Q jn Tmn ei e j
= Tmn ( Qim ei ) ( Q jn e j )
= Tmn em en (by Eqn. (1.96b))
= T.

Due to this property, often, an alternate viewpoint is followed by many authors who take
the transformation law given by Eqn. (1.98) as the definition of second-order tensors.
We can write Eqns. (1.97) and (1.98) as

[v] = Q[v], (1.99)


T
[ T ] = Q[ T ] Q . (1.100)

where [v] and [ T ] represent the components of the vector v and tensor T, respectively, with
respect to the ei coordinate system. Using the orthogonality property of Q, we can write
the reverse transformations as

[v] = Q T [v], (1.101)

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Introduction to Tensors 35

e2
e1
e2


e1

Fig. 1.1 Example of a coordinate system obtained from an existing one by a rotation about the
3-axis.

[ T ] = Q T [ T ] Q. (1.102)

As an example, the Q matrix for the configuration shown in Fig. 1.1 is



e1 cos sin 0
Q = e2 = sin cos 0 .

e3 0 0 1
6
The only real eigenvalues of Q Orth can be either +1 or 1, since if and n denote
the eigenvalue and eigenvector of Q, i.e., Qn = n, then

(n, n) = ( Qn, Qn) = 2 (n, n), 6


which implies that (n, n)(2 1) = 0. If and n are real, then (n, n) 6= 0 and = 1,
while if is complex, then (n, n) = 0. Let and n denote the complex conjugates of and
n, respectively. To see that the complex eigenvalues have a magnitude of unity observe
that (n, n) = ( Qn, Qn) = (n, n), which implies that = 1 since (n, n) 6= 0. Now,
using a similar argument as used in showing (n, n) = 0, we also have (n1 , n2 ) = 0 for n1
and n2 corresponding to distinct complex eigenvalues of Q (complex conjugates not being
6
considered as distinctthus, this result is relevant only when the dimension n > 3), and
(n, e) = (n, e) = 0, where e is the eigenvector of Q corresponding to the eigenvalue of +1
or 1.
If R 6= I is a rotation, then the set of all vectors e such that

Re = e (1.103)

forms a one-dimensional subspace of V called the axis of R. To prove that such a vector
always exists, we first show that +1 is always an eigenvalue of R, and 1 is always an
eigenvalue of an improper rotation. Since det R = 1,

det( R I ) = det( R RR T ) = (det R) det( I R T ) = det( I R T ) T


= det( I R) = det( R I ),

which implies that det( R I ) = 0, or that +1 is an eigenvalue. If e is the eigenvector corre-


sponding to the eigenvalue +1, then Re = e. Since every improper rotation is a product of
I times a proper orthogonal tensor, 1 is an eigenvalue of an improper orthogonal ten-
sor, with the same eigenvector as the proper orthogonal tensor from which it is generated.

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36 Continuum Mechanics

To show that the set of vectors e satisfying Eqn. (1.103) is a one-dimensional subspace of V,
premultiply both sides of this equation with R T to get R T e = e. Combining this relation
with Eqn. (1.103), we get ( R R T )e = 0. There are two possibilities: (i) R is unsymmetric,
or (ii) R is symmetric. If R is unsymmetric, then R R T is a nonzero skew-symmetric ten-
sor with e a scalar multiple of the axial vector of R R T . Since we have shown that a scalar
multiple of the axial vector of a skew-symmetric tensor constitutes a one-dimensional sub-
space, e, < is a one-dimensional subspace of V. Now consider the other possibility
where R is symmetric. By Theorem 1.6.1 all the eigenvalues of R are real, and as shown
above the only real eigenvalues can be 1. Taking into account that det R = 1, R 6= I
and that one of the real eigenvalues is +1, the set of eigenvalues in this case has to be
{+1, 1, 1}. Since the eigenvalue +1 is distinct from the other two, again invoking The-
orem 1.6.1, it follows that the corresponding eigenvector e is unique. Using Eqn.(1.123), it
also follows that R Orth+ Sym { I } has to be of the form 2e e I, where e is a unit
vector.
Conversely, given a vector w, there exists a proper orthogonal tensor R, and an im-
proper one R0 such that Rw = w and R0 w = w. To see this, consider the family of
tensors
1 1
R(w, ) = I + sin W + (1 cos )W 2 , (1.104)
|w| | w |2

where W is the skew-symmetric tensor with w as its axial vector, i.e., W w = 0. Using the
CayleyHamilton theorem, we have W 3 = |w|2 W, from which it follows that W 4 =
|w|2 W 2 . Using this result, we get
" #" #
T sin (1 cos ) 2 sin (1 cos ) 2
R R= I W+ W I+ W+ W = I.
|w| | w |2 |w| | w |2

Since R has now been shown to be orthogonal, det R = 1. However, since det[ R(w, 0)] =
det I = 1, by continuity, we have det[ R(w, )] = 1 for any . Thus, R is a proper orthogonal
tensor that satisfies Rw = w. Taking R0 = R, we get the required improper orthogonal
tensor. It is easily seen that Rw = w. Essentially, R rotates any vector in the plane per-
pendicular to w through an angle . By Eqn. (1.89), W 2 = w w |w|2 I. Thus, from
Eqn. (1.104), we get R(w, 0) = I and R(w, ) = 2e e I, where e = w/ |w|.
Using this result, we have the following representation theorem for proper orthogonal
tensors.

Theorem 1.5.4. Let W be a skew-symmetric tensor with an axial vector of unit magni-
tude, and let {e, q, r } be an orthonormal set of vectors. Then tensors of the form

R = I + sin W + (1 cos )W 2 , (1.105a)

R = e e + cos ( I e e) + sin (r q q r ). (1.105b)

are proper orthogonal. Conversely, there exist W Skw, and orthonormal vectors
{e, q, r }, such that every proper orthogonal tensor can be expressed in the above forms.

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Introduction to Tensors 37

Proof. The tensor R in Eqn. (1.105a) is just a special case of the tensor R in
Eqn. (1.104), which we have already shown to be proper orthogonal. Let
{e, q, r } be an orthonormal set of vectors. Choose W = r q q r, so that
W 2 = e e I. Substituting for W and W 2 into Eqn. (1.105a), we get the repre-
sentation in Eqn. (1.105b). Note that since Re = e, the vector e is the axis of R.
Conversely, we now show that every proper orthogonal tensor can be repre-
sented as Eqns. (1.105a) and (1.105b). Let e be the axis of R, and let q, r be such
that {e, q, r } form an orthonormal basis. Using the fact that Re = R T e = e, we
have ( Re, q) = ( Re, r ) = (e, Rq) = (e, Rr ) = 0. Thus, Rq and Rr lie in the plane
perpendicular to e. If ( Rq, q) = ( Rr, r ) = cos , then

R = RI
= R(e e + q q + r r )
= ( Re) e + ( Rq) q + ( Rr ) r
= e e + [( Rq, e)e + ( Rq, q)q + ( Rq, r )r ] q+
[( Rr, e)e + ( Rr, q)q + ( Rr, r )r ] r
= e e + cos (q q + r r ) + sin (r q q r )
= e e + cos ( I e e) + sin (r q q r ),

which is Eqn. (1.105b). By taking W = r q q r, we have W 2 = e e I,


from which we get Eqn. (1.105a).

Using the results for the eigenvalues/eigenvectors of R, it is also possible to write the
following spectral resolutions (using the convention outlined at the end of Section 1.3.1):
I = e e + n n + n n,
R = e e + n n + n n, (1.106)
2 2 2
R = e e + n n + n n,

where = = 1 in case all eigenvalues of R 6= I are real (so that R = 2e e I), and
n n = n n = e n = e n = 0 and n n = 1 in case is complex.
Note from Eqn. (1.105b) that tr R = 1 + 2 cos . It is easily seen by multiplying the
expression
1 e e + 2 (q q + r r ) + 3 (r q q r ) = 0
successively by e, q and r that 1 = 2 = 3 = 0, which implies that {e e, q q + r
r, r q q r } are linearly independent. Using the representation given by Eqn. (1.105b),
we have

I 1 1 0 ee
R = 1 cos sin q q + r r .

R2 1 cos 2 sin 2 rqqr

The determinant of the square matrix in the above equation is 2 sin (1 cos ). Thus, from
Theorem 1.1.2 it follows that { I, R, R2 } are linearly independent for all except when (i)

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38 Continuum Mechanics

= 0, in which case R = R2 = I and (ii) = , in which case R = 2e e I Sym, and


R2 = I (in this case { I, R} are linearly independent).
Using the representation in Eqn. (1.104), let

1 1
R1 ( w1 , ) = I + sin W 1 + (1 cos )W 21 ,
| w1 | | w1 |2
1 1
R2 ( w2 , ) = I + sin W 2 + (1 cos )W 22 ,
| w2 | | w2 |2

be two proper orthogonal tensors. If the axes of these two tensors coincide, i.e., if e1 =
w1 / |w1 | = w2 / |w2 | = e2 , then we have W 1 / |w1 | = W 2 / |w2 |, and hence R1 and R2
commute, i.e., R1 R2 = R2 R1 . However, the converse is not true since, for example, R1 =
diag[1, 1, 1] and R2 = diag[1, 1, 1] commute, but do not have the same axes. If e1
and e2 are the axes of R1 and R2 , respectively, then we assume the (unnormalized) axis
of R2 R1 to be of the form w = e1 + e2 + e1 e2 (since {e1 , e2 , e1 e2 } constitute
a basis when e1 and e2 are linearly independent) and find (, , ) using the condition
R2 R1 w = w. Using this procedure, we obtain the axis of R2 R1 as e = w/ |w|, where

w = (1 cos )(1 + cos )e1 + sin sin e2 (1 cos ) sin e1 e2 . (1.107)

In the representation given by Eqn. (1.104), w is a fixed vector; however, in problems


of rigid-body dynamics, we shall need to consider the case when the angular velocity vec-
tor is a function of time, and which, in general, will not coincide with the axis of Q. In
such a situation, it is helpful to express Q Orth+ in terms of generalized coordinates.
Problem 26 shows that 3 parameters are required to characterize an orthogonal tensor in
three-dimensional space, and presents one such characterization. However, the most com-
monly used characterization is the one using the Euler angles , and . The representation
of Q in terms of these angles is

cos sin 0 1 0 0 cos sin 0
Q = sin cos 0 0 cos sin sin cos 0

0 0 1 0 sin cos 0 0 1

cos cos cos sin sin sin cos cos sin cos sin sin
= cos sin + cos cos sin sin sin + cos cos cos sin cos . (1.108)

sin sin cos sin cos

The axis of Q is [0, 0, 1] when = 0, and



(1 cos )(sin + sin )
e = (1 cos )(cos cos ) ( 6 = 0). (1.109)

sin [1 cos( + )]

We now present an expression for the eigenvalues of Q. Since from Eqn. (1.105b),
tr Q = 1 + 2 cos , and since we have shown that the magnitude of the eigenvalues is 1, the
eigenvalues of Q Orth+ are {1, ei , ei }. Since 1 cos 1, we have 1 tr Q 3,
with tr Q = 3 if and only if Q = I ( = 0 in Eqn. (1.105b)). The other bound tr Q = 1 is at-
tained when = (or when or + is equal to in Eqn. (1.108)), and from Eqn. (1.105b),

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Introduction to Tensors 39

we see that Q = 2e e I Sym with eigenvalues {1, 1, 1}. When 1 < tr Q < 3,
two eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors are complex.
Since for Q Orth+ , I2 = tr (cof Q) = tr [(det Q) QT ] = tr Q, by the Cayley
Hamilton theorem, we get

Q1 = Q T = Q2 (tr Q) Q + (tr Q) I. (1.110)

If Q1 , Q2 Orth+ , which have the representations (see Theorem 1.5.2)

Q1 = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 ,
Q2 = c1 d1 + c2 d2 + c3 d3 ,

where { ai }, {bi }, {ci }, {di } are orthonormal sets of vectors, then there exist proper orthog-
onal tensors R1 = ck ak and R2 = dk bk such that Q2 = R1 Q1 R2T . However, if the
trace of Q1 and Q2 are the same (which implies that all their principal invariants are also
the same), the following stronger result holds.

Theorem 1.5.5. Two proper orthogonal tensors Q1 and Q2 have the same trace, i.e.,
tr Q1 = tr Q2 , if and only if there exists an orthogonal tensor Q0 (which means that
either Q0 or Q0 is a rotation) such that Q2 = Q0 Q1 Q0T .
Proof. If there exists Q0 Orth such that Q2 = Q0 Q1 Q0T , then using the same
method of proof as used to prove Eqn. (1.137), we see that all the principal in-
variants of Q1 and Q2 are the same. To prove the converse, note that if all the
principal invariants of Q1 and Q2 are the same, then their characteristic equa-
tions, and hence their eigenvalues are the same. Thus, using Eqn. (1.106), we can
write

Q1 = e e + n n + n n,
Q2 = f f + g g + g g.

The tensor

Q0 = f e + g n + g n

is orthogonal since Q0T Q0 = e e + n n + n n = I, and using the relations


following Eqn. (1.106), we also see that Q2 = Q0 Q1 Q0T . In the above treatment,
we have assumed that two eigenvalues are complex. If (1, 1, 1) are the eigen-
values of Q1 and Q2 , then they have the representations Q1 = 2e e I and
Q2 = 2 f f I, so that any tensor that rotates e into f can be taken to be Q0 .
An alternative proof can also be given using Eqn. (1.105b) (recall that tr R =
1 + 2 cos ) by writing

Q1 = e e + cos ( I e e) + sin (r q q r ),
Q2 = f f + cos ( I f f ) sin (r q q r ),

where {e, q, r } and { f , q, r } are orthonormal sets of axes, and then taking Q0 as
f e + q q + r r.

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40 Continuum Mechanics

1.6 Symmetric Tensors


In this section, we examine some properties of symmetric second-order tensors. We first
discuss the properties of the principal values (eigenvalues) and principal directions (eigen-
vectors) of a symmetric second-order tensor.

1.6.1 Principal values and principal directions


We have the following result:

Theorem 1.6.1. Every symmetric tensor S has at least one principal frame, i.e., a right-
handed triplet of orthogonal principal directions, and at most three distinct principal
values. The principal values are always real. For the principal directions three possibili-
ties exist:
If all the three principal values are distinct, the principal axes are unique (modulo
sign reversal).
If two eigenvalues are equal, then there is one unique principal direction, and the
remaining two principal directions can be chosen arbitrarily in the plane perpen-
dicular to the first one, and mutually perpendicular to each other.
If all three eigenvalues are the same, then every right-handed frame is a principal
frame, and S is of the form S = I.
The components of the tensor in the principal frame are

1 0 0
S = 0 2 0 . (1.111)

0 0 3

Proof. We seek and n such that


(S I )n = 0. (1.112)
But this is nothing but an eigenvalue problem. For a nontrivial solution, we need
to satisfy the condition that
det(S I ) = 0,
or, by Eqn. (1.79),
3 I1 2 + I2 I3 = 0, (1.113)
where I1 , I2 and I3 are the principal invariants of S.
We now show that the principal values given by the three roots of the cubic
equation Eqn. (1.113) are real. Suppose that two roots, and hence the eigenvec-
tors associated with them, are complex. Denoting the complex conjugates of
and n by and n, we have
Sn = n, (1.114a)

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Introduction to Tensors 41

Sn = n, (1.114b)

where Eqn. (1.114b) is obtained by taking the complex conjugate of Eqn. (1.114a)
(S being a real matrix is not affected). Taking the dot product of both sides of
Eqn. (1.114a) with n, and of both sides of Eqn. (1.114b) with n, we get

n Sn = n n, (1.115)
n Sn = n n. (1.116)

Using the definition of a transpose of a tensor, and subtracting the second rela-
tion from the first, we get

S T n n n Sn = ( )n n. (1.117)

Since S is symmetric, S T = S, and we have

( )n n = 0.

Since n n 6= 0, = , and hence the eigenvalues are real.


The principal directions n1 , n2 and n3 , corresponding to distinct eigenvalues
1 , 2 and 3 , are mutually orthogonal and unique (modulo sign reversal). We
now prove this. Taking the dot product of

Sn1 = 1 n1 , (1.118)
Sn2 = 2 n2 , (1.119)

with n2 and n1 , respectively, and subtracting, we get

0 = ( 1 2 ) n1 n2 ,

where we have used the fact that S being symmetric, n2 Sn1 n1 Sn2 = 0.
Thus, since we assumed that 1 6= 2 , we get n1 n2 . Similarly, we have
n2 n3 and n1 n3 . If n1 satisfies Sn1 = 1 n1 , then we see that n1 also
satisfies the same equation. This is the only other choice possible that satisfies
Sn1 = 1 n1 . To see this, let r 1 , r 2 and r 3 be another set of mutually perpendicular
eigenvectors corresponding to the distinct eigenvalues 1 , 2 and 3 . Then r 1
has to be perpendicular to not only r 2 and r 3 , but to n2 and n3 as well. Similar
comments apply to r 2 and r 3 . This is only possible when r 1 = n1 , r 2 = n2
and r 3 = n3 . Thus, the principal axes are unique modulo sign reversal.
To prove that the components of S in the principal frame are given by
Eqn. (1.111), assume that n1 , n2 , n3 have been normalized to unit length, and
then let e1 = n1 , e2 = n2 and e3 = n3 . Using Eqn. (1.28), and taking into account
the orthonormality of e1 and e2 , the components S11 and S are given by
12

S11 = e1 Se1 = e1 (1 e1 ) = 1 ,

S12 = e1 Se2 = e1 (2 e2 ) = 0.

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42 Continuum Mechanics

Similarly, on computing the other components, we see that the matrix represen-
tation of S with respect to e is given by Eqn. (1.111).
If there are two repeated roots, say, 2 = 3 , and the third root 1 6= 2 , then
let e1 coincide with n1 , so that Se1 = 1 e1 . Choose e2 and e3 such that e1 -e3
form a right-handed orthogonal coordinate system. The components of S with
respect to this coordinate system are

1 0 0
S = 0 S22 .
S23 (1.120)


0 S23
S33

By Eqn. (1.80), we have



S22 + S33 = 22 ,
2
1 S22 + (S22 S33 (S23 ) ) + 1 S33 = 21 2 + 22 , (1.121)
h i
2
1 S22 S33 (S23 ) = 1 22 .

Substituting for 2 from the first equation into the second, we get
2 2
(S22 S33 ) = 4(S23 ) .

Since the components of S are real, the above equation implies that S23 = 0 and

2 = S22 = S33 . This shows that Eqn. (1.120) reduces to Eqn. (1.111), and that
Se2 = S12 e + S e + S e = e and Se = e (thus, e and e are eigen-
1 22 2 32 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3
vectors corresponding to the eigenvalue 2 ). However, in this case the choice of
the principal frame e is not unique, since any vector lying in the plane of e2 and
e3 , given by n = c1 e2 + c2 e3 where c1 and c2 are arbitrary constants, is also an
eigenvector. The choice of e1 is unique (modulo sign reversal), since it has to be
perpendicular to e2 and e3 . Though the choice of e2 and e3 is not unique, we
can choose e2 and e3 arbitrarily in the plane perpendicular to e1 , and such that
e2 e3 .
Finally, if 1 = 2 = 3 = , then the tensor S is of the form S = I. To
show this choose e1 e3 , and follow a procedure analogous to that in the previous
case. We now get S22 = S = and S = 0, so that [ S ] = I. Using the
33 23
transformation law for second-order tensors, we have

[S] = Q T [S ] Q = Q T Q = I.

Thus, any arbitrary vector n is a solution of Sn = n, and hence every right-


handed frame is a principal frame.

As a result of Eqn. (1.111), we can write

S = 1 e1 e1 + 2 e2 e2 + 3 e3 e3 , (1.122)

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Introduction to Tensors 43

which is called as the spectral resolution of S. The spectral resolution of S is unique since
If all the eigenvalues are distinct, then the eigenvectors are unique, and consequently
the representation given by Eqn. (1.122) is unique.
If two eigenvalues are repeated, then, by virtue of Eqn. (1.38), Eqn. (1.122) reduces to

S = 1 e1 e1 + 2 e2 e2 + 2 e3 e3
= 1 e1 e1 + 2 ( I e1 e1 ), (1.123)

from which the asserted uniqueness follows, since e1 is unique.


If all the eigenvalues are the same then S = I.
Although the eigenvalues of S Sym are real, its eigenvectors can be complex (note
that in this case, real eigenvectors, obtained by combining the complex eigenvectors, also
exist).
For example, if S = diag [ 1, 2, 3 ] , then n = ( 1 + i )[ 1, 0, 0 ] / 2 and n = (1 i )[1, 0, 0]/
2 are eigenvectors corresponding
to the eigenvalue 1. If S = diag[1, 1, 2], then n =
[1, i, 0]/ 2 and n = [1, i, 0]/ 2 are eigenvectors corresponding to the repeated eigen-
value 1. Note that the eigenvectors in such a case occur in complex conjugate pairs (which
is proved simply by taking the complex conjugate of the relation Sn = n, so that (n, n)
are the eigenvectors corresponding to the eigenvalue ). Note, however, that although the
eigenvectors can be complex, the eigenprojections Pi as given by Eqn. (J.4) are real.

Theorem 1.6.2. Let S be given by Eqn. (1.122), and let {ek } denote the canonical basis
of V. Then Q = ek ek is a proper orthogonal tensor that diagonalizes S, i.e., the
matrix representation of QSQ T with respect to the canonical basis is diagonal.
Conversely, if Q Orth+ diagonalizes a tensor S, i.e., QSQ T = where is a
diagonal matrix, then S is symmetric, the diagonal matrix comprises the eigenvalues
of S, and the rows of Q are the eigenvectors of S.
Proof. By Theorem 1.5.2, Q = ek ek Orth+ , and since ei = Qei , we have
" #
QSQ T = Q i ei ei QT
i
= i ( Qei ) ( Qei )
i
= i ei ei ,
i

which is a diagonal matrix with i along the diagonals.


Conversely, if QSQ T = where is a diagonal matrix, then S = Q T Q is
clearly a symmetric tensor. By Theorem 1.6.10, S and have the same eigenval-
ues, and hence has the eigenvalues of S along the diagonal. If follows that
" #
S = Q T Q = Q T i ei ei Q= i ( Q T e i ) ( Q T e i ),
i i

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44 Continuum Mechanics

which implies that S( Q T ei ) = i ( Q T ei ) (no sum on i); thus, Q T ei are the eigen-
vectors of S. Since Q = IQ, we have

Q = (ek ek ) Q = ek ( Q T ek ) = ek ek ,

which shows that the rows of Q are the eigenvectors of S.

The CayleyHamilton theorem (Theorem 1.3.5) applied to S Sym yields

S3 I1 S2 + I2 S I3 I = 0. (1.124)

We have already proved this result for any arbitrary tensor. However, the following sim-
pler proof can be given for symmetric tensors. Using Eqn. (1.341), the spectral resolutions
of S, S2 and S3 are

S = 1 e1 e1 + 2 e2 e2 + 3 e3 e3 ,
S2 = 21 e1 e1 + 22 e2 e2 + 23 e3 e3 , (1.125)
3
S = 31 e1 e1 + 32 e2 e2 + 33 e3 e3 .

Substituting these expressions into the left-hand side of Eqn. (1.124), we get

LHS = (31 I1 21 + I2 1 I3 )(e1 e1 ) + (32 I1 22 + I2 2 I3 )(e2 e2 )


+ (33 I1 23 + I2 3 I3 )(e3 e3 ) = 0,

since 3i I1 2i + I2 i I3 = 0 for i = 1, 2, 3.
{S I1 I/3 : S Sym} constitutes the set of traceless symmetric tensors, while tensors
of the form ( a b + b a)/2, a, b V have determinant zero (a fact that can be verified
by writing ( a b + b a)/2 as ( a b + b a + 0 0)/2 and then using Eqn. (1.53)).
However, not all symmetric tensors with determinant zero can be represented as ( a b +
b a)/2 since, from the CauchySchwartz inequality it follows that the second invariant
of ( a b + b a)/2 computed using Eqn. (1.63) is always negative.
The following explicit expressions can be given for the eigenvalues of S Sym when it
is not of the form I [298]:
I1
1 = + 2 p cos ,
3
I
2 = 1 p(cos + 3 sin ),
3
I1
3 = p(cos 3 sin ),
3
where
   
1 I I
p= S 1I : S 1I ,
6 3 3
 
1 I
q = det S 1 I ,
2 3

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Introduction to Tensors 45

p
1 p3 q2
= tan1 , 0 .
3 q

As can be seen from the above expressions, 2 = 3 when p3 = q2 .


Alternative expressions for finding the eigenvalues are

I1 p
1 = 2 Q cos ,
3
 
I 2
2 = 1 2 Q cos +
p
, (1.126)
3 3
 
I1 p 2
3 = 2 Q cos ,
3 3

where
I12 3I2
Q= ,
9
1 h i
U= 9I1 I2 2I13 27I3 ,
54
!
1 U
= cos1 p .
3 Q3

If Q = 0 (i.e., if I12 = 3I2 ), then all the eigenvalues are repeated, 1 = 2 = 3 = I1 /3. If

Q 6= 0 and Q3 = U 2 (i.e., if I12 I22 4I23 4I13 I3 + 18I1 I2 I3 27I32 = 0), then 1 = I1 /3 2 Q

and 2 = 3 = I1 /3 + Q if U > 0, and 2 = I1 /3 + 2 Q and 1 = 3 = I1 /3 Q if
U < 0. If Q 6= 0 and Q3 6= U 2 , then the eigenvalues are distinct.
We saw in Theorem 1.6.1 that the component form of a symmetric tensor is a diagonal
matrix in a particular basis. The following theorem states the conditions under which the
matrix representation has all the diagonal terms zero [18], [27], [117]:

Theorem 1.6.3. There exists an orthonormal basis {ni }, i = 1, 2, 3, for which

n1 Sn1 = n2 Sn2 = n3 Sn3 = 0, (1.127)

if and only if tr S = 0.
Proof. If Eqn. (1.127) holds then clearly tr S = n1 Sn1 + n2 Sn2 + n3 Sn3 = 0.
Thus, we just need to prove the converse. If tr S = 1 + 2 + 3 = 0, then the
spectral resolution of S can be written as

S = 1 (e1 e1 e3 e3 ) + 2 (e2 e2 e3 e3 ).

We have seen that {ei }, i = 1, 2, 3 can always be chosen to be an orthonormal


basis, and we assume that such a choice has been made. Note that when tr S = 0,
at most one eigenvalue can be zero, since if two or more are zero, the tensor S

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46 Continuum Mechanics

is the zero tensor. Thus, we can assume, without loss in generality, that both 1
and 2 are nonzero, and 3 (1 + 2 ) can be either zero or nonzero. If we
choose

n1 = (e1 + e2 + e3 )/ 3, (1.128)

it is clear that n1 Sn1 = 0. We now try and find n2 and n3 in the plane perpen-
dicular to n1 such that n2 Sn2 = n3 Sn3 = 0. Since n1 n2 = 0, n2 and n3 are of
the form
1 e1 + 2 e2 (1 + 2 )e3
n2 = q ,
12 + 22 + (1 + 2 )2
(1.129)
(1 + 22 )e1 + (21 + 2 )e2 + (2 1 )e3
n3 = n1 n2 = q 2 ,
3 1 + 22 + (1 + 2 )2

where 1 , 2 are constants to be determined. Both the conditions n2 Sn2 = 0


and n3 Sn3 = 0 yield the equation

1 22 + 2(1 + 2 )1 2 + 2 12 = 0,

which on solving yields (recall that both 1 and 2 are nonzero)


q
(1 + 2 ) 21 + 1 2 + 22
2 = 1 .
1

It suffices to consider only the solution with the positive sign, since it can be
shown that the solution obtained with the negative sign is simply a rearrange-
ment of the one obtained with the positive one, i.e., if (n1 , n2 , n3 ) is the solution
obtained with the positive sign, then (n1 , n3 , n2 ) is the solution obtained with
the negative one. Substituting for 2 into Eqns. (1.129), we get

g1 e1 + g2 e2 + g3 e3
n2 = q ,
g12 + g22 + g32
(1.130)
h1 e1 + h2 e2 + h3 e3
n3 = q ,
h21 + h22 + h23

where

g1 = 1 ,
q
g2 = 21 + 1 2 + 22 (1 + 2 ),
q
g3 = 2 21 + 1 2 + 22 ,

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Introduction to Tensors 47

q
h1 = 1 + 22 2 21 + 1 2 + 22 ,
q
h2 = 1 2 + 21 + 1 2 + 22 ,
q
h3 = 21 2 + 21 + 1 2 + 22 .

Equations (1.128) and (1.130) are the desired solutions.


The solution that has been presented above is only one choice in an infinite
one-parameter family of solutions in terms of a parameter . To find this infinite
one-parameter family, assume a unit vector in the principal basis {ei } to be given
by

n1 = (sin cos , sin sin , cos ),

and also assume without loss in generality that 1 and 2 are chosen such
that 1 6= 2 . Using the fact that S in this coordinate system is given by
diag[1 , 2 , (1 + 2 )], and eliminating by using the condition n1 Sn1 = 0
yields
q 2

(1 +221)cos
2
2
q
n1 ( ) = (2 +21 ) cos2 1 .
2 1
cos

The second vector n2 also satisfies n2 Sn2 = 0, and hence has to be of the form
n1 (), where is found in terms of by imposing the condition that n1 n2 = 0.
Denoting t cos2 , we get

h h2
cos2 = 1 , (1.131)
D
where

h1 = 1 2 (2 + 7t 5t2 ) + (21 + 22 )(1 + 3t 2t2 ),

h2 = (41 + 42 )(1 2t)2 t2 + (31 2 + 1 32 )(1 + 8t 22t2 + 20t3 )t+

21 22 (2 + 15t 38t2 + 33t3 )t,

D = 2(21 + 22 )(1 + 2t) + 21 2 (2 + 5t).

Denoting the two roots for cos2 corresponding to the plus and minus signs
in Eqn. (1.131) by cos2 1 and cos2 2 , we get n2 = n1 (1 ) and n3 = n1 (2 ).
The plus or minus signs for the components of n1 can be chosen arbitrarily; the
corresponding signs for n2 are obtained by imposing the condition n1 n2 = 0,
and then n3 is found as n1 n2 .

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48 Continuum Mechanics

The result in Theorem 1.6.3 actually holds for an arbitrary traceless tensor T. This is
seen by splitting T into its symmetric and antisymmetric parts, and since the diagonal
elements of the antisymmetric part are zero in any basis, the basis found for the symmetric
part works. As a simple example of the above theorem, let the matrix representation of
S with respect to a basis be diag[1, 1, 0]. Then, by convention, we choose 1 and 2 to
be the nonzero eigenvalues, i.e., 1 = 1, 2 = 1. The corresponding eigenvectors are
e1 = (1, 0, 0), e2 = (0, 1, 0) and e3 = (0, 0, 1). From Eqns. (1.128) and (1.130), we get

n1 = (1, 1, 1)/ 3, n2 = (1, 1, 2)/ 6, and n3 = (1, 1, 0)/ 2. A more complicated
example is given in Section 3.7.
The decomposition of a matrix into two symmetric components, i.e., T = S1 S2 , where
S1 , S2 Sym, and where one of the factors can be taken to be invertible [26], can be found
as follows. Assuming S2 to be invertible, we get S1 = TS21 . Since S1 Sym, we get
S21 T T = TS21 , or, alternatively, T T S2 = S2 T. This results in at most n(n 1)/2 indepen-
dent equations for the n(n + 1)/2 components of S2 . For example, for dimension n = 2,
we get

T12 T21 T11 T22 S11
0 0 0 S22 = 0, (1.132)

0 0 0 S12

while for dimension n = 3, we get



T12 T21 0 T11 T22 T31 T32 S11

T T31 T23 T21 T11 T33
0 S22

13

0 T23 T32 T13 T22 T33 T12 S33

= 0.


0 0 0 0 0 0 S12


0 0 0 0 0 0 S23

0 0 0 0 0 0 S13

The decomposition is obviously not unique since, e.g., I can be factorized as ( I )( I ) or as


( I )( I ).
In general,  possible to express the factors S1 and S2 as a function of T. To see
 it is not
this, let T = 0w w0 , whose determinant is nonzero, so that both S1 and S2 are invertible.
Using Eqn. (1.132), we get the most general solution as
" # " #" #
0 w 1 bw aw a b
= 2 , a, b <.
w 0 a + b2 aw bw b a

One can see that it is not possible to express either S1 or S2 as a function of T.

1.6.2 Positive definite tensors and the polar decomposition


A second-order symmetric tensor S is positive definite if

(u, Su) 0 u V with (u, Su) = 0 if and only if u = 0.

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Introduction to Tensors 49

We denote the set of symmetric, positive definite tensors by Psym. Since by virtue of
Eqn. (1.33), all tensors T can be decomposed into a symmetric part T s , and a skew-symmetric
part T ss , we have

(u, Tu) = (u, T s u) + (u, T ss u),


= (u, T s u),

because (u, T ss u) = 0 by Eqn. (1.86). Thus, the positive definiteness of a tensor is decided
by the positive definiteness of its symmetric part. In Theorem 1.6.4, we show that a sym-
metric tensor is positive definite if and only if its eigenvalues are positive. Although the
eigenvalues of the symmetric part of T should be positive in order for T to be positive def-
inite, positiveness of the eigenvalues of T itself does
 not ensure its positive definiteness
as the following counterexample shows. If T = 10 110 , then T is not positive definite
since u Tu < 0 for u = (1, 1), but the eigenvalues of T are (1, 1). Conversely, if T is pos-
itive definite, then by choosing u to be the real eigenvectors n of T, it follows that its real
eigenvalues = (n Tn) are positive.

Theorem 1.6.4. Let S Sym. Then the following are equivalent:


1. S is positive definite.
2. The principal values of S are strictly positive.
3. The principal invariants of S are strictly positive.
Proof. We first prove the equivalence of (1) and (2). Suppose S is positive defi-
nite. If and n denote the principal values and principal directions, respectively,
of S, then Sn = n, which implies that = (n, Sn) > 0 since n 6= 0.
Conversely, suppose that the principal values of S are greater than 0. Assum-
ing that e1 , e2 and e3 denote the principal axes, the representation of S in the
principal coordinate frame is (see Eqn. (1.122))

S = 1 e1 e1 + 2 e2 e2 + 3 e3 e3 .

Then
Su = (1 e1 e1 + 2 e2 e2 + 3 e3 e3 )u
= 1 (e1 u)e1 + 2 (e2 u)e2 + 3 (e3 u)e3
= 1 u1 e1 + 2 u2 e2 + 3 u3 e3 ,

and

(u, Su) = u Su = 1 (u1 )2 + 2 (u2 )2 + 3 (u3 )2 , (1.133)

which is greater than or equal to zero since i > 0. Suppose that (u, Su) = 0.
Then by Eqn. (1.133), ui = 0, which implies that u = 0. Thus, S is a positive
definite tensor.
To prove the equivalence of (2) and (3), note that, by Eqn. (1.80), if all
the principal values are strictly positive, then the principal invariants are also

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50 Continuum Mechanics

strictly positive. Conversely, if all the principal invariants are positive, then
I3 = 1 2 3 , is positive, so that all the i are nonzero in addition to being real.
Each i has to satisfy the characteristic equation

3i I1 2i + I2 i I3 = 0, i = 1, 2, 3.

If i is negative, then, since I1 , I2 , I3 are positive, the left-hand side of the above
equation is negative, and hence the above equation cannot be satisfied. We have
already mentioned that i cannot be zero. Hence, each i has to be positive.

Theorem 1.6.5. If S Psym, then there exists a unique H Psym, such that H 2 :=
HH = S. The tensor H is called the positive definite square root of S, and we write
H = S.
Proof. Before we begin the proof, we note that a positive definite, symmet-
ric tensor can have square roots that are not positive definite. For example,
diag[1, 1, 1] is a non-positive definite square root of I. Here, we are interested
only in those square roots that are positive definite. The short proof of unique-
ness given below is due to Stephenson [305].
Since
3
S= i ei ei ,
i =1
is positive definite, by Theorem 1.6.4, all i > 0. Define
3
i ei ei .
p
H := (1.134)
i =1

Since the {ei } are orthonormal, it is easily seen that H H = S. Since the eigen-

values of H given by i are all positive, H is positive definite. Thus, we have
shown that a positive definite square root tensor of S given by Eqn. (1.134) exists.
We now prove uniqueness.
With and n denoting the principal value and principal direction of S, we
have
0 = (S I )n
= ( H 2 I )n

= ( H + I )( H I )n.

Calling ( H I )n = n, we have

( H + I )n = 0.

This implies that n = 0. For, if not, is a principal value of H, which contra-
dicts the fact that H is positive definite. Therefore,

( H I )n = 0;

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Introduction to Tensors 51


i.e., n
is also a principal direction of H with associated principal values . If
H = S, then it must have the form given by Eqn. (1.134) (since the spectral
decomposition is unique), which establishes its uniqueness.

Now we prove the polar decomposition theorem, which plays a crucial role in the char-
acterization of frame-indifferent constitutive relations.

Theorem 1.6.6 (Polar Decomposition Theorem). Let F be an invertible tensor. Then,


it can be factored in a unique fashion as
F = RU = V R,
where R is an orthogonal tensor, and U, V are symmetric and positive definite tensors.
One has
p
U = FT F
p
V = FF T .
Proof. The tensor F T F is obviously symmetric. It is positive definite since
(u, F T Fu) = ( Fu, Fu) 0,
only if u = 0 (Fu = 0 implies that u = 0, since F is in-
with equality if and
vertible). Let U = F T F. U is unique, symmetric and positive definite by
Theorem 1.6.5. Define R = FU 1 , so that F = RU. The tensor R is orthogonal,
because
R T R = ( FU 1 ) T ( FU 1 )
= U T F T FU 1
= U 1 ( F T F )U 1 (since U is symmetric)
1 1
=U (UU )U
= I.
Since det U > 0, we have det U 1 > 0. Hence, det R and det F have the same
sign. Usually, the polar decomposition theorem is applied to the deformation
gradient F satisfying det F > 0. In such a case det R = 1, and R is a rotation.
Next, let V = FU F 1 = FR1 = RU R1 = RU R T . Thus, V is symmetric
since U is symmetric. V is positive definite since
(u, V u) = (u, RU R T u)
= ( R T u, U R T u)
0,
T T
with equality if and only if u = 0 (again since R is invertible). Note that FF =
2 T
V V = V , so that V = FF .
Finally, to prove the uniqueness of the polar decomposition, we note that since
U is unique, R = FU 1 is unique, and hence so is V .

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Let (i , ei ) denote the eigenvalues/eigenvectors of U. Then, since V Rei = RUei =


i ( Rei ), the pairs (i , f i ), where f i Rei are the eigenvalues/eigenvectors of V . Thus, F
and R can be represented as
3 3 3
F = RU = R i ei ei = i ( Rei ) ei = i f i ei ,
i =1 i =1 i =1
(1.135)
3 3
R = RI = R ei ei = ( Rei ) ei = f i ei .
i =1 i i =1

When F is invertible, the polar decomposition can be given in explicit form in terms of
the eigenvalues {1 , 2 , 3 } of U, and powers of C or B. First, one determines the eigen-
values {21 , 22 , 23 } of C = F T F (which are also the eigenvalues of B = FF T = RCR T ),
using Eqn. (1.126). Then, depending on whether the eigenvalues are repeated or distinct,
the relevant expressions for the component matrices in the polar decomposition are ([126],
[153], [326])
All eigenvalues distinct (1 6= 2 6= 3 6= 1 ):
ha a2 a3 i
R = F 1 I + C + C2 ,
a a a
a a2 a3
U 1 = 1 I + C + C 2 ,
a a a
1 a1 a2 a3 2
V = I+ B+ B ,
a a a
b1 b2 b3 2
U = I+ C+ C ,
b b b
b1 b2 b3 2
V = I+ B+ B ,
b b b
where

a1 = (1 + 2 + 3 )(21 22 + 22 23 + 21 23 ) + 1 2 3 (21 + 22 + 23 + 1 2
+ 2 3 + 1 3 ),
h i
a2 = (1 + 2 + 3 )(21 + 22 + 23 ) + 1 2 3 ,
a3 = 1 + 2 + 3 ,
a = 1 2 3 [(1 + 2 + 3 )(1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 1 2 3 ] ,
b1 = 1 2 3 (1 + 2 + 3 ),
b2 = 21 + 22 + 23 + 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ,
b3 = 1,
b = (1 + 2 + 3 )(1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 1 2 3 .

Two distinct eigenvalues (1 6= 2 = 3 ):


ha a2 i
R = F 1I+ C ,
a a
1 a1 a2
U = I + C,
a a

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Introduction to Tensors 53

a1 a2
V 1 = I+ B,
a a
b b2
U = 1I+ C,
b b
b1 b2
V = I+ B,
b b
where

a1 = 21 + 1 2 + 22 ,
a2 = 1,
a = 1 2 ( 1 + 2 ),
b1 = 1 2 ,
b2 = 1,
b = 1 + 2 .

All eigenvalues repeated (1 = 2 = 3 ):

1
R= F, U = V = I.

Rates of the stretch and rotation tensors are discussed in Section 1.9.4.

1.6.3 Isotropic functions


We shall frequently make use of the following theorem:

Theorem 1.6.7. Let X, Y and Z be normed vector spaces, and let f : X Z and
g : X Y be two mappings such that

{ x, x 0 X and g( x ) = g( x 0 )} = f ( x ) = f ( x 0 ).

Then, there exists a mapping h : g( X ) Y Z such that

f ( x ) = h( g( x )) x X.

A scalar function : V < is isotropic if (v) = ( Qv) for all v V and Q Orth+ .
We have the following characterization:

Theorem 1.6.8. is isotropic if and only if there exist a function such that
(v) = (|v|) v V.
Proof. If exists, then
( Qv) = (| Qv|) = (|v|) = (v) v V.
To prove the converse, we need to show that |u| = |v| implies (u) = (v),
and then the result follows from Theorem 1.6.7. As noted after the proof of

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54 Continuum Mechanics

Theorem 1.5.2, if |u| = |v|, there exists a proper orthogonal tensor that rotates u
into v, i.e.,

v = Qu.

Now by the assumed isotropy, we have

(v) = ( Qu) = (u).

A vector function g : V V is isotropic if Qg (v) = g ( Qv) for all v V and Q


Orth+ . We have the following characterization:

Theorem 1.6.9. g is isotropic if and only if there exists a function such that

g (v) = (|v|)v v V.

Proof. If the function exists, then

g ( Qv) = (| Qv|) Qv = (|v|) Qv = Qg (v).

To prove the converse, let v be an arbitrary vector, and let Q 6= I be a proper


orthogonal tensor with v/ |v| as its axis so that Qv = v. By the assumed isotropy,
we have

Qg (v) = g ( Qv) = g (v).

Since the axis of Q is a one-dimensional subspace, g (v) is parallel to v, i.e.,


g (v) = (v)v. Again by the assumed isotropy, (v) = ( Qv), and the desired
result follows by Theorem 1.6.8.

In what follows, we restrict the domain of the functions under consideration to a sub-
set of Sym, and denote the list of principal invariants ( I1 , I2 , I3 ) by I . A scalar function
: Psym < is an isotropic function if it remains invariant under orthogonal transforma-
tions, i.e.,

(S) = ( QSQ T ) S Psym, Q Orth+ . (1.136)

An isotropic tensor function G : Psym Sym is one that satisfies

QG (S) Q T = G ( QSQ T ) S Psym, Q Orth+ .

Although we have restricted S to be in Psym in the above definitions, all the following
results will hold even if S lies in any subset A of Sym that is invariant under Orth+ , i.e., if

QAQ T A when A A, Q Orth+ .

This condition is imposed in order that ( QSQ T ) and G ( QSQ T ) make sense. As is obvi-
ous from the above definition, Sym itself is invariant under Orth+ . To show that Psym is
invariant under Orth+ , let S Psym. By Theorem 1.6.4, all the eigenvalues of S are strictly

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Introduction to Tensors 55

positive. The following theorem shows that the eigenvalues of QSQ T are the same as the
eigenvalues of S. Then, again appealing to Theorem 1.6.4, we conclude that QSQ T Psym.

Theorem 1.6.10. The list of principal invariants I is isotropic, i.e.,

IS = IQSQT S Psym, Q Orth+ . (1.137)

Proof. Note that

det( QSQ T I ) = det( QSQ T QQ T )

= det[ Q(S I ) Q T ]

= (det Q)(det Q T ) det(S I )

= [det( QQ T )] det(S I )

= det(S I ).

Thus, the characteristic equation for QSQ T and S is the same, leading to the
same principal invariants (and hence, also to the same eigenvalues).

Theorem 1.6.11. The tensors A, B Sym have the same principal invariants if and
only if there exists a proper orthogonal tensor Q such that A = QBQ T .

Proof. If there exists Q Orth+ such that A = QBQ T , then by Eqn. (1.137)
(which also holds when S Sym), A and B have the same principal invariants.
Conversely, if A and B have the same principal invariants, then by Eqn. (1.113)
they have the same eigenvalues. By the spectral resolution theorem, we can
write
A= i ei ei ,
i
B= i ei ei .
i

Since {ei } and {ei } are orthonormal sets of vectors, by Eqn. (1.95) there exists
Q = ek ek Orth+ such that ei = Qei . Using Eqn. (1.344), we now have

QBQ T = i Q(ei ei )QT = i (Qei ) (Qei ) = i ei ei = A.


i i i

Theorem 1.6.12. A function : Psym < is isotropic if and only if there exists a
function : I(S) < such that

(S) = (IS ) S Psym. (1.138)

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56 Continuum Mechanics

Proof. Assuming Eqn. (1.138) holds, we conclude that is isotropic from


Eqn. (1.137).
To prove the converse, we need to show that

I A = I B = ( A) = ( B),

for A, B Psym, and then the desired result follows from Theorem 1.6.7. Since
A and B have the same invariants, by Theorem 1.6.11 there exists Q Orth+
such that A = QBQ T . Since is isotropic,

( A) = ( QBQ T ) = ( B).

The generalization of the above theorem to arbitrary tensors is given by the follow-
ing [246, 294]:

Theorem 1.6.13. A function : Lin < is isotropic if and only if there exists a
function such that

( T ) = (tr T, tr T 2 , tr T T T ), T Lin (n = 2),

( T ) = (tr T, tr T 2 , tr T 3 , tr T T T , tr T 2 T T , tr T 2 ( T T )2 , tr T T T T 2 ( T T )2 )
T Lin (n = 3).

Now we state and prove the RivlinEricksen representation theorem for isotropic ten-
sor functions (the generalization to an isotropic symmetric tensor-valued function of two
symmetric tensors is stated in Eqn. (7.56)).

Theorem 1.6.14 (RivlinEricksen Representation Theorem). A function G :


Psym Sym is isotropic if and only if there exist scalar functions 0 , 1 , 2 : I(S)
<, such that

G (S) = 0 (IS ) I + 1 (IS )S + 2 (IS )S2 S Psym. (1.139)

Proof. Assume Eqn. (1.139) holds. Choose S Psym and Q Orth+ . By


Eqn. (1.137), we have

G ( QSQ T ) = 0 (IQSQT ) I + 1 (IQSQT ) QSQ T + 2 (IQSQT ) QSQ T QSQ T

= 0 (IS ) QQ T + 1 (IS ) QSQ T + 2 (IS ) QS2 Q T


= QG (S) Q T ,

which proves that G is isotropic.


To prove the converse, assume that G is isotropic, i.e., G ( QSQ T ) = QG (S) Q T
for all Q Orth+ . We first prove that every eigenvector of S is an eigenvector
of G (S), or, alternatively, any matrix that diagonalizes S also diagonalizes G (S).
Let the spectral resolution of S be given by S = i i ei ei . If we form a

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Introduction to Tensors 57

matrix Q with the eigenvectors of S along its rows, i.e., if Q = ek ek , then by


Theorem 1.6.2, Q diagonalizes S, and is proper orthogonal. Let

Q1 = e1 e1 e2 e2 e3 e3 ,
Q2 = e1 e1 + e2 e2 e3 e3 .

Then, we see that Q1 , Q2 , Q1 Q and Q2 Q are all proper orthogonal tensors. In


addition,

Q QSQ T Q T = i ei ei = QSQT , = 1, 2 (no sum on ).


i

By the assumed property of isotropy, we have

Q QG (S) Q T Q T = G ( Q QSQ T Q T ) = G ( QSQ T ) = QG (S) Q T , = 1, 2.


(1.140)

A straightforward computation shows that the above equations imply that


QG (S) Q T is diagonal, or, in other words, again appealing to Theorem 1.6.2, the
eigenvectors of S and G (S) are the same. Hence

G (S) = 1 e1 e1 + 2 e2 e2 + 3 e3 e3 , (1.141)

where i are the eigenvalues of G (S).


Let us now establish that G (S) can be written as

G ( S ) = 0 ( S ) I + 1 ( S ) S + 2 ( S ) S2 S Psym, (1.142)

where 0 , 1 , 2 are real-valued functions of S. Assume first that S has three dis-
tinct eigenvalues i , with associated eigenvectors ei . Then the two sets { I, S, S2 }
and {e1 e1 , e2 e2 , e3 e3 } span the same subspace of the vector space of
symmetric tensors. To see this, we first observe that e1 e1 , e2 e2 , and e3 e3
are symmetric tensors. They are also linearly independent, since if

e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 = 0,

then carrying out the operation e1 ( )e1 , where ( ) denotes the left- and right-
hand sides of the above equation, and using the orthogonality of e1 , e2 and e3 ,
we get = 0; similarly, the operations e2 ( )e2 and e3 ( )e3 yield = 0 and
= 0. Thus, Lsp{e1 e1 , e2 e2 , e3 e3 } is a three-dimensional subspace of
the vector space of symmetric tensors, and, hence, is a vector space itself. Since,
by Eqns. (1.38) and (1.125),

I = e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 ,
S = 1 e1 e1 + 2 e2 e2 + 3 e3 e3 ,
S2 = 21 e1 e1 + 22 e2 e2 + 23 e3 e3 ,

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58 Continuum Mechanics

and since the van der Monde determinant



1 1 1
det 1 2 3 = (1 2 )(2 3 )(3 1 ) 6= 0,

21 22 23

by virtue of the eigenvalues being assumed to be distinct, Theorem 1.1.2 yields


the result

Lsp{e1 e1 , e2 e2 , e3 e3 } = Lsp{ I, S, S2 }.

Hence, Eqn. (1.141) can be written in the form given by Eqn. (1.142).
Assume, next, that the tensor S has a double eigenvalue, say 2 = 3 6=
1 . Then, the two sets { I, S} and {e1 e1 , e2 e2 + e3 e3 } span the same
subspace, since, in this case, we can write

I = e1 e1 + (e2 e2 + e3 e3 ),
S = 1 e1 e1 + 2 (e2 e2 + e3 e3 ),

and
" #
1 1
det = 2 1 6= 0.
1 2

All the vectors in the subspace spanned by e2 and e3 are eigenvectors of S, and
hence those of G (S) as already proved. Thus,

G (S)e2 = 2 e2 , G (S)e3 = 3 e3 ,
G (S)(e2 + e3 ) = (e2 + e3 ),

which implies that = 2 = 3 . Therefore, we can write

G (S) = 1 e1 e1 + (e2 e2 + e3 e3 ),

as

G (S) = 0 (S) I + 1 (S)S.

Assume, finally, that S has three repeated eigenvalues. Now, the eigenvalues
of G (S) are also all repeated (proved in the same way as in the previous case),
and all unit vectors are eigenvectors of S, and hence also of G (S). Thus, by using
the spectral resolution of G (S), we conclude that it is a multiple I, i.e.,

G (S) = 0 (S) I,

proving the assertion in all cases. Note from the above discussion that 2 (S) = 0,
when there are two repeated eigenvalues, and 1 (S) = 2 (S) = 0, when all
eigenvalues are identical.

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Introduction to Tensors 59

It remains to show that the functions 0 , 1 and 2 are only functions of IS .


By virtue of Theorem 1.6.12, it suffices to prove that 0 , 1 and 2 are isotropic
functions. This follows from the isotropy of G (S):
h i
G ( QSQ T ) = Q 0 ( QSQ T ) I + 1 ( QSQ T )S + 2 ( QSQ T )S2 Q T
h i
= QG (S) Q T = Q 0 (S) I + 1 (S)S + 2 (S)S2
Q T S Psym, Q Orth+ ,

which implies that

i ( QSQ T ) = i (S) S Psym, Q Orth+ ; for i = 0, 1, 2,

again by the uniqueness of the expansion of G (S) in the spaces spanned by


{ I, S, S2 }, { I, S} or { I } according to which case is being considered. Thus, by
Theorem 1.6.12, there exist functions (IS ) such that

i (S) = i (IS ) S Psym; i = 0, 1, 2.

Note that the above theorem does not say that an isotropic function is a quadratic func-
tion of the elements of S, since the functions i (IS ), i = 0, 1, 2, can be arbitrary.
For linear functions, we have the following simpler result:

Theorem 1.6.15. (Representation Theorem for Linear Isotropic Tensor Func-


tions). A linear function G (S) : Sym Sym is isotropic if and only if there exist
scalars and such that
G (S) = (tr S) I + 2S S Sym.
Proof. Although one could try and specialize the result from the previous theo-
rem to the present case, it is easier to proceed directly; the following short proof
is due to Gurtin [108]. Let V1 be the set of all unit vectors. For e V1 , the tensor
e e has eigenvalues (0, 0, 1) (since there exists Q Orth+ such that e = Qe1 ,
which implies that e e = Q(e1 e1 ) Q T , so that by Eqn. (1.137), the principal
invariants, and hence the eigenvalues, of e e and e1 e1 are the same). Since
two eigenvalues of e e are the same, analogous to the case of repeated eigen-
values in the previous theorems proof, G (e e) also has a repeated eigenvalue,
and thus by Eqn. (1.123) we have
G (e e) = (e) I + 2(e)e e e V1 . (1.143)
Choose e, f V1 , and let Q be a proper orthogonal tensor such that Qe = f .
Since
Q(e e) Q T = f f ,
and since G is isotropic,
0 = QG (e e) Q T G ( f f ) = [(e) ( f )] I + 2[(e) ( f )] f f .

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60 Continuum Mechanics

By multiplying both sides of I + f f = 0 by a vector g perpendicular to


f , it follows that = = 0, implying in turn that I and f f are linearly
independent; thus,

( e ) = ( f ), ( e ) = ( f ).

Therefore, and are scalar constants, and we conclude from Eqn. (1.143) that

G (e e) = I + 2e e. (1.144)

The spectral resolution of S Sym is

S= i ei ei ,
i

with ei orthonormal; therefore, in view of Eqn. (1.144), and the linearity of G,

G (S) = i G(ei ei ) = (1 + 2 + 3 ) I + 2S.


i

Since tr S = 1 + 2 + 3 , the above equation implies that

G (S) = (tr S) I + 2S.

The converse assertion that the above representation is an isotropic function is


left as an exercise (see Problem 37).

1.7 Higher-Order Tensors


A detailed discussion about the decomposition of higher-order tensors into irreducible ten-
sors, and their eigenvalues and eigentensors can be found in [8], [150], [151], [260], [304]
and [360].
Similar to the definition of a second-order tensor, a third-order tensor, which we repre-
sent by B, is defined as a linear transformation that transforms a vector v to a second-order
tensor T, i.e.,

Bv = T. (1.145)

In addition, the map is linear, i.e.,

B( av1 + bv2 ) = aBv1 + bBv2 a, b < and v1 , v2 V.


In order to find the representation for a third-order tensor in terms of its components, we
define the dyadic or tensor product of three vectors a, b and c as

( a b c)d := ( a b)(c d) d V. (1.146)

Since a b is a second-order tensor, and since the above transformation is linear, the tensor
product of three vectors is a linear transformation that transforms vectors into

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Introduction to Tensors 61

second-order tensors, and hence is a third-order tensor. Just as a second-order tensor can
be expressed as the sum of 9 dyads (Eqn. (1.37)), a third-order tensor can be expressed as
the sum of 27 dyads as follows:

B = Bijk ei e j ek , (1.147)

where

Bijk = ei ( Bek )e j . (1.148)

In order to prove this, we consider the action of B on an arbitrary vector u:

Bu = ( Bu)ij (ei e j )
 
= ei ( Bu)e j (ei e j )

= ei [ B(uk ek )] e j (ei e j )

= ei [ B((ek u)ek )]e j (ei e j )
 
= ei ( Bek )e j (ek u)(ei e j )
  
= ei ( Bek )e j (ei e j ek )u .

Since u is arbitrary, we have proved that the tensor B can be represented by Eqn. (1.147),
with the components Bijk of this tensor given by Eqn. (1.148). Note that

Bem = Bijm ei e j .

In [360], using the identity e pjr e pbr = 2jb , the authors write

1
Bijk = e e B ,
2 pjr pbr ibk
then, assuming all eigenvalues to be distinct, use the spectral resolution of a fourth-order
tensor to write Bibk e pbr in the form 9m=1 m (Pm )ipkr , from which it follows that

9  
1
Bijk = m e (Pm )ipkr .
2 pjr
(1.149)
m =1

Based on this representation, the authors claim that the i s (not all independent, since
Bibi e pbp = 9m=1 m = 0) are eigenvalues of B. However, since the eigenvalue problem for
a third-order tensor is never defined in this work, it is not clear how the eigenvalues of the
fourth-order tensor are also the eigenvalues of the third-order tensor.
In general, an nth order tensor is defined as a linear transformation that transforms a
vector to an n 1th order tensor. It can be proved by induction that an nth order tensor
can be represented by the sum of 3n dyads as

T = Ti1 i2 i3 ...in ei1 ei2 ei3 ein ,

where
 
Ti1 i2 i3 ...in = ei1 ((( Tein )ein1 ) )ei2 .

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62 Continuum Mechanics

As in the case of second-order tensors, we define the sum of two nth order tensors S
and T as

(S + T )u := Su + Tu u V,

and the scalar multiple of T by < as

(T )u := ( Tu) u V.

It is easily seen from the definition of a tensor as a linear transformation that S + T and T
are nth order tensors.
The transformation law for third order tensors can be deduced from Eqn. (1.148) as
follows:

Bijk = Qil el [ B( Qkn en )] Q jm em


= Qil Q jm Qkn el ( Ben )em
= Qil Q jm Qkn Blmn .

The alternate tensor E whose components are given by Eqn. (1.11) is an example of a third-
order tensor. This can be proved by noting that

eijk = ei (e j ek )
= Qil Q jm Qkn el (em en )
= Qil Q jm Qkn elmn ,

which is nothing but the transformation law for the components of a third-order tensor. In
fact, it is an isotropic third-order tensor, as we show in Section 1.8. Note that [[E w]v]u =
[u, v, w].
Similarly, the transformation law for a fourth-order tensor is

Cijkl = Qip Q jq Qkr Qls C pqrs . (1.150)

Generalizing the above arguments, the transformation law for an nth order tensor is given
by

Ti1 i2 i3 ...in = Qi1 j1 Qi2 j2 Qi3 j3 . . . Qin jn Tj1 j2 j3 ...jn . (1.151)

We have seen how to construct fourth-order tensors as a dyadic product of vectors.


However, another alternative way that is very widely used is to construct it as a dyadic
product of two second-order tensors. This procedure is analogous to constructing second-
order tensors using the dyadic product of vectors. We now discuss this methodology,
which should be compared with the one for second-order tensors presented in Section 1.3.
A fourth-order tensor is defined as a linear transformation that maps second-order ten-
sors to second-order tensors. Thus, if C is a fourth-order tensor that maps a second-order
tensor A to a second-order tensor B, we write it as

B = CA. (1.152)

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Introduction to Tensors 63

C satisfies the property C(A1 + A2 ) = CA1 + CA2 , for all , < and A1 , A2 Lin.
The sum, scalar multiple and composition of fourth-order tensors is defined as

(C + D) A = CA + DA A Lin,
(C) A = (CA) A Lin,
(CD) A = C(DA) A Lin.

For presenting the component form of fourth-order tensors, it is convenient to introduce


the notation Eij ei e j . We have

T : Eij = tr ( T (e j ei )) = tr (( Te j ) ei ) = Tkj tr (ek ei ) = Tkj ki = Tij . (1.153)

By letting T Ekl , we get

Eij : Ekl = ik jl . (1.154)

Analogous to the definition of the components of a second-order tensor (see Eqn. (1.27)),
we now define the components via Eqn. (1.152) as

CEkl = Cijkl Eij . (1.155)

Taking the dot product on either side with Emn and using Eqn. (1.154), we get Cmnkl =
Emn : CEkl , which, on replacing the indices (m, n) with (i, j) can be written as

Cijkl = Eij : CEkl . (1.156)

Two tensors C and D are said to be equal if

CB = DB B Lin, (1.157)

or, alternatively, if

( A, CB) = ( A, DB) A, B Lin.

By choosing A Eij and B Ekl in the above equation, we see that equal tensors have
equal components.
Using Eqn. (1.155) and the linearity of fourth-order tensors, Eqn. (1.152) can be written
as

Bij Eij = C( Akl Ekl ) = Akl CEkl = Cijkl Akl Eij ,

which by virtue of the linear independence of the { Eij } implies that

Bij = Cijkl Akl .

Similarly, we have

(CD)ijkl = (C)ijmn (D)mnkl .

We now give some examples of fourth-order tensors. The fourth-order identity tensor I
is defined as one that maps a second-order tensor into itself. The transposer T, symmetrizer

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64 Continuum Mechanics

S and skew-symmetrizer W are defined as ones that map a second-order tensor into its
transpose, symmetric and skew-symmetric part, respectively, i.e.,
IA = A A Lin,
T
TA = A A Lin,
1
SA = ( A + A T ) A Lin,
2
1
WA = ( A A T ) A Lin.
2
Note that
S = (I + T)/2, I = S + W,
(1.158)
W = (I T)/2, T = S W.
We have
1 1 1
ST = (I + T)T = (T + TT) = (T + I) = S = TS, (1.159)
2 2 2
1 1 1
WT = (I T)T = (T TT) = (T I) = W = TW,
2 2 2
1 1 1
SS = (I + T)S = (S + TS) = (S + S) = S,
2 2 2
1 1 1
WW = (I T)W = (W TW) = (W + W) = W,
2 2 2
1 1 1
SW = (I + T)W = (W + TW) = (W W) = 0 = WS. (1.160)
2 2 2
The components of I, T, S and W are obtained using Eqn. (1.156), and are given by

Iijkl = ik jl ,
Tijkl = il jk ,
1 (1.161)
Sijkl = ( + il jk ),
2 ik jl
1
Wijkl = (ik jl il jk ).
2
Using the above component form of S, we have
1h i
[SAS]ijkl = Aijkl + Aijlk + A jikl + A jilk , (1.162)
4
where A is any fourth-order tensor.
The transpose of C, denoted by CT is defined using the inner product as

( A, CT B) := ( B, CA) A, B Lin. (1.163)

The components of CT are obtained by taking A Eij and B Ekl in the above equation,
and are given by

(CT )ijkl = Cklij . (1.164)

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Introduction to Tensors 65

Similar to second-order tensors, one has

(CT )T = C, (1.165a)
T T T
(CD) = D C . (1.165b)

Analogous to the dyadic product of two vectors, the dyadic product of two tensors A
and B can be defined as

( A B)C := ( B : C ) A C Lin. (1.166)

The component form of this dyadic product is

( A B)ijkl = Eij : ( A B) Ekl = ( A : Eij )( B : Ekl ) = Aij Bkl .

The transpose of A B is B A since

(C, ( A B)T D ) = ( D, ( A B)C ) = ( B : C )( A : D ) = (C, ( B A) D ).

By taking C u v in Eqn. (1.166), we get

( A B)(u v) = (u Bv) A.

A tensor C can be written as Cijkl Eij Ekl since, for an arbitrary A Lin, we have

CA = (CA)ij Eij
= [(CA) : Eij ] Eij
= Akl [ Eij : (CEkl )] Eij
= Cijkl ( A : Ekl ) Eij
= Cijkl [ Eij Ekl ] A.

Also analogous to the results for dyadic products of vectors, we have

C( A B) = (CA) B,
( A B )C = A (C T B ).

Another tensor product that is of great use is the square tensor product defined as

( A  B)C := ACB T C Lin.

The components of A  B are given by

( A  B)ijkl = Eij : ( A  B) Ekl = Eij : ( AEkl B T ) = (ei e j ) : [( Aek ) ( Bel )]


= (ei Aek )(e j Bel ) = Aik Bjl .

Since ( I  I ) A = I AI T = A, for all A Lin, it is clear from Eqn. (1.157) that the fourth-
order identity tensor can be written as

I = I  I, (1.167)

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with components (I)ijkl = ik jl .


The transpose of A  B is given by A T  B T since

(C, ( A  B)T D ) = ( D, ( A  B)C ) = ( D, ACB T ) = (C, A T DB) = (C, ( A T  B T ) D ).

From the definition of the square tensor product, it follows that

( H  I ) A = H A,
( I  H T ) A = AH.

As an example of the use of these equations, note that the tensor equation H A + AH = 0
can be written as ( H  I + I  H T ) A = 0.
The composition rule is given by

( A  B)(C  D ) = ( AC )  ( BD ), (1.168)

since

( A  B)(C  D ) E = ( A  B)(CED T ) = ACED T B T = [( AC )  ( BD )] E E Lin.

Some additional properties are

( A B)(C  D ) = A (C T BD ), (1.169)
T
( A  B)(C D ) = ( ACB ) D, (1.170)
( A  B)(u v) = ( Au) ( Bv), (1.171)
( a b )  ( u v ) = ( a u ) ( b v ). (1.172)

As per our convention outlined at the end of Section 1.3.1, the above relations are valid even
if the involved second-order tensors and vectors are complex-valued. The first relation is
proved as follows:

( A B)(C  D ) E = ( A B)(CED T ) = [ B : (CED T )] A = [(C T BD ) : E] A


= [ A (C T BD )] E E Lin.

The remaining relations are proved in a similar manner.


The transposer T commutes with the tensor product A  B in the following way:

T( A  B) = ( B  A)T, (1.173)

since

T( A  B) E = T( AEB T ) = BE T A T = ( B  A) E T = ( B  A)TE E Lin.

In an identical fashion, one can show that

S( A  B)S = S( B  A)S, (1.174)


S( A  B + B  A) = ( A  B + B  A)S = S( A  B + B  A)S = 2S( A  B)S, (1.175)
S( A  A) = ( A  A)S = S( A  A)S, (1.176)

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Introduction to Tensors 67

where the second relation in Eqn. (1.175) follows from the first by multiplying both sides
by S, and using the fact that SS = S, while the third relation in Eqn. (1.175) follows from
Eqn. (1.174). Equation (1.176) follows from Eqn. (1.175) by taking B = A.
The component form of ( A  B)T is Ail Bjk while that of T( A  B) is A jk Bil . A summary
of the component forms of the various dyadic products is

[ A B]ijkl = Aij Bkl ,


[ A  B]ijkl = Aik Bjl ,
(1.177)
[( A  B)T]ijkl = Ail Bjk ,
[T( A  B)]ijkl = A jk Bil .

The tensor C is said to have the first minor symmetry if C = TC, or, in indicial notation,
if

Cijkl = Tijmn Cmnkl = in jm Cmnkl = C jikl ,

and is said to have the second minor symmetry if C = CT, which in indicial notation reads

Cijkl = Cijlk .

Note that the first minor symmetry condition can be written as (I T)C = 2WC = 0,
while the second minor symmetry condition can be written as CW = 0. Equivalently,
using S = (I + T)/2, one can also write the two symmetry conditions as C = SC and
C = CS, respectively. One has

C = SC and C = CS C = SCS,

since given the conditions on the left, we directly get C = SCS, while, conversely, if C =
SCS, then SC = SSCS = SCS = C, and CS = SCSS = SCS = C. Thus a tensor C has both
the minor symmetries if and only if C = SCS.
The tensor C is said to have major symmetry if C = CT , or, in indicial notation (using
Eqn. (1.164)), if Cijkl = Cklij . The symmetric and skew-symmetric parts of C are given by
(C + CT )/2 and (C CT )/2. Using Eqn. (1.161) or directly, it can be shown that I, T, S
and W are all symmetric.
Assume that C has the first minor symmetry, i.e., C = TC. By transposing this equation,
and using Eqn. (1.165b) and the symmetry of T, we get

CT = CT T.

Thus, if C has the first minor symmetry, then CT has the second minor symmetry. It also
follows that if C has major symmetry and one of the minor symmetries, it also has the other
minor symmetry.
The eigenvalue problem for a fourth-order tensor A that does not possess minor sym-
metries, involves finding the eigenvalue and eigentensor pair (, A), A Lin, which satis-
fies

AA = A. (1.178)

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68 Continuum Mechanics

By applying the -mapping as per Eqn. (I.1e) to the above equation, we get

[(A) I ]( A) = 0.

This equation has a nontrivial solution ( A) 6= 0, if and only if the characteristic equa-
tion det[(A) I ] = 0 is satisfied. The characteristic equation can also be written in
expanded form as

9 I1 (A)8 + I2 (A)7 + I9 (A) = 0,

where (see Eqn. (J.17))

I1 (A) = tr (A) = 1 + 2 + + 9 ,
1
I2 (A) = [(tr (A))2 tr ((A))2 ] = 1 2 + 2 3 + + 1 9 ,
2
...
I9 (A) = det (A) = 1 2 . . . 9 ,

are a strict subset of the complete set of the principal invariants of A (see the references
below for the case where A has minor symmetries, denoted by C there). Similar to the
result for second-order tensors,

det AT = det (AT ) = det[(A) T ] = det (A) = det A. (1.179)

If A = A1 A2 , then, again, similar to the result for second-order tensors,

det A = det (A) = det[(A1 )(A2 )] = [det (A1 )][det (A2 )] = (det A1 )(det A2 ).
(1.180)

By virtue of Eqn. (1.171), we have

Theorem 1.7.1. If (i , ui ) and (i , vi ), i = 1, 2, . . . , n, where n is the underlying space


dimension, are the (possibly complex-valued) eigenvalues/eigenvectors of diagonalizable
tensors A, B, then (i j , ui v j ), i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n, are the eigenvalues/eigentensors of
A  B.

The theorem may not hold for non-diagonalizable tensors. For example, if A is non-
diagonalizable but invertible, and B = AT , then (1, I ) is an eigenvalue/eigentensor of
A  AT , but ui v j (or their linear combinations) corresponding to i j = 1 may not
equal I. An application of the above theorem is presented in Theorem 1.7.2.
An orthogonal fourth-order tensor Q is defined as one for which

QT Q = QQT = I. (1.181)

A fourth-order tensor is orthogonal if and only if it preserves inner products, i.e., Q is


orthogonal if and only if

(QA, QB) = ( A, B) A, B Lin,

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Introduction to Tensors 69

the proof being identical to that for second-order orthogonal tensors. An example of an
orthogonal tensor is Q1  Q2 , where Q1 , Q2 Orth. This follows since

( Q1  Q2 )T ( Q1  Q2 ) = ( Q1T  Q2T )( Q1  Q2 ) = ( Q1T Q1 )  ( Q2T Q2 ) = I  I = I.

A special class of fourth-order orthogonal tensors are fourth-order rotations obtained by


choosing Q1 = Q2 = Q, where Q Orth+ . Equation (1.150) can be expressed as

[A] = [Q][A][Q] T , (1.182)

where Q := Q  Q, Q Orth+ , is a fourth-order rotation.


Since (I) = I 99 , we have det I = 1. It follows from Eqns. (1.179)(1.181) that

det Q = 1.

From Eqns. (1.180)(1.182), we get

det(A I) = det[Q(A I)QT ] = det(QQT ) det(A I) = (det I) det(A I)

= det(A I), (1.183)


showing that the invariants that occur in the characteristic equation (and hence the eigen-
values) of A are independent (as they should be) of the choice of basis.
The CayleyHamilton theorem reads

0 = A9 I1 A8 + I2 A7 + I9 I
9
= (A i I).
i =1

The minimal polynomial of A is given by

k
q (A) = (A i I) mi ,
i =1

where k is the number of distinct eigenvalues, and 1 mi ni , with ni denoting the


algebraic multiplicity of each eigenvalue i . If A is normal, i.e., if AT A = AAT , or, in
particular, symmetric, then each mi = 1.
The tensor A is said to be invertible if there exists another tensor, denoted by A1 , such
that

A1 A = AA1 = I.

Similar to Eqns. (1.68) and (1.69), we have

(UV)1 = V1 U1 , (1.184a)

(C T ) 1 = (C1 ) T = : C T , (1.184b)

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70 Continuum Mechanics

From Eqn. (1.184b), it follows that if C has major symmetric then so does its inverse. The
inverse of A  B (assuming that A and B are invertible) is given by

( A  B ) 1 = A 1  B 1 , (1.185)
since, by Eqns. (1.167) and (1.168), we have

( A1  B1 )( A  B) = ( A1 A)  ( B1 B) = I  I = I.
A fourth-order tensor A is invertible if and only if I9 (A) = 9i=1 i is nonzero, in which
case,
1 h 8 i
A1 = A I1 A7 + + I8 I .
I9
By virtue of the relation ( A T ) T = A, we have TTA = A for all A Lin, which implies that
TT = I. (1.186)
Thus, the inverse of the transposer tensor T is T itself.
If A has major symmetry (but not necessarily the minor symmetries), then [(A)] T =
(AT ) = (A), so that, similar to the case of second-order symmetric tensors, all the nine
eigenvalues are real, and the corresponding eigentensors Ai , i = 1, 2, . . . , 9 are orthogonal
in the sense that
( Ai , A j ) = Ai : A j = ij . (1.187)
Thus, we can write the spectral representation of A as
9 9
A= i Ai Ai , with Ai Ai = I.
i =1 i =1

If k is the number of distinct eigenvalues, then, similar to Eqn. (J.4), we have the following
explicit formula:
A I
kj=1 j , k > 1
i j
Ai Ai = j 6 =i (1.188)
I, k=1

When A is invertible, the spectral decomposition of A1 is given by


9
1
A1 = i Ai Ai .
i =1

A is said to be positive definite if T : AT > 0 for all nonzero T Lin. Similar to symmetric
second-order tensors (see Theorem 1.6.4), one can show that A is positive definite if and
only if all the eigenvalues i (or all the invariants that occur in the characteristic equation)
are strictly positive. If A is positive semi-definite, the square root of A defined via the
relation HH = A is given by
9
H=
p
i Ai Ai .
i =1

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Introduction to Tensors 71

Now consider the case when the fourth-order tensor C has both minor symmetries,
i.e., C = SCS. The transpose is still defined by Eqn. (1.163), except that A, B Sym.
Using this definition, one can show that when C and D have both minor symmetries, then
Eqns. (1.165) still hold. The eigenvalue problem given by Eqn. (1.178) is now written as
CS = S = SS, S Sym, or, alternatively, using Eqn. (I.14), as
h i
(C) H 1 I 66 (S) = 0.

Thus, C has only six eigenvalues, with the remaining three eigenvalues zero, and the cor-
responding eigentensors being linearly independent skew-symmetric tensors. The above
equation has a nontrivial solution (S) 6= 0, if and only if det[(C) H 1 I ] = 0. This
characteristic equation can be written in expanded form as

6 I1 (C)5 + I2 (C)4 + + I6 (C) = 0,

where

I1 (C) = tr [(C) H 1 ] = 1 + 2 + + 6 ,

1
I2 (C) = [(tr [(C) H 1 ])2 tr ((C) H 1 )2 ] = 1 2 + 2 3 + + 1 6 ,
2
...

I6 (C) = det[(C) H 1 ] = 8 det (C) = 1 2 . . . 6 ,

are a strict subset of the set of principal invariants of C [4, 20, 141, 238] (the results of Ahmad
and Norris on the one hand, and Betten on the other regarding the number of quadratic
principal invariants seem to be contradictory). As an example,

det S = det[(S) H 1 ] = det[ H H 1 ] = 1. (1.189)

Using Eqn. (I.11c), we now have, similar to Eqn. (1.179),

det CT = det C. (1.190)

If C = C1 C2 , then using Eqn. (I.11f), we again have similar to Eqn. (1.180),

det C = (det C1 )(det C2 ). (1.191)

If C has both the minor symmetries, then [C] = [S][C][S] and [C] = [S][C][S], so that
Eqn. (1.182) can be written as

[C] = [Q][C][Q] T , (1.192)

where Q := [S][ Q  Q][S], Q Orth+ . Now applying Eqns. (1.165b), (I.11c) and (I.11f),
and using the symmetry of S and H, we get

([C]) = (Q) H 1 ([C]) H 1 (Q) T = A([C]) A T ,

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72 Continuum Mechanics

where A := (Q) H 1 is found by using Eqn. (I.5); the final expression for A is given by
Eqn. (I.12) with J Q T . Using Eqns. (1.165b) and (1.176), we get

QQT = QT Q = S( I  I )S = SIS = S. (1.193)

It follows from Eqns. (1.189)(1.191) that

det Q = 1.

From Eqns. (1.189) and (1.191)(1.193), we get

det(C S) = det[Q(C S)QT ] = det(QQT ) det(C S)


= (det S) det(C S) = det(C S), (1.194)

showing that the invariants that occur in the characteristic equation (and hence the eigen-
values) of C are independent of the choice of basis.
The spectral decomposition of C reads
6 6
C= i Ai Ai , with Ai = AiT and Ai Ai = S.
i =1 i =1

In place of Eqn. (1.188), we now have


C S
kj=1 j , k > 1
i j
Ai Ai = j 6 =i
S. k=1

C is invertible if there exists another tensor, denoted by C1 , such that

C1 C = CC1 = S.

The necessary and sufficient condition for C to be invertible is that I6 (C) be nonzero. If this
condition is satisfied, then
6
1
C1 = i Ai Ai .
i =1

As an example, since SS = S, we have S1 = S. Let U, V and C be tensors that have


minor symmetries. Then, since ST = S, both relations given by Eqns. (1.184) hold. From
Eqn. (1.176), it follows (provided A is invertible) that

[S( A  A)S]1 = S( A1  A1 )S.

Note that, in general, [S( A  B)S]1 6= S( A1  B1 )S.


C is said to be positive semi-definite if S : CS 0 for all S Sym. If C is positive
semi-definite, its square root H is given by
6
H= with Ai = AiT .
p
i Ai Ai ,
i =1

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Introduction to Tensors 73

C is positive definite if and only if all the i , i = 1, 2, . . . , 6, are strictly positive.


Examples of some spectral resolutions are

9
I= Ai Ai ,
i =1
6 9
T= Ai Ai Ai Ai ,
i =1 i =7
6
S= Ai Ai , AiT = Ai
i =1
3
W= Ai Ai , AiT = Ai
i =1
 
I I
II =3 .
3 3

Let e be the axial vector of Q Orth+ \Sym, and let (, n) and (, n) denote the re-
maining eigenvalue/eigenvector pairs, with the hat denoting a complex conjugate. The
following result, which follows directly from Theorem 1.7.1, holds:

Theorem 1.7.2. The eigenvalue/eigentensor pairs of Q := Q  Q, where Q


Orth+ \Sym, are (1, I ), (1, Q), (1, Q2 ), (, e n), (, n e), (, e n), (, n e),
(2 , n n), and (2 , n n).

If the dimension of the underlying space is four, and (1 , n1 ), (1 , n1 ), (2 , n2 ), (2 , n2 )


denote the eigenvalue/eigenvector pairs of Q, then the eigenvalue/eigentensor pairs of
Q are (1, I ), (1, Q), (1, Q2 ), (1, Q3 ), (21 , n1 n1 ), (21 , n1 n1 ), (22 , n2 n2 ), (22 , n2
n2 ), (1 2 , n1 n2 ), (1 2 , n2 n1 ), (1 2 , n1 n2 ), (1 2 , n2 n1 ), (1 2 , n1 n2 ),
(1 2 , n2 n1 ), (1 2 , n1 n2 ) and (1 2 , n2 n1 ). In general, when the underlying space
dimension is n, the eigenvalue one is repeated n times, with the corresponding eigenten-
sors given by I, Q, . . ., Qn1 , and the remaining n(n 1) eigenvalue/eigentensor pairs
are formed by combinations of each complex eigenvalue/eigenvector of Q with itself and
with all the remaining eigenvalues/eigenvectors of Q barring the complex conjugate of
that eigenvalue/eigenvector.
We now discuss the solution of the tensor equation AX B + CX D = H, where A, B, C,
D and H are given second-order tensors. We write this equation as

[ A  B T + C  D T ] X = H.

In component form, the above equation reads

Tijkl Xkl = Hij ,

where

Tijkl = Aik Blj + Cik Dlj , (1.195)

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Applying Eqn. (I.1e), we get

1
T1111 T1122 T1133 T1112 T1123 T1131 T1121 T1132 T1113

X11 H11
X T T2222 T2233 T2212 T2223 T2231 T2221 T2232 T2213
H22

22 2211
X33 T3311 T3322 T3333 T3312 T3323 T3331 T3321 T3332 T3313

H33


X T T1222 T1233 T1212 T1223 T1231 T1221 T1232 T1213 H12

12 1211
X23 = T2311 T2322 T2333 T2312 T2323 T2331 T2321 T2332 T2313 H23 ,

X31 T3111 T3122 T3133 T3112 T3123 T3131 T3121 T3132 T3113

H31


X T T2122 T2133 T2112 T2123 T2131 T2121 T2132 T2113 H21

21 2111
X32 T3211 T3222 T3233 T3212 T3223 T3231 T3221 T3232 T3213 H32

X13 T1311 T1322 T1333 T1312 T1323 T1331 T1321 T1332 T1313 H13
(1.196)

with the components Tijkl given by Eqn. (1.195). It is clear that this method can be extended
to solve a matrix equation of the type i Ai X Bi = H of any dimension n by inverting an
n2 n2 matrix.
Of particular importance is the case when B = C = I and D = A S Sym. In this
case, Tijkl = Sik lj + ik Slj .
Although the above approach is suitable for numerical purposes, a tensorial solution is
more suitable for proving properties of the solution X. We now present a method, based on
[155], for determining (S  I + I  S)1 , S Sym, which is applicable for any dimension
n (see Rosati [273] and references therein for other methods).
Consider the tensor T  I + I  T T , T Lin. If (i , ui ) and (i , vi ) are the eigen-
value/eigenvectors of T and T T , respectively, then

( T  I + I  T T )(ui v j ) = T (ui v j ) + (ui v j ) T

= ( Tui ) v j + ui ( T T v j )

= (i + j )(ui v j ),

which shows that (i + j , ui v j ), i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n, are eigenvalue/eigentensor pairs of


T  I + I  T T . However, unfortunately, these are not the only eigenvalue/eigentensor
pairs, especially when the eigenvectors {ui } are not linearly independent. For example,
when T = e1 e2 + e3 e4 + e4 e5 , with n = 5, all the 25 eigenvalues of T  I +
I  T T are zero, and there are nine linearly independent eigentensors given by e1 e2 ,
e1 e5 , e3 e2 , e3 e5 , e3 e3 e4 e4 + e5 e5 , e3 e4 + e4 e5 , e3 e1 + e4 e2 ,
e1 e4 + e2 e5 and e1 e1 + e2 e2 . Although the first four eigentensors are of the
form ui v j , i, j = 1, 2, the remaining five are not. A similar situation arises even in the
case of the tensor T  I + I  T, which again has nine linearly independent eigentensors.
Nevertheless, as we now show, i + j , i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n, are the eigenvalues of T  I + I 
T T (or T  I + I  T). Thus, the necessary and sufficient condition for T  I + I  T T to be
invertible is that (det T ) ni=1 (i + j ) 6= 0. For example, if n = 3, this condition is given
j = i +1
by 1 2 3 (1 + 2 )(2 + 3 )(1 + 3 ) 6= 0.

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Let T = H 1 J 1 H 11 and T T = H 2 J 2 H 21 , where J 1 and J 2 are matrices in Jordan normal


form. Then

T  I + I  T T = ( H 1 J 1 H 11 )  I + I  ( H 2 J 2 H 21 )

= ( H 1  H 2 )( J 1  I + I  J 2 )( H 11  H 21 )

= ( H 1  H 2 )( J 1  I + I  J 2 )( H 1  H 2 )1 .

Thus, the eigenvalues of T  I + I  T T and J 1  I + I  J 2 are the same. Since the matrix
form of J 1  I + I  J 2 is an upper triangular matrix with i + j , i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n, on the
diagonals, we get the desired result. A similar proof can be devised for T  I + I  T.
Let (i , ni ) be the eigenvalues/eigenvectors of S Sym. Then, the eigenvalue/eigentensor
pairs of S(S  I + I  S)S when all the i are distinct are i + j , ni n j + n j ni , i, j =
1, 2, . . . , n (the eigenvalue/eigentensors when the eigenvalues of S are repeated can be
found similar to Eqns. (1.258) and (1.259)). Thus, the necessary and sufficient condition
that S(S  I + I  S)S be invertible is that (det S) ni=1 (i + j ) 6= 0.
j = i +1
Let i , i = 1, 2, . . . , k, be the distinct eigenvalues of S Sym, and let Pi be the associated
projections, which are given by Eqn. (J.4). We have
" ! ! ! !#
k k k k
S( S  I + I  S )S = S i P i  Pj + Pi  j Pj S
i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1
" #
k k
=S ( i + j ) P i  P j S.
i =1 j =1

Assuming that the necessary and sufficient condition for invertibility is satisfied, the de-
sired inverse is
" #
k k P P
i j
[S( S  I + I  S )S] = S
1
S, (1.197)
+ j
i =1 j =1 i

since, on using Eqn. (1.175),


" # " #
k k P P k k (P S)  P + P  (P S)
i j i j i j
S S [S  I + I  S] S = S S
+ j
i =1 j =1 i i =1 j =1
i + j
" #
k k
=S Pi  P j S
i =1 j =1
" ! !#
k k
=S Pi  Pj S
i =1 j =1

= S [I  I] S

= S,

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76 Continuum Mechanics

where we have used the properties Pm Pi = im Pi (no sum on i), ik=1 Pi = I and SPi =
(km=1 m Pm )Pi = i Pi = Pi S (no sum on i). Thus, the solution of the tensor equation
S(S  I + I  S)SX = H is

k k Pi ( H + H T )P j
X= 2( i + j ) . (1.198)
i =1 j =1

The above method can obviously be generalized to the case when T is diagonalizable.
Thus, if the tensor equation to be solved is ( T  I + I  T ) X = T X + XT T = H, where
T = ik=1 i Pi , with Pi given by Eqn. (J.26), then assuming that T is such that the conditions
for invertibility of T  I + I  T are satisfied, we have

X = ( T  I + I  T ) 1 H
" #
k k P P
i j
= H
+ j
i =1 j =1 i

k k Pi HP Tj
= i + j
.
i =1 j =1

We now show how the solutions given by Eqns. (1.198) reduce to some of the solutions
presented in the literature for the case H = W Skw. When n = 3, and when the
eigenvalues are distinct, for a given i, we have Pi W Pi = (ei W ei )Pi = 0. Multiplying
both sides of Eqn. (1.198) by the determinant of

S := (tr S) I S = (2 + 3 )P1 + (1 + 3 )P2 + (1 + 2 )P3 ,

which is given by (1 + 2 )(2 + 3 )(1 + 3 ), we get

(det S) X = SW S, (1.199)

which is the solution presented by Scheidler [282]. Since the solution has no explicit
dependence on the eigenvalues i , it holds even under the case when the eigenvalues
are repeated. Alternatively, by writing W as (P1 + P2 + P3 )W (P1 + P2 + P3 ), S2 W as
(21 P1 + 22 P2 + 23 P3 )W (P1 + P2 + P3 ), etc. and noting that (1 + 2 )(2 + 3 )(1 + 3 ) =
I1 (S) I2 (S) I3 (S), one can also show that when H = W, Eqn. (1.198) reduces to

( I1 I2 I3 ) X = ( I12 I2 )W (S2 W + W S2 ),

which is the solution presented by Guo [104].


Finally, consider the case when the dimension of the underlying vector space n is two,
and H is arbitrary. Using I1 (S) = 1 + 2 , I2 (S) = 1 2 , and writing H = (P1 +
P2 ) H (P1 + P2 ), SH = (1 P1 + 2 P2 ) H (P1 + P2 ), etc., one can show that Eqn. (1.198)
can be written as

(2I1 I2 ) X = ( I12 + I2 ) H I1 (SH + HS) + SHS,

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Introduction to Tensors 77

which is the solution presented by Hoger and Carlson [127]. Alternatively, if S is invertible,
writing S1 = P1 /1 + P2 /2 , we can also show that

2I1 X = H + I2 (S1 HS1 ),

which is the solution presented by Ting [327].

1.8 Isotropic Tensors


A second-order tensor is said to be isotropic if its components are the same in all orthonor-
mal bases, i.e., if T = Tij ei e j = Tij ei e j . Since ei = Q T ei , this condition can also be
written as

QTQ T = T Q Orth+ , (1.200)

or, alternatively, as

QT = TQ Q Orth+ . (1.201)

We have the following characterization for isotropic tensors.

Theorem 1.8.1. A tensor T is isotropic if and only if it is of the form T = I, where


<.

Proof. If T = I, then obviously Eqn. (1.200) holds.


To prove the converse, let v be an arbitrary vector, and let R be the proper
orthogonal tensor for which v is along its axis, i.e., Rv = v (see Eqn. (1.104)).
Since RT = T R, we have

RTv = T Rv = Tv,

i.e., Tv also lies along the axis of R. Since the axis of R is a one-dimensional
subspace, we have

Tv = v = Iv.

Since the vector v is arbitrary, we have T = I by the definition of equality of


tensors.

Another proof can be given as follows. Express Eqn. (1.200) as

QT = T,

where Q = Q  Q. By Theorem 1.7.2, I, Q and Q2 are the eigentensors of Q corresponding


to the eigenvalue one. Hence, the above equation implies that

T = 0 ( Q) I + 1 ( Q) Q + 2 ( Q) Q,

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78 Continuum Mechanics

where 0 , 1 and 2 are, in general, constants that depend on Q. Since T is independent of


Q, we have

T = 0 I + 1 Q0 + 2 Q20 ,

where, now, 0 , 1 and 2 are constants. Substituting this expression into Eqn. (1.201), we
get 1 = 2 = 0, since, in general, rotations do not commute. This methodology can be
extended to other dimensions as well. For example, if the dimension n is four, then we
get T = 0 I + 1 Q0 + 2 Q20 + 3 Q30 , but again, since rotations do not commute, we get
all the constants other than 0 to be zero. Now consider the case when n is two. In this
case, T = 0 I + 1 Q0 , but now since rotations do commute when n = 2, both 0 and 1
are nonzero. Using the representation of Q0 in terms of cos 0 and sin 0 , we can write the
 
most general form of an isotropic second-order tensor when n = 2 as T = .
A third-order tensor is isotropic if and only if it is of the form E , where E is the alter-
nate tensor with components eijk . To see the if part, note that

Eijk = ei (e j ek ) = Q T ei [cof Q T (e j ek )] = Q T ei [ Q T (e j ek )] = ei (e j ek ) = Eijk .

The reverse implication is proved by making special choices of Q (such as e1 e1 + e2


e3 e3 e2 , e2 e2 + e3 e1 e1 e3 , etc.) in the relation

Bijk = Qip Q jq Qkr B pqr ,

and showing that Bijk has to be a scalar multiple of eijk .


A fourth-order tensor is said to be isotropic if it has the same components in all or-
thonormal bases, i.e., if

C = QCQT , (1.202)

where Q := Q  Q, with Q Orth+ . Alternatively, the above condition can also be written
as

Q(CA) = C( QAQ T ) A Lin. (1.203)

We have the following characterization for isotropic fourth-order tensors:

Theorem 1.8.2. A fourth-order tensor C : Lin Lin is isotropic if and only if it is of


the form
C = I I + ( + )I + ( )T (1.204)

= I I + 2S + 2W,
or, in other words, a fourth-order isotropic tensor is a linear combination of tensors with
components ij kl , ik jl and il jk .
If C has the first or second minor symmetry, i.e., if C = SC or C = CS, then using
Eqn. (1.160), it follows as a corollary that
C = I I + 2S. (1.205)

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Introduction to Tensors 79

Proof. The proof is based on [157]. To see the if part, note that

Q( I I )QT = (QI ) (QI ) = [( Q  Q) I ] [( Q  Q) I ] = I I,

QIQT = QQT = I,

QTQT = ( Q  Q)TQT = T( Q  Q)QT = TQQT = T. (by Eqn. (1.173))

To prove the converse, take A to be Q Orth+ \Sym in Eqn. (1.203) to get

Q(CQ) = CQ.

Thus, CQ is a linear combination of the eigentensors of Q corresponding to the


eigenvalue one, i.e., by virtue of Theorem 1.7.2,

CQ = 0 ( Q) I + 1 ( Q) Q + 2 ( Q) Q2 Q Orth+ \Sym.
In the limiting cases following Eqn. (1.105b), namely, (i) 0, we have Q = I,
so that 1 and 2 can be taken to be zero, and (ii) , we have Q2 = I, so
that 2 can be taken to be zero in the above expression. Thus, by virtue of the
continuous dependence of Q on , we can write

CQ = 0 ( Q) I + 1 ( Q) Q + 2 ( Q) Q2 Q Orth+ , (1.206)

with 1 = 2 = 0 when Q = I, and 2 = 0, when Q = 2e e I.


We now show that the functions i , i = 0, 1, 2, are in fact functions of the
principal invariants of Q (which is just the trace, since, for proper orthogonal
tensors, the determinant is equal to unity, and the second invariant is equal to
the trace). By letting A R0 Orth+ in Eqn. (1.203), we get

CR0 = Q T C( QR0 Q T ) Q, Q Orth+ .


Substituting the expressions for CR0 and C( QR0 Q T ) obtained from Eqn. (1.206)
into the above equation, we get
h i h i
0 ( R0 ) 0 ( QR0 Q T ) I + 1 ( R0 ) 1 ( QR0 Q T )
h i
R0 + 2 ( R0 ) 2 ( QR0 Q T ) R20 = 0.

Since, as shown in the discussion on page 38, { I, R0 , R20 }, { I, R0 } and { I } are


linearly independent sets, depending on whether R0 Orth+ \Sym, R0
Orth+ Sym { I } (2 = 0), or R0 = I (1 = 2 = 0), we have

i ( R0 ) = i ( QR0 Q T ), i = 0, 1, 2, Q Orth+ , (1.207)

i.e., the i s are isotropic scalar-valued functions of R0 . To show that they are
functions of I1 ( R0 ), we have to show that

I1 ( Q1 ) = I1 ( Q2 ) = i ( Q1 ) = i ( Q2 ), i = 0, 1, 2,

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80 Continuum Mechanics

and then the conclusion follows from Theorem 1.6.7. If I1 ( Q1 ) = I1 ( Q2 ), then


by Theorem 1.5.5, there exists Q0 Orth+ such that Q2 = Q0 Q1 Q0T . Thus,
using Eqn. (1.207), we get i ( Q2 ) = i ( Q0 Q1 Q0T ) = i ( Q1 ). It follows from
Theorem 1.6.7 that there exist functions i such that i ( Q) = i ( I1 ( Q)).
Equation (1.206) can now be written as

CQ = 0 ( I1 ) I + 1 ( I1 ) Q + 2 ( I1 ) Q2 . (1.208)

Eliminating Q2 from Eqn. (1.208) using Eqn. (1.110), we get

CQ = [0 ( I1 ) 2 ( I1 ) I1 ] I + [1 ( I1 ) + 2 ( I1 ) I1 ] Q + 2 ( I1 ) Q T .

Since C is independent of Q, and a linear transformation from Lin to Lin, the


right-hand side of the above expression has to be linear in Q, i.e., the coefficients
of Q and Q T are constants, and the coefficient of I has to be a multiple of tr Q.
Thus, set 0 ( I1 ) ( + ) I1 , 1 ( I1 ) ( + ) ( ) I1 , and 2 ( I1 )
, where , and are constants. This leads to

CQ = (tr Q) I + ( + ) Q + ( ) Q T

= [( I I ) + ( + )I + ( )T] Q Q Orth+ . (1.209)

The last step is to show that the above equation implies the expression
given in Eqn. (1.204). Thus, by virtue of Eqn. (1.157), we have to show
that Eqn. (1.209) holds for an arbitrary tensor T in place of Q. Let Ciso :=
[( I I ) + ( + )I + ( )T]. Since fourth-order tensors are a linear trans-
formation from Lin to Lin, Eqn. (1.209) implies that

[C Ciso ] ( i Qi ) = 0 i <, Qi Orth+ .


i

Since by Theorem 1.5.3, any T Lin can be expressed as a linear combination of


Q Orth+ , the proof is complete.

For various other proofs, see, e.g., [24], [102], [103], [105], [110], [142], [148], [175], [210],
[250] and [251]. Note that this result does not hold when the space dimension n = 2, as
the counterexample C = T  T, where T = shows (the above proof fails in the last
 

step for this case, since an arbitrary tensor cannot be expressed as a linear combination of
rotations). However, the result is applicable for any n if we assume C to be symmetric.

1.9 Differentiation of Tensors


In the subsequent chapters, we shall deal with tensor fields, where a tensor T is a function
of a scalar quantity t, and a vector quantity x (e.g., t representing time, and x the position
vector). In this section, we define the concept of the derivative of a tensor quantity. Let X

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and Y denote normed vector spaces, and let f : X Y. We say that f (u) approaches
zero faster than u, and write f (u) = o (u) if

k f (u)k
lim = 0.
u0 kuk

1.9.1 The directional derivative


Let g be a function whose values are scalars, vectors or tensors, and whose domain is an
open interval of <. The derivative Dg (t) is defined by

d 1
Dg (t) := g (t) = lim [ g (t + ) g (t)] . (1.210)
dt 0

From Eqn. (1.210), it follows that

1
lim [ g (t + ) g (t) Dg (t)] = 0,
0
or, equivalently,

g (t + ) = g (t) + Dg (t) + o () . (1.211)

Thus, we see that the derivative of a vector function is a vector, or the derivative of a tensor
function is a tensor.
We now extend the above concept of a derivative to domains that lie in spaces of di-
mensions higher than one. Let L( X, Y ) denote the vector space of all continuous linear
mappings from X to Y, and let g : X Y. We say that g is differentiable at x if
there exists a linear transformation Dg ( x) L( X, Y ) such that

g ( x + u) = g ( x) + Dg ( x)[u] + o (u) . (1.212)

The quantity Dg ( x) L( X, Y ) is called the Frechet derivative, while the quantity


Dg ( x)[u] Y is called the directional derivative or Gateaux derivative. Note that the di-
rectional derivative is computed by the action of the Frechet derivative on elements of X.
If the directional derivative exists, it is unique, and can be written as

1 d
Dg ( x)[u] = lim [ g ( x + u) g ( x)] = g ( x + u) . (1.213)
0 d =0

When <, by comparing Eqns. (1.211) and (1.212), we see that

dg
Dg (t)[] = <.
dt
Often, the easiest way of computing the directional derivative is to appeal directly to
its definition. We now consider some examples. Consider the function (v) = v v. Then

(v + u) = (v + u) (v + u)
= v v + 2v u + u u
= (v) + 2v u + o (u) ,

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82 Continuum Mechanics

so that

D(v)[u] = 2v u.

Now consider the function G : Lin Lin defined by G ( T ) = T 2 , where T is a second-


order tensor. Then we have

G ( T + U ) = ( T + U )2 = T 2 + TU + UT + U 2 = G ( T ) + TU + UT + o (U ) ,

which implies that DG ( T )[U ] = TU + UT.


Similarly for G ( T ) = T 3 , we have

G ( T + U ) = G ( T ) + T 2 U + TUT + UT 2 + o (U ) ,

which implies that DG ( T )[U ] = T 2 U + TUT + UT 2 .


For ( T ) = tr ( T ), we have ( T + U ) = ( T ) + tr U, which yields

D (tr T )[U ] = tr U = I : U. (1.214)

If ( T ) = tr T k , then (with T 0 I)

k
( T + U )k = T k + T ki UT i1 + o (U ) ,
i =1

and on using the linearity of the trace operator, and the fact that tr AB = tr BA, we get

k
( T + U ) = ( T ) + tr [ T ki UT i1 ] + o (U )
i =1
k
= ( T ) + tr [ T k1 U ] + o (U )
i =1
= ( T ) + k ( T k 1 ) T : U + o (U ) ,

so that

D( T )[U ] = k( T k1 ) T : U. (1.215)

If ( T ) = det T, then from Problem 14, we have

det( T + U ) = det T + cof T : U + T : cof U + det U


= det T + cof T : U + o (U ) ,

which yields

D( T )[U ] = cof T : U. (1.216)

Recall that when T is invertible, cof T = (det T ) T T .


We now discuss the invariance properties of the derivative of a tensor function.

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Theorem 1.9.1. Let G : Sym Sym be an isotopic tensor function. Then the deriva-
tive is invariant in the following sense:

QDG (S)[U ] Q T = DG ( QSQ T )[ QUQ T ] Q Orth+ , S, U Sym.


(1.217)

Proof. We have already remarked that Sym is invariant under Orth+ . Thus, we
simply need to prove Eqn. (1.217). Since G (S) is isotropic, we have
 
G Q(S + U ) Q T = QG (S + U ) Q T
= QG (S) Q T + QDG (S)[U ] Q T + o (U )
= G ( QSQ T ) + QDG (S)[U ] Q T + o (U ) .

On the other hand, we also have


 
G Q(S + U ) Q T = G ( QSQ T + QUQ T )
= G ( QSQ T ) + DG ( QSQ T )[ QUQ T ] + o (U ) .

From the above equations, and the uniqueness of the derivative, we get
Eqn. (1.217).

1.9.2 Product rule


Quite often, we will be required to compute the directional derivative of a bilinear map
( f , g ). Examples of bilinear maps are [108]
the product of a scalar and a vector
(, v) = v,

the inner product of two vectors


(u, v) = u v,

the tensor product of two vectors


(u, v) = u v,

the action of a tensor on a vector


( T, v) = Tv,

and so forth. Assuming that f and g are differentiable at a point x in the common domain
of f and g, the product ( f ( x), g ( x)) is differentiable, and its directional derivative is given
by (see [108] for the proof)
D ( f ( x), g ( x))[u] = ( f ( x), Dg ( x)[u]) + ( D f ( x)[u], g ( x)) u. (1.218)

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When x <, then we simply have (with x replaced by t)



( f (t), g (t)) = ( f (t), g (t)) + f (t), g (t) .

Another result that is used frequently is the chain rule, which we now state.

1.9.3 Chain rule


Let f : 2 3 and g : 1 2 , and let g ( x) be differentiable at x 1 . Further, let f
be differentiable at y = g ( x). Then the composition f g is differentiable at x, and

D ( f g )( x)[u] = D f ( g ( x))[ Dg ( x)[u]]. (1.219)

In case x <, then writing t in place of x, we have

d
D ( f g )(t)[] = ( f g ),
dt
dg
Dg (t)[] = ,
dt
and hence,
 
d dg
f ( g (t)) = D f ( g (t)) . (1.220)
dt dt

We have already shown how to find the directional derivatives of the first and third in-
variants. To illustrate the product and chain rules, we now compute the directional deriva-
tive of the second invariant of a second-order tensor I2 ( T ) = (det T )(tr T 1 ) given by
h i h i
DI2 ( T )[U ] = det T tr ( T 1 U )tr T 1 tr ( T 1 UT 1 ) = (tr T ) I T T : U. (1.221)

First we calculate the derivative of T 1 . Since T T 1 = I, we have

DT [U ] T 1 + T DT 1 [U ] = 0,

and since DT [U ] = U, we get DT 1 [U ] = T 1 UT 1 . Next, denoting tr T 1 by ( G ( T )),


where G ( T ) = T 1 , we have

D( T )[U ] = D( G )[ DG ( T )[U ]] = D( G )[ T 1 UT 1 ] = tr ( T 1 UT 1 ).

Finally, writing I2 as (det T )( T ), and applying the product rule, we get

DI2 ( T )[U ] = D (det T )( T )[U ]( T ) + det T D( T )[U ]


= det Ttr ( T 1 U )tr T 1 det Ttr ( T 1 UT 1 ),

which proves the first relation in Eqn. (1.221). To get the second relation, we note from
Eqn. (1.80) that I2 is also given by

1h i
(tr T )2 tr ( T 2 ) .
2

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Hence, we have
1
DI2 [U ] = [2(tr T )tr U 2tr ( TU )]
h2 i
= (tr T ) I T T : U.

The second relation can also be obtained directly from the first using the CayleyHamilton
theorem.
One other useful result is the following:

d dT
(det T ) = cof T : . (1.222)
dt dt
To see this note that
 
d dT
(det T ) = D det( T ) (by Eqn. (1.220))
dt dt
dT
= cof T : (by Eqn. (1.216)).
dt

When T is invertible, then using cof T = (det T ) T T , we can also write Eqn. (1.222) as
 
d dT 1
(det T ) = det T tr T . (1.223)
dt dt

By taking the directional derivative of the CayleyHamilton equation, we get the fol-
lowing Rivlins identity [68]:

1h i
T 2 U + TUT + UT 2 (tr U ) T 2 (tr T )( TU + UT ) + (tr T )2 tr T 2 U
2
+ [(tr T )(tr U ) tr ( TU )] T (cof T : U ) I = 0.

Similar identities can be derived in other space dimensions by taking the directional deriva-
tives of the relevant CayleyHamilton equation. Identities involving three tensors can be
derived by taking the directional derivative twice. Other identities can be derived by tak-
ing the directional derivative of the CayleyHamilton equation with a tensor function [68].

1.9.4 Gradient, divergence and curl


When X is a Hilbert space, the directional derivative of a real-valued function : X
< can be identified with an element of the space X. The derivative D( x) is an element of
the dual space X 0 = L( X, <) and thus, since the space X is a Hilbert space, there exists by
the Riesz representation theorem [63] a unique element ( x) in the space X that satisfies

(( x), u) = D( x)[u], (1.224)

where (., .) denotes the inner product of the space X. The element ( x) is called the
gradient of . Note that while D( x) belongs to the dual space X 0 , the gradient ( x)
belongs to the space X.

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86 Continuum Mechanics

As an example, consider the case when X = <3 equipped with the Euclidean inner
product (u, v) = u v. Then we have

( x + u) = ( x) + ( x) u + o (u) .

To find the component form of the gradient, we take u = ei to get


1 ( x)
()i = D( x)[ei ] = lim [( x + ei ) ( x)] = .
0 xi
Thus, we have

D( x)[u] = u = u.
xi i
As another example, consider the case when X = Lin, with the matrix inner product
( A, B) = A : B. Then the gradient of ( T ) is the matrix /Tij . By definition, we have

D( T )[U ] = :U= U .
T Tij ij

Similarly, if V ( T ) is a tensor-valued function of T, then the gradient and directional deriva-


tive of V are related as
V
DV ( T )[U ] = U. (1.225)
T
The gradients of the invariants I1 , I2 and I3 are obtained from Eqns. (1.214), (1.216) and
(1.221), and are given by
I1
= I, (1.226a)
T
I2
= (tr T ) I T T , (1.226b)
T
I3 h iT
= cof T = I2 I I1 T + T 2 . (1.226c)
T
The gradient of ( T ) = tr T k is obtained using Eqn. (1.215), and is given by

(tr T k ) = k( T k1 )T . (1.227)
T
Since Tij /Tkl = Tji /Tlk = ik jl and Tji /Tkl = Tij /Tlk = jk il , we have

T T T
= = I,
T T T (1.228)
T T T
= = T.
T T T
In general, if 1 ( T ) and 2 ( T ) are scalar-valued functions of T, then
(1 2 )
= 1 2 + 2 1 .
T T T

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Introduction to Tensors 87

If ( T ) and U ( T ) are scalar and tensor-valued functions of T, then


=T , (1.229)
T T T
U U
T
= T. (1.230)
T T
Since (U )ij = Uij , we have

(U ) U
=U + . (1.231)
T T T
If U ( T ) and V ( T ) are tensor-valued functions of T, then writing U : V as Umn Vmn , we get
T T
(U : V )
 
U V
= V+ U. (1.232)
T T T

Similarly, using the relation (UV )ij = Uim Vmj , we get

(UV )
 
Vmj Uim
= Uim + V
T ijkl Tkl Tkl mj
Vmn Unm
= Uim nj + V
Tkl Tkl in mj
Vmn Umn
= Uim nj + V ,
Tkl Tkl im nj
which in tensorial form reads
(UV ) V U
= (U  I ) + (I  V T) . (1.233)
T T T
Using Eqns. (1.158), (1.173), (1.228) and (1.233), we have the following results:

( T 2 )
= T  I + I  TT,
T
( T T T )
= ( I  T T )T + T T  I = 2S( T T  I ), (1.234)
T
( T T T )
= ( I  T ) + ( T  I )T = 2S( I  T ), (1.235)
T
( T 1 )
= T 1  T T = ( T  T T )1 , (1.236)
T
( T T )
= T( T 1  T T ) = ( T T  T 1 )T = T( T  T T )1 . (1.237)
T
The fourth relation is obtained by taking U and V to be T 1 and T, respectively, and then
differentiating T 1 T = I. We get

T 1
0 = T 1  I + ( I  T T )
T

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88 Continuum Mechanics

T 1
= = ( I  T T )1 ( T 1  I )
T
= ( I  T T )( T 1  I ) (by Eqn. (1.185))
1 T
= T T . (by Eqn. (1.168))

The fifth relation is obtained by writing T T as TT 1 and then using Eqn. (1.236).
If ( G ( T )) is a scalar-valued function of a tensor function G ( T ), then by the chain rule,
we have
Gkl
= ,
Tij Gkl Tij

which implies that


 T
G
= . (1.238)
T T G

Similarly, if H ( G ( T )) is a tensor-valued function of a tensor function G ( T ), then

H H G
= . (1.239)
T G T
Special care has to be exercised in computing the gradients with respect to a symmetric
tensor S. As a specific example, let us consider the computation of the first and second-
order derivatives of a scalar-valued function W (C ), where C Sym. Let S and C denote
these derivatives. We have
 
1 W W
S(C ) = +
2 C C T
 
1 W W
= +T (by Eqn. (1.229))
2 C C
1 W
= (I + T)
2 C
W
=S . (by Eqn. (1.158))
C
In indicial notation, the above equation reads
!
1 W W
Sij = + .
2 Cij Cji

The second-order gradient C = S/C is computed as follows:

(SS) (SS)
 
1
C= +
2 C C T
1 (SS) (SS)
 
= + T (by Eqn. (1.230))
2 C C

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Introduction to Tensors 89

1 S
= S (I + T)
2 C
S
=S S (1.240)
C
2 W
=S S. (1.241)
CC
In other words, to find 2 W/CC when C Sym, we compute it as if C is not symmetric,
and then pre- and post-multiply the result with the symmetrizer S. In indicial notation, the
above equations read
!
1 Sij S ji Sij S ji
Cijkl = + + +
4 Ckl Ckl Clk Clk
!
1 2 W 2 W 2 W 2 W
= + + + .
4 Cij Ckl Cji Ckl Cij Clk Cji Clk

Now consider the evaluation of the stretch and rotation tensors of F, and their deriva-
tives for arbitrary space dimension n. Let 2i , i = 1, 2, . . . , k be the distinct eigenval-
ues, and Pi be the corresponding projections of C Psym, so that C = ik=1 2i Pi and
U = ik=1 i Pi , with Pi given via Eqn. (J.4) as

C 2j I U j I
k k
j =1 2 2 = j =1 i j , k > 1

Pi = j 6 =i
i j
j 6 =i (1.242)

I, k = 1.
1 = F k P / . Note that det F =
tensor R is now obtained as FU
The rotation i =1 i i | |
det U = det C.
Now we evaluate the derivatives of these tensors. Differentiating the relation C = UU
using Eqn. (1.233), we get
U
S = S [U  I + I  U ] S S.
C
Since the eigenvalues i , i = 1, 2, . . . , n, of U are positive, the necessary and sufficient
condition that [U  I + I  U ] be invertible is satisfied1 . Thus, using (1.197), we get the
unique solution U/C = S/(2) for k = 1, while for k > 1, we have
U
= { S [U  I + I  U ] S } 1
C " #
k k P P
i j
=S S, (1.243)
+ j
i =1 j =1 i

Now using Eqns. (1.175), (1.234) and (1.239), we get


U U C
=S S
F C F
1 If C is positive semi-definite instead of positive definite, then U/C does not exist when C is singular.

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90 Continuum Mechanics

" #
k
Pi  P j kh i
= 2S S FT  I
+ j
i =1 j =1 i
" #
k k (P F T )  P
i j
= 2S . (1.244)
i =1 j =1
i + j

By differentiating F = RU, and using Eqns. (1.158), (1.168), (1.185), (1.173), we get
 
R U
= ( I  U ) 1 I ( R  I )
F F

k
( P k F T)  P
i j
= I  U 1 2 [ R  U 1 ]S
i =1 j =1
i + j
h i
k k ( RPi F T )  (U 1 P j ) + T (U 1 Pi F T )  ( RP j )
= I  U 1
i =1 j =1
i + j
k (i + j )( RPi R T )  (U 1 P j ) i ( RPi R T )  (U 1 P j ) [( RPi )  (P j R T )]T
k
= i + j
i =1 j =1
k ( RPi R T )  P j [( RPi )  (P j R T )]T
k
= i + j
. (1.245)
i =1 j =1

Note that we have interchanged i and j in the last term in the second-to-last step. Now
using Eqn. (1.243), and the fact that U = (U/C )C (or, alternatively, Eqn. (1.244) and the
fact that U = (U/F ) F), and in a similar manner using (1.245), we get U = C/(2) and
T
R T R = ( R T F F R)/(2) for k = 1, while for k > 1,
k k k k P ( F T F + F F ) P T
Pi CP j i j
U = = . (1.246)

i =1 j =1 i
+ j i =1 j =1
i + j
T
Pi ( R T F F R)P j
k k
R = R . (1.247)
i =1 j =1
i + j

In a similar fashion, one can find DF U ( F )[ Z ] = (U/F ) Z. If F is the deformation gradi-


ent, then see Eqns. (2.70) and (2.77).
The corresponding results for the left stretch tensor V are
" #
k k G G
V i j
=S S,
B i =1 j =1 i
+ j
" #
k k G  (G F )
V i j
= 2S ,
F i =1 j =1
i + j
k k k k G ( FF T + F F ) G T
Gi BG j i j
V = i + j =
i + j
, (1.248)
i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1
k k G ( FR T R F T ) G
" #
i j
R = R, (1.249)
i =1 j =1
i + j

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Introduction to Tensors 91

where Gi = RPi R T are the projections of V , which are obtained using Eqn. (1.242) by
replacing C and U by B and V , respectively. If F is the deformation gradient, then see
Eqns. (2.71) and (2.76).
We now verify the following relations derived by Chen and Wheeler [47] and Wheeler
[352] when n = 3:
 T
U
U = F,
F
 T
R
F = 0,
F
U 1
L = RT L U ( R T L L T R)UU,
F det U
R 1
L= RU ( R T L L T R)U,
F det U
where L Lin, and

U := (tr U ) I U = (2 + 3 )P1 + (1 + 3 )P2 + (1 + 2 )P3 .

Note that det U = (1 + 2 )(2 + 3 )(1 + 3 ), and that

UU = 1 (2 + 3 )P1 + 2 (1 + 3 )P2 + 3 (1 + 2 )P3 . (1.250)

Using the facts ( A  B) T = A T  B T , (C1 C2 ) T = C2T C1Th, TA = A T , iST = S, TT = T,


Pi P j = ij P j (no sum on j), PiT = Pi , ik=1 Pi = I, UP j = km=1 m Pm P j = j P j = P j U
(no sum on j), we have
T k k FP j UPi + FPi UP j

U
F
U= i + j
i =1 j =1
" #
k k
P j UPi + Pi UP j
=F
i =1 j =1
i + j
" #
k k (P P + P P )
i j i i j
=F
i =1 j =1
i + j
k
i P i
=F
i =1
i
= F,
RPi R T FP j T(Pi R T FP j R T )
 T k k
R
F
F= i + j
i =1 j =1

k k RPi UP j RP j UPi
= i + j
i =1 j =1

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92 Continuum Mechanics

k k
j R(Pi P j P j Pi )
= i + j
i =1 j =1

k
i R ( P i P i )
= 2i
i =1

= 0,
k k P L T FP + P F T LP
U i j i j
L=
F i =1 j =1
i + j
k Pi L T RUP j + Pi U R T LP j
k
= i + j
i =1 j =1

k j Pi L T RP j + i Pi R T LP j
k
= i + j
i =1 j =1

k k k k j Pi ( R T L L T R)P j
= Pi RT LP j i + j
i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1
! !
k k k k P ( R T L L T R)P
j i j
= Pi RT L Pj i + j
i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1

k k j Pi ( R T L L T R)P j
= RT L
i =1 j =1
i + j

1
= RT L U ( R T L L T R)UU, (by Eqn. (1.250))
det U
 
R 1 1 T 1 T T
L = ( I  U )L (R  U ) R L U ( R L L R)UU
F det U
1
= LU 1 RR T LU 1 + RU ( R T L L T R)U
det U
1
= RU ( R T L L T R)U.
det U

We now discuss the computation of the gradients of the eigenvalues 1 , 2 , 3 of a


diagonalizable tensor T for the case n = 3, and then specialize the results to the case of a
symmetric tensora more comprehensive discussion of the derivatives of the eigenvalues
of a symmetric tensor for the case n = 3 may be found in [344]. By Eqn. (J.25), T can be
expressed as ik=1 i Pi , where k is the number of distinct eigenvalues, Pi are projections
given by Eqn. (J.26), and ik=1 Pi = I. Consider the case when all eigenvalues are distinct,
i.e., 1 6= 2 6= 3 6= 1 . It is known (see, e.g., the remark following (2.2.4) in [37])
that the eigenvalues and associated eigenprojections are differentiable in this case. Using
Eqn. (1.60), we can show, for example, that cof ( T 1 I ) = ( T 2 I ) T ( T 3 I ) T = P1T .
Since det( T I (i ) I ) = det( T i I ) = 0, i = 1, 2, 3 and <, we see that
i , i = 1, 2, 3 are the eigenvalues of T I, <. Thus, (1 1 ), (2 1 ) and

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Introduction to Tensors 93

(3 1 ) are the eigenvalues of ( T 1 I ), which implies that (0, 0, (2 1 )(3 1 )) are


the eigenvalues of cof ( T 1 I ), which in turn leads to tr cof ( T 1 I ) = (1 2 )(1
3 ). By differentiating the relation det( T i I ) = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, and using the chain rule,
we get
1
(I I )cof ( T 1 I ) = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, (1.251)
T
or, in other words,
1 cof ( T 1 I ) ( T 2 I ) T ( T 3 I ) T
= = = P1T . (1.252)
T tr cof ( T 1 I ) (1 2 )(1 3 )
The corresponding results for 2 /T and 3 /T are obtained by permuting the indices
1, 2 and 3. Equation (1.252) can also be directly obtained by differentiating the relation
31 I1 21 + I2 1 I3 = 0 with respect to T, and using Eqns. (1.226a)(1.226c); this shows
that the second expression for 1 /T in Eqn. (1.252) is valid even for an arbitrary tensor,
provided the denominator is nonzero.
By differentiating the expression P1 = ( T 2 I )( T 3 I )/[(1 2 )(1 3 )] using
Eqns. (1.170), (1.231) and (1.233), we get

P1 1 h
= T  I + I  T T ( 2 + 3 )I
T (1 2 )(1 3 )
h ii
+ (2 + 3 21 )P1 P1T (2 3 ) P2 P2T P3 P3T .

By using Eqn. (J.29) and the fact that I = 3i=1 Pi = 3i=1 PiT , the above relation simplifies
to
P1 P  P2T + P2  P1T P  P3T + P3  P1T
= 1 + 1 . (1.253)
T 1 2 1 3
The gradients of P2 and P3 are obtained by cyclically permuting the indices 1, 2 and 3. The
above expressions are valid for an arbitrary tensor with distinct eigenvalues (since such a
tensor is diagonalizable).
Now consider the case when two of the eigenvalues are repeated, i.e., 1 6= 2 = 3 .
Note that now, Eqn. (J.4) yields P1 = ( T 2 I )/(1 2 ). Since P1 P1 = P1 , and since
2 = 3 , (1.252) also holds. Using the fact that 2 + 3 = I1 1 , we get

I TT
(2 + 3 ) = I P1T = 1 . (1.254)
T ( 1 2 )
The gradient of P1 is obtained by setting 2 = 3 and using P2 + P3 = I P1 in Eqn. (1.253)
as
P1 P  ( I P1 ) T + ( I P1 )  P1T
= 1 .
T ( 1 2 )
Since P2 + P3 = I P1 , we get
P
(P2 + P3 ) = 1 .
T T

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94 Continuum Mechanics

When all three eigenvalues are repeated, the gradient of the sum of the eigenvalues is
I, but the individual gradients are undefined. Since symmetric second-order tensors are
diagonalizable, all the above results can be applied to them by setting Pi = PiT . For a
generalization to any underlying space dimension n, see Eqn. (J.27).
The foregoing development can be used to find the gradients of scalar or tensor-valued
functions of a diagonalizable tensor T = ik=1 i Pi , where (i , Pi ), i = 1, 2, . . . , k, are the
distinct eigenvalues and corresponding eigenprojections of T (see, e.g., [37], [47], [104],
[127], [244], [272], [352] and [355] for various other methods). For example, if G ( T ) =
ik=1 f (i )Pi is a tensor-valued function of T, then using the above results, we get G/T =
f 0 ()I for the case k = 1, while for k > 1,

k k k f ( ) f ( )
G f i j
= Pi  PiT + Pi  P Tj . (1.255)
T i =1
i i =1 j =1
i j
j 6 =i

The above formula is derived by first considering the case of distinct eigenvalues (i.e., k =
n), and then appropriate limits are taken (e.g., 3 2 in case 2 = 3 ) to obtain the
results for repeated eigenvalues. By virtue of Eqn. (J.27), the above result holds for any
arbitrary underlying space dimension n. In case G (S) = ik=1 f (i )Pi is a symmetric-
valued function of S Sym, then the above result reduces to G/S = f 0 ()S for the case
k = 1, while for k > 1,
" #
k k k f ( ) f ( )
G f i j
=S P  Pi + Pi  P j S. (1.256)
S i =1
i i i =1 j =1
i j
j 6 =i

An application of Eqn. (1.256) can be found towards the end of Section 2.4. We now find
the eigenvalue/eigentensors of G/S in the above equation. First consider the case when
all the eigenvalues i of S are distinct. Then, if ni represent the eigenvectors of S, each Pi
can be represented as ni ni (no sum on i). Using Eqns. (1.172) and (1.342), the eigenval-
ues/eigentensors (the eigentensors have not been normalized) are found to be
     
f f f
, n n1 , , n2 n2 , , n3 n3 ,
1 1 2 3
f ( 1 ) f ( 2 ) f ( 2 ) f ( 3 )
   
, n1 n2 + n2 n1 , , n2 n3 + n3 n2 , (1.257)
1 2 2 3
f ( 1 ) f ( 3 )
 
, n1 n3 + n3 n1 , 1 6 = 2 6 = 3 6 = 1 .
1 3

Next consider the case when two eigenvalues of S are repeated, say, 1 6= 2 = 3 . We
now have

G f f
=S P  P1 + ( I P1 )  ( I P1 )
S 1 1 2
f ( 1 ) f ( 2 )

+ [P1  ( I P1 ) + ( I P1 )  P1 ] S.
1 2

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Introduction to Tensors 95

The distinct eigenvalue/eigentensor pairs of G/S in this case are


   
f f
, n1 n1 , , I n1 n1 ,
1 2
f ( 1 ) f ( 2 )
 
, n1 [ n ( n n1 ) n1 ] + [ n ( n n1 ) n1 ] n1 , 1 6 = 2 = 3 ,
1 2
(1.258)

where n is such that n n1 6= 0, but is otherwise arbitrary. Finally, for the case when all
eigenvalues are repeated, i.e., 1 = 2 = 3 , the distinct eigenvalue/eigentensor pair
is
 
f
, A , 1 = 2 = 3 , (1.259)

where A Sym.
The derivatives of the eigenvectors {ei } of S Sym are given by [244]

e1 e e1 e2 + e2 e2 e1 e e1 e3 + e3 e3 e1
= 2 + 3 ,
S 2( 1 2 ) 2( 1 3 )
e2 e e1 e2 + e1 e2 e1 e e2 e3 + e3 e3 e2
= 1 + 3 ,
S 2( 2 1 ) 2( 2 3 )
e3 e e1 e3 + e1 e3 e1 e e2 e3 + e2 e3 e2
= 1 + 2 .
S 2( 3 1 ) 2( 3 2 )

Similar to the gradient of a scalar field, we define the gradient of a vector field v as

v( x)u := Dv( x)[u]. (1.260)

The terminology gradient used for the above quantity is misleading since the gradient
was defined in terms of the inner product, whereas the above quantity is not [58]. The
quantity v is in reality simply the matrix representation of the Frechet derivative of v,
and hence a second-order tensor. Taking u = e j , and taking the dot product of the above
equation with ei , we get the components of v as

vi
(v)ij = .
x j

Thus, we have
vi
v = e ej.
x j i

The scalar field


vi v v v
v := tr v = tr (ei e j ) = i ei e j = i ij = i , (1.261)
x j x j x j xi

is called the divergence of v.

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96 Continuum Mechanics

The gradient of a second-order tensor T is a third-order tensor defined in a way similar


to the gradient of a vector field as

T ( x)u := DT ( x)[u]. (1.262)

T can be written in terms of its components as


Tij
T = e e j ek .
xk i
The divergence of a second-order tensor T, denoted as T, is defined as

( T ) u := ( T T u) constant u V, (1.263)

leading to the component form

Tij
T = e.
x j i

The curl of a vector v, denoted as v, is defined by

( v) u := [v (v)T ]u u V. (1.264)

Thus, v is the axial vector corresponding to the skew tensor [v (v) T ]. In com-
ponent form, we have

vk v
v = eijk (v)kj ei = eijk e = k e j ek .
x j i x j

The curl of a tensor T, denoted by T, is defined by

( T )u := ( T T u) constant u V. (1.265)

In component form,

Tjs Tjs
T = eirs e ej = ( er e s ) e j . (1.266)
xr i xr
The Laplacian of a scalar function ( x) is defined by

2 := (). (1.267)

In component form, the Laplacian is given by

2
2 = .
xi xi

If 2 = 0, then is said to be harmonic.


The Laplacian of a tensor function T ( x), denoted by 2 T, is defined by

(2 T ) : H := 2 ( T : H ) constant H Lin. (1.268)

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Introduction to Tensors 97

In component form,

2 Tij
(2 T )ij = .
xk xk
In the remaining chapters, we shall assume that a function is sufficiently smooth (with-
out explicitly stating what these smoothness properties are), so that all the equations pre-
sented make sense. For example, in the equation

+ b = 0,
if we are given that and b are continuous functions of the position vector x, then we
implicitly assume to be continuously differentiable.

1.9.5 Examples
Although it is possible to derive tensor identities involving differentiation using the above
definitions of the operators, the proofs can be quite cumbersome, and hence we prefer to
use indicial notation instead. In what follows, u and v are vector fields, and x ei (this
i
is to be interpreted as the del operator acting on a scalar, vector or tensor-valued field,

e.g., = x ei ):
i

1. Show that

= 0. (1.269)

2. Show that
1
(u u) = (u)T u. (1.270)
2

3. Show that [(u)v] = (u) T : v + v [( u)].


4. Show that

(u)T = ( u), (1.271a)


2
u := (u) = ( u) ( u). (1.271b)

From Eqns. (1.271a) and (1.271b), it follows that

[(u) (u)T ] = ( u).

From Eqn. (1.271b), it follows that if u = 0 and u = 0, then 2 u = 0, i.e., u


is harmonic.
5. Show that (u v) = v ( u) u ( v).
6. Let W Skw, and let w be its axial vector. Then show that

W = w,
W = ( w) I w. (1.272)

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98 Continuum Mechanics

Solution:
1. Consider the ith component of the left-hand side:
2
( )i = eijk
x j xk
2
= eikj (interchanging j and k)
xk x j
2
= eijk ,
x j xk
which implies that = 0.
1 1 ( ui ui ) u
2. (u u) = e j = ui i e j = (u) T u.
2 2 x j x j
3. We have
[(u)v] = j ((u)v) j
 
u j
= v
x j xi i
vi u j 2 u j
= + vi
x j xi xi x j
= (u)T : v + v ( u).

4. The first identity is proved as follows:


 
T u j
[ (u) ]i =
x j xi
!
u j
=
xi x j
= [( u)]i .
To prove the second identity, consider the last term
( u) = eijk j ( u)k ei
= eijk j (ekmn m un )ei
2 u n
= eijk emnk e
x j xm i
2 u n
= (im jn in jm ) e
x j xm i
" #
2 u j 2 u i
= e
xi x j x j x j i
= ( u) (u).

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Introduction to Tensors 99

5. We have
( u v )i
(u v) =
xi
(u j vk )
= eijk
xi
u j v
= eijk vk + eijk u j k
xi xi
u j v
= ekij vk e jik u j k
xi xi
= v ( u) u ( v).

6. Using the relation Wij = eijk wk , we have


wk
( W ) = eijk e
x j i
= w.
Wjn
( W )ij = eimn
xm
wr
= eimn e jnr
xm
ur
= (ij mr ir mj )
xm
ur u
= i,
xr ij x j
which is the indicial version of Eqn. (1.272).

1.10 The Exponential and Logarithmic Functions


The exponential of a tensor T (t) can be defined either in terms of its series representation
as
1
e T (t) : = I + T ( t ) + [ T (t)]2 + , (1.273)
2!
or in terms of a solution of the initial value problem
X ( ) = T (t) X ( ) = X ( ) T (t), > 0, (1.274)
X (0) = I, (1.275)
for the tensor function X ( ), where the parameter is independent of t. Note that the su-
perposed dot in the above equation denotes differentiation with respect to . The existence
theorem for linear differential equations tells us that this problem has exactly one solution
X : [0, ) Lin, which we write in the form

X ( ) = e T (t) .

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100 Continuum Mechanics

From Eqn. (1.273), it is immediately evident that


T
e[T (t)] = (e T (t) ) T , (1.276)
1 BA )
and that if A Lin is invertible, then e( A = A1 e B A for all B Lin.

Theorem 1.10.1. For each t 0, e T (t) belongs to Lin+ , and

det(e T (t) ) = etr T (t) . (1.277)

Proof. If (i , n) is an eigenvalue/eigenvector pair of T (t), then from Eqn. (1.273),


it follows that (ei (t) , n) is an eigenvalue/eigenvector pair of e T (t) . Hence, the
determinant of e T (t) , which is just the product of the eigenvalues, is given by
n
det(e T (t) ) = in=1 ei (t) = ei=1 i (t) = etr T (t) .

Since etr T (t) > 0 for all t, e T (t) Lin+ .

From Eqn. (1.277), it directly follows that

det(e A e B ) = det(e A ) det(e B ) = etr A etr B = etr ( A+ B) = det(e A+ B ).

Theorem 1.10.2. Let A(t), B(t) Lin. If

e[ A(t)+ B(t)] = e A(t) e B(t) (1.278)

then A(t) B(t) = B(t) A(t). Conversely, if A(t) B(t) = B(t) A(t), then

e[ A(t)+ B(t)] = e A(t) e B(t) = e B(t) e A(t) (1.279)

Proof. We shall write A(t) and B(t) simply as A and B for notational conve-
nience. Let X A ( ) := e A , X B ( ) := e B , and X A+ B := e( A+ B) . Then, we have

X A+ B = ( A + B) X A+ B , (1.280)
X AX B = X A X B + X A X B
= AX A X B + X A BX B , (1.281)

where, as before, the superposed dot denotes differentiation with respect to .


Let Z := X A+ B X A X B . From Eqns. (1.280) and (1.281), we get

Z = ( A + B) X A+ B AX A X B X A BX B . (1.282)

If AB = BA, then X A B = BX A , so that Eqn. (1.282) becomes

Z = ( A + B) [ X A+ B X A X B ] = ( A + B) Z. (1.283)

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Introduction to Tensors 101

The above differential equation is to be solved subject to the initial condition


Z (0) = 0. The general solution of the differential equation is Z = e( A+ B) C,
where the tensor C is a constant tensor. On using the initial condition, we get
C = 0, from which it follows that Z = 0, thus proving Eqn. (1.279). In an
analogous fashion, by taking Z := X A+ B X B X A , one can also show that if
AB = BA, then e( A+ B) = e B e A . Thus, Eqn. (1.279) follows.
Conversely, if Eqn. (1.278) holds, i.e., if X A+ B = X A X B , then Eqn. (1.282)
reduces to

BX A X B = X A BX B .

By Theorem 1.10.1, X B Lin+ . Hence multiplying the above equation by X 1


B ,
we get BX A = X A B for all . Differentiating this relation with respect to , and
evaluating at = 0, we get BA = AB.

As a corollary of the above theorem, it follows, by taking = 1 in Eqn. (1.279), that

A(t) B(t) = B(t) A(t) = e A(t)+ B(t) = e A(t) e B(t) = e B(t) e A(t) . (1.284)

However, the converse of the above statement may not be true. Indeed, if AB 6= BA, one
can have e A+ B = e A = e B = e A e B , or e A e B = e A+ B 6= e B e A or even e A e B = e B e A 6= e A+ B as
the following examples show:
1. Wood [354] presents the following example:

3
23

0 0 2 0 0
1 ,
A = 2 0 0 B = 2 0 0 12 ,

2
3 1 3 1
2 2 0 2 2 0

so that e A+ B = e A = e B = e A e B = I. The eigenvalues of A and B are (0, 2i, 2i ).


Another example presented by Horn and Johnson [136] is

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
A= , B = ,

0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0

for which, again, one has e A+ B = e A = e B = e A e B = I. The eigenvalues of A and B


are (0, 0, 2i, 2i ).
2. Wermuth [350] presents the following example where e A e B = e A+ B 6= e B e A : if z =
a + ib is a solution of ez z = 1, e.g., a = 2.088843 . . . and b = 7.461489 . . ., then for

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
A= , B = ,

0 0 a b 0 0 0 0
0 0 b a 0 0 0 0

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102 Continuum Mechanics

we have

1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
eA = , eB = , (1.285)

0 0 a+1 b 0 0 1 0
0 0 b a+1 0 0 0 1

so that

1 0 1 0 1 0 a+1 b
0 1 0 1 0 1 b a + 1
e A e B = e A+ B = , eB e A = .

0 0 a+1 b 0 0 a+1 b
0 0 b a+1 0 0 b a+1

3. An example for the case e A e B = e B e A 6= e A+ B , again provided in [136], is



0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1
A= , B = ,

0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

which yields

1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
e A = e A+ B = I, eB = ,

0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1

so that e A e B = e B e A 6= e A+ B .
As an application of Eqn. (1.284), since T (t) and T (t) commute, we have e T (t)T (t) =
I = e T (t) eT (t) . Thus,

( e T ( t ) ) 1 = e T ( t ) . (1.286)

In fact, one can extend this result to get

(e T (t) )n = enT (t) integer n.


As an application of Eqn. (1.286), consider the solution of the tensorial differential equa-
tion

X + AX + X B T = F (t), (1.287)

subject to the initial condition X (0) = C. The differentiation is with respect to t, and A and
B are assumed to be independent of t. Multiplying Eqn. (1.287) by e At  e Bt , we get
T Tt T
(e At  e Bt ) X + Ae At Xe B t + e At X B T e B = e At F (t)e B t .

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Introduction to Tensors 103

The above equation can be written as

d h At  i T
e  e Bt X = e At F (t)e B t .
dt
Integrating the above equation between the limits [0, t], we get
Z t
T
(e At  e Bt ) X (t) = e A F ( )e B d + C,
0

which, by virtue of Eqn. (1.286), leads to


Z t
T (t ) Tt
X (t) = e A(t ) F ( ) e B d + e At Ce B
0
Z t
T T
= e A F (t )e B d + e At Ce B t . (1.288)
0

What we have effectively shown is that

e( A I + I B)t = e At  e Bt t.

The result given by Eqn. (1.288) also holds if B = 0, and X, F and C are vectors. This
observation allows us to solve the tensorial differential equation

X + AX B = F (t),

which can be written as

X + ( A  B T ) X = F (t),

Using the mapping of Appendix I, the above equation can be written as

( X ) + ( A  B T )( X ) = ( F ),

whose solution is given by


Z t
e( AB [ F (t )] d + e( AB
T ) T )t
[ X (t)] = (C ).
0

For the exponential of a skew-symmetric tensor, we have the following theorem:

Theorem 1.10.3. Let W (t) Skw for all t. Then eW (t) is a rotation for each t 0.
Conversely, for R(t) Orth+ , there exists a W (t) Skw such that R(t) = eW (t) .
Proof. By Eqn. (1.286),
T (t)
( e W ( t ) ) 1 = e W ( t ) = e W = ( eW ( t ) ) T ,
where the last step follows from Eqn. (1.276). Thus, eW (t) is a orthogonal tensor.
By Theorem 1.10.1, det(eW (t) ) = etr W (t) = e0 = 1, and hence eW (t) is a rotation.

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104 Continuum Mechanics

The converse is proved simply by taking W (t) = log R(t), which we show to
be a skew-symmetric tensor later in this section.

In the three-dimensional case, by using the CayleyHamilton theorem, we get W 3 (t) =


|w(t)|2 W (t), where w(t) is the axial vector of W (t). Thus, W 4 (t) = |w(t)|2 W 2 (t),
W 5 (t) = |w(t)|4 W (t), and so on. Substituting these terms into the series expansion of the
exponential function, and using the representations of sine and cosine functions, we get2
sin(|w(t)|) [1 cos(|w(t)|)] 2
R ( t ) = eW ( t ) = I + W (t) + W ( t ). (1.289)
|w(t)| |w(t)|2
The directional derivative DR(W )[U ] can be obtained from the above expression using the
fact that |w|2 = w w = W : W /2, so that 2 |w| D |w| (W )[U ] = W : U.
Another proof of Eqn. (1.289) is obtained by assuming R( ) eW (t) to be of the form
h1 ( ) I + h2 ( )W + h3 ( )W 2 , and then determining the unknown functions h1 ( ), h2 ( ),
and h3 ( ) by using the governing equation R = RW (where the dot denotes differentiation
with respect to ) subject to the initial conditions R(0) = I and R(0) = W. By using the
fact that W 3 (t) = |w(t)|2 W (t), and that { I, W, W 2 } is a linearly independent set (see
Problem 4), we get
h1 ( ) = 0,
h2 ( ) = h1 |w(t)|2 h3 ( ),
h3 ( ) = h2 ( ),
which are to be solved subject to the initial conditions
h1 (0) = 1, h1 (0) = 0,
h2 (0) = 0, h2 (0) = 1,
h3 (0) = 0, h3 (0) = 0.
We get the solution as
sin(|w(t) |) [1 cos(|w(t) |)]
h1 ( ) = 1, h2 ( ) = , h3 ( ) = ,
|w(t)| |w(t)|2
2 Similarly,
in the two-dimensional case, if
" #
0 (t)
W (t) = ,
(t) 0
where is a parameter which is a function of t, then
" #
sin (t) cos (t) sin (t)
R(t) = eW (t) = cos (t) I + W (t) = .
(t) sin (t) cos (t)
Rt
Let (t) = 0 ( ) d. Then the solution of dz/dt = W (t)z in this two-dimensional case is
" #
cos (t) sin (t)
z(t) = z (0).
sin (t) cos (t)
This result is a special case of the result in Theorem 1.10.4.

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Introduction to Tensors 105

which, on setting = 1, yields Eqn. (1.289).


Yet another proof is obtained by using Eqn. (1.292) with T W (t), = 0, = i |w(t)|,
= i |w(t)| and = 1 (which implies that the eigenvalues of eW (t) are (1, ei|w(t)| , ei|w(t)| )).
Not surprisingly, Eqn. (1.289) has the same form as Eqn. (1.104) with = |w(t)|. Equa-
tion (1.289) is known as Rodrigues formula.p If W (t) is a complex-valued skew-symmetric
tensor, replace |w(t)| in Eqn. (1.289) by w(t) w(t) if it is nonzero; if it is zero, then W
is nilpotent, and using the series expansion, we get eW (t) = I + W (t) + W 2 (t)/2. A gen-
eralization of Rodrigues formula to the case when n 4 was developed by Gallier and
Xu [86]; we shall present this formula later in this section (see Eqn. (1.295)), although we
use a different method for deriving it than the one that they have used.
Let a = sin(|w(t)|)/ |w(t)|, b = [1 cos(|w(t)|)]/ |w(t)|2 and c = |w(t)|2 , and let
T
R(t) be given by Eqn. (1.289). Using the facts RR T + R R = 0, 2b b2 c a2 = 0,
W WW = cW /2, and W WW 2 W 2 WW = 0 (where now the superposed dot denotes
differentiation with respect to t), we get

1
RR T = (w w)(1 a)W + aW + b(W W WW ), (1.290a)
c
1
R T R = (w w)(1 a)W + aW b(W W WW ). (1.290b)
c

The axial vectors of RR T and R T R are, thus, (w w)(1 a)w/c + aw + b(w w) and
(w w)(1 a)w/c + aw b(w w), respectively. Of course, for the special case when
W (t) = W 0 t, where W 0 is independent of t, the above formulae reduce to RR T = R T R =
W 0 . In this connection, one has the following theorem [354]:

Theorem 1.10.4. For T (t) Lin,

d ( e T (t) )
= Te T (t) = e T (t) T, (1.291)
dt
 Rt 
if and only if T T = T T. Thus, the solution of Z = T (t) Z is Z (t) = e 0 T ( ) d Z (0)
if and only if T T = T T.

Proof. If T T = T T, then T2 = T T + T T = 2T T = 2T T, and so on for deriva-


tives of higher powers of T. Thus, by simply differentiating Eqn. (1.273), we get
Eqn. (1.291).
To prove the converse, note from Eqn. (1.273) that e T T = Te T . Differentiating
both sides of this relation, and using the fact that Eqn. (1.291) holds, we get

Te T T = T Te T .

Noting again that e T T = Te T , and multiplying both sides by (e T )1 = eT , we


get the desired result.
Rt
By replacing T (t) by 0 T ( ) d in the first relation in Eqn. (1.291), and post-
multiplying by Z (0), we get the stated solution of the differential equation
Z = T (t) Z.

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106 Continuum Mechanics

In what follows T (t) is written simply as T.


Explicit formulae for e T (where T can be complex-valued) when n = 3 and n = 4 are
given by Cheng and Yau [52] in terms of the eigenvalues and powers of T.

Theorem 1.10.5. For n = 3, we have the following cases:


1. 1 = 2 = 3
(a) If q( T ) = ( T I ), then

e T = e I.

(b) If q( T ) = ( T I )2 , then

e T = e [ ( T I ) + I ] .

(c) If q( T ) = ( T I )3 , then

2
 
T 2
e =e
( T I ) + ( T I ) + I .
2

2. 1 6= 2 = 3
(a) If q( T ) = ( T I )( T I ), then

e e e e
e T = T+ I.

(b) If q( T ) = ( T I )( T I )2 , then

e e
 
T e
e = ( T I )2 + e [ ( T I ) + I ] .
( )2

3. 1 6= 2 6= 3 6= 1 . We have q( T ) = ( T I )( T I )( T
I ), and

( T I )( T I ) ( T I )( T I ) ( T I )( T I )
e T = e + e + e .
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
(1.292)

We now present two methods for the explicit determination of the exponential function
for arbitrary n (for a detailed survey, see [225]). The first method is based on the Jordan
canonical form given by Eqn. (J.37), while the second method is based on the definition
given by Eqn. (1.274). The first method yields the formula

m i 1
" !#
k
j j
e T
= e i
Pi + N
j! i
, (1.293)
i =1 j =1

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Introduction to Tensors 107

where mi is as in Eqn. (J.24). To prove this result, we first note that Pi and N i commute since
they are polynomials in T. Using Eqns. (J.37) and (1.279), and the properties Pi P j = ij Pi
j
(no sum on i), N i N j = Pi N j = 0 for i 6= j, Pi N i = N i (no sum on i), and N i = 0, j mi ,
we have
 k  k 
e T = ei=1 i Pi e i =1 N i
k m i 1 j
" #" #
k
j
= e Pi I +
i
N
i =1 i =1 j =1
j! i
m i 1 j
" !#
k
j
= e i
Pi + N .
i =1 j =1
j! i

As an example, if T is given by Eqn. (J.39), we get



e e e +( 1)e
e ( )2
e T = e P1 + e (P2 + N 2 ) =

.
0 e e
0 0 e

The exponential tensor e T for a diagonalizable (in particular, symmetric) tensor T is ob-
tained either as a special case of Eqn. (1.293), or by substituting Eqn. (J.25) into Eqn. (1.273),
and is given by

k
e T = e i P i , (1.294)
i =1

with Pi given by Eqn. (J.26). The method proposed by Putzer [259] essentially yields the
same result as that given by Eqn. (1.293), although more indirectly.
Writing m as (r )m + i (s )m , we can write Eqn. (1.293) as

k h i
eT = e(r )m sin((s )m ) Bm cos((s )m ) B2m + [cos((s )m ) + i sin((s )m )] G m ,
m =1

j
where Bm = iPm and G m = nj=m11 j!1 N m . Note that B3m = iPm = Bm . The above
form allows us to write a Rodrigues-type formula for any dimension n when T is a skew-
symmetric tensor [86]. As discussed earlier, the eigenvalues of a real-valued W Skw
are either zero or of the form im , m = 1, 2, . . . , k, where k is the number of distinct
(1) (2)
nonzero eigenvalues. Also, since W is normal, it is diagonalizable. Let Bm := i [Pm Pm ],
(1) (2)
where Pm and Pm are the projections associated with the eigenvalues im and im ,
(1) (2)
respectively. Since B2m = [Pm + Pm ], it follows that I = km=1 B2m . From Eqn. (1.294),
we get

k h i
eW = I + sin(i ) Bi + [1 cos(i )] B2i , (1.295)
i =1

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108 Continuum Mechanics

where W = ik=1 i Bi , with each Bi being a real-valued skew tensor. The i are determined
by taking the square roots of the eigenvalues of W 2 , while the matrices Bi are determined
by solving the following system of k equations
k
W= i Bi ,
i =1
k
W 3 = 3i Bi ,
i =1
,
k
(1)k+1 W 2k1 = 2k
i
1
Bi ,
i =1

by inverting the van der Monde matrix [153]



1 2 ... k
3
32 ... 3k

1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 1 1
2k
1 2k2 . . . 2k k

to obtain
W 2 +2j I

(1)k+1 W k

, k>1
i j =1 2i 2j
B i (W ) = j 6 =i
W ,

k = 1.

An identical procedure can be used to find the exponential of a skew-Hermitian tensor


(which is unitary) since, again, in this case, the real part of the eigenvalues and the Gi s are
zero. We have already noted that some complex-valued skew-symmetric tensors can be
nilpotent, and hence, no Rodrigues-type formula can be derived for its exponential (which
is an orthogonal tensor), in general.
The second method that we discuss is the one devised by Fulmer [85]. Note that since
dk /d k (e T ) = T k e T , for k = 1, 2, . . . , n, we have
" #
T
dk T
e = I and (e ) = T k. (1.296)
=0 d k
=0

Also, by virtue of the CayleyHamilton theorem,

( T n I1 T n1 + + (1)n In I )e T = 0,

or, alternatively,

dn d n 1
 
n T
I1 + + ( 1 ) In e = 0. (1.297)
d n d n1

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Introduction to Tensors 109

As a result of Eqns. (1.296) and (1.297), we see that e T is the unique solution of the nth
order initial value problem

dk G ( )
DG ( ) = 0, G (0) = I, = T k , k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1, (1.298)
d k

=0

where D is the differential operator in parenthesis in Eqn. (1.297).


If T has the characteristic polynomial given by Eqn. (J.23), then the general solution of
DG ( ) = 0 is

G ( ) = e1 (C 11 + C 12 + + n1 1 C 1n1 ) + + ek (C k1 + C k2 + + nk 1 C knk ),
(1.299)

where the C ij are n matrices to be determined from the n initial conditions

I = C 11 + C 21 + + C k1 ,
T = (1 C 11 + C 12 ) + + (k C k1 + C k2 ),
T 2 = (21 C 11 + 21 C 12 ) + + (2k C k1 + 2k C k2 ),

( n 1 ) ! n n1
 
T n1 = 1n1 C 11 + (n 1)1n2 C 12 + + 1 C 1n1 +
( n n1 ) !
( n 1) ! n n k
 
+ nk 1 C k1 + (n 1)nk 2 C k2 + + k C knk .
(n nk )!

The C ij are obtained as polynomials in T by inverting the n n coefficient matrix in the


above equations; substituting these expressions into Eqn. (1.299), we get the desired ex-
pression for e T . Note that the above method is based on the characteristic polynomial3 ,
whereas the first method is based on the minimal polynomial.
As an illustration, let us again find the expression for e T , with T given by Eqn. (J.39).
Since the characteristic polynomial is given by ( T I )( T I )2 , the general solution is
G ( ) = e C 11 + e (C 21 + C 22 ), where the C ij are obtained from the initial conditions

I = C 11 + C 21 ,
T = C 11 + C 21 + C 22 ,
T 2 = 2 C 11 + 2 C 21 + 2C 22 .

Solving for C ij and substituting into e T = e C 11 + e (C 21 + C 22 ), we get the same expres-


sion as before.
Now we discuss the differentiation of e T with respect to T, where T Lin, for any
underlying space dimension n; the treatment is based on [155], alternative treatments may
be found in [143] and [144]. We shall first give an alternate derivation of a formula that
3 Actually, the method can be modified quite easily to work with the minimal polynomial as wellin this case

the number of C ij matrices to be determined is m = ik=1 mi instead of n. This is particularly advantageous, for
example, if T is diagonalizable, since then mi = 1 for i = 1, 2, . . . , k, so that C ij = 0 for i = 1, 2, . . . , k and j 2.

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110 Continuum Mechanics

appears in Mathias [211] and Ortiz et al. [241]. Let H X/T, where X = e T . Differen-
tiating the expression X = T X with respect to T using Eqn. (1.233), we get

H = ( T  I ) H + I  X T .

Multiplying this equation by the integrating factor eT  I, we get

d h T i
(e  I ) H = eT  (e T )T .
d

Integrating this equation subject to the condition H | =0 = 0, and using Eqn. (1.286), we
get
Z h i
H ( ) = (e T  I ) eT  (e T ) T d
0
Z h i
= e T (t )  (e T ) T d.
0

Similarly, by differentiating X = XT, we also get


Z xi h i
T (t )
H ( ) = e T  e T d.
0

Since e T /T = H | =1 , we obtain

(e T )
Z 1h i
= e T (1 )  (e T ) T d
T 0
Z 1  T 
= e T  e T (1 ) d. (1.300)
0

Explicit expressions for e T such as those given by Eqn. (1.293) (or those presented in The-
orem 1.10.5 for n = 3) should be substituted into the above expressions to get explicit
formulae for e T /T. Note that these formulae are valid for any T Lin and any n.
Simpler expressions for a diagonalizable tensor T can be obtained using Eqns. (1.294)
and (1.300), or directly by using Eqn. (1.255) with f (i ) = ei . The final result that we
obtain for a diagonalizable tensor (for any n) is e I for k = 1, and
" #
k k k
(e T ) e i e j
= e Pi  Pi +
i T T
P  Pj , k > 1
T i =1 i =1 j =1
i j i
j 6 =i

where k is the number of distinct eigenvalues of T, and Pi is given by Eqn. (J.26). When
T Sym, we obviously have PiT = Pi , and the above result should be pre- and post-
multiplied by S.
In what follows, we shall continue to denote T (t) as T; the treatment is based on [158].
Recall that difficulties arise in defining a unique scalar-valued logarithmic function since
e = e+2in where n is an integer. Similar difficulties arise in defining the logarithm of a
tensor. If one defines the solution X of e X = T as log T, then a non-singular T may have

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Introduction to Tensors 111

an infinite number of real and complex logarithms. In order to avoid this nonuniqueness
and ensure that the logarithm of a real tensor is real, we define the principal logarithmic
function, denoted by log T, of a matrix T with no eigenvalues that are negative or zero (i.e.
/ (, 0], i = 1, 2, . . . , n), as the unique function such that elog T = T. The eigenvalues
i
of log T have imaginary parts that lie strictly between and , since as we shall show
below, if rei , < < , are the eigenvalues of T, then log(rei ) = log r + i, < <
, are the eigenvalues of log T. Thus, if i denote the eigenvalues of T, then
/ (, 0] i.
1. elog T = T if and only if i
2. log e T = T if and only if < Im(i ) < i.
In series form the logarithmic function is given by

(1)i1
log( I + T ) = i
( T )i , (1.301)
i =1

or, alternatively as

(1)i1
log( T ) = i
( T I )i . (1.302)
i =1

The series given by Eqn. (1.301) is absolutely convergent only if k T k < 1. It is immediately
evident from the above representation that log( I ) = 0 and log( T T ) = (log T ) T . Since,
1
for all invertible A Lin, e A BA = A1 e B A for all B Lin, we get log( A1 BA) =
1
A (log B) A.
If H ( ) : [0, 1] Lin is a tensor-valued function of with no eigenvalues on the closed
negative real axis for any [0, 1], an alternative definition can be given as the solution of
the differential equation

dX dH
H ( ) = , X (0) = 0, (1.303)
d d

with the solution denoted by X ( ) = log H. For example, if H ( ) = I + ( T I ), with no


eigenvalues of T on the closed negative real axis, then, from the above definition, we get
Z
log[ I + ( T I ) ] = [ I + ( T I ) ]1 ( T I ) d. (1.304)
0

If one violates the restriction on the eigenvalues of T, then, from the above definition, one
can get a complex-valued logarithm even for a real tensor as is seen, for example, by taking
T = diag[1, 1, 1]. Let (, n) denote an eigenvalues/eigenvector pair of T. Then, by using
the fact that

In = [ I + ( T I ) ]1 [ I + ( T I ) ]n = (1 + ( 1) )[ I + ( T I ) ]1 n,

we get from Eqn. (1.304),

1
Z

log[ I + ( T I ) ]n = d n = log[1 + ( 1) ]n,
0 1 + ( 1)

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112 Continuum Mechanics

so that (log[1 + ( 1) ], n) are the corresponding eigenvalue/eigenvector of log[ I + ( T


I ) ]. In particular, for = 1, (log , n) are the eigenvalue/eigenvector pair of log T. Simi-
larly, one can show that ( log , n) are the eigenvalue/eigenvector pair of log( T 1 ). Anal-
ogous to Eqn. (1.277), we get
n
tr log T = log i = log(det T ). (1.305)
i =1

We have the following analogue of Theorem 1.10.2:

Theorem 1.10.6. Let A, B be such that no eigenvalues of A, B and AB are on the closed
negative real axis. If

log {[ I + ( A I ) ][ I + ( B I ) ]} = log[ I + ( A I ) ] + log[ I + ( B I ) ]

[0, 1] (1.306)
then AB = BA.
Conversely, if AB = BA (so that A, B and AB have a common set of eigenvec-
tors), and if < Im(log i + log i ) < for each i,a where i and i denote the
eigenvalues of A and B corresponding to the same eigenvector, then

log {[ I + ( A I ) ][ I + ( B I ) ]} = log {[ I + ( B I ) ][ I + ( A I ) ]} =
log[ I + ( A I ) ] + log[ I + ( B I ) ] [0, 1] (1.307)

Proof. If Eqn. (1.306) holds, then by differentiating it with respect to using


Eqn. (1.303), we get

[ I + ( B I ) ]1 [ I + ( A I ) ]1 [ A + B 2I + 2 ( A I )( B I )] =
[ I + ( A I ) ] 1 ( A I ) + [ I + ( B I ) ] 1 ( B I ).
Differentiating the above relation once again with respect to (using the fact that
d( T 1 )/d = T 1 [dT/d ] T 1 ), and evaluating the resulting expression at =
0, we get AB = BA.
Conversely, given that AB = BA, using Eqn. (1.303), we have
log {[ I + ( A I ) ][ I + ( B I ) ]}
Z
= [ I + ( B I ) ]1 [ I + ( A I ) ]1 [ A + B 2I + 2 ( A I )( B I )] d
0
Z
= [ I + ( B I ) ]1 [ I + ( A I ) ]1 {[ I + ( A I ) ]( B I ) + [ I + ( B I ) ]
0
( A I )} d
Z Z
=l [ I + ( B I ) ]1 ( B I ) d + [ I + ( A I ) ]1 ( A I ) d
0 0
= log[ I + ( A I ) ] + log[ I + ( B I ) ].

In a similar manner, one gets the same expression for


log {[ I + ( B I ) ][ I + ( A I ) ]}, leading to Eqn. (1.307).

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Introduction to Tensors 113

a This condition is imposed since, as stated, the imaginary part of the eigenvalues of the log of any

tensor has to lie between and .

As a corollary, it follows by taking = 1 in Eqn. (1.307), that

AB = BA and < Im(log i + log i ) < i = log( AB)

= log( BA) = log A + log B. (1.308)


The above implication need not be true if AB = BA, but the constraints on the eigenvalues
of A and B are violated. Cheng et al. [53] have presented the following (complex-valued)
scalar example: if a = b = e( e)i , where e is small and positive, then

log( ab) = 2ei 6= 2( e)i = log( a) + log(b).

We present a (real-valued) matrix example that is a modification of the example of


Wood [354]. If

3

0 0 2 0.499963 0.866004 0.00866011
A = ( 0.01) 0 0 21 , H = e A 0.866004 0.500012 0.00499992 ,


23 21 0 0.00866011 0.00499992 0.99995

then

0 0 2.71204 0 0 0.0173205
2
log H 0 0 1.5658 , log H 0 0 0.01 ,

2.71204 1.5658 0 0.0173205 0.01 0

so that log H 2 6= 2 log H. The eigenvalues of log H and log H 2 are (approximately) (0, (
0.01)i, ( 0.01)i ) and (0, 0.02i, 0.02i ), respectively.
The converse assertion of Eqn. (1.308) is true for dimension n = 2, as seen in [226, 227],
and also for symmetric tensors (for any n), as is evident by taking the transpose. For n = 4,
it may appear that by taking X = e A , Y = e B , where e A and e B are given by Eqn. (1.285), we
have log( XY ) = log X + log Y, but XY 6= Y X. However, since both A and A + B do not
satisfy the constraint < Im(i ) < , we have log(e A ) 6= A and log(e A+ B ) 6= A + B.
Thus, the question of whether the converse assertion of Eqn. (1.308) is true for n > 2
remains unresolved.
Let T be a tensor with no eigenvalues i on the closed negative real axis. Since T and
T 1 commute, and since log i + log(i )1 = 0, by taking A T and B T 1 , we get

log( T 1 ) = log T. (1.309)

If R Orth+ is such that it does not have any eigenvalues on the closed negative real axis,
i.e., if R Orth+ /Sym + { I }, then log R Skw. This is proved by noting that

[log R] T = log( R T ) = log( R1 ) = log( R),

where the last step follows from Eqn. (1.309).

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114 Continuum Mechanics

We now discuss the explicit determination of the logarithm of a tensor; an alternative


method may be found in [34]. Analogous to Eqn. (J.38), one can prove that
m i 1 
" j #
k
1 N
[ I + ( T I ) ] 1 = Pi + i
.
i =1
[1 + ( i 1) ] j =1
[1 + ( i 1) ]

Substituting this relation into Eqn. (1.304), we get


m i 1 j
( )
Z k
i 1 (1) j1 j1 N i
log[ I + ( T I ) ] =
0 i =1 [ 1 + ( i 1 ) ]
Pi + j +1
d
j =1 [ 1 + ( i 1 ) ]
m i 1 j
( )
k (1) j1 j N i
= log[1 + (i 1) ]Pi + j
. (1.310)
i =1 j =1 j [ 1 + ( i 1 ) ]

In particular, for = 1, we get


m i 1 j
( )
k (1) j1 N i
log T = (log i )Pi + j
. (1.311)
i =1 j =1 ji
An alternative derivation of Eqn. (1.310) can be given as follows. Since
m 1
{P1 , P2 , . . . , Pk , N 1 , . . . , N 1m1 1 , . . . , N k , . . . , N k k }
constitutes a basis for any tensor, we write
m i 1
" #
k
log[ I + ( T I ) ] = f i ( )Pi + f ij ( )( N i ) j
,
i =1 j =1

where the f i ( ) and f ij ( ) are functions to be determined. Substituting into the definition
given by Eqn. (1.303), and using the linear independence of the basis, we get for each i the
equations
[1 + (i 1) ] fi = (i 1),
[1 + (i 1) ] fi1 + fi = 1,
[1 + (i 1) ] fi2 + fi1 = 0,
..
.
[1 + (i 1) ] fi(mi 1) + fi(mi 2) = 0,
which are to be solved subject to the condition that f i (0) = f ij (0) = 0. We first solve for f i
using the first equation, then for f i1 using the second one, and so on. The solution is given
by f i = log[1 + (i 1) ] and f ij = (1) j1 j /[ j(1 + (i 1) ) j ], which yields Eqn. (1.310).
For a diagonalizable tensor T, Eqn. (1.311) simplifies to
k
log T = (log i )Pi , (1.312)
i =1

with Pi given by Eqn. (J.26). By specializing Eqn. (1.311) to the case n = 3, we get the
following analogue of Theorem 1.10.5:

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Introduction to Tensors 115

Theorem 1.10.7. For n = 3, we have the following cases:


1. 1 = 2 = 3
(a) If q( T ) = ( T I ), then

log T = (log ) I.

(b) If q( T ) = ( T I )2 , then

T I
log T = (log ) I + .

(c) If q( T ) = ( T I )3 , then

T I ( T I )2
log T = (log ) I + .
22

2. 1 6= 2 = 3
(a) If q( T ) = ( T I )( T I ), then

T I T I
   
log T = log + log .

(b) If q( T ) = ( T I )( T I )2 , then

( T I )2 ( T I )( T (2 ) I ) ( T I )( T I )
log T = log log + .
( )2 ( )2 ( )

3. 1 6= 2 6= 3 6= 1 . We have q( T ) = ( T I )( T I )( T
I ), and
( T I )( T I ) ( T I )( T I ) ( T I )( T I )
log T = log + log + log .
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )

Some examples are



1
e 1 0 1 e 0
T = 0 e 0 , log T = 0 1 0 , (Case 1(b)),

0 0 e 0 0 1
1 2e1
e 1 1 1 e 2e2
T = 0 e 1 , log T = 0 1 , (Case 1(c)),

1 e
0 0 e 0 0 1
1 e3 e2 1

e 1 1 1 e ( e 1) e3 ( e 1)2
T = 0 e2 1 , log T = 0 1 , (Case 2(b)).

2 e2
0 0 e2 0 0 2

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116 Continuum Mechanics

As an application, the logarithm of R Orth+ /Sym, with eigenvalues {1, ei , ei }


(and hence tr R = 1 + 2 cos ) is obtained using Case 3 in the above theorem as

log R = i(P2 P3 )
i( R I ) R ei I R ei I
 
= i +
e ei ei 1 ei 1

= ( R RT )
2 sin
R RT
= 2 .
R RT

By substituting W log R (|w| = ) into the right-hand side of Eqn. (1.289), we can easily
verify that elog R = R.
By differentiating Eqn. (1.304) with respect to T and using Eqns. (1.233) and (1.236), we
get (for any underlying space dimension n)
Z h
i
log( I + ( T I ) ) = ( I + ( T I ) )1  ( I + ( T I ) )T d.
T 0

For a diagonalizable tensor, the above equation simplifies to


log( I + ( T I ) ) =
T
k k k log[1 + ( 1) ] log[1 + ( 1) ]
i j
1 + (i 1) Pi  PiT + i j
Pi  P Tj ,
i =1 i =1 j =1
j 6 =i

a result that we could also have obtained directly by differentiating Eqn. (1.312) using
Eqn. (1.255). By setting = 1 in the above equation, we get

k k k log log
1 i j
log T = Pi  PiT + Pi  P Tj .
T
i =1 i i =1 j =1
i j
j 6 =i

For A Sym,
" #
k k k log log
1 i j
A
log A = S Pi  Pi + i j Pi  P j S, k > 1,
i =1 i i =1 j =1
j 6 =i
1
= S 1 = 2 = 3 ,

(1.313)

with Pi given by Eqn. (J.4).


An application is presented in Section 2.4.

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Introduction to Tensors 117

1.11 Divergence and Stokes Theorems


We state the divergence, Stokes, potential and localization theorems that are used quite
frequently in the following development. The divergence theorem relates a volume inte-
gral to a surface integral, while the Stokes theorem relates a contour integral to a surface
integral. Let S represent the surface of a volume V, n represent the unit outward normal
to the surface, a scalar field, u a vector field, and T a second-order tensor field. Then we
have
Divergence theorem (also known as the Gauss theorem)
Z Z
dV = n dS. (1.314)
V S

Applying Eqn. (1.314) to the components ui of a vector u, we get


Z Z
u dV = u n dS, (1.315)
Z V ZS
u dV = n u dS,
V
Z ZS
u dV = u n dS.
V S

Similarly, on applying Eqn. (1.314) to T, we get the vector equation


Z Z
T dV = Tn dS. (1.316)
V S

Note that the divergence theorem is applicable even for multiply connected domains pro-
vided the surfaces are closed.
Stokes theorem
Let C be a contour, and S be the area of any arbitrary surface enclosed by the contour C.
Then
I Z
u dx = ( u) n dS, (1.317)
IC S
Z h i
u dx = ( u)n (u)T n dS. (1.318)
C S

In what follows, we assume n to be C0 continuous over the entire surface S (so that n
makes sense). By taking u as w n in Eqn. (1.317), using (w n) = w (n ), where
= dx/ds is the unit tangent to C, and then applying Eqn. (1.354), we get
I Z
w (n ) ds = [( n)(w n) w + n (w)n] dS. (1.319)
C S

Thus, for a closed surface S, we get


Z Z
( n)(w n) dS = [ I n n] : w dS. (1.320)
S S

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118 Continuum Mechanics

R
By choosing w to be a constant vector c in the above equation, we get c S ( n ) n dS = 0.
Since the choice of c is arbitrary, we obtain
Z
n dS = 0, (1.321)
S

where = n is the curvature. For a more detailed discussion of this result, see [22]. By
choosing w = x, w = c x, w = ( x x)c and w = ( x x)c in Eqn. (1.320), we get
Z
( x n) dS = 2S, (1.322a)
ZS
( x n) dS = 0, (1.322b)
ZS Z
( x x)n dS = 2 [ I n n] x dS, (1.322c)
ZS Z S
( x n) x dS = [3I n n] x dS. (1.322d)
S S
R R
Note with relation to Eqns. (1.321) and (1.322b) that S n dS and S ( x n ) dS are also zero,
as can be seen by using the divergence theorem.
Potential Theorems
1. Let V be a simply connected region, and let u = be a vector field on V. Then
u = 0. Conversely, if u = 0, then there exists a scalar potential such that
u = .
We have already proved the forwardH assertion (see Eqn. (1.269)). To proveR x the con-
verse, we note from Eqn. (1.317) that C u dx = 0, and thus, the value of x u(y) dy
0
evaluated along any curve in V joining a fixed point x0 and x, just depends on x. Let
Z x
( x) = u(y) dy.
x0

Then u = .
2. If T is a tensor field such that T = 0, then there exists a vector field u such that
T = u.
To see this, using the definition of the curl of a tensor, we have ( T T w) = (
T )w = 0, where w is a constant unit vector. By the above result this implies that there
exists a scalar field such that T T w = , or, alternatively, T = w = (w).
Letting u = w, we get the desired result.
3. If T is a tensor field such that T = 0, and in addition, if tr T = 0, then there
exists W Skw such that T = W.
To prove this, we take the trace of the relation T = u to get u = 0. Let W T =
W be the skew-symmetric tensor whose axial vector is u. Then by Eqn. (1.272), we
get T = u = W.
4. If v and T are vector and tensor fields such that
Z
v n dS = 0,
ZS
T T n dS = 0,
S

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Introduction to Tensors 119

for every closed surface S in V, then there exist vector and tensor fields u and U such
that v = u and T = U, respectively.
To
R prove the second statement from the first, take the dot product of the equation
T
S T n R = 0 with a constant unit vector w. Then, by the definition of the transpose,
dS
we get S Tw n dS = 0, which by virtue of the first result implies the existence of a
vector field u such that Tw = u, or, alternatively, T = ( u) w = U,
where U = w u.
If the region V does not contain any holes in the interior (i.e., the boundary of V is
comprised of only
R the outer surface), then by means of the divergence theorem, we
conclude that S v n dS = 0 for every closed surface S is equivalent to v = 0.
Thus, for a vector field v that satisfies v = 0 on such a body, there exists a vector
field u such that v = u.
Now we state the localization theorem, which is used in Chapter 3 to obtain the differ-
ential equations from the integral form of the governing equations.

Theorem 1.11.1 (Localization theorem). Let be a continuous scalar, vector or tensor


field on V. Then for any given x0 V,

1
Z
( x0 ) = lim dV,
r 0 V ( Br ) Br

where Br is the closed


R ball of radius r > 0 centered at x0 , and V ( Br ) denotes its volume.
It follows that if B dV = 0 for every closed ball B, then = 0.
Proof. We have
Z
1 1
Z
( x0 ) lim dV = B [( x0 ) ( x)] dV

r 0 V ( Br ) Br V ( Br ) r

1
Z
|( x0 ) ( x)| dV
V ( Br ) Br

sup |( x0 ) ( x)| ,
x Br

which tends to zero as r 0 since is continuous.


R
Note that there is no localization theorem for surfaces, i.e., S dS = 0 for every closed
surface S does not imply that = 0. To see this, take, for example, = a n, where a is a
constant vector.

1.12 Groups
The treatment in this section is based on [35]. A group is a set, say G , equipped with a
function from G G , called combination and denoted by

( a, b) a b,

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120 Continuum Mechanics

which satisfies the following axioms:

1. Associativity: For all a, b, c G

( a b ) c = a ( b c ).

2. Existence of a neutral element: There exists n G such that

na = an = a a G .
r
3. Existence of reverse elements: For each a G , there exists a G such that
r r
a a = a a = n.

If, in addition, the commutative property

ab = ba a, b G

is satisfied, then G is said to be a commutative or Abelian group.


Since the combination function in the definition of a group may be thought of as taking
two elements from G and producing an element also in G , it is often referred to as a closed
binary operation. The closure property, i.e., the fact that the function value a b is also in G , is
often called the fundamental closure property.
As an example, the set of real numbers is a group with respect to addition. We write
a + b instead of a b, i.e., the combination function is defined on < < to < by

( a, b) a + b.

The three defining axioms are satisfied since

( a + b) + c = a + (b + c) a, b, c <,

0+a = a+0 a <,

( a) + a = a + ( a) = 0 a <.

Thus, 0 is the neutral element, and reverse elements are the negatives. In fact, < is a com-
mutative group since

a+b = b+a a, b <.

We have the following useful results:

Theorem 1.12.1. Let G be a group. Then for any a, b G , there exists a unique x G ,
r
such that a x = b. In fact, x = a b. Similarly, there exists a unique y G such that
r
y a = b. In fact, y = b a.

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Introduction to Tensors 121

Proof. Suppose, tentatively, that there exists a x G such that a x = b. Then


r
combining on the left with a, we have
r r
a b = a (a x)
r
= ( a a) x (associativity)
= nx (reverse)
= x. (neutral)
r
Thus, if x exists, it must be precisely a b. This establishes the uniqueness. To
prove existence, one must show that this x has the desired property. First of all,
r
we note that by closure a b G . Next, consider
r r
a ( a b) = ( a a) b (associativity)
= nb (reverse)
= b. (neutral)
r
Hence, x = a b does the job. The result for y can be proved similarly.

Theorem 1.12.2 (Cancellation Property). Let G be a group. Then for a, b, c G

b a = c a = b = c.
a b = a c = b = c.

Proof. We have
r r
(b a) a = (c a) a.

Using the associativity, reverse and neutral properties, we get

b = c.

The second statement can be proved in a similar manner.

Theorem 1.12.3. A given group has only one neutral element.


Proof. Suppose n and n0 are both neutral elements for a group G , i.e., n, n0 G
and for all a G

an = na = a and n0 a = a n0 = a.

Consider a n0 = a. We have
r
n0 = a a = n.

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122 Continuum Mechanics

Theorem 1.12.4. A given element of a group has only one reverse.


r r0
Proof. Let a G . Suppose a and a are both reverses of a, i.e.,
r r r0 r0
aa = ar = n and a a = a a = n.
r0
Consider a a = n. We have
r0 r r
a = a n = a.

Theorem 1.12.5. Let n be a neutral element of a group. Then


r
n = n.
r
Proof. For every element a G , the reverse axiom requires a a = n. Taking
r
a = n, we get n n = n. Hence,
r r
n = n n = n.

Theorem 1.12.6. Let a be any element of a group. Then


r
r
a = a.
r
Proof. We have a a = n. Hence,
r r
r r
a = a n = a.

Theorem 1.12.7. Let a and b be any two elements of a group. Then


r r r
a b = b a.

Proof. We have
r r r r
( a b) (b a) = a (b (b a)) (associativity)
r r
= a ((b b) a) (associativity)
r
= a (n a) (reverse)
r
= aa (neutral)
= n. (reverse)

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Introduction to Tensors 123

In the same way


r r
(b a) ( a b) = n.
r r
Thus, b a is a reverse element of a b. By the uniqueness of the inverse, it is the
reverse.

In general, subsets of groups will not be groups, e.g., the subset G {n}. We introduce
the following terminology:
Definition: Let H be a nonempty [proper] subset of a group G . Then, if H is a group with
respect to the combination function of G , it is called a [proper] subgroup of G .4
Since H H G G , the combination function for H is the restriction of the combina-
tion function for G to H H. However, the function values, which necessarily belong to
G , are not automatically in H, i.e., for an arbitrary subset, closure could fail. An example
of a subgroup of a group G with neutral element n is the singleton set {n}. The following
theorem provides a sufficient condition for a subset to be a subgroup.

r
Theorem 1.12.8. Let H be a nonempty subset of a group G . If for all a, b H, a b
H, then H is a subgroup of G .
Proof. As noted, the combination function for G makes sense for H. Hence, the
associativity requirement is automatically satisfied. We have to show that the
neutral and reverse elements of all a H lie in H, and that H is closed under
the combination operation.
Assume that for a, b H
r
a b H. (1.323)
r r
Choosing b = a, we get a a H. But a a = n. Thus, n H.
r r r
Next, choose a = n. Then, we have n b H. But n b = b. Thus, b H
r
implies b H. So H contains the reverses of all its elements. The reverses
necessarily exist because of the properties of the parent group G .
r r
Finally, let a, b H. We have shown that b H. Letting b play the role of b in
Eqn. (1.323), we have
r
r
a b H.
r
r
But b = b. Thus, a b H, and this proves that H is closed under the combina-
tion operation.

4 The bracket device above is used to make two statements simultaneously. To get the first statement, include

the bracketed material. To get the second leave out the bracketed material.

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124 Continuum Mechanics

We now come to a result that plays a key role in the classification of materials. First,
we define the set of unimodular tensors Unim, and the set of proper unimodular tensors
Unim+ as
Unim : = { H : |det H | = 1},

Unim+ : = { H : det H = 1}.

Theorem 1.12.9. Unim and Unim+ are groups with respect to tensor multiplication,
and Unim+ is a proper subgroup of Unim. Hence, Unim is called the unimodular group
of tensors, while Unim+ is called the proper unimodular group.
Proof. Closure holds since H 1 , H 2 Unim implies that |det( H 1 H 2 )| =
|det H 1 | |det H 2 | = 1. Associativity follows since tensor multiplication is as-
sociative. The reverse element is simply the inverse, while the neutral element
is the identity tensor. Similar arguments can be made for Unim+ . Unim+ is a
proper subgroup of Unim, since there are elements in Unim which are not in
Unim+ , e.g., diag[1, 1, 1].

Theorem 1.12.10. The orthogonal group Orth is a proper subgroup of the unimodular
group Unim, and the proper orthogonal group Orth+ is a proper subgroup of the proper
unimodular group Unim+ .
Proof. The closure property of Orth follows since Q1 , Q2 Orth implies that
Q1 Q2 Orth. The other properties are proved as in the previous proof. Orth is
a proper subgroup since there are unimodular tensors that are not orthogonal.
e.g.,
1 0 0
1 1 0 .

0 0 1

A similar proof can be given for Orth+ .

Before stating the next theorem, we prove the following lemma:


Lemma: Let S0 Psym Unim+ , and let it have at least two distinct eigenvalues, say u
h 2  2 i
and l , with u > l . Then, for every l
u , u , there exists R Orth+ such
l
that the symmetric and proper unimodular tensor

T = S01 RS20 R1 S01

has the spectrum {, 1 , 1}.


Proof. Since S0 Psym Unim+ , all the eigenvalues of S0 are positive, and we can write
the spectral resolution of S0 as
1
S0 = u e1 e1 + l e2 e2 + e e3 .
l u 3

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Introduction to Tensors 125

Let R( ) be the usual rotation matrix about the e3 axis, i.e.,



cos sin 0
R( ) = sin cos 0 .

0 0 1

In terms of its action on the basis {e1 , e2 , e3 }, we have

R( )e1 = cos e1 + sin e2 ,


R( )e2 = sin e1 + cos e2 ,
R( )e3 = e3 .

Note that R1 ( ) = R T ( ) = R( ). Now, consider

T ( ) = S01 R( )S20 R1 ( )S01 . (1.324)

That T ( ) is symmetric and proper unimodular follows from straightforward calculations.


Hence, its eigenvalues are all real. Moreover, +1 is an eigenvalue of T ( ) for all since

T ( )e3 = S01 R( )S20 R( )S01 e3


= l u S01 R( )S20 R( )e3
= l u S01 R( )S20 e3
1 1
= S R( )e3
l u 0
1 1
= S e
l u 0 3
= e3 .

For = 0, we have R = I, which when substituted into Eqn. (1.324) yields T = I, i.e., the
spectrum of T (0) is {1, 1, 1}. At = /2, we have R(/2)e1 = e2 , R(/2)e2 = e1 , and
R(/2)e3 = e3 . Hence,
   
T e1 = S01 R S20 R S01 e1
2 2 2
1 1   2  
= S R S0 R e
u 0 2 2 1
1 
= S01 R S20 e2
u 2
2 
= l S01 R e
u 2 2
2l 1
= S e
u 0 1
2l
= e .
2u 1

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126 Continuum Mechanics

n   o
2u 2l 2u
Similarly, T (/2)e2 = e .
2l 2
Thus, the ordered spectrum of T (/2) is 2u
, 1, 2l
.
Since +1 is always an eigenvalue, and since T ( ) depends continuously on , we see that
h 2   2 i
l
given any 2
, u2 , there exists [0, /2] for which the lemma holds.
u l

Thus, if ei0 are the eigenvectors of T, then the spectral resolution of T is

1
T = e10 e10 + e20 e20 + e30 e30 , (1.325)

h 2   2 i
l
where 2
, u2 . Now we are in a position to prove the main result of this
u l
section. The proof that we present is due to Noll (see [237], page 200).

Theorem 1.12.11. (Maximality of the Orthogonal Group in the Unimodular


Group). If G is a group with respect to tensor multiplication such that

Orth G Unim,

then either G = Orth or G = Unim. In other words, there is no group between the
orthogonal group and the unimodular group. The corresponding result for Orth+ and
Unim+ is that Orth+ is maximal in Unim+ .
Proof. There are two possibilities:
1. G contains a tensor S0 Psym Unim with at least two distinct eigenval-
ues, say u > l .
2. G does not contain such a tensor, i.e., the only tensor from Psym Unim
that it contains is the identity tensor.
Consider the first possibility. Using the polar decomposition, any tensor H
Unim can be decomposed as H = QU, where Q is an orthogonal tensor and
U Psym Unim. Hence, if ei are the eigenvectors of U, we can write the
spectral resolution of U as

1
U = 1 e1 e1 + 2 e2 e2 + e3 e3 ,
1 2

where 1 , 2 > 0. We can decompose U as

U = U 1U 2,

where
1
U 1 = 1 e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 ,
1
1
U 2 = e1 e1 + 1 2 e2 e2 + e3 e3 .
1 2

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Introduction to Tensors 127

1/m1
Now choose integers m1 , m2 large enough so that 1 := 1 and 2 :=
(1 2 )1/m2 satisfy
! !
2l 2u
i .
2u 2l

(Choosing m1 |ln 1 /[2 ln(u /l )]| and m2 |ln(1 2 )/[2 ln(u /l )]| does
the job.) By the Lemma, there exist tensors T 1 and T 2 whose spectral resolution
is given by

1
T 1 = 1 e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 ,
1
1
T 2 = e10 e10 + 2 e20 e20 + e30 e30 .
2

Thus,

m 1
T 1 1 = 1 e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 ,
1
1 0
T 2m2 = e10 e10 + 1 2 e20 e20 + e e30 .
1 2 3

Let R1 and R2 be the two proper orthogonal tensors that rotate ei and ei0 into ei .
Then, we have

m 1
R1 T 1 1 R1T = R1 (1 e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 ) R1T
1
1
= 1 ( R1 e1 ) ( R1 e1 ) + ( Re2 ) ( R1 e2 ) + ( R1 e3 ) ( R1 e3 )
1
1
= 1 e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3
1
= U 1.

Similarly,

R2 T 2m2 R2T = U 2 .

Hence,

H = QU
= QU 1 U 2
  
= Q R1 T 1m1 R1T R2 T 2m2 R2T

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128 Continuum Mechanics

h i m1 h i m2
= QR1 S01 R(1 )S20 R1 (1 )S01 R1T R2 S01 R(2 )S20 R1 (2 )S01 R2T ,
(1.326)

for some 1 , 2 [0, /2]. Thus, any H Unim can be expressed in terms of
powers of S0 Psym Unim, Q Orth, and R(1 ), R(2 ), R1 , R2 Orth+ . But
Orth G and S0 G , and since G is a group, any element generated by powers
of S0 and elements of Orth has to lie in G . Thus, we have Unim G . But, by
hypothesis, G Unim. Hence, for the case when S0 has at least two distinct
eigenvalues G = Unim.
Now consider the case when the only member from Psym Unim in G is the
identity tensor. For any H G , we have H = QU, or, alternatively, U = Q1 H,
where Q Orth G , and U Psym Unim. Since G is a group, and since
H, Q G , we have U = Q1 H G . However, since the only member from
Psym Unim in G is I, we have U = I. Therefore, H = Q Orth, i.e., G Orth.
But, by hypothesis, Orth G . Hence, in this case, we have G = Orth.
To prove that Orth+ is maximal in Unim+ , note that if H Unim+ , then Q in
Eqn. (1.326) belongs to Orth+ . Thus, any H Unim+ can be expressed in terms
of powers of S0 Psym Unim and tensors in Orth+ , and the result follows.

EXERCISES

1. Show that

(w u) (w v) = [w w](u v). (1.327)


[u v, v w, w u] = [u, v, w]2 . (1.328)

From Eqn. (1.327), it follows that if n is a unit vector, then

[n, n u, n v] = [n, u, v] .

2. Which of the spaces Sym, Psym, Skw, Orth+ are linear subspaces of Lin? Justify.
Evaluate if the matrices

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 , 0 0 1 , 1 0 1 ,

1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0

constitute a basis for Skw, and if the matrices



1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 1 1 ,

0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1

constitute a basis for Sym. If not, then give a canonical basis for Skw and Sym. Also
give a basis for deviatoric symmetric tensors.

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Introduction to Tensors 129

3. Let { pi } and {qi }, i = 1, 2, . . . , n, be sets of vectors in <n . Determine if the set { pi


qi }, i = 1, 2, . . . , n, is linearly dependent or independent if
(a) { pi } is linearly independent, and {qi } is linearly independent;
(b) { pi } is linearly independent, but {qi } is not;
(c) {qi } is linearly independent, but { pi } is not;
(d) { pi } is linearly dependent, and {qi } is also linearly dependent.

4. Let W Skw. Determine if the set { I, W, W 2 } is linearly dependent or linearly


independent. Deduce from this result and Eqn. (1.105a) if { I, Q, Q T }, where Q
Orth+ , is linearly dependent or independent.
5. Show that the decomposition of a tensor into a symmetric and skew-symmetric part
as given by Eqn. (1.33) is unique.

6. Show that tr RS = tr SR = tr R T S T = tr S T R T .
7. If S and W are symmetric and skew-symmetric tensors, respectively, and T is an
arbitrary second-order tensor prove that
 
1 T
S : T = S : TT = S : (T + T ) , (1.329)
2
 
1
W : T = W : T T = W : (T T T ) ,
2
S : W = 0. (1.330)

8. Prove the following:


(i) If A : B = 0 for every symmetric tensor B, then A Skw.
(ii) If A : B = 0 for every skew tensor B, then A Sym.
9. Using Eqns. (1.35) and (1.52) prove that

cof ( RS) = (cof R)(cof S),


det( RS) = (det R)(det S).

10. Using indicial notation prove that


1h i
tr (cof T ) = (tr T )2 tr ( T 2 ) , (1.331)
2
[(cof T )u] v = T (u T T v), (1.332)
cof (cof T ) = (det T ) T.

11. Show that an arbitrary tensor T cannot be represented as

a b + b c + c a,

by showing, in particular, that the identity tensor I cannot be represented in this way.

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130 Continuum Mechanics

12. Let T = u p + v q + w r. Show using Eqn. (1.60) that

cof T = (u v) ( p q) + (v w) (q r ) + (w u) (r p). (1.333)

Using Eqn. (1.64), deduce that

(u v) w + (v w) u + (w u) v = [u, v, w] I.
Using Eqn. (1.53), show that Eqn. (1.328) is recovered for the case [u, v, w] 6= 0
(Eqn. (1.328) holds even when [u, v, w] = 0). Note that the principal invariants of
T are

I1 = tr T = u p + v q + w r,
I2 = tr (cof T ) = (u v) ( p q) + (v w) (q r ) + (w u) (r p),
I3 = det T = [u, v, w] [ p, q, r ] ,

and that T 1 (when it exists) is given by (cof T ) T / det T.


13. Let i , i = 1, 2, , n, denote the eigenvalues of T for space-dimension n. Using
Eqn. (J.11), show that the eigenvalues of cof T are nj=1 j , i = 1, 2, . . . , n. For the
j 6 =i
case n = 3, deduce Eqn. (1.331), I2 (cof T ) = tr T (det T ) and I3 (cof T ) = (det T )2 .
Now consider the case when T is diagonalizable with distinct eigenvalues, so that
T = in=1 i Pi (thus, T I = in=1 (i )Pi ; tr Pi = e e = 1).
h Using Eqn. (J.11),
i
n n
show that cof T = i=1 j=1 j Pi , and cof ( T I ) = i=1 nj=1 ( j ) PiT .
n
 T
j 6 =i j 6 =i
Thus, for = 1 say, cof ( T 1 I ) = nj=2 ( j 1 )P1T , and tr cof ( T 1 I ) =
nj=2 ( j 1 ).
14. If T, R and S are second-order tensors, then show that
1 1
det T = tr [(cof T ) T T ] = T : cof T, (1.334)
3 3
det( R + S) = det R + cof R : S + R : cof S + det S, (1.335)
cof ( R + S) = cof R + cof S + [(tr R)(tr S) tr ( RS)] I (tr R)S (tr S) R T T

+ (SR)T + ( RS)T . (1.336)

By putting R = I in Eqn. (1.336), deduce that

cof ( I + S) = (1 + tr S) I S T + cof S. (1.337)

By putting S = u v in the above equation and using Eqn. (1.84), deduce that

cof ( I + u v) = (1 + u v) I v u.

Using Eqns. (1.335) and (1.337), show that for W Skw,


I W +ww
( I + W ) 1 = .
1 + | w |2

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Introduction to Tensors 131

15. Apply the CayleyHamilton theorem to W Skw, and find the axial vector of W 3 .
16. If w is the axial vector of W Skw, show that w [u W u] 0 u, with equality if
and only if (u, w) are linearly dependent.
17. Let W Skw, and let w be its axial vector. Using Eqn. (1.332), show that (cof T )w is
the axial vector of TW T T . If T Q Orth+ , then deduce using Eqn. (1.93) that Qw
is the axial vector of QW Q T . Also, find the axial vector of QW 3 Q T .
18. Show that a (not necessarily symmetric) tensor T commutes with every skew tensor
W if and only if T = I.
19. Either using the result of the previous problem, or independently, show that a (not
necessarily symmetric) tensor T commutes with every orthogonal tensor Q if and
only if T = I.
20. Show that a (not necessarily symmetric) tensor T commutes with every symmetric
tensor S if and only if T = I.
21. Show that (u, Tv) = 0 u, v that are mutually orthogonal, if an only if T = I.
22. Let a, b be arbitrary vectors, and u, v be unit vectors such that u v 6= 1.
(a) Show that a b is the axial vector of the skew tensor b a a b. It follows
that if b a = a b, then a b = 0, so that by Theorem 1.2.1, a and b are
linearly dependent.
(b) Using (a) and Eqn. (1.104), show that the unique orthogonal tensor that rotates
u into v about an axis perpendicular to u and v is given by

R = I + rv u s(u u + u v + v v).

where r = (1 + 2u v)/(1 + u v) and s = 1/(1 + u v).


23. If w is the axial vector of W Skw, then show using Eqns. (1.54) and (1.327) (or
Eqns. (1.60) and (1.90)) that cof W = w w. Deduce using Eqn. (1.273) that
2
cof W ( e | w | 1)
e = I+ w w.
| w |2
2
The determinant of the above tensor is etr (cof W ) = e|w| .
24. Let W 1 and W 2 be skew-symmetric tensors with axial vectors w1 and w2 . Show
using Eqns. (1.21a) and (1.87) that

W 1 W 2 = w2 w1 (w1 w2 ) I, (1.338)

from which it follows that W 1 W 2 W 2 W 1 = w2 w1 w1 w2 . By using the


result of Problem 22a (or, independently, by means of Eqns. (1.21)), we see that w1
w2 is the axial vector of W 1 W 2 W 2 W 1 . If w1 = w2 , where <, then, by
Eqn. (1.90), W 1 = W 2 , and hence W 1 W 2 = W 2 W 1 . Conversely, if W 1 W 2 = W 2 W 1 ,
then w1 w2 , the axial vector of W 1 W 2 W 2 W 1 , is 0, and by Theorem 1.2.1, it

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132 Continuum Mechanics

follows that w1 and w2 are linearly dependent. Thus, two skew-symmetric tensors
W 1 and W 2 commute if and only if their axial vectors are linearly dependent.
It also follows from Eqn. (1.338) that

W 1 W 2 + W 2 W 1 = w1 w2 + w2 w1 2(w1 w2 ) I.

The eigenvalues/eigenvectors of the above symmetric tensor are


w1 w
(|w1 | |w2 | w1 w2 ), + 2 ,
| w1 | | w2 |
w w
(|w1 | |w2 | + w1 w2 ), 1 2 ,
| w1 | | w2 |
2( w1 w2 ), w1 w2 .
One can now easily compute the principal invariants of W 1 W 2 + W 2 W 1 using these
eigenvalues.
25. For W Skw, find the polar decomposition of I + W in terms of W and its axial
vector w.
26. Prove that there is a one-to-one correspondence between Skw and members of Orth+
with no eigenvalue equal to 1,5 by showing that
(a) For every W Skw, Q = ( I W )1 ( I + W ) Orth+ . If w is the axial vector
of W, then for n = 3, show using Eqn. (1.66) and Problem 14 that the above
expression simplifies to
1 h i
Q= (1 + w w) I + 2W + 2W 2 , (1.339)
1+ww
with w/ |w| as the axis. In expanded form, if

0
W= 0 ,

then

1 + 2 2 2 2( ) 2( + )
1
Q= 2( + ) 1 2 + 2 2 2( ) .

1 + 2 + 2 + 2
2( + ) 2( + ) 1 2 2 + 2
5 For members of Orth+ with at least one eigenvalue equal to 1, the correspondence when the dimension n is

three, is given by
Q = I + 2W 2 ,
where W is of the form

0 sin cos sin
W= sin 0 cos cos .

cos sin cos cos 0

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Introduction to Tensors 133

By comparing Eqn. (1.104) with Eqn. (1.339), we see that sin 2 |w| /(1 +
|w|2 ) and cos = (1 |w|2 )/(1 + |w|)2 , which corresponds to letting [0, )
in Eqn. (1.104). If w1 / |w1 | and w2 / |w2 | are the axes of R1 and R2 , respectively,
then, from Eqn. (1.107) and the above expressions for cos and sin , the axis of
R2 R1 is e = w/ |w|, where

w = w1 + w2 w1 w2 .

(b) For every Q Orth+ such that 1 is not an eigenvalue of Q,


W = ( Q I )( Q + I )1 Skw.
Thus, the number of parameters required to define an orthogonal tensor is the num-
ber of independent components in a skew-symmetric matrix, namely n(n 1)/2; e.g.,
for n = 3, the number of parameters is 3.
27. If u is an arbitrary vector, show that there exists W Skw and a vector v (both
dependent on u) such that W v = u. Use this result to show that if W T 1 = W T 2 W
Skw, then T 1 = T 2 .
28. Show that a scalar-valued function : Skw < is isotropic if and only if there exists
a function : tr (W 2 ) < such that

(W ) = (tr W 2 ) W Skw.

The above result follows directly as a corollary of Theorem 1.6.13, or can be proved
independently by using the representation given by Eqn. (1.89), and mimicking the
proof of Theorem 1.6.12.
29. For S Sym, show using the spectral resolution of S or otherwise that

(u, Su) = 0 u V,

if and only if S = 0. It follows that (u, Tu) = 0 u V, if and only if T Skw.


30. A set of Cartesian axes is rotated about the origin to coincide with the unit vectors

3 1 3
e1 = ( , , ),
4 4 2
3 3 1
e2 = ( , , ),
4 4 2
1 3
e3 = ( , , 0).
2 2
Write down the rotation matrix corresponding to this rotation, and transform the
components of the tensor T with respect to {ei } given by

8 4 0
[ T ] = 4 3 1 .

0 1 2

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134 Continuum Mechanics

31. Using direct notation show that (also verify using indicial notation)

( a b)T = b a, (1.340)
( a b)(c d) = (b c) a d, (1.341)
( a b) : (u v) = ( a u)(b v), (1.342)
T ( a b) = ( T a) b, (1.343)
( a b ) T = a ( T T b ), (1.344)
T : ( a b) = a Tb. (1.345)

Use Eqn. (1.341) to show that for a symmetric S, the spectral decompositions of Sn
and S1 (when it exists) are

Sn = 1n e1 e1 + 2n e2 e2 + 3n e3 e3 ,
S1 = 11 e1 e1 + 21 e2 e2 + 31 e3 e3 .

32. The Fibonacci numbers satisfy the recurrence relation Fn+1 = Fn + Fn1 with F1 =
F2 = 1. In matrix form this recurrence relation can be written as
" # " #
Fn+1 Fn
=S ,
Fn Fn1

where S = 11 10 . Use the above matrix form to first express FnF+1 in terms of FF2 ,
     
n 1
and then use this to find an explicit expression for Fn in terms of the eigenvalues 1
and 2 of S.
33. Let B be an invertible tensor. Show that if n is an eigenvector of A, then Bn is an
eigenvector of BAB1 corresponding to the same eigenvalue. It follows that if Q
Orth+ and if n is an eigenvector of a tensor T, then Qn is an eigenvector of QTQ T
corresponding to the same eigenvalue.
34. If the eigenvalues of a symmetric tensor S are ordered such that 1 2 3 , show
using the spectral decomposition of S that
u Su u Su
1 = min , 3 = max .
u uu u uu

35. If T Lin and u V, show that

( Tu, Tu) ( T, T )(u, u).

(Hint: T T T is a symmetric, positive semi-definite tensor.)

36. If R Lin, show that R T R | R|2 (Hint: R T R is a symmetric, positive semi-definite


tensor). Use this result and the CauchySchwartz inequality to show that if R, S
Lin, then

| RS| | R| |S| .

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Introduction to Tensors 135

As a result of the CauchySchwartz inequality, we also have |( R, S)| | R| |S|. How-


ever, among the
 two quantities |( R, S)| and | RS|, either can be greater. For
 example,
let R = 11 20 ; if S = 10 11 , then |( R, S)| = 3 and | RS| = 2, while if S = 01 11 , then
   

|( R, S)| = 1 and | RS| = 2.


37. Show that Sn , S1 and (tr S) I + 2S are isotropic functions.

38. Show that for any orthogonal Q, the tensor QQ T is skew at each t.
39. Show using Eqn. (1.336) that if G ( T ) = cof T, then

DG ( T )[U ] = [tr Ttr U tr ( TU )] I + [ T T (tr T ) I ]U T + [U T (tr U ) I ] T T .


(1.346)

Alternatively, using Eqn. (1.60), show that

[ DG ( T )[U ]]ij = eimn e jpq Tmp Unq , (1.347)


Gij
= eikm e jln Tmn . (1.348)
Tkl
Equation (1.348) in direct tensorial notation, obtained using Eqns. (1.55), (1.226a),
(1.226b) and (1.233), is given by


(cof T ) = tr T [ I I T] ( I T T + T T I ) + ( I  T )T + ( T T  I )T.
T
(1.349)

If T C Sym, then, by virtue of Eqn. (1.241), we just pre- and post-multiply the
above result with S, and use Eqn. (1.175) to get

(cof C ) = tr C [ I I S] ( I C + C I ) + S [ I  C + C  I ] S. (1.350)
C
The indicial notation form of the above equation, obtained using Eqns. (1.161) and
(1.348), is (for the engineering form, see Eqn. (I.6))
 
1h i
(cof C ) = eikr e jls + eilr e jks + e jkr eils + e jlr eiks Crs . (1.351)
C ijkl 4

Finally, consider the case when C Sym is invertible, i.e., cof C = (det C )C 1 . Show
using Eqns. (1.236) and (1.240) that
h i
(cof C ) = det C C 1 C 1 S(C 1  C 1 )S . (1.352)
C

40. Let 1 ( T ) = tr ( T 1 T 1 ) = T T : T 1 , 2 ( T) = (det T ) T 1 : T 1 , and 3 ( T ) =


(cof T ) : (cof T ) = ( T : T )2 ( T T T ) : ( T T T ) /2. Using either Eqns. (1.228)(1.237)
or by means of the directional derivative, show that
1
= 2( T T )3 ,
T

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136 Continuum Mechanics

2
= ( T 1 : T 1 )cof T 2(det T ) T T T 1 T T ,
T
3
= 2( T : T ) T 2T T T T.
T

41. Prove that

(v) = v + v ,
(v) = ( v) + v (), (1.353)
(u v) = ( v)u (v)u ( u)v + (u)v, (1.354)
(u v) = (u)T v + (v)T u,
[(u v)w] = (u v)w + w [(v)T u] + w [(u)T v],
(u v) = u v + (u)v,
( T T v) = T : v + v ( T ), (1.355)
(T ) = T + T ,
(T ) = T + T ,
(Tv) = ( Tv) + ( Tv) ,
2 (u v) = u 2 v + v 2 u + 2u : v,
[ a ( b)] = ( a) ( b) a [ ( b)]. (1.356)

By integrating Eqn. (1.356) over a closed volume V with surface S show that
Z Z
( b) ( a n) dS = {( a) ( b) a [ ( b)]} dV.
S V

42. Show that

[(u)u] = u : (u)T + u [( u)],


u : (u)T = [(u)u ( u)u] + ( u)2 .

43. Show that


Z h i Z
u ( T T ) + (u) T dV = u ( T T n) dS.
V S

44. Show that < {0} is a commutative group with respect to multiplication.

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