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P R E FA C E .

TH E t e x t -b o o k s of t h e N a t i o n a l D ra w i n g C o u r s e a r e i n t e n d e d
p a r t i c u l a r l y for p u b l i c sc h ool t e a c h e rs b u t t h i s b ook i s w r i t t e n ,

n o t o n l y for p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s b u t for a l l a r t s t u d e n t s a n d
,

o t h e rs i n t e r es t ed i n a rt ed u cat io n . It s u p p l e me n t s t h e r s t
b o o k of t h e s e r i e s F r e e -H a n d D ra w i n g a n d s h o w s h o w t he
m e t h o d s e x p l a i n e d i n i t ma y b e a p p l i e d i n t h e s t u d y of lig h t
a n d s h ad e .

G o o d i n s t r u c t i o n in d r aw i n g m u s t be b a s e d u pon t h e prin
c i p les w h ic h u n d e rl i e t h e best i n art , a n d t h e r e fo r e a n y b o o k
w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d for t h e s t u d e n t a n d e l e m e n t a ry t e a c h e r m u s t
p r e s e n t t h e s e p r i n c i p le s , a n d mu s t al so s h o w h o w s t ud e n t s
ma y b e l e d t o s e e t h i n k, , and work independently .

T he book s F r e e -H and D raw ing Mec h an ical D raw ing


, ,

a nt Colo r S t udy fo r m a n ecessary part of t h e N a t i o n al


D raw i n g Co u rs e , a s t h e y c o n t a i n t h e l e s s o n s i n t h e s e d i ffe r e n t
s u bj e c t s w h i c h a r e t o b e g i v e n a c c o rd i ng t o t h e o rd e r s p e c i e d
L
Ou t l i n e s
'
i n t h e t eac h e r s of L esso n s . i g h t a n d S h ad e
c o n t a i n s n o l e s s o n s o r o t h e r w o r k c a l l e d for i n t h e p l a n of

s t udy of t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m for i t i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d w i s e t o
,

a t t emp t l ig h t a n d s h a d e in t h e p u b l i c s c h ool s u n t i l p u p i l s
h a v e g a i n e d m o r e a b i l i t y i n fr e e h a n d d r a w i n g t h a n t h e y now
-

g e n e r a l l y a c q u i r e b e l ow t he h i g h s c h o o l I n p r e s e nt i n g i n t h e
.
,

Ou t l i n e s of L e s s o n s w o r k i n o u t l i n e s i m p l y t h e a u t h o r d o e s

, ,

not wis h to be u n derstood as i n fa v o r of t h is work on l y o r ,


iv P /i E l A C E

'
v
.

as h o ld i n g t h e o pi n ion t h at l ig h t a n d s h ad e ca n n o t b e t au g h t
i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s w i t h ad v a n t a g e i n g r ad e s b e l o w t h e h i g h
sc h ool s . On t h e c o n t r a r y h e b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s s u bj e c t m a y
,

u n d e r s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s b e p r o p e r l y i n t ro d u c ed i n t o g r a m m a r
sc h ool s w h e n p upi l s a re abl e t o d ra w i n o ut l i n e w it h some
degree of fa c i l i t y and t rut h .

T h i s b o o k i s w r i t t e n for t h o s e w ho w i s h t o s t ud y t h e rs t
p ri n ci p l e s of l i g h t a n d s h ad e ,
and the d etail s c o nc e r n i n g
m ed i u m s ,
t ec h n iq u e ,
a n d t h e ma n y p o i n t s u p o n w h i c h t he

s t ude n t mus t be i n fo r m e d . It is w rit ten w it h t he h ope t h at


i t m a y a s s i s t s t u d e n t s a n d p a r t i c u l a rl y t h o s e w h o w o r k a t h o m e
, ,

t o s t u d y i n t e l l i g e n t l y s o t h a t a l l m a y go t o N a t u r e a s t h e r s t
,

a n d b e s t t e a c h e r an d b e p r e pa r ed t o d i s c o v e r i n
,
h er t h e t ru t h s
s h e u n fo l d s t o t h o s e w ho s t u dy her s e r i o u s l y .

M any fro m
'

of t he i l l u st rat io n s of t h is book a re s t ud e n t s
d r a w i n gs , a n d t h o u g h t h e y d o n o t r e p ro d u c e t he d ra w i n g s
p e r fe c t ly t h e y g i v e a n i d e a
, w h at ma y b e a c compl i s h e d b y
of

s t ud e n t s w ho a r e t a u g h t t o w o r k a r t i s t i c a ll y a n d t o d e p e n d ,

u p o n t h e m s e l v e s a n d u po n s t u d y of n at u re .

F ig s 4 3 4 4 a n d 58
.
, , a re by second y ear st u d en t s -
of the
M a s s a c h u s e t t s N o r ma l A rt S c h ool ; t he o t h e r c h a r c o al d r a w
i n gs of C h ap V . a re by s t ud e n t s of t he e n t e ri ng class of t he

s a m e s c h oo l a s i s a ls o F i g 6 2
, F igs 6 3 64 a n d 6 5 a re by . . .
, .

s t u d e n t s of t h e S c h o o l ofD r a w i n g a n d P a i n t i n g of t h e M u s e u m
of F i n e A rt s , B oston .

S u c h w o r k c a n s e l d o m be d o n e i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s u n t i l
cond it ion s a re v e r y d i ffe r e n t fr o m t h o s e n ow exist ing ; but
t eac h ers can give in st ruct ion of an a rtist ic n at u re w h ic h w il l b e
i n h a r mo n y w i t h t he w o rk of t he best art ist s and w h ic h w ill ,

p r epa re fo r w o r k s u c h a s t h a t i l l u s t ra t ed .
C 25 .
V

On l y t he es se n t i al s ca n b e giv en i n t h is book . T h ose


w h o w i s h t o go m o r e d e e pl y i n t o t h e o r i e s a n d pr i n c i p l e s w ill
n d ma n y i n t e r e s t i n g bo o k s . A mo n g t h es e t he wo rks of S ir

j os h ua R ey nolds a re p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e a s h e i s a p ro m i n e n t
,

e x a m p le of a g reat a rt i s t w ho h as al so w ri t t en u pon a rt an d ,

a ll a rt st ud en t s a re a d vis ed to st udy h i s w ri ti n gs w it h care .

T he a u t h o r d e s i r e s t o e x p r e s s h i s o b l i g a t i o n s t o Ro b e r t W .

V on noh G A , . . H ill ,
a nd A my S w a i n w h o h a v e k i n d l y r e ad t h e
,

p r o o fs h e e t s a n d fu r n i s h e d h i m wit h ma n y v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s .

A N S ON K . C R OS S .

B o sr o x , O ct o be r 1 2. 1 3 96 .
L IGH T A ND SH A DE .

CH AP T E R I .

C H I A R O-O S C U R A , OR L I GH T A N D SH A D E .

Ch i a r o osc u r a wo rd c h i aro os c u ra m e a n s t h e a r t of
'
-
.
l he -

p ro d u ci n g t h e ap pe aran c e of re al i ty a n d of s o l id i ty by a d raw in g
w h ic h re p res en ts t h e d i ffere n t l ig h ts an d d a r k s s ee n in n at ure .

S i g h t du e t o ed u c a t i on We se e w h a t we h av e b ee n ed uca ted to
.

s e e T h e i nfa n t re ac h es o ut h i s h an d t o grasp t h e m oon an d e ve n to


.
,

a d u l ts ap p e ara n ces are so de cep t i ve t h at w h en t h e m oo n is r i s in g o r


t h e s u n i s s etti ng i t i s d i f
,
c ul t ofte n to b el i eve t h at t h e y are n o t j us t
b eyon d so m e h il l i n t h e m i d d l e d i st an ce a n d if t h e d i sta n c es w ere n ot
,

xe d b y sc i en c e t h ey wo u l d b e co n t i n u a l ly un d e r d i sc u ss ion T h e re .

i s n o c h an c e fo r d is c uss i on con ce rn i ng t h e f act s b ut upo n q uest ion s ,

of a rt s c i e n ce i s of l i tt l e a ss i st a n ce H ence di f. fe ren t peop l e v i e w


i ng t h e s a m e t h i ngs wi l l g i ve v e ry c on tr adi ctory repo rts of w h at t h ey
s ee an d e a c h w i l l b e pos it i v e t h a t w h at h e h as s e en i s w h at a l l
,

s h o u l d se e a n d a l l t h a t c a n b e seen .

S i g h t i s i mper fec t . A ny on e w i l l b e s u rp ri sed to d i scov er h o w


l i tt l e h e re al l y see s e v e n of t h e obj ec t s abo u t h i m every d ay i f h e
, ,

w i l l a tt e m p t to d e s c r ib e f ro m m em o ry e i t h e r by word s or b y m a k i ng
,

a n y ki n d of a d raw i n g t h e facts con ce rn in g a n y b u il d i n g w h i c h i s


,

s ee n d a i l y On com p ar iso n of h i s des c ri p t i o n o r d raw in g w i t h t h e


.

b ui l d i n g h e w i l l b e a ston i s h ed to d i s co ve r t h at h e h a s n eve r real l y


,

se e n t h e b ui l d i n g for h e c a n n o t d e sc r ib e co rrect l y e v en i ts p ri n c ip a l
,

p arts ; a n d as fo r d e t a i l s m a ny o f t h e mos t i m p or tan t h e n ev e r s e es


,

u n t i l h e c om p a res t h e b u i l d i n g w i t h h i s d es c ri ptio n .

S i g h t d u e t o memor y T h e ac t of se e i n g d ep en d s up on t h e
.

b r a i n m o re t h a n u po n t h e eye fo r si g h t s en s at i on s a re r efe rre d


,
2 S /I A D E .

by t h e m i n d t o k no w l edge p re v i ousl y ob ta i n ed co n ce rn i n g s i m i l ar
sen s at ion s . S e ei n g i s t h u s l a rge ly a m at t er of m e mo ry an d s ig h t ,

s en sa t io n s are r e ad n o t b y c a refu l s t ud y of t h e fac ts of t h e i m age


,

i n t h e eye b ut by m e an s of t h e k n o wl ed g e ga in ed fro m al l so u r ces


,

con c er n i n g o b j e c ts w h i c h h av e o cc as i o n e d s i m i l ar sen s at ion s The .

n at ura l eye i s a n ex ac t i n s trum en t w h i c h re co rd s t ru ly t h e app ar en t


for m an d col o r of a n o b j ec t T h e s a m e i m a g e s a re form ed i n a l l
.

n or m al eye s w h i c h v ie w a ny o bj e ct f ro m t h e s a m e pos it io n b u t t h es e ,

i m age s w il l b e read d i f feren t ly b y m i n d s d i ffe rin g i n c ap ac i ty an d t ra i n


i ng ; a nd of a d o z en d i fferen t p eop l e w h o se e t h e s am e obj e cts n o two ,

are l i k el y to agre e i n t h e i r d es c ri pt ion of t h em T h e p erson w h o h as .

n o t st ud ie d d raw in gs l oo k s a t a ci rc l e an d w a s a c i rc l e regard l ess of ,

t h e p os i t i on of t h e c i rc l e h e l oo k s a t a w h i te obj ec t an d see s w h i te
'

of on e u n v a ry i ng v a l u e h e l oo k s at a t re e a n d s e e s gree n w h e n t h e
e y e m ay r eco rd not a s i ngl e s po t o f green T h e u n c ul t i v ate d eye
.

s ee s obj ec ts i n o utl i ne a n d of t h e i r l oc al co lo r a n d e ve n t h o se of ,

art i s t i c t e m p e ram e n t an d ed uc at ion re q u i re m u c h s t udy to r eal i z e


t h at a ny obj ec t o f on e c olo r appe ars of v e ry d i ffe ren t col ors n on e of ,

w h i c h ma y b e t h e loc a l col o r .

Ob j ec t s a re seen b y c ont r a st s of l i g h t a nd da r k Obj ec t s ar e .

s e en t h ro ug h t h e ac t i on of l ig h t w h i c h t h e y re ect t o t h e e y e i n d i f
fe re nt d egre es an d of d i f fere nt co l o rs an d ev e ry obj e ct app e ar s
,

l ig h te r on on e s id e d a r k e r on t h e op p o si t e s i d e a n d t h ro w s a s h ad o w
, ,

upo n som e ot h e r obj ec t Ob j ects a re vi s i bl e b ec a u s e of co n tra st s


.

of l i g h t an d d ar k e ac h o ne ap pear i n g e i t h er l ig h t e r o r d arke r t h a n
,

i ts s ur ro un d i ng s o r a p peari n g l i g h te r t h an t h e ba c k gro u n d i n on e
,

p a r t an d d a rke r i n an ot h e r I ft wo obj ect s of t h e s am e col or re e c t


.

l ig h t eq u a l ly to t h e e y e t h e y ap pe ar of t h e sam e va l ue a n d i f a n y p ar t
, ,

of on e i s i n f ron t of t h e ot h e r i ts o ut l i n e i n t h i s pa rt c a n n o t b e s een
. .

A monoc h r ome T h es e con t ra st s of l i h t d ar k a n d co l or m ay


.
g , ,

b e repres en t ed b y co n tras ts o f l ig h t an d d a r k u s in g s i m pl y on e c ol o r , .

S uc h a d rawi n g o r p ai n t i ng i s c al l ed a W WW/1 1 1 mm an d m ay b e o f ,

a n y col or t h o u g h bl ac k o r som e da r k n e ut ra l c o l or i s ge n e ral l y u s ed


, .

A m on oc h ro m e i s a l ig h t a n d s h ad e d r awi n g w h et h e r i t i s m ad e ,

w i t h o i l or w a ter co l or o r col ored c rayon a n d an y d ra wi n g re p re ,

se n t i ng v al ue s s i m pl y i s a l i g h t a n d s h a d e d r aw i n g w h et h e r m ad e ,

w i t h t h e b r u s h c h a rcoal c rayon p en a n d i n k or ot h er m ed i u m
. , . . .
CH /A /i O OS C U A A [ J G/{ T SH A D E
'
A A D
, .

A l l obj ec ts i n n at ure a r e col o re d a n d rep res en t in g t h es e co lo rs by


,

b l ac k a n d w h i t e o r by d i ffer en t to n es of an y o n e p igm e n t gi ve s a
co n v en t io n al t re at m e n t w h i c h t h o u g h fa r s up e rio r to out l i n e m ay
, , ,

f a i l i n ex p res s in g al l t h e fa ct s ob s e rv ed to do w h ic h ev e n co lo r i s
,

s o m e t i m e s i n s u f c i en t ; b ut a l ig h t a n d s h ad e d raw i ng i s capab l e of
e xp re ss i n g m uc h co n c ern i ng a n y obj ect I t i s m o re s at i sfacto ry
.

t h an o ut l in e b ec a u s e t h e s h a do w o n an y obj e ct v ari es wi t h t h e fo rm
,

of t h e obj e c t an d t h u s de sc r ib es i t ; a nd a l so b ec au se t h e ca s t
,

s h adow s v ary b o t h w it h t h e for m of t h e obj ect w h i c h c ast s t h em an d


w i t h t h at of t h e obj ec t w h i c h rec e i v es t h em so t h at t h e y d e sc ri b e ,

t h e fo r m s of bo t h T h e s h ado w an d c as t s h adow w i l l oft en s h ow


.

f acts of fo rm w h i c h t h e o utl i n e o r co n to u r of t h e obj ect do es n ot


s h ow at al l .

Ef fec t s of di fferent l i g h t s Obj ect s are s ee n u n d er very d i ffe ren t


.

i l l u m i n at ion s ; t h ey m ay b e expo sed to d i re c t l ig h t e i t h er s un l ig h t , ,

m oo n l ig h t o r a n y arti ci a l l i g h t a n d t h i s l ig h t m a y b e st ro ng o r
, ,

w ea k ; o r t h ey m ay b e se en u n d e r t h e d i ffu se d l ig h t of a gra y d a y ,

or of a roo m w i t h s h a d e d w i n d ows o r of a s ta rl ig h t n ig h t T h e ,
.

d i re c t l i g h t m ay c om e fro m o n e so urc e o r fro m s eve r al an d t h e d if ,

f use d l i g h t m ay b e s tro ng or w e ak t h oug h to a le ss ext en t t h a n d i rec t


,

l ig h t I t i s ev id en t t h at t h e e ffect s p ro duc ed by t h ese d i ffe re n t l ig h t s


.

m us t b e so n u m e ro us a n d so v a r i e d t h at t o fo rm u l ate r u l es fo r t h e
p ro d u c t io n of l ig h t an d s h ad e d raw i n gs i s i m po ss ib l e B u t by s t udy .

o f t h e e ffe cts c e rt ai n p ri n c ip l es m ay b e d i scov ered w h i c h w i l l h el p


t h e st ud e n t of l ig h t a n d s h ad e j us t as t h e s t u d y of t h e p r i n c ip l es
of fr e e h a n d p e rs p ec t i v e a i ds i n t h e s t ud y of o ut l i n e d r aw i n g .

T H E S PH ER E .

S ph ere i llu st ra t es a ll li g h t a nd sh a de c ont ra st s


W e wi l l st u d y .

t h e e ffec ts of su n l ig h t b y m e a n s of t h e sp h e re w h i c h i s w e l l ad apt e d ,

to p res en t a l l t h e l ig h t a n d s h a d e e ffe c t s v i s ib l e i n n at u re .

S u nli g h t effect s T h e r ays of s u n l ig h t are st ra ig h t an d d i v erge


. ,

fro m t h e su n b ut i n t h e st udy of s h adows a re gen e ral l y co n s i d e red


,

as p a ral l el . One h a l f of t h e s u rf ac e of t h e sp h er e w i l l t h e n re c ei v e
d i re ct r ays of l i g h t a n d t h e o t h er h a l f w i l l rec ei v e n o d i re ct r ays
,
.

T h e h a l fw h i c h re ce i v e s t h e d i re c t ra y s ap p e a rs l ig h t an d i s c al l e d
. ,
SH A D E
'

A A D
4 .

t h e [lg /1 1 t h at w h ic h rec e i ves n o d i rec t r a y s ap p e ars d a r k i n co n t ra s t


,

wi t h t h e l ig h t an d i s c al l ed t h e
,
T h e l ig h t an d t h e s h ado w
a re sep a r ated b y a gre a t c i rc l e up o n t h e sp h e re w h i c h i s p e rp e n
d i c u la r to t h e r ays of l ig h t T h e po in ts i n t h e c i rc u mfe ren c e of
.

t h i s c i rcl e a re t h e po i n ts u pon t h e s urfa ce of t h e s p h e re a t w h i c h


t h e rays of l ig h t are t ange n t to t h e sp h ere T h e se ta n ge n t ray s .

fo rm a c y l in d r i c a l s u rfac e w h i c h ext en d s b e lo w t h e sp h e re t i l l i t
i n terse ct s t h e gro u n d o r ot h e r s ur
face T h e pa rt of t h i s ot h e r s urface
.

w i t h i n t h e cyl i n d ri ca l s u rface re
c e i v e s n o d i rect l i g h t a n d i s c al l ed

t h e my! A n y obj e ct ex
posed t o d i rec t l i g h t h as a l ig h t
s id e an d a s h ado w si d e an d t h ro ws
A
,

a c a st s h ado w .

F o r . 1 .

D i v i d i ng l i ne ofl i g h t a nd s h a de .

T h e above fac ts ar e s h ow n b y Figs 1 an d Fig i i s a s i d e


.
a
.

v i e w represen ti n g t h e gro un d by A B t h e h ig h e st a n d l o w e s t r ay s
,

o f l ig h t b y 1 6 a n d A t h e l ig h t by L a n d t h e s h ado w b y S T h e grea t
)
, , .

c i rcl e w h i c h s epa rat es l ig h t fro m s h ado w i s rep re sen t e d by C D and ,

i s c al l ed t h e li r a /mg li ne i f fi g /I fmm s/zm/c Ob s e rv a


( .

t i on of a w h i te sp h ere w h i c h i s exp osed to s u n l ig h t


w il l m a k e t h es e poi n ts p l a i n B u t i f F ig i i s n o t
. .

un d ers tood l et t h e st ud en t rol l a s h eet of p ap er i n to


,

a t u b e w h i c h w i l l j us t re ce i ve a b al l o r ot h e r s p h eri c a l
o b j ec t H e w i l l n d t h a t t h e cyl in d e r
.

w i l l to uc h t h e s p h e re i n a c i rcl e w h i c h

i s at r ig h t an gl e s to t h e ax i s of t h e c y li n
F o
r . z.
d e r an d w h i c h app e a rs a stra ig h t l i n e
w h en t h e c y l i n d er i s p l ac ed a s i n Fig 1 . .

Fig 2 rep res en ts t h e sp h e re w h e n i t i s b el o w t h e e y e w it h t h e


.

e l l i p s e of c as t s h ad o w v i s i bl e a n d so t h at t h e ci rcl e sep a ra t i n g l ig h t
.

fro m s h ado w a ppea rs an el l i pse .

L i g h t a nd s h a dow on t h e moon fa m i l i a r obj ec t w h i c h i l l us


.

t rates t h e a p pea ran c e of t h e d i v i d i ng l i n e of l i g h t a n d s h ad e o n t h e


s p h ere i s t h e m oon of w h i c h h a l f t h e s u rfac e i s l i g h t ed b y t h e s un s
.
'

r ays an d t h e ot h e r h al f i s i n s h a dow T h e m oo n i s co n s t a n t l y
.
E l l /A A O 05 1 1
'
L ]G l / 7 A A 1 ) S i /A If .

c h a ngi n g i t s po s i t i o n w i t h refe ren c e to t h e e art h a n d t h e su n h en c e


i ts c i rc l e w h i c h s e p a r at es l ig h t fro m d ark i s bei n g s een at d i ffe r
, ,

e n t an gl es a n d t h e d i f
, fe ren t p h a s e s of t h e m oo n resu l t .

P h ot og ra ph s do not g i v e sh a rp di v i di ng l i nes of l i g h t a nd sh a de .

I n F ig 3 w h i c h i s m ad e fro m a p h otogr ap h of a w h i te sp h er e
.
,

w i t h a s moo t h s urf ace t h e re i s n o s h a rp d i v i d i ng l i n e of l i g h t an d


,

s h ad e . T h e l ig h t c a m e f ro m a wi n d o w fac i n g n ort h an d we m us t ,

n o w con s i d e r t h e c ause for t h e d i ffe re n c e b etwee n Figs 2 an d 3 . .

R e ect i ons I n o rd er to d et e rm i n e t h i s w e m us t rem em b e r t h at


.

F rc . 3 . F rom P hotog p h
ra .

l i g h t i s refl ect ed fro m a n y s m oo t h po l i s h ed s u rfa c e s uc h a s t h a t o f


,

a m i r ro r so t h at t h e a n gl e of i n c i d e n ce i s eq u a l to t h e an gl e of
,

re e ct i on an d a p erfe c t i m a ge of t h e obj ec t i s p rod uced Very l i t tl e


, .

of t h e l ig h t fal l i n g o n t h e s u rfac e i s ab so rb ed by i t a n d a l m o st ,

al l t h e rays are reg ul a rl y re e cted so t h a t t h e i m age i s a l mo s t a s


b rig h t a s t h e o bj e c t I ft h e m i rror i s n o t q ui te s moo t h o r reg ul ar a
.
.

d i s tor t e d i m a ge w i l l b e p ro d u c ed a n d a s t h e roug h n es s of t h e s ur
.

fa ce i s i n c re as ed i ts po we r to re ec t l i g h t d ec re a s es ; mo reo ve r t h e
,

l i g h t i s re e cte d i r regul a rl y so t h at n o i m a ge i s p ro d u c ed
, .

Ef fect depends u pon posi t i on T h e d i ffe ren c e i n t h e a pp ea r an ce


.

of t h e d i ffere n t p a r t s of t h e sp h e re of Fig 3 i s c a us ed e n t i re ly by t h e
.

d i ffe ren t po si t i o n s of t h e v a ri ou s p a rts of i ts su rfa ce wi t h refe re n c e t o


6 A l ?)
l

t h e l ig h t T h e l ig h t e s t pa rt i s n o t a s i s co m mo n l y s t a ted t h e pa rt
.
, ,

w h ic h re ce i v es t h e m os t l ig h t t h a t i s t h e p a rt a t rig h t a n g l e s to t h e
, ,

d i rect i on of t h e l i g h t b u t i s t h e p a rt w h i c h i s s i t uat ed so a s to refl ec t


,

t h e l ig h t m ost d i rect l y to t h e e y e T h e d arkest p ar ts of t h e s u rfa c e


.

a re t h o se w h i c h se n d to t h e e y e n o n e of t h e d i rec t ra y s an d t h e
fewest ra y s t h at st ri ke t h e s urfac e aft e r b ei n g re fl ec t ed f ro m s om e
o t h er s u rface .

T h e h i g h li g h t T h e su rfac e of t h e sp h ere i s con t i n ual l y c h a ng


.

ing . One poi n t i s s i t u ate d s o t h at i t r e f l e c t s t h e ray w h i c h i t


r e ce i v e s d i re ctl y to t h e e y e T h i s po in t gl i tte rs an d i s c a l l ed t h e
.
,

b ig /1 lig /r/ o r g /[f/cr A way fro m t h i s poi n t t h e ray s a re re ec ted


l ess d i re ct ly to w ard t h e e y e a n d t h e fa rt h er fro m t h e h ig h l i g h t a
,

po i nt i n t h e l ig h t i s s i t uated t h e fart h e r f ro m t h e eye i t refl ec t s t h e


,

l ig h t i t rece i v es .

T h e h i g h l i g h t i s t h eo re t i c a l l y a poi n t w h en s een w i t h on e eye


a nd w i t h d i rec t s u n l i g h t an d if t h e s p h ere i s o ne w h os e s u rfa ce
,

i s a perf e c t m i rro r Wi t h a ny st u d i o o r o t h e r l ig h t a nd t h e us u al
.

c on d i t i o n s t h e h i g h l ig h t i s a g u re o f d e n i t e fo rm w h i c h i s t h e
.
,

r e fl e c t io n o f t h e w i nd o w o r so u rc e of l i g h t and w i t h i n i t w i l l b e foun d
,

t h e im a g e of a l l t h e b ar sw h i c h d i vid e t h e w in do w I f t h e s p h e re i s .

n ot pol i s h e d t h e re w il l b e i n s te ad of t h e h ig h l ig h t a spot w h os e s i z e
.

d ep e nd s u pon t h e s i z e of t h e w i ndo w o r l ig h t a nd w h i c h i s b rig h t er ,

t h a n a ny o t h e r pa rt of t h e S p h e re H en c e we h a ve a g l i t t er poi n t o r
.

i t s eq u i va l e nt on t h e s u rfa ce of ev ery s p h ere .

T h e h a lf li g h t T h e po i n t s i n t h e c i rcl e w h i c h sepa r ate l ig h t


f ro m s h ado w d o not re flect a ny d i rec t ray s to t h e e y e fo r t h ese ra y s .

a re t an g e nt to t h e S p h ere a t t h e s e p oi n t s w h i c h s i n c e t h e y re ce i v e n o
, ,

d i rec t l i g h t m ust app ea r v er y d a r k


, From t h e h i g h l ig h t toward
.

t h e s e poi nt s t h ere i s a gra d u a l d i m in u t i on i n t h e appa r e n t b rig h t n es s


of t h e sp h er e a nd at t h e s e poi nt s t h e l ig h t s u rfac e c eas es T h e
.
.
.

grad at i on i s v ery grad u a l t h ro u g h t h e l arger pa rt of t h e l ig h t an d i s ,

m ost not ic ea b l e n ea r t h e d i vi d i ng l i n e of l i g h t a n d s h ad e : t h i s l a st
"

p art i s c al l ed t h e Mi l/ li g h t
T h e r e ec t ed li g h t T h e st ron g es t p a rt of t h e s h ado w u p on
t h e sp h ere i s t h e c i rcl e w h i c h sepa rat es t h e l i g h t from t h e s h a d ow .

i e t w e e n t h i s ci rcl e a nd t h e o u tl i n e of t h e s p h e re a pa rt of t h e s h a d o w
is co ns id e ra b l y l ig h t e r t h an t h e re s t of t h e s h ad ow T h i s i s c a use d .
'

U lt A A Z)
'

by l ig h t w h i c h i s r e e c ted to t h e s p h e r e fro m t h e obj ec t o n w h ic h i t


r e st s o r fro m o t h e r obj ec ts a n d i s c a l l ed r e x /ml z
, z/i f T h i s re e cted
e .

l i g h t i s al w ay s p rese n t a n d t h e e n t i re s h a do w p art of t h e s p h ere


,

w h i c h i s v i s i b l e m u s t rece i v e a n d s en d to t h e ey e som e re ected


l ig h t ; we re t h is n ot t h e c as e a l l d et a i l s of t h e s h ad o w s i de w o ul d b e
a s i n v i s ib l e a s t h e d ark p ar t of t h e m oo n T h e p ower o f re ect e d
.

l ig h t i s s h o wn at t h e t i m e of n e w m oo n w h e n al l t h e s urface of t h e
m oo n i s v i s ib l e ; a s mal l p a r t b e in g br ig h t l y i l l u m i n ed by t h e d i re c t
r ay s of t h e s u n a n d t h e l a rge r p a rt fa i n t l y l ig h ted b y t h e ra y s
,

r e ec te d to i t fro m t h e e art h a n d t h e n s e n t b ack to e ar t h aga i n .

-
I f t h e s urfa c e of t h e S p h ere i s pol i s h ed a n d a b r ig h t obj ec t i s
pl ac e d n e ar t h e s h ado w s id e i t w i l l b e re e c te d b rig h t an d s h arp ly
,

d ef i n ed ; an d up o n a sp h e re of p o l i s h ed m et al t h e re ec t io n s wo ul d
b e so b r ig h t a s t o d es t roy t h e e ffec t of l ig h t an d s h ad ow W h en t h e .

s urf ac e i s n o t p o l is h ed o r n o t ev en sm oot h t h e re e cted l i g h ts a re ,

m u c h we ake r a n d m a y ofte n b e h a rd l y n ot i c ed .

T h e ca st sh a dow T h e c a s t s h ad ow i n Fi g 3 i s s ee n to b e d a r k
. .

a n d c l e arl y d e n ed i ts o utl i n e b ei n g s h a rpe r n e ar t h e sp h e re t h a n


,

f ar t h e r away T h e c as t s h ado w l ik e t h e s h ad ow i s d a rke r i n p a rts


.
, ,

an d l ig h te r i n o t h er p a rts o w i ng to t h e u n e q u al a mo u n ts of re e cted
,

l ig h t w h i c h t h es e p a rts re ce iv e a n d t h e n re ect t o t h e eye .

P h ot og r a ph s not a lw a y s t ru e t o na t u r e P h otograp h s d o n o t
.

gi v e t h e v al u es a n d re l at i on s w h i c h t h e e y e s ees b ut t h ey often ,

gi v e t h e p ri n c i p al e ffe ct s s o n e ar l y as t h e eye sees t h e m t h a t t h e


s tud e n t m ay l e ar n m u c h fro m t h e m i n co n n e c ti on w i t h st ud y of t h e
obj ec ts t h e m s e l ves an d t h u s m an y of t h e i l l u strat ion s of t h i s b oo k
,

are fro m p h o togr ap h s A l l w h o s tud y t h es e n o tes a re ad vi sed t o c ar e


.

fu l ly s tu dy s i m i l ar obj ec t s p l a ced so t h at t h ey a re l ig h te d a s i n t h e
i l l ust r at io n s
. T h e d i r ect i on of t h e l ig h t a n d t h e s i z e of t h e w i n d o w
fro m w h i c h i t com e s i n ue n c e t h e e ffec t so s t ro ngl y t h at s eve ral
e xp eri m e n t s m a y b e n ec es s a ry to ob t a in e ffe ct s s i m i l ar to t h os e of
t h e gu res .

TH E CU BE .

G en era l ly t h re e fa ce s of t h e c ub e a re i n l ig h t a n d t h re e i n s h ado w ,

an d s i x edges s ep ar a t e l ig h t f ro m s h ado w an d for m t h e d i v i d i n g l in e


o f l i g h t a n d s h ad e .
8
'

L / G /l f A N !)

Fig 4 rep resen ts a w h i te c u b e p l ac ed a g a i n st a g ray b ac k g ro u n d


.

an d a p iece of c h a rcoa l res t i n g agai n st t h e c ub e T h e l i g h t co m e s .

fro m abov e b e h i n d a n d at t h e l eft of t h e s pect ato r


, , .

T h e li g h t T h e fron t l ig h t face is l i g h test at t h e fro n t e dge a n d


.

grad ua l l y bec om es d ar k e r as i t reced e s : i t i s l i g h t er t h an t h e to p


face . I f t h e c ub e i s p erfec tl y cl e an an d i ts fac es a re eq u a l l y w h it e ,

a n d t h e l i h t com es f rom s u c h a d i rec t ion t h at t h e to p fac e a n d t h e


g
fron t fac e re ect i t eq u al l y to t h e ey e t h ese fa c e s w i l l ap p e a r e q u al l y
,

F ro m l lm t u g m p h .

l ig h t an d t h e ed g e s epa ra ti ng t h em w il l b e i n v i s i bl e
, I f t h e to p .

face re ect s m ore l ig h t to t h e eye t h a n t h e f ron t fa c e i t w i l l ap p ea r ,

t h e l i g h te r
.

T h e s h a dow T h e s h ad ow s i d e of t h e c ub e i s d a r k e r t h an t h e
.

fore g ro u n d a n d b ac k g rou n d l i g h te r t h a n t h e c a s t s h ad o w a nd m u c h
, ,

l i g h t er t h a n t h e c h a rco al i t i s da rk est a t t h e fro n t ed ge a n d


g rad ual l y b eco m e s l i g h ter a s i t reced es I t i s a l so d a r k e r n e a r t h e
.

bot tom w h e re t h e d ar k ca st s h ado w re e cts d a r k .

T h e c a s t s h a dow Th e c a st s h ad o w i s d a rk es t a n d s h a rpes t
.

n ea re s t t h e c ub e T h e c h arco al see m s t o c as t a s h a do w w i t h i n t h a t
.

of t h e c ub e ; b u t as t h e c h arco a l i s w h ol l y wi t h i n t h e s h ad o w of t h e
c u b e a nd rec ei ve s n o d i rec t rays i t i s ev i d en t t h a t t h e d a r k e n i n g of
,
O L /G l / T A A Z)
'

it i s fro m t h e h ig h l ig h t t h e fart h e r fro m t h e eye i t re ec ts t h e l ig h t


,

w h i c h i t rece i ves ; an d n al l y w e r ea c h t h e s h ado w el e m en ts w h i c h ,

sep ar at e t h e l ig h t f ro m t h e s h ado w T h e r ays of s u n l ig h t ar e t an ge n t


.

to t h e s urfa c e i n t h es e e l e m en ts w h i c h rec e i v i n g n o d i r ec t l i g h t
, ,

ap p e ar v e ry d a rk ; t o wa rd t h e h i g h l ig h t f ro m t h ese e l e m en t s w e h av e
w i t h s un l ig h t a b ro ad an d s i m pl e m ass of l ig h t m arked by t h e gl i t t e r ,

FI G .
5 . F ro m Ph t g p h
o o ra .

e l em en t s a nd b y t h e h al f l ig h t w h i c h gi ves t h e gra d at io n i n to t h e
s h ado w an d w h i c h i s m os t m ar k e d n e ar t h e s h ad o w e l e m en t s .

Gr a da t i on i n t h e l i gh t. W i t h a st ud io l ig h t t h e gr ad a t ion fro m
l ig h t to d ark i s m o re grad u al a n d fro m t h e h ig h l i g h t we n d a
,

grad ua l l y i n creas i ng t on e w h i c h in creases in st ren gt h n ea r t h e


s h adow el em e n t an d grad u al ly b eco m es s h ado w W e n d al so i n .

an y l ig h t grad at io n f ro m t h e gl i tter e l em en t i n op p os i t e d i rec t ion s


, .

so t h at at t h e con to ur el e m en t i n t h e l ig h t t h e to n e i s d arke r t h a n at
a ny el e m e n t bet wee n t h e con to ur an d t h e g l i tt e r el em en t The .
Ol t
[ J G /I T
'

A A D SII A D E .
I I

d rawi n g i m pe rfec tl y re p rese n t s t h i s gr ad at i o n i n w h i c h t h ere i s n o


s ud d en c h an ge f ro m o n e e l e m e n t t o t h e n ext .

T h e b as e i n l ig h t w i l l gen era l l y ap pe ar d a rkest w h e re i t co m es i n


c o n t r ast w i t h t h e l ig h te s t p a rt of t h e c u rve d s urface .

Gra da t i on i n t h e sh a dow .T h e s h ado w el e m e n t re cei ves n o


d i re c t l ig h t a n d ge n e r a l l y i t re c e i ve s l es s r e ec t ed l i g h t t h an t h e
,

o t h e r e l e m en t s i n t h e s h ado w s o t h a t t h e s h adow i s ge n er a l ly d ar ke st
,

at t h e s h a d o w e l e m e n ts T h e co n to u r el e m e nt o n t h e s h ado w s id e i s
.

ge n e r a l ly d e c i d e d l y l ig h te r t h an t h e s h ado w el e men t a n d b etwe e n ,

t h es e el em e n t s t h e s h ad o w i s ge n e ra l ly a ffec te d by re ected l ig h t s
s o t h at i ts l ig h t es t p a r t i s be twe en t h e co n tour an d t h e s h ado w
e l e m en t.

T h e ca st sh a dow . I n Fig 5 t h e c as t s h ado w is d a rke r up on


.

t h e v er t i c a l t h an u po n t h e h o ri zo n t a l s urfac e al t h o ug h i t m ay be t h e
,

o t h e r w ay w h e n t h e l ig h t com es fro m a n o t h er d i re ct io n T h o ug h n o t .

s h ow n b y t h e p h otograp h a s m al l p ar t of t h e c as t s h adow n eares t


,

t h e cyl i n d er wa s t h e d arkest p a r t of t h e c a s t s h ad o w T h e con to u r .

of t h e c as t s h ado w i s c om po se d of s tr aig h t l i n es w h i c h a re t h e ,

s h ad o ws of t h e t wo s h adow el e m en ts of t h e cyl i n d e r an d of a c u rv e ,

w h i c h i s t h e s h ad o w of h a l f t h e c i rc ul a r edge of t h e u pp er b ase .

S h a dow s soft en a s t h ey recede from t h e object T h e soften i n g


.

o f t h e s h ado w as i t re ced es f rom t h e obj e c t w h i c h c ast s i t i s d ue i n


, ,

a ll t h e gur es t o t h e fac t t h at t h e lig h t co m es f ro m a w i nd ow s ev era l


fee t i n w id t h . Fro m e ac h s i d e o f t h i s w i n do w t h e rays p as s t a ngen t

to t h e obj e c t s o t h a t t h ey c ross e ac h o t h e r a n d p rod uc e a s er i es of
s h ado ws o v e rl a pp i n g ea c h ot h e r a n d w h i c h i n c re ase gr ad u al l y t h e
,

s t ren gt h of t h e s h ad o w un t i l i ts f ul l d ep t h i s fo un d b eyon d t h e
b ou n d ary of t h e s u r fac e fro m w h i c h t h e cyl i n d e r cu ts off p a rt b u t
n o t al l t h e r ays w h i c h e n t e r t h e w i n do w N ea r t h e o bj e ct t h is p a r
.

t i al o r soft s h a d o w co v e rs v ery l i tt l e s p ac e a n d at t h e o bj ect p ra c t i


,

c al l y n o n e s o t h a t t h e c as t s h a d o w w h e r e i t b egi n s i s v ery kee n an d


,

b e com e s s ofte r a s i t rec ede s un t i l oft e n wi t h a s t u d io l ig h t i t m ay n ot


,

e xp res s t h e f or m of t h e obj ec t t h at c a us e s i t .
1 2 [ J G /I T S I /A D /f .

T H E C ON E .

T h e li g h t a nd t h e sh a dow . t h e co n e i s d i r e c ted to wa r d
t h e l ig h t a l l its c u rv ed s u rfac e i s l ig h t an d t h e b ase i s s h ado w ; w h e n
,

d i rec ted from t h e l ig h t t h e ba se i s l ig h t an d t h e c u rv ed s u rfa c e i s


,

w h o l ly s h ado w T h e c u rv ed su rfac e m ay b e bo t h l ig h t an d s h ado w


.

i n an y p ropo rt i on T h e l i g h t an d s h a d o w a re s ep ar at ed by el em e n ts ;
.

b ut t h o ug h t h ey m ay b e oppo
s i t e e l em en t s a s i n t h e c y li n.

de r t h e p ro porti o n o f l ig h t t o
,

s h ad o w w o ul d s e l d o m b e t h e
sa m e .

T h e h i g h li g h t a nd t h e
li g h t . t h e c u rv e d
s u rfa ce of t h e c on e (F ig 6 ) .

i s p art i al l y o r w h o l l y i n l ig h t .

o n e e l e m e n t w i l l re ec t t h e
l ig h t d i re ctl y t o t h e eye a nd
be t h e gl i t t er o r h ig h l ig h t .

Fro m t h i s h i g h l i g h t t h e
c u rv ed s urfa ce ext en d s i n
bo t h d i re ct i o n s t o w a rd s t h e
s h ad o w e l e m e n ts w h i c h re ,

ec t n o d i re c t l ig h t to t h e e y e
a n d w h i c h a re t h e d ark es t
el em en ts T h e n ea re r a m .

e l em en t i n t h e l ig h t i s t c
FIG 6 F m Ph t g p h
ro o o r
a
t h e s h ad ow e l em en t t h e
,
. .

fa rt h e r from t h e eye i t re ec ts t h e l ig h t a n d so a s i n t h e c as e oft h <


, ,

cyl i n de r t h e re i s a p erfe c t g rad at i o n of ton e fro m t h e h ig h l ig h t t (


,

t h e deep s h ado w of t h e s h ad ow e l em en ts T h e c h an ge i s gra d ua .

an d m o s t m a rke d n ea r t h e s h ad o w e l e m e n t s i n t h e h al f l ig h t s s< ,

t h at as we go fro m t h e s h ado w el e me n t s t o wa rd t h e gl i t te r e l e m e n '

t h e e ffec t i s t h at of a m a ss of l i g h t .

T h e sh a dow T h e s h ado w el em en t ge n eral l y re ec t s to t h e ey i


.

l es s re ec ted l ig h t t h an t h e o t h er el em en ts i n t h e s h ado w a n d t il l ,

d a r k e s t s h ad ow u pon t h e c on e i s g en e ral l y a t t h e s h ad ow el em e n t
C l /l A A OOS C U A A

Oli [ J O/{ T A A I )
'

, 1 3

F ro m t h e s h ado w e l e m e n t tow ard t h e co n to u r e l em e n t on t h e s h adow


s i d e t h e r e i s gr ad at io n d u e t o t h e re e ct ed l ig h t w h ic h i s s tron ges t ,

b etw ee n t h e co n to ur a n d s h ado w el em en ts T h e co n to u r e l em e n t .

i s us u al l y l ig h t er t h a n t h e s h ado w el em en t .

W h e n t h e v i s i bl e c u rv e d s urfac e i s w h ol l y o r l argel y s h adow t h e ,

d arke s t s h ad o w i s ge n er al l y o n t h e n earer p a rts a n d t h e s am e i s t rue ,

o f t h e cy l i n d e r w h e n t h us p l ac ed .

T h e ca st sh a dow T h e c ast s h ad ow i n Fig 6 i s bo un d ed by


. .

s tra ig h t l i n e s w h i c h a r e t h e s h adow s of t h e s h ad ow el em en ts and as , ,

i n t h e o t h e r gure s i t i s s h arp es t a n d d arke s t n e ares t t h e c on e


,
.

E ffect s a re a ccent ed a t t h e v er t ex T h e l ig h t an d d ark a re .

c o n cen t rate d at t h e v e rt ex of t h e co n e an d pyra m i d a n d are t h us

a cc en te d ,
s o t h at t h e s h ado w o n t h e con e i s d a rkes t a n d t h e l i g h t
l ig h t e s t n ea res t t h e v er tex .

Gra da t i on i n a ll pa rt s Fi g 6 d oes n o t p erfec tly il l us trat e t h e


. .

ef fe c t w h ic h s h o u l d b e t h a t of a gr ad ual l y i n c rea s i n g ton e f ro m t h e


,

g l i t te r el e m en t to t h e s h a do w el em e n t an d t h e s am e i n t h e o t h er
,

d i rec t io n s o t h at t h e t on e a t t h e co n to u r e l e m en t a t t h e l eft s h o u l d
,

b e d ar k e r t h a n t h a t u po n an y el e m en t b et wee n t h e co n tou r an d
g l i t ter e l em en ts .

TH E P YRA M ID .

A s qu a re py ra m i d i s rep res en t ed i n Fi g 1 4 w i t h ot h er o bj e c ts b ut
.
,

w i l l s erv e to i l l ust ra te t h e re m a rks upo n so l i d s of t h is typ e .

T h e li g h t a nd t h e sh a dow I f t h e apex i s d i re c ted to wa rd t h e


.

l ig h t al l t h e l at er a l fac es w i l l b e l ig h t a n d t h e b ase s h ad o w ; if t h e
,

a p ex i s d i rec t e d fro m t h e l ig h t a l l t h e l at era l f ac es w i l l b e s h ad o w


,

a nd t h e b as e w i l l be l i g h t G en era l l y so m e of t h e faces are i n li g h t


.

a nd ot h ers i n s h ado w a n d t h er e i s gra d at ion an d v a r i at i o n i n al l


,
.

T h e li g h t est fa ce T h e l ig h tes t fac e i s t h at w h i c h re e ct s t h e


.

l ig h t m os t d i re ct l y to wa rd t h e ey e an d i t i s l ig h tes t n e ares t t h e eye


,

w h ere i t co n t ra s ts w i t h t h e a dj oi n in g fa c e .

T h e da rk est fa ce . T h e d a rk es t f ace is t h e on e w h i c h se n d s t h e
le a s t l i g h t to t h e ey e ; i t a pp e a rs d ark est a lo n g t h e l ate ral edge
w h i c h i s n e are st t h e ey e an d w h i c h sep ara te s i t fro m t h e ad j o i n i n g
,

li g h t e r fa ce .
I L l G l -I T A /VD SH A D E
4 .

Gr a da t i on du e t o p e r spect i v e c ont r a st T h e s e e ff e c t s
a nd to .

are d u e to t h e f act t h a t a d ark s urfac e ap p e ars l ig h t e r as i t r ec ed es ,

an d a l i g h t s urf ac e app e ars d arker a n d a l so to t h e fac t t h at co n tr ast s


,

of l ig h t and d ark o r of an y t wo d i ffe ren t to n es i n cre as e t h e i r d i ffe ren c e


, ,

w h ere t h ey j uxt apose by c a us i n g t h e d a rk to ap pe a r d ar ke r a n d t h e


l ig h t to ap p e ar l ig h t er
ferenc es i n v a l u e t o b e rep r esent ed
S li g h t di f I n Fi g 1 4 t h e . .

b as e an d t h e l ig h t l at er a l f ace a p pe ar t o h av e t h e s a m e v a l ue In .

n at ure t h e b as e w a s sl ig h tl y d a r k e r t h a n t h e fa ce ; t h i s d i ffere n c e
s h ou l d be ex pres sed i n an y l i g h t a nd s h a d e d ra w i n g af ter t h e e f fe c t
of t h e m asse s w h i c h t h e i l l u st rat io n gi ve s h as b ee n rep resen ted .

O BJ E C T S or D I FFER E NT C OL OR S .

A color ed ob j ec t h a s li g h t a nd sh a dow u pon i t T h e so l i d s .

repres en te d h av e al l bee n of un ifor m w h i t e co l or an d t h e d i ffe ren t ,

fe ct of l ig h t a n d s h ad e
l ig h ts a n d d ar k s h av e b een d u e sol el y to t h e e f .

19 1 0 .
7
, F ro m l ll n l n g ra p ll .

Fig 7 rep rese n t s t wo sp h eres on e w h i te a nd t h e o t h e r re d an d


. .
,

i l l u st ra tes t h e fac t t h at t h ere i s l i g h t an d s h ad e upo n a d a rk o bj e c t


j us t a s t h ere i s u pon a w h i t e on e T h e d i fe ren ce b et wee n t h e l i g h t
.

an d d a rk i s no t a s g rea t u po n t h e red s p h e re as u pon t h e w h i t e b u t .


C H /A A OOS C U A A Ol t
'
L l G /I I
'
'

S H A D E
, .
I S

t h e re i s t h e co n t r as t of t h e s a m e m as s es of l ig h t an d d ark, a nd i n
e a c h m a ss t h e re a re t h e s am e grad at ion s as i n t h e co rrespon d i n g
m a ss u po n t h e w h i t e S p h ere T h e red s p h e re h owever ap pe ars
.
, ,

l ig h t er at t h e l ef t p a r t of i ts c o n to ur t h a n n e are r t h e h ig h l ig h t T h i s .

i s d ue to t h e fac t t h at t h e sp h e re w as h ig h ly po l i s h e d an d re ec ted ,

s o m uc h l ig h t fro m t h e s u rro u n d i ng obj e ct s t h a t t h e e f fect of t h e


p r i n c i p al l ig h t f ro m t h e w in d o w wa s d est royed by t h e s tron g re ec
t rons .

The sh a dow s dif


fer i n v a lu es
p i e ce of c h arco al i s s ee n i n
A
t h e s h a do w of t h e r e d S p h ere I t app ea rs m u c h d a r k er t h an t h e
.

sp h e re an d i l l us tra t es t h e fac t w h i c h st uden t s a l w ays f a i l to r e al i ze


, ,

t h at co lo r a l ways s h ows t h ro ug h t h e s h ado ws so t h at t /ze slza oozos

p on oly erfs of rlz la mi na r/f


'

u l w ut color s a nd ] a re a f dif
lw a y s o fer ent
va l ues .

C a st sh a dow s re ect da r k
T h e c as t s h ado ws a re m uc h s h arp e r
.

a n d d a r ker n e a r t h e sp h e r es t h a n f a rt h er a w ay an d t he y re ec t upo n ,

t h e sp h er e s so a s to d arken t h e p a rt s n e a r t h e con to u rs .

T h e h i g h li g h t promi nent i n a da rk ob j ect T h e h i g h l ig h t i s .

m u c h m o re n o t i ce ab l e u po n t h e re d sp h ere t h a n u po n t h e w h i t e o n e ,

fo r t h e S p h e re s are p o l i s h ed an d t h o ug h t h e re d on e do es n o t re e ct
,

a s m u c h l i g h t as t h e w h i t e o n e i t s h ig h l i g h t i n con tras t w i t h t h e
,

d ar k red col o r s e em s m o re p ro m i n e n t t h a n t h at of t h e w h ite sp h ere ,

i n c o n t r as t w i t h w h i te .

A da r k color ma y a ppea r li g h t er t h a n a l i g h t color T h e gure .

i l l u s t rat es t h es e p r i n c i pl e s b u t d oes n o t gi v e al l t h e r el at io n s tru ly


, .

I t i s t h e rs t t o S h o w t h e m o st i m po rt an t e f fect of l ig h t a n d S h a d e
up o n col o rs w h ic h i s to m ake llze lzg lzt (y a (l o/36 color (Ji m a pp ea r
'

b ig /[fer t /zmz l lze sl ur/low fa


o [lg /1 1 rolof .

TH E SA ME S U B JE C T U N D ER D I FFER ENT L I G H TS .

T h e i l l u s t rati o ns st ud ie d h a v e rep re s en te d t h e e ffec ts d u e to a


st ud i o t h e l i g h t co m i n g fro m t h e l ef t a n d fro m ab ov e an d b e h i nd
,

t h e sp e ct ato r We w i l l n o w co m p ar e t h e e ff
. e c ts p ro d u ce d upon t h e
s am e obj e ct s b y li g h t s fro m d i ffe re n t d i re ct i on s an d of di fferen t k in d s
an d st ren gt h s .
1 6 [ JG /I T H ow ) SH A D E .

Nuk
'

l H
'

S TU D IO L IG H T .

L ig ht a t t h e S i de . r e p r e s e n ts a g r o up of w h i t e d r a wi n g
lu g . 8

m od e l s pl aced i n a st ud i o u pon a s h el f a n d aga in st a b ackgro u n d


cov ere d w it h d a r k gray c a rt ri d ge p ap e r t h e l ig h t co m i n g f ro m ab ov e
,

at t h e l e ft a nd sl i g h tl y b e h i n d t h e spe c tato r T h e e ffec ts of l ig h t .

Fm 9 . . F ro m Ph o t o g ra ph

a n d s h ade u pon t h e d i fferen t o b j e c t s a r e s uc h a s h a v e been d escr i bed .

b ut o wi n g to t h e i m pe rfecti o ns of t h e p h oto g ra p h a n d i ts re p rod u c


t i on t h e grad at io n s i n t h e m a s ses of l i g h t u pon t h e d i fferen t obj ec ts
,

a re n ot wel l ex pres sed . T h u s t h e l eft h an d c on to u r of t h e co n e


-

s h o ul d b e d a rk e r t h a n a n y el e m e nt b et we en it a n d t h e gl i t t e r e l e m en t .

T h i s el em en t does n ot a pp ea r b ut s h o u l d be a bo ut as fa r from t h e
.

l eft con tou r as t h e s h ad o w e l em en t i s from t h e rig h t co n t o u r : an d


t h e S h ad e u po n t h e sp h e re s h o ul d grad u a l l y i n c rea se i n s t ren g t h fro m
t h e h i g h l i g h t t o wa rd t h e co nto u r i n al l d i re ct ion s : a nd t h a t u p o n t h e
I 8 L I GH T A N D SH A D E .

S
'

K N IJ G H T A T T H E S IDE .

Fi g 9 rep res en ts t h e sam e gro u p w h e n ex po sed t o t h e d i re c t rays of


.

t h e su n fro m a d i re c t i on a bo u t t h e s a m e as t h a t of t h e l ig h t i n F i g 8 . .

Ef fect s a re li g h t . T h e rst po in t to b e n ot i ced i s t h at t h e e ffec t


i s m uc h l i g h t er t h an t h a t of Fig 8 T h i s i s d u e to t h e fa c t t h a t o ut
. .

ll n . l' ro m Ph oto
g ra ph .

d oors t h er e a re s t ron g re ect ed l i g h ts co m i n g fro m a l l d i re ct ion s


w h ic h l ig h t en a l l s h ado w s an d ca s t s h ad o ws to a grea t ex t e n t .

Ca st sh a dow s a re sh a r p N ex t w e n ot i c e t h a t t h e c as t s h ad o w s
.

are as s h arp a n d d i sti n c t a s t h e edges of t h e obj ec t s T h i s i s a lw ay s .

t h e c as e w h en t h e c as t s h ad o ws a re n ea r t h e obj ec ts t h a t c a st t h em .

On t h e o t h e r h an d t h e g reate r t h e d i s ta n c e b et w e en an y ed ge a n d
,

i t s s h adow t h e soft er i s t h e co n to u r of t h e s h ad o w b e c a u se t h e ray s


,
,

of su n l ig h t are no t q u i t e pa ra l l el a n d t h u s soft en t h e c as t s h ad o w s
,

w h i c h a re d i s ta n t a s expl a i n e d o n p a g e 1 l
, .
I I I A li O Ol t


( L I GH T A I VD SH A D E 1
.

Gra da t i on i n sh a dow s a nd ca st
T h e c as t s h ad o w s sh a dow s .

a re s h a rp i n o u tl i n e a n d m ore n e a rl y of on e v al ue t h an i n Fi g 8 b u t .
,

t h ere i s gr ad ati o n i n t h e m a n d a ls o i n t h e s h ad o ws T h us t h e .

c as t s h a dow of-t h e p l i n t h u po n t h e cyl i n de r re e ct s d ark u po n t h e


s h ado w s i d e of t h e p l i n t h a n d upon t h e c ast s h ad o w of t h e pl i n t h
o n t h e fo r egro un d T h e s h ado w s i d e of t h e p l i nt h h as n e arl y t h e
.

s am e v a l u e as t h e fo r egro u n d i n s te ad of b e i n g d arke r as i n Fig 8


, . .

D i rect i ons of ca st sh a dow s T h e c as t s h ado w of t h e p en c i l i s a


.

co n t i n u o u s b a n d w h i c h ru n s al on g t h e s h el f t h en up o n t h e v ert ic al ,

s i d e of t h e p l i n t h a n d t h e n al on g upo n t h e t op of t h e pl i n t h w h e re
, ,

i t s d i rec t i o n i s t h e s a m e as upo n t h e s h e lf fo r 20/ s t /ze r/ mloz o of my , r (

li ne fl l/5 up on p a ra llel fu r/ m s f/ze slur/low I l a : t lze sa me


i ( r ed /on on (

z sm
ea r/
m z

T h e c a s t s h ado w of t h e p en c i l up o n t h e s h el f an d of t h e con e u po n
t h e b a ckgrou n d a re c u r ve d by t h e un ev en s u rfa c e of t h e p ap er .

T H S TU D IO L IG H T B EH I N D TH E S P E C TA T OR .

E ffect i s a ma ss of li g h t
Fi g I O re pr esen t s t h e sa m e gro up
.
.

p l ac ed i n a s t u d i o a n d l ig h t ed b y a w i n do w d i re c tl y b e h i n d t h e sp ec
t ato r T h i s l i g h t c a u se s t h e v is i bl e s u rfa ces of t h e obj e ct s to b e l ig h t
.

s u rfac e s a n d t h e e ffec t o f t h e w h o l e group to b e t h at of a m ass of


l ig h t fo r t h e c as t s h ado ws ar e b e h i n d t h e gro up an d are l a rge l y
,

i n v i s ib l e T h e obj e c t s a re d i s t i ngu i s h ed fro m e ac h o t h er b y sl ig h t


.

d i ffe re n c es i n v al u e a n d t h e gr ad at io n s of to n e upon a n y on e a re
,

v ery d e l i c a t e T h e con e cy l i n d e r an d s p h e re e ac h h av e a gl i t te r
.
, ,

p o i n t o r l i n e T h es e l i g h ts are upo n t h e n e ares t p arts of al l t h e


.

so l id s a n d fro m t h e m t h ere i s a to n e w h i c h grad u al l y i n c re ases i n


,

st ren gt h to wa rd s t h e co n to u rs T h e p l in t h a l so h as a p art w h i c h .

i s l ig h t er t h a n an y ot h e r p a rt of i t s s u rfac e ; b u t h ig h l ig h ts are
s el do m fo un d up on pol y h e d ro n s e v e n w h e n t h e i r s u rfa c es a re po l ,

i sh e d for i n o rd e r to gl i t te r a p l a n e s urf ac e m us t as a w h ol e re ec t
,

t h e l ig h t d i r e ct l y t o w ard s t h e ey e .

L i t t le cont ra st of li g h t w i t h sh a dow T h e v i s ib l e c as t s h adow s .

ar e s m a l l i n F ig 1 0 a n d a r e al ways sm al l w h e n t h e l i g h t i s b e h i n d
.
,

t h e sp e ct ato r u n l es s t h ey a re c as t by p a r ts w h i c h o v er h an g a n d
,

c a u s e c as t s h a do ws to fal l upo n t h e v i sib l e l i g h t s u rfa c es T h ere i s .


'

S /I A D l z
' '

20 L /G I / I A A D .

a l so s el dom t h e c on t ra s t of a l i g h t s urfac e w i t h a s h ad o w s urf a c e ,

a nd t h e refo r e i n gen e r al v ery l i tt l e co n t r as t of l i g h t a n d d ar k .

Effect s t oo dif cu lt for st u dent s T h i s po s i ti on o f t h e l i g h t i s


.

n o t s u i tabl e fo r s tud en ts . I t re q u i res t h e ab i l i ty of a n arti st to


rep resen t sol i d i ty a n d at m os p h e re b y t h e d el i c at e gr ad a tio n s g i v e n

FI G . I O. F ro m Ph t g p h
o o ra .

bv a l ig h t be h i n d t h e a rt i st no m atte r w h et h er t h e l ig h t b e t h at of a
,

st u d i o s unl ig h t o r an y o t h er l i g h t
, , .

Cont r a s t s a re l a r g ely du e t o c ol or T h e p ri n c i p a l c on t ra st s o f
.

l ig h t a n d d ark w it h t h i s l ig h t a re g en er al l y d u e m ore t o c on t ras t s


of l oc al co lo r t h a n to con t ra s t s of l ig h t a n d s h ad e .

T h e p ro c ess es e m pl oyed t o m ake t h e i l l us t r at io ns d o n ot gi v e t h e


n e con tras ts of t h e l i g h t t h e gl it t e r l i g h t a n d t h e m o re d el i c at e
. ,

g rad ati o ns w h i c h t h e st ud en t m us t ob serve b y st udy of n at u re In .

t h i s ca se t h e pen c i l i s t h e o nl y d a r k obj ec t i n t h e gro up an d t h e


o nl y o ne w h i c h s h o w s t h e g li tt e r l ig h t .

Ob j ec t s r e ec t st r ongl y i n t h e for egr ou nd T h e re ected l i g h t .

from t h e en d of t h e cyl i n d er to t h e fo re g ro un d i s so st ro n g t h a t ev en o n
OA
L I GH T A J VD SH A D E . 2 I

t he r o ug h p ap e r i t gi ves a c l e ar re e cti o n of t h e edge oft h e cyl i n d e r .

T h e c a s t s h a dow of t h e ca m e r a fel l u po n t h e fo regro u n d a n d


d arke n e d i t ; we re i t no t fo r t h i s s h ad ow t h e n ea re s t p a rt of t h e ,

fo regro u n d wo ul d b e t h e l i g h t est .

A S rU D I o L I G H T I N F R ON T S P E C TA T OR
'

or T H E .

Ef
fect la rg ely sh a dow .Fig 1 1 rep rese n ts t h e gro up w h e n
.

p l ac e di n fro n t of a st u d i o w i n do w T h i s posi t i o n c ause s t h e v i s i bl e


.

s u rfa ce s t o b e l a rge l y s h a d o w s u rf a ces .

T h e l ig h t st r i ke s h o we ve r t h e top p a r ts of t h e c ub e t h e cy l i n d e r
, , , ,

t h e sp h e re a n d t he p l i n t h an d t h ese s u rfac es a re l i g h t ; b u t i n o ut
, ,

F rc . i t . F ro m Ph t g p h
o o ra .

do o r subj ec ts t h e u pp er s u rfaces of obj e ct s a re gen era l l y i n v i s i bl e ,

a n d t h er e i s l es s l ig h t t h a n i n F i g 1 r . .

T h e c a s t s h ado ws a re d ar k a n d p ro m i n en t i n t h e e ffec t as t h e y ,

a re w h ol l y vi si bl e a n d ex ten d to wa rd t h e sp ect ato r F ig I I i n co n . .


,
L l Gl/T
'

2 3 A /Vl) SH A D E .

t ras t w i t h Fi g 1 0 p rese n ts a m a s s of d a r k w h i c h i s t h e ge n era l


.
,

ef fec t in d oo rs or o utdoo rs w h e n t h e l ig h t is b e h i n d t h e obj ec t s ; i t


a l so s h ows t h at t h e s h ado w s u rfaces w it h t h e c as t s h a do ws fo r m t h e
l a rger p art of t h e s ubj ec t .

S t r ong est sh a dow s on t h e nea rest pa rt s T h e i n c re as e i n t h e


.

s t re ngt h of t h e s h ado w upo n t h e c on e towa rd s i ts v ert ex i s we l l


s h own a n d al so t h e fa c t t h a t t h e s t ron ges t d a rks a r e gen eral l y o n t h e
,

p ar ts ne a rest t h e ey e .

S t r ong est li g h t s on t h e cont ours T h e st ro nges t l ig h ts are o n


.

o r n ear t h e con to urs of t h e o b j e c ts On t h e p en c i l t h e gl i tt er l ig h t


.

i s at t h e co n to u r an d m ak es t h e b l ac k p en c i l l ig h te r t h an t h e l ig h t
,

p art s b e h i n d i t
.

D I F FU S ED S TU D IO L IG H T .

Fig 1 2 rep rese n ts t h e s a m e gro up w h e n i t i s l ig h ted by we ak d if


.

f u sed l i g h t co m i n g fro m b ot h s id es an d fro m be h i n d t h e sp ec tato r ,

Fm . m . F m
ro Ph t g p h
o o ra .
l /A A O OS C U A A

, LI GH T A 1 V1) S l /A D E . 2 3

a n d p ro d u c i n g abo ut t h e s a m e e ffe c t as w o u l d b e ob t ai n e d i n a roo m


h av i n g s e v e r a l w i n do w s w h o se c u rt a i n s are d ra wn
D eli ca t e li g h t a nd sh a de cont ra st s W
.

e n d t h e re ar e s ev er al
.

f a i n t s of t s h a do ws an d n o s tro n g con t rasts I n t h i s r esp ec t t h e e ffec t


, .

i s s i m i l a r to t h at of F ig 1 0 b u t v ery m uc h d arke r
.
,
a fa ct no t w e l l ,

s h ow n b y t h e gure .

D a rk ob ject s ma y h a v e st rong li g h t s T h e gl i tt e r l ig h t upo n


t h e p e n c i l i s p ro m i n en t a n d w el l i l l u stra t es t h e f ac t t h at eve n t h e
,

d ark est obj e c ts w h o s e s urface s a re po l i s h ed m ay h av e upo n t h e m


t h e s t ro n ge s t l ig h t s of t h e gro up .

A RT IFICI AL L IG H T A T T H E S ID E .

F ig I 3 rep res en ts t h e s a m e gro up w h e n exposed t o t h e r ay s of a


.

v ery p o werf u l l a m p p l ace d n ear t h e gro up .

S t rong cont ra st s of li g h t a nd sh a de T h e effe ct i s d u e t o t h e .

c on t ras t of st rong l ig h ts an d d eep s h a dows an d at rs t gl an ce we ,

FI G . I 3 . F ro m P hot g p h
o ra .
[ J G /I T A A I) S /I A D E

2 4 .

fee l t h e s i m p l ic i ty of t h e m as s e s of l i g h t a n d s h a dow Fig I 3 m a k es . .

t h e s e mas s es mo re s i m p l e t h a n t h ey re al l y were fo r i t do es no t gi v e ,

t h e d el i ca t e grad ations .T h e l ig h t a nd d ar k u po n t h e co n e fo r ,

i nsta nc e wo ul d exc ep t n e ar i ts ba se rep re sen t a py ra m i d fo r t h ere


, , ,

i s s o l i tt l e grad at i o n n e a r t h e s h ad o w e l e m e n t t h a t t h e i d e a of ro un d
n ess i s not wel l e xp re ssed U po n t h e s p h e re t h e c i rc l e (el l i p s e)
.

t h a t sep arates l ig h t from s h ado w i s al so v e ry s h arp .

S h a rp a nd da r k sh a dow s S h a rpn ess i s h o we ver a d i s t i ngu i s h


.
, ,

i ng f eatu re of t h e s h ad ows of obj e cts t h a t are ex po se d t o o n e st ron g


ar ti ci al l ig h t a n d t h e s t ronge r t h e l ig h t t h e gre ate r t h e con t rast
. ,

b et wee n t h e m ass es of li g h t an d s h ado w an d t h e l e s s t h e gr ada t io n ,

fro m on e to t h e o t h e r u po n ro un d ed o b j e c ts T h e re i s of co u rse .
,

grad at ion u po n ro un d e d obj e c ts b u t I t I s v e ry d el i c at e t h roug h al l


,

t h e m a ss of t h e l ig h t an d i s pri n c i p al l y co n n e d to a v e ry s m al l
,

spa c e n e a r t h e s h ado w e l e m en t .

M a sses of da r k v e r y si mple A n o t h e r e ffec t c h arac te ri st i c of


.

a s in gl e a rt i c i a l l ig h t i s t h e st ren gt h a n d s i m p l i c ity of t h e m ass es


of s h ado w form ed by t h e s h ado ws an d c ast s h ado w s T h e b ase .

of t h e c y l i n d e r a n d t h e c a s t s h adow o f t h e cyl i n d er i l l u st ra te a
co m mo n e f fec t n a m e l y t h at i n w h i c h t h e s h ad ow an d c ast s h ad o w
, ,

ad j o i n i n g are n e arl y of t h e sa m e v al ue T h e s h ad o w s i d e of t h e
.

c ube i l l ust rat es a n o t h e r e ffect t h at i n w h i c h t h e s h ado w a n d c ast


,

s h adow a re of t h e s a m e o r so n e arly t h e s am e v al u e t h a t t h e
, ,

co nto ur of t h e obj ect i s l ost i n t h e m ass of s h ad ow T h e s t u den t .

w h o wo r k s wi t h l ig h t an d d a rk o r w i t h c ol o r s h o u l d b e c a ref ul n ot
to rep resen t co n to u rs w h i c h c an n ot be se en fo r m u c h of t h e i n te rest ,

a n d a rt i st ic e f fec t of t h e d ra w i ng d ep en d s u pon i t s b e in g t rue to


n at u re i n t h i s respect .

M oo N L IGH T .

S i mple ma sses .T h e gi ve n i l l u stra ti on s cov e r t h e m ost co m m on


e ffect s w i t h t h e e xc ep t ion of t h os e d ue t o m oon l i g h t M o o n l ig h t i s .

s i m pl y w ea k en ed s un l ig h t an d p rod u ce s effe c ts s i m i l a r t o t h os e of
,

s un l i g h t i n re spe c t t o t h e con t ra s t of s i m p l e m as se s of l ig h t an d
d ar k an d t h e s h a rpn es s o f t h e c ast s h ad ows T h e p r i n c i pa l m as se s .

of l i g h t an d d ark a re m uc h m o re p ro m i n en t t h a n by s un l ig h t a n d ,

fe w d et ai l s a re se en i n t h e m as ses T h e m as s es of d a rk are es p e
.
2 6 L I GH T A N D

face t h e b rig h te r t h e h i g h l i g h t a n d t h e m o re pe r fe c tl y i t re e ct s
,

t h e color of t h e i l l um i n a t i n g l ig h t A po l i s h e d m e ta l v as e o r a n y
.

gl az ed obj ec t w i l l gi ve a p erfe c t i m age of t h e s o u rce of t h e l ig h t .

I n a s t ud io for i n st an ce i t w i l l r e e c t t h e w i n d o w w i t h i t s c ros s
, ,

b ars an d t h e col o r of t h e h ig h l ig h t w i l l b e t h a t of t h e sky o r w h a t


,

e ver e lse sen d s t h e l ig h t t h ro ug h t h e w i n do w to t h e obj ec t .

I s c olor ed P u p i l s are ge n e ral l y so d ec ei ve d by t h e b rig h t n ess


.

FI G . I 4 . F ro m Ph t g p h
o o ra .

of h ig h l ig h t s espe c i al l y t h os e o n d ar k gl a z ed obj e c ts t h a t t h ey fai l


, ,

to see a ny col o r i n t h em a n d r ep rese n t t h e m by p u r e w h i t e ev e n


,
,

w h e n t h ey h av e a w h i t e obj e c t i n t h e gro up T h ey s h o u l d rem e m


.

h e r t h a t s u c h l ig h t s al w a y s re ec t t h e co l o r of t h e l i h t c au s i n g
g
t h e m a nd a re d ar k e ned b y t h e col o r of t h e obj e ct o n w h i c h t h e
,

l i g h t fal l s I f t h ey w i l l t ry t h e exp e r i m en t of b l u r ri n g t h e fo r m o u t of
.

a n
y h ig h l i g h t by h o l d i ng t h e b l u r g l ass a s fa r fro m t h e m a s pos s ib l e ,

s t i l l Ob t ai n i n g i n i t t h e i mage o f t h e h ig h l i g h t t h e y w i l l re a d i l y se e
,

t h e col or b l u e i n c ase t h e Ob j e ct re ec ts t h e b l u e s k y T h i s e x e ri
p
.
C H /A R O OS C U A A OA

L I GH T

A /Vl) SH A D E
, .
2 7

m en t s h ow s t h at t h e h i g h l ig h t up o n a gl az e d o b j ec t m ay b e d ar k er
t h a n t h a t up on a w h i t e obj ec t ev e n if ungl az ed
, .

V a ri es u pon di f ferent colors E v ery obj ect re ec ts d i re c tl y


.

s o m e w h i t e l ig h t . T h e r em a i n d e r of t h e w h i te l ig h t e n te rs t h e

FI G . I 5 . F m
ro P h otog p h
ra .

o bj e c t a l i tt l e d i sta n c e w h e r e s o m e i s ab sorb ed an d t h e re m a i n d e r i s
,

t u rn e d b ac k a n d re ec t e d i n a l l d i re ct io n s t h e re fl ec t e d rays h av i n g
,

t h e s a m e col o r as t h e obj ec t N o w a d a rk obj e c t re fl ec t s l es s of


.

t h e lig h t w h i c h e n te rs i ts s urf ace t h a n a l ig h t obj e ct a n d h en ce t h e ,

h ig h l ig h ts up o n pol is h ed obj e c ts of d i ffe re n t col o rs a re no t e q u al l y


li g h t w h e n t h e s urf a c e s ar e e q ual l y s m oo t h B y c on t ras t t h e h ig h
.
2 8 [ JG /I T A 1 v1 )

l ig h t u pon a d ar k gl az ed obj e c t m ay a pp ear l ig h t e r t h a n t h a t upo n


a l ig h t an d e q u al l y gl a z ed obj e c t b ut i t i s re al l y n o t a s l ig h t
,
.

Gen er al ly a co lo red o bj e ct i s n ot a s m oot h an d p e rfe c t m i rro r ,

an d t h e co l o r of t h e obj ec t i s fel t q u i t e s tron gl y t h ro ug h t h e h ig h


l ig h ts
. Fo r t h i s re as o n t h e re ec te d co lo r i s oft en d a rke n e d so t h at
t h e h ig h l ig h t o n t h e gl a z ed bl ue v a s e for in s t a n ce i n F ig 1 5 i s
, , .
,

not as l ig h t as t h e l ig h t u pon t h e w h i t e c ast w h i c h i s q u i t e ro ug h ,

i n co m p ar ison w i t h t h e v as e T h e ro ug h e r t h e obj ects t h e m o re


.
,

l i g h t t h ey absorb an d t h e m o re i rregu l arly t h ey re e c t w h at i s n ot


,

absorbed ; a n d i n p l ace of h ig h l ig h t s t h ere w i l l b e o n u n p ol is h e d


obj ec ts s uc h fo r i n st an ce as co m m o n p l as t er c a s ts l ig h ts w h i c h
, , , ,

grad u al ly grad e i n to t h e d el i c at e s h ades t h at a re s e en i n t h e m as s


of t h e l ig h t .

L oca l color not seen i n h i g h li g h t T h e loca l co lo rs of obj e cts


.

are no t seen i n t h e h i g h l ig h t s ev e n w h en t h e o bj e cts a re n o t po l


,

i sh e d ; fo r w h en t h e h ig h l ig h ts d o n ot re ec t t h e c o l o r of t h e l ig h t ,

t h e y a re so h e ig h t e n ed b y t h e s t ron g l ig h t t h ey rec e iv e t h at t h ey d o
n ot gi ve t h e e ffect of t h e l oca l co l o r of t h e obj ec t ; an d as a m atte r
of fact t h e h ig h l ig h t s upo n t h e h u m an fac e a re of ten coo l an d e ve n
b l u i s h i n ton e .

Gener a lly ca u sed b y rou nded su rfa ces Gl a ze d obj ects w h i c h


are ro un d o r boun de d by c u rv e d s u rf ac es w il l gen e ral l y h av e h ig h
l ig h ts i n a ny po s it i o n of t h e spe cta to r A p l a n e s u rfa c e w h ic h gl i t
.

t ers t h roug h o ut I n us t be ve ry s m a l l W h e n a n obj ec t bo un d ed by


.

p l an e su rface s i s so pl aced t h at on e s u rfa ce gl i t t ers t h e sl ig h test ,

c h an ge i n t h e posi ti on of t h e eye m ay en t i rel y c h an ge t h e e ffec t ; fo r


a s urfac e w h i c h gl i t te rs w i t h t h e eye i n on e p os i t io n w i l l n ot gl i tte r
if t h e eye i s m ov ed a s h ort d i st a n ce a n d i n s te ad of app e a ri n g t h e
,

h ig h es t l ig h t i t m ay app e a r d ark i f i t s l oc al col o r i s d ark


, .

V a ri ed i n form T h e for m of t h e gl i tte r l ig h t i s d ep e n d en t upo n


.

t h at of t h e w i ndo w o r ot h e r so u rce of l ig h t an d al s o up on t h a t of ,

t h e o b j e ct U po n a c ur ved s u rfa ce s t ra ig h t l i n es gen eral l y re ec t


.

a s cu rv ed a n d u po n a p l an e s urfa ce t h ey re e c t a s s t ra ig h t
, .

I ri descent col or T h e m os t b e a ut i ful col o r e f


.
fe ct s a re fo u n d i n
t h e h i g h l ig h ts upo n i ri des cen t obj ec t s a n d t h e s t ud y of t h e s e l ig h t s
,

w rll assi st t h e st ud en t to re al i ze h o w c h an geab l e a re t h e co l o rs a n d

t h e v a l u es of t h e sa m e Obj ect .
Gi l /A R OOS C U A A OA

L I GH T A A I ) SII A U L
' '

, .
2 9

M u st b e ca refu lly dra w n T h e e ffe c t of a gl a ze d obj e ct c a n


.

b e gi v e n on ly b y c aref ul l y d raw i n g t h e h ig h l ig h t s u po n it a n d t h ey ,

m us t b e re p res en te d w i t h d e c i s i o n 1 fo r w h e n grad u al ly soft en ed i n to


,

t h e m as s of l i g h t t h e e ffe ct of a n un gl a z ed obj e ct i s gi v en
,
.

F ound u pon ev ery rou nded pa r t A h ig h l ig h t i s fo u n d upo n


e v e ry po l is h e d s u rf ac e w h o se po si t i o n i s s uc h t h a t i t re e cts t h e

FI G . 1 6 . F ro m P h tog p h
o ra .

l ig h t d i re c t l y i n to t h e ey es I n F ig 1 6 t h er e ar e t wo l ig h ts upon
. .

t h e b o dy of t h e bot tl e b e c a us e t h ere w ere t wo d iv i s ion s i n t h e


,

w i n d o w fro m w h i c h t h e l ig h t c a m e Fig 1 4 s h o ws h o w h ig h l ig h ts
. .

a re fo u n d upo n t h e e dges of obj e cts an d u po n al l ridges o r m o u l d ,

i n gs.
Figs 1 5 I 7 an d 1 8 s h o w t h at t h es e h ig h l ig h ts are fo un d i n
.
, ,

r el at ive l y t h e s a m e p os i t io n upo n t h e d i ffere n t c u rve d p arts of t h e


s am e obj e ct so t h at t h ey m ay b e s a i d to ex i st o n a s in gl e e l em e n t
,

1
S e e pa g e 99 .
'

L I GH T A A I) S I I A IJ E
30 .

of t h e s urfac e I n t h e c on e a n d c y l i n d e r t h e el em e n t i s st r aig h t
.
,

b ut i n t h e bot t l e o r v as e t h e co rresp o n d i ng l i n e o r e l e m en t i s c urve d ,

a nd m ay b e regard ed a s t h e o utl in e of a s ect io n of t h e obj ec t m ad e

b y a pl an e p as s in g t h ro ug h t h e ax is i t i s fo res h o rt en ed s o t h a t i n ,

F i g 1 8 for i ns t a n ce if t h e l ig h t w e re d i re c tl y be h i n d t h e s p e c t a to r
.
, , ,

t h e d i fferen t h ig h l i g h ts u po n t h e v as e wo u l d co m e i n o n e vert i c a l
l in e t h e ce n te r l i n e of t h e v ase
,
.

T H E L IGH T .

T h e e ffec t of t h e l ig h t u pon t h e p ri nc i p a l geo m etri c so l i d s h a s


b e en st ud i ed a n d i t h as b e en s h own t h a t w it h o u t regard to t h e col or
, ,

a ny o bj e ct h as a l ig h t s i d e an d a s h ado w s i de an d t h a t t h ere i s ,

l ig h t an d s h a d e u po n ev e n t h e b l a ckes t o bj e c t .

S t rong est on t h e l i g h t est ob j ec t W h en o bj ec t s a re of d i f


. fere n t
c ol ors t h e l ig h t est c ol o r w i l l re e c t t h e m o s t l ig h t an d t h e l ig h t s i d e
, ,

of a w h i t e Obj ect w i l l b e l i g h te r t h a n t h e l ig h t s i d e of a ye l lo w obj ec t


w h i c h h as t h e s am e p os i t i on ; a n d if t h e pos i t ion s of a l l t h e obj ec t s
w i t h respect to t h e l ig h t a re t h e s am e t h e l ig h t of t h e y el lo w i s l ig h ter
,

t h a n t h a t of a n o r an ge obj ec t ; t h a t of t h e oran ge i s l ig h t er t h a n
green t h e gree n t h an red t h e red t h a n b l ue t h e b l u e t h a n v i o l e t
, , , ,

1
a n d t h e v iol e t i s l ig h t er t h an b l ack I t is w e l l fo r s t ud e n t s to u n d e r
.

s t an d t h i s fact b ut t h ey m us t r em e mb er t h at t h ey c an n ot app l y t h e
,

p ri n c ip l e i nst ea d of obse rv at io n of n at u re ; for t h e d i ffe re n t c ol ors


i n n at ure w i l l n ot be pl ac e d so t h ey rec ei v e e q ual am o u n ts of l ig h t ,

a n d con seq u e n t ly an y co lo r a s o r an ge o r even a d a rke r col o r m ay


, , ,

recei ve so m uc h l ig h t as t o ap p e ar l ig h te r t h a n ye l l o w o r ev e n w h i t e ,

w h i c h m ay h app en to b e s o p l ac e d t h at i t re ec ts l ess l ig h t to th e
eyes t h a n t h e d ar k er col o r .

P h ot ogr a ph s of c olor s not t r u e i n v a l ues P h o tograp h s d o n ot .

gi ve t h e v al ues of col o rs ; t h us p h o togra p h s of y e l lo w a re m uc h too


d ar k an d t h ose of b l ue are t oo l i g h t T h e ye l l o w b o t t l e i n F ig 2 0
.
.

s eem s al m ost as d ark as t h e uprig h t v ase w h i c h w as gree n a n d d a rke r , ,

t h an t h e bot t l e ; a nd t h e v as e i n F ig 1 5 se e m s q u i te l ig h t w h i l e t h e
.
,

obj ec t w a s d ar k b l u e B u t t h e p h otograp h s w h i c h ar e r ep rod u c e d


.

bri n g o u t t h e m o s t i mp ort an t fa ct rega rd i n g t h e m as s of t h e l ig h t of


1 T he c o l ors a r e s u ppose d to be the six st a nd a r d sp ect r u m col ors .
C H I A A O OS C U A A OI I

L I GH T A A I) SH A D E

, .

31

an y obj ec t ; for t h ey al l s h o w h o w si m p l e i t i s an d a rt is t i c al ly t h ey ,

a r e m uc h m o r e s at i sfa c to ry t h a n t h ey wo ul d b e if t h ey gav e al l t h e
d e t ai l t h e ey e co u ld s ee b u t at t h e exp e n s e of t h e loss of t h e b ro a d
,

m as s of l ig h t .

T h e st u dent ex a gg era t es det a i l i n t h e li g h t T h e en t i re l eaf i n .

F i g 1 5 i s c ov er e d w i t h v ein s w h i c h t h e l ig h t si d e of t h e l eaf h ard l y


.

s ugges t s I n a tt e m pt i ng t o r ep res en t t h es e ve i ns t h e st ud en t i s
.

a l m os t c ert ai n to e x agge ra t e t h e i r st ren gt h s o t h at t h e e ffe ct of t h i s


h alf of t h e l e af i s t h a t of a m a s s of gray o r m or e Ofte n of a s er i es ,

of b a n d s of l ig h t an d d ar k a l te r n at i ng T h e s t ud e n t exagge rat es .

b ec a us e co n tr a s t e ffe c t s m ake d et a i l se em st ro nger t h an i t r ea l ly i s ,

a n d al so b ec au s e t h e eye se es o n l y a s m a l l p art a t o n e ti m e a n d ,

t h at p ar t w i t h t h e a mo u n t of l ig h t w h i c h t h e eye re ce iv es adj us t e d
so a s t o b r in g o u t al l d et a i l s of t h i s p a rt T h us i f w e go fro m t h e .

s un l ig h t i n to a da rken e d roo m w e se e a t rs t no n e of t h e obj ec ts i n


,

t h e roo m b u t gr ad u a l ly t h e p up i l of t h e eye exp a n ds to ad m i t m o re


,

lig h t ; a n d if t h e roo m i s n o t too d ark t h e Obj ec ts ap p ea r o n e after ,

an o t h e r un t i l t h e eye i s f ul ly adj ust ed to t h e l ig h t an d al l Obj ect s


,

a re se en I f n o w we go i n to t h e s u n l ig h t w e are b l i n d ed by t h e
.
,

l ig h t a n d t h e l ig h t s i d es of obj e ct s s ee m a b l a z e of l ig h t w it h n o
,

de t a i l un t i l t h e p u p i l c l o se s a n d s h ut s o u t m os t of t h e l ig h t W h en
,
.

t h i s h as h app e n ed a s urf ac e w h ic h s ee m e d o n e un ifo r m gl ar in g l ig h t


,

i s s e e n t o b e c ov e re d wi t h de t ai l .

T h e v a lue of a ny pa rt seen only by compa ri son I t i s e v i d en t .

t h at t h e t r u e e ffe c t of an y ob j ec t c a n n ot b e s ee n if t h e st ude n t xes


h i s ey e u po n e i t h e r i t s m as s of l ig h t o r i ts m as s of d a rk fo r h i s eye ,

wi l l adj us t to t h e l ig h t o r t h e s h ad o w a s t h e c as e ma y b e s o t h a t n o
, ,

d et a i l i s se e n e xc e p t i n t h e p ar t s t ud i e d ; t h u s t h e d et ai l i s n o t s ee n
i n i t s p rop e r re l at io n s to t h e w h ol e an d d et a i l c a n o n l y b e see n i n
,

i t s re a l r e l at io n s a s e x p l a i n e d i n C h ap I I T h e a i m of t h e ser io us
. .

a r t s t u d e n t i n l oo k in g at d e t ai l s h o ul d b e to st ud y i ts fo r m a n d
d e ter m i n e i t s v a l u e by l ook i n g n ot a t t h e d et a i l al o n e o r t h e p art s
,

ab o ut i t b u t r at h e r a t a l l o f t h e m a t on ce
,
.

Ca u ses da rk color t o a ppea r l i g h t er t h a n li g h t color T h e .

mos t i mpo rt an t e ffe c t of t h e l ig h t i s to l ig h t e n al l t h at i t s t ri ke s


upo n s o t h a t a d a rk co l o r app ea rs l ig h t er t h an a l ig h t co l o r w h i c h
,

r e c ei v e s o r r e e c t s l es s l ig h t T h i s i s s h ow n b y t h e re d sp h e re of
.
2 L I GH T A N !) SH A D E
3
.

F ig . an d t h e b l u e v as e of Fig 1 5 w h i c h t h o ug h too l ig h t i n t h e
7 .
, ,

l ig h t is st i l l t r ue to t h e fac t t h at i n n a t ur e t h e d ar k b l u e a p p ea re d
,

v e ry m uc h l ig h t e r t h a n t h e c as t s h ado w upo n t h e c as t I n F ig 1 6 . .

t h e con to ur of t h e b l a ck bottl e ap p ea rs l i g h t e r t h a n t h e gray b ack


gro un d I n Fig I 8 t h e green v ase is l i g h te r t h an t h e g ray c as t an d
. .
,

i n F ig 2 0 t h e gree n v as e i s i n so m e p arts o f t h e l ig h t l ig h te r t h an
.

t h e b ackgro un d i n ot h e r p ar ts of t h e s am e v a l ue a n d i n so m e p l aces
, ,

t h e l ig h t is d a r k er t h a n t h e b ackgro un d .

L i g h t ens a nd dest roy s det a i l A n ot h er e ffec t w h i c h is dii c u lt


.

fo r t h e s t u d en t t o see i s t h at t h e l ig h t of t e n p a rt i a l l y o r w h ol l y h id es
d e t ai l w h ic h i s kn own to ex i s t T h us i n F ig 1 5 o n t h e left h an d
. .
,
-

p art of t h e l eaf we n d be t we e n t h e o u te r edge a n d t h e m i d rib


,

rep res en t at ion s of v ein s w h i c h exten d co n t i n uo us l y b u t w h i c h are ,

see n on l y a t t h e i r c en t ral p a rts S i m i l a r e ffe ct s a re fo un d i n Fig


. .

I S,
and t h e se gu res i l l us t rat e t h e co m m o n c as e i n w h i c h co n t i n u
o us de ta il i n t h e obj ec t i s s i t u at ed so a s to r e c e i v e t h e l ig h t a t d i f fe r
e n t an gl es an d b e v i s ibl e for p a rt of i t s l en gt h on l y
,
T h e st ud en t .

w h o s ees t h e cen tra l p art of a d e t a i l w h os e fo r m h e kn o ws i s very ,

ap t to t h i n k h e sees i t al l a n d re p re sen t s i t s e n t i re l engt h ; h e i s


,

esp ec i al l y ap t t o d raw t h e w h o l e w h e n h e s ees t h e two e n d s of a


d et a i l w h ose c en tral p a rt ca n n o t b e s een a n d h e m us t b e v e ry c a re ,

f ul to d r aw n o more t h a n h e s ees fo r w i t h o u t t h e c aref u l o bs erv at io n


,

w h i c h n ot es ev er y p l ac e i n w h i c h t h e l ig h t obl i te r at e s t h e d e ta il an ,

art isti c d raw i n g c an n ot b e m ad e .

L i g h t ens sma ll sh a dow s a nd ca st sh a dow s w i t h i n i t Not .

on l y does t h e l i g h t h id e d et ai l s w h i c h a re b ro ug h t o ut b y l ig h t ton e s
of s h ad e b u t i t soften s d et ai l s w h i c h are s h o wn by s m a l l b i t s Of
,

s h ado w o r c ast s h adow w h i c h co m e i n t h e m a ss of t h e l ig h t W h en .

l oo k ed at di re c t ly t h ese s h ad ow s m ay s e e m t h e d a rkes t o n es of t h e
,

o b j ec t b u t w h en t h e eyes a re bl u rre d t h ey w i l l a p pe ar m uc h l i g h te r
,

t h an t h e l arge m asse s of s h ado w T h us i n Fig 1 5 t h e n a r ro w


.
.

s h ad o w form ed by t h e m i d r ib a t t h e top of t h e l ea f w i l l p rob a bl y


a pp e ar to t h e s t ud en t d arker t h an t h e w i d e s h ad o w t h e l e af c as ts
on i ts b ac k groun d o r e ven d a rke r t h a n t h e c a s t s h ad o w of t h e obj e c t
.

o n t h e p an el l i ng T h e n a rrow s h ado w on t h e l ea f i s r e al l y l ig h te r
.

t h an t h e c ast s h ado w of t h e l e af for i t i s l i g h te n ed b y t h e s t ro ng


,

ra y s of l i g h t fro m t h e pa rts abo ut i t w h i c h a re d i f


. u se d a n d s l ig h t l y
L I GH T A VI ) S I /A D E
34
'

T .

fron t of t h e l ig h t p l i n t h t h a n w h e re i t i s se e n aga i n s t t h e gray b a ck


groun d ; an d t h e grea t er t h e c on t ras t of l ig h t a nd d ar k i n t h e gro up ,

t h e grea ter t h e d i fferen ce betwee n t h e ap p a ren t d i a m et ers of t h e two


pa rts of t h e p e n ci l .

H i des soft sh a dow s . Fi g I 7 s h o ws aga i n t h e w ay i n w h i c h


.

d ar k s are l ig h te n ed by t h e s t ron g l ig h ts n ea r t h em T h e s h a d o w of .

t h e cov e r c ast u pon t h e l ig h t fac e of t h e p l i n t h s ee m s a t rs t gl an c e


to com e w i t h i n t h e s h ad o w of t h e cov e r c a st u pon t h e foregro u n d ,

i n st e ad of begi n n i ng w h e re t h e s h ado w upo n t h e h o ri z o n ta l s u rfa ce


m e ets t h e v ert i ca l su rfac e of t h e pl i n t h T h i s e f fe c t i s ofte n n ot i c ed
.
,

b u t c arefu l ob se rv at i o n w i l l s h o w a soft s h ad ow on t h e ve rt i c al
s u rfac e w h i c h co n t i n ues t h e soft s h ado w o n t h e fo regro u n d b ut i s so ,

m uc h l ig h te r t h a n t h at o n t h e s h el f t h at a t rs t i t i s n o t n o t i c ed .

T h e soft s h ad o w on t h e ve rt i c al i s l es s p ro m i n e n t t h a n t h a t on t h e
h ori zon tal bec aus e i t i s l ig h t e n ed by t h e s t ron g l ig h t of t h e s u rfa ce
,

w h i c h rece i v es i t.

TH E H A L F L IG H T .

B ri ng s ou t det a i l a nd l oc a l c olor T h e fu l l l ig h t c h an ges or


.

h i d es t h e col or a n d often m a kes d et ai l i n v i s i bl e b u t t h e p a rts o f t h e ,

l ig h t b e tw ee n t h e ful l l ig h t a n d t h e s h ad o w b ri ng o u t t h e loc a l co lor ,

an d m a k e al l t h e d e ta i l m os t p rom i n en t F ig 5 i s fro m a p h otograp h


. .

of a woo de n c y l i n d e r p a i n t ed w h i t e w i t h a br us h w h o s e m a rks we re
pl a in l y see n a n d w h i c h s h o w sl ig h t l y i n t h e gu re i n t h e h a lf l ig h t
,

o n l y T h e b r us h m ar k s u pon t h e con e Fi g 6 a n d up on t h e p l i n t h
.
, .
, ,

F ig . I 4
, a l so s h o w i n t h e h al f l ig h t T h e v e i n s i n t h e l eav es of
.

Figs I S a n d 1 8 are m o st pro m i n e n t i n t h e ton es b etw e en t h e s t ron g


.

l ig h t s a nd t h e s h ado w s . I n Fig I 6 t h e c re as es i n t h e t i n fo i l up o n
.

t h e bott l e are seen m ore p l a i n l y b etw ee n t h e l ig h t a n d t h e s h a d o w


t h a n i n e i t h er t h e l i g h t o r t h e s h a do w
D et a i l i n h a l f li g h t m u st b e c a r efu lly d r a w n T h e i rreg u la ri .

t i e s ofs urfa ce o n t h e pl um s F ig 1 8 a re se en m os t p l a i n l y n e a r t h e
, .
,

d i v id i ng l i nes of l ig h t an d s h a d e an d t h e ri n gs ab o ut t h e v as e a r e
,

more prom i n en t i n t h e h al f l ig h t t h an el se w h ere T h e s t ud e n t m u st .

st u d y d et ai l i n t h e h al f l ig h t mos t c a ref ul l y fo r t h i s d e t a i l i s mo s t ,

pro m i n en t an d gi ves t h e c h a ra ct er o f t h e obj e ct m ore t h a n d et ai l


,

e i t h e r i n fu l l l i g h t or i n s h adow .
C I I /A I I O OS C U I I A OI t

L I GH T 1 VD

A SII A D E
, .

35

T H E SH A D O W .

D oes not sh ow d et a i l or loca l colo


r T h e e ffec t of t h e s h a do w
.

u p o n d et a i l i s s i m i l a r to t h at of t h e l ig h t d etai l be in g l os t for l a c k
,

o f l i g h t a n d l oc al co lo r b e i ng s o c h a nge d t h at i t wo ul d often no t b e
,

k n o w n fro m t h e c ol o r of t h e s h ado w .

V a ri es i n v a lu e T h e v a l ue s of obj ects of d i ffe ren t co lo rs ar e


.

n o t c h an ge d r e l a ti v e l y by s h ado ws w h en t h ey are p l a c ed so as to
re ce iv e e q u a l a m o u n t s of t h e r e e ct ed l ig h t s ; t h u s y el low i n s h ado w
i s l ig h te r t h an o r an ge i n s h ado w an d so o n ,
B u t t h e s t ude n t c an .

n ot d et e r m i n e t h e v a l u es of t h e d i fferen t s h adows by a n y t h eory ;


fo r t h e o bj e c ts w h ic h rec e i v e t h e m re e c t l ig h t s o d i fferen tl y t h at
o b se rv at i o n a l o n e c a n d et erm i n e t h e v al ues an d t h e v al ue of a l i g h t
,

obj e c t m ay b e d a r k er t h an t h a t of a m u c h d a rker o n e .

A t r s t t h e s t ud en t w i l l h av e gre at d i f c ul ty i n see i ng a n y d i ffe r


en c e b et wee n t h e d i ffe re n t s h ad o ws of t h e grou p an d h e m ay b e ,

as s i s t e d by t h i n k i n g of t h e l o ca l co l o rs a s t h e v al ue s of t h e s h adow s
,

w i l l oft e n b e i n h a r mo n y w it h t h e v al u e s of t h e l oc a l co lo rs I n .

F i g 1 5 fo r i n st an c e to m o s t s t ud e n ts t h e s h a do w o n t h e c as t w i l l
.
, ,

s e e m as d ark Or e v e n d ar k e r t h an t h a t of t h e ca s t o n t h e p an el l i n g ;
b u t if t h e s t ud e n t t h i n ks of t h e l oc al col o rs of t h e t wo s u rfa c es
o r b et t e r s t i l l b l u rs h i s eye s a n d t r i es to d e c i d e w h at co l o rs h e wou l d
,

us e if p a i n t i ng t h e s ubj ect w i t h col o rs h e w i l l oft en b e as si ste d


,

to s e e t h e t r u e v al u e s of t h e s h ado ws .

D i v i di ng li ne of li g h t a nd sh a de i mport a nt W h e n obj ec ts a r e .

bo u n d ed b y e dges t h e ed ges d e n e t h e s h ado w s urfaces ; bu t w h en


,

obj e ct s a re b ou n d ed b y c u rv ed s urf aces t h e s h ado ws are n o t ,

s h a rp l y d e n ed b u t gr ad e i n to t h e l ig h t an d p rod uc e t h e i n te rm ed i at e
,

to n e s c a l l e d h a l f l ig h t I t i s v ery i m po rt an t t h a t t h e d iv i d i ng l i n e
.

of l i g h t a n d s h ad e b e c aref ul l y d r a w n t h ro ug h o ut a n d w h e n i t i s ,

upo n a ro u n d ed obj ec t t h e gr e a tes t p a i n s m us t b e t aken t h a t t h e


gr ad at i o n do es n o t d es t ro y t h e e ffe ct o f t h e ge n era l d i rect io n of t h e
l i n e ; t h i s s h o ws w h e n t h e eyes a re b l ur re d so t h at t h e m asses of
l i g h t an d d ar k a re se e n .

D e ned b y a n element I n t h e cy l i n d er o r co n e t h e s h ado w i s


.

d e n e d b y a n el e m e n t ; i n co m m o n o bj ec t s w h i c h a re v ar i ati o n s of
t h e typ e fo r m s t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e of l ig h t an d s h ad e w i l l n o t a l way s
,
36 L I GH T A N I)

c onfor m to a fores h o rte n ed sec t io n of t h e obj e c t t h ro ug h t h e ax i s ,

b ut i t m ay often i n p arts b eco m e p ra ct ic al l y t h e e l e m e n t of a s h ort


, ,

co n e o r cyl i n d e r ; an d if i t s d i re ct i o n is n o t t r ul y gi ve n u po n p arts
w h i c h a re cyl i n d ri c al o r c on i c al t h ei r fo r m s c an n o t b e wel l exp re ss ed
,
.

R E FL E c T E D L IG H T

V a ri es i n st reng t h W i t h a n y gi v e n i l l um i n a t ion t h e strengt h


.

of re e cted l ig h ts d ep e n d s u pon t h e s m oo t h n es s of t h e obj e c t s on


w h i c h t h ey a re fo und an d upo n t h e i r s urro un d i ngs A m i rro r i n t h e
, .

fo r m of a s p h e re w o ul d re ec t t h e fo rm s a n d c ol o rs of o bj ect s abo ut
i t so pe rfec tl y t h at t h e e ffe ct s of l ig h t an d s h a do w wo u l d b e en ti rely
d est royed by t h e re e ction s P erfe c t re e c t i n g su rfaces a re s eldom
.

fo un d i n com mo n obj ec t s b ut pol is h e d si l ve rw are gi ves a n ear


,

a ppro ac h to p e rfe c t re ec ti o n ; t h e re e c t io n i s s h a rp a n d gives


c l e arl y t h e fo rm an d col or of t h e obj e cts re e c ted P ol is h ed obj ects .

gi ve cl e a r re ect i on s of d a r k ob j e ct s as w el l a s of l i g h t on e s ; a n d to ,

be exac t we s h o uld re q ui re an o t h er d i v i si o n of t h e e ffec t s d ue to


,

l i g h t an d s h ad e n am el y re e c ted da rks
, , T h es e re ec te d d a rks are
.

gen e ra l l y co n s id e red as t h e p arts of t h e s h ado w w h i c h a re n ot l ig h t


en ed by re e c te d l ig h ts T h e s t u d en t h o wev er s h o ul d n ot st udy
.
, .

from obj e ct s w h os e s urfa ces are h ig h l y po l i s h e d u n t i l q u it e p ro ci en t


i n re pres e n t i n g t h e s i m pl e e ffe c t s of l ig h t a n d s h ad e upon un po l i s h ed
Obj ect s .

M a k es t h e sh a dow v i si b le T h e l ig h t of a ny obj e c t i s t h e
.

s urfac e upon w h i c h d i rec t rays of l ig h t fal l B y d i rec t ray s i s m e an t


.

rays fro m t h e s un t h e m oon o r an y a rt i c i a l l ig h t a n d a l so t h e rays


, , .

fro m t h e wi n do w b y w h i c h an y s t ud io o r roo m i s l ig h ted T h a t p a rt .

of t h e s urfac e of an y obj e c t w h i c h re ce i v e s n o d i r e ct r ays i s c al l ed


t h e s h ado w a n d t h e l i g h tes t p a rts of a n y s h ad ow s u rface a re
,

"
S h ad ow s u rfa ce s re ce i v e n o d i re c t ray s
c al l ed t h e re ec ted l ig h ts .

an d wo ul d appea r u n ifo rm l y d a rk i f t h ey d i d n ot re ce i v e l ig h t w h i c h
i s re ecte d to t h em from t h e l ig h t s u rfa c e s of obj ect s a bo u t t h e m .

I f n ot fo r t h i s i n d i rec t a n d i rregul a rl y re ec t ed l i g h t s h ado w s u r


f aces wo ul d b e vi s ibl e a s d arks by re ason of t h e l ig h t s u rfa c es ab o u t
t h em b ut n o d et a i l wo ul d be se en i n a n y s h a d o w su rfa c e
, B ut a s .
,

t t c r of fact e ve ry pa rt of t h e s u rf ac e o f an y obj e c t rec ei v e s


,
GI I /A I CO- OS C U I CA , Ol i
L I GI I T SH A D E .

37

l i g h t w h i c h i s i rr eg ul a r l y r e e c te d to i t f ro m a l l d i rect io n s ; a n d t h e
s t ro n ge r t h es e re e c t e d r ay s t h e l ig h te r a re t h e s h adow s urface s
, ,

a n d t h e m o re p ro m i n e n t i s an y d et a i l i n t h e m .

I n F ig I 6 t h e l ig h t top of t h e p l i n t h i s re e cted i n t h e bott l e a s a


.

d e c i d ed fo rm bo u n d ed b y c u rv ed l i n es m eet i n g at po in t s w h i c h a re
,

t h e re ec tio n s of t h e co rn ers ; an d t h e p l i n t h i n Fig 1 7 i s r e ec t ed .

i n a s i m i l a r w ay i n t h e b ot t l e upo n i t .

I s g enera lly da rk . Obj e cts l es s s mo ot h t h a n t h e bo t t l es of Figs .

I 6 and 1
7 h av e re ec t ed l i g h t s w h i c h c a us e s l ig h t gra d at ion s in t h e
m a ss of t h e s h a d o w (se e F i g . a n d gen erall y t h e st ud en t w i l l n d
t h a t i n t h e e ffe ct of t h e w h ol e re ec te d l ig h t s are n o t l ig h t s b u t
,

d arks w h i c h ar e s i m p l y l ess d a rk t h a n t h e s t ron gest p arts of t h e


,

s h ad o w .

I n lo o k i n g a t d et ai l w h et h er i n t h e m as s of t h e l i g h t o r i n t h e
,

m a s s of s h a d ow t h e s t ud en t s h o u l d b l u r h i s eye s an d se e i f t h e
d e t ai l b elo n gs to t h e l ig h t o r to t h e d ark H e s h o ul d as k h i m self
.
,

D oes t h e de t ai l app ea r l ig h t o r d ar k i n t h e e f fe c t of t h e w h ol e ?
T h e t e n d e n cy i s to ex agge rat e t h e re ected l ig h ts i n t h e s h ado w
j u s t a s m u c h as t h e gray s i n t h e m as s Of t h e l ig h t a n d if t h e s t ud e n t ,

d o es n o t o fte n app l y t h e t es t s exp l a i n ed i n C h ap I I h e will not .


,

r e a l i z e t h a t ge n e r al l y t h e l i g h t s w h i c h h e sees i n t h e m ass of t h e
s h ado w are d a rk s an d t h e gr ays w h i c h h e se es i n t h e m as s of t h e
,

l ig h t ar e l i g h ts .

M a y come i n t h e li g h t . T h e l ig h t top of t h e p l i n t h i n F ig I 4 . .

gi v e s b r ig h t r e e ct io n s o n t h e b a n d s upo n t h e l ow er p art of t h e
pitc h er .
T h es e a r e re e ct e d l ig h ts t h o ug h t h ey c o m e i n t h e m a s s of
,

t h e l i g h t u p o n t h e p i tc h er an d w e se e t h at a l ig h t obj ec t m ay so
,

re e c t t h a t i t l ig h te n s t h e l i g h t as we l l as t h e s h ad o w o f an y obj ec t .

T h e r e e c t i o n of an y l ig h t obj e c t upo n an y s u rfac e i n l ig h t o r i n


s h a do w i s n ev e r a s l ig h t a s t h e re ec te d obj e c t an d t h e re e c t io n of,

a d ar k obj ec t i s n o t a s d ar k a s t h e obj ec t fo r t h e l ig h t re e ct i on i s
,

d arke n e d by l os i n g t h e l ig h t w h i c h t h e r e e ct i ng s urface ab so rb s ,

w h i l e t h e d a rk r e ec t i o n i s l ig h te n ed by t h e s u rface re e c ti n g d i f
f u s e d l i g h t rec e i v e d fro m ot h e r obj e c ts .
38 L I GH T A N D SH A D E .

T H E CA S T SH A DO W .

Genera lly a st rong T h e c as t s h ado ws a re gen e ral ly t h e


da rk .

d a r k e s t p art s of an y s ubj e c t a n d t oget h e r w i t h t h e s h ad o ws a re oft e n


,

v i s i bl e w h e n t h e l i g h t s u rfac es of t h e obj e c ts a re i n v i s ib l e T h ey .

s h o w t h e s h ap es of t h e obj ec t s c as t in g t h e m an d al so t h o se of t h e ,

obj e ct s recei v in g t h em a n d a r e m ost i m po r ta n t fe at u re s of a ny


,

s ubj ec t .

V a r i es i n v a lue T h e v al ue of a c ast s h ad o w d e p en d s upon t h e


.

c o lor of t h e s urfa ce rece i v i n g i t an d w h e n s urfac es of d i ffere n t co lo rs


,

a re p l a ce d so t h at t h ey al l re ce i ve t h e s h ado w of a n y obj e c t t h e ,

s h ad o w w i l l b e d ar k est u po n t h e d ar k es t co l o r if t h e d i ffe re n t colo rs


rec ei v e e q u al a mo un ts of re e c t ed l ig h t T h i s wo ul d h oweve r .
, ,

s el do m h appen an d on ly s tud y of n at ure w il l p rod u ce a t rue d rawi n g


, .

D a r k e r t h a n l i g h t or sh a dow C as t s h a d ow s a re gen e ral l y.

d ar k er t h an s h ado ws a n d a l l l ig h t s urfaces b ut n o r ul e c an b e ,

sta ted fo r t h e c ast s h a do w o n a l i g h t co l o r i s of ten l ig h t er t h an t h e


,

s h adow upon a d arke r col o r a n d t h e c as t s h ado w o n a l ig h t col o r


,

m a y be l ig h te r t h an t h e l ig h t s id e of a d ark obj ect T h us t h e cas t .

s h ad ow of a d a rk t ree t run k u po n w h i t e sn o w i s l ig h t er t h an t h e
-

l i g h t s i d e of t h e t re e -t run k a n d i n Fig 1 7 t h e ca s t s h ad o w of t h e
, .

cov er u po n t h e pl i n t h i s abou t t h e s am e v a l ue as t h e l ig h t upo n


t h e cov e r .

V a ri es i n sh a rpness S h adows c as t by s u nl i g h t an d by arti c i a l


.

l ig h t a re s h a rpl y d e n ed ; t h os e by st ud i o l ig h t a re s h a rp n e ar t h e
obj e cts t h at c a s t t h e m an d soft e r a s t h ey rec ed e
, S h adows c as t by .

a st ud i o l ig h t are v a r ie d by r e e cted l ig h ts as muc h as a r e t h e


s h a dows b u t by s u n l i g h t o r by a rt i c i a l l ig h t c as t s h ado ws u p on a n y
,

s urface a re m o re n e ar l y of un ifo rm v al u e .

M a sses w i t h t h e sh a dow T h e c as t s h a do w a n d t h e s h a d o w of
.

a n y obj e c t gen e ral l y form a m ass of d a rk w h i c h i n con t ra st w i t h t h e ,

m ass of t h e l ig h t p rod u ce t h e e ffe c t of t h e obj ec t Wh e n t h e obj e c t .

i s n o t n ea r t h e eye t h ese m a ss es a re v ery p rom i n e n t a n d often n o


, ,

d et ai l c an be seen i n t h em .

H i des cont ou r s a nd det a i l A s al re ad y ex p l a i n ed u n i m po rt an t


.
,

det a il d i s app e ars i n t h e s h adow a n d i n t h e s am e way i t d i s ap p e a r s


,

i n t h e ca st s h ado w an d oft en e v e n t h e fo rm or con to u r of a n obj ec t


.
OA A A I) S H A H /i 39
'

L I GH T

.

FI G . I S . F ro m P hot g p h
o ra .

is l os t i n t h e d arkn ess of t h e c as t s h ad ow T h us t h e lo we r rig h t .

c o n to u rs of t h e b o ttl e i n F ig 1 6 an d t h e po t i n F ig 1 7 a re i nv i s i b l e
. .

for a l i tt l e d i st an ce a n d t h e co n to u r of t h e
,

c yl i n d e r i n F igs 8 9 a n d 1 3 i s lo s t i n t h e
.
, ,

s h a do w t h ro w n upo n i t by t h e p l i n t h T h e co n .

tou r s h o u l d n o t b e rep res e n t ed w h en i t i s n ot


s e en fo r m uc h of t h e c h ar m of t h e b e st art i st i c
,

wo r k i s d ue to t h e s u bo rd i n a t ion of d et ai l an d ,

d i s app e ara nc e i n p art of t h e c on to u rs d ue to ,

t h e s h ad o w a n d c a s t s h ad o ws .

M u st b e ca refu lly dra w n T h e i m portan ce


.

Of c aref ul l y d raw i n g t h e d iv i d i ng l i n e of l ig h t

a n d s h a d e o n al l obj e c t s h as b een m e n t io n ed ,

a n d fro m w h a t h a s b e e n s ai d t h e st ud e n t w i l l
r ea l i z e t h a t c a ref u l d raw i n g of t h e ca s t s h ad o ws Fm 9 . 1 .
L / G /I T 4 1 V!) S I /A 0 1 5
40 1 .

i s of n o l ess i m port a n c e . T h e d ra w i ng of t h e m as ses of d a rk w h i c h


are bo un d ed by t h e d i vi d i n g l i n es of l ig h t an d s h ad e a n d t h e o ut ,

l in es of t h e cast s h adows w i l l often do m o re t o s ugges t t h e o bj ec t


t h an a correc t co n to u r ; bu t if t h e s e p a rt s a re co r re ctl y d r awn t h e ,

con to urs wi l l probably be i n co r rec t d ra wi n g I n ge n e r al a s m uc h .

atten t ion s h o ul d be g i ve n to t h e fo rm s of t h e s h adows a n d cas t


s h ado ws as to t h e con to u rs .

H elps i n t h e dra w i ng T h e fo rm s of t h e s h a d o ws a n d c as t
.

s h adows are ofte n e as i e r to se e t h an t h o s e of t h e con to urs w h ic h


are often i n v i sib l e i n pa rts an d gen e ral l y t h e s h a do ws a re s ee n rs t
,

an d co n to u rs l ast ; t h e refo re i n l ig h t a n d s h ad e s t udy i t i s n at ura l


,

t h at t h e s t ud en t begi n w i t h t h e l i g h t s a n d t h e s h ad ows i n st ea d of
wit h t h e co n to urs .

B lends w i t h t h e sh a dow U po n obj ec t s s uc h as t h o se of Fig


. .

1 8 t h e cast s h ado w a n d s h ado ws oft e n b l e n d toget h er T h us t h e .

c ast s h ad o w of t h e l ea f i n l ig h t p asse s a ro u n d t h e p l u m an d i n to t h e
s h adow upo n t h e p l um . U po n t h e v a se e ac h p roj ect i n g r in g o r
ba n d abo ut i ts s urfa ce c ast s a n a rrow s h ado w w h i c h p as ses a ro u n d ,

t h e va se an d l os e s i tse l f i n t h e s h ado w on t h e v ase S uc h c ast .

s h ado ws a re v i s ibl e on l y upon t h e l ig h t o f t h e obj ec t an d n ev e r .

exten d i n t o t h e s h ad o w to d ar k en i t T h ey a re s h arp est an d d ark es t


.

ne arest t h e p a rts t h at ca s t t h em a nd t h ey m u st b e d r awn w it h gre at


,

care . T h e s am e c a r e m u s t be e xe rc i sed i n d ra wi ng t h e d iv id i ng
l i ne of l ig h t an d s h ad e u po n e ve n t h e s m al l es t d et a i l s of t h e obj ect .

Fig 1 9 i n d i c at es t h e m as s of da rk fo rm ed by t h e s h ad o w a n d c as t
.

s h adows upon t h e top of t h e va se a n d t h e s t uden t m u st st ud y s uc h


,

d etai ls a s c areful l y a s t h ey a re i nd i cat ed i n t h e g u re .

O TH ER E FFHcT s .

S ev er a l li g h t s T h e e ffe ct s d u e to t h e m os t co m m o n l ig h t s
.

h av e b een b rie y ex pl a i n ed a n d t h e st u d e n t w il l u n d e rst an d t h a t


,

t h ey m ay b e v a ri ed i n m an y w ays I n st ea d of o n e w i n d o w a roo m
.

m ay h av e several wi nd ows M ost roo m s n ot i n t en d ed fo r s t ud i o s


.

h ave seve r a l wi n d ow s a n d t h e e ffects of l i g h t an d s h a d e t h at ma y


.

be seen a re v er y n um e rou s I n s tead of o n e arti c i al l i g h t t h ere


.

m ay b e m an y i n w h i c h c ase t h e s h a dows wi l l cl ea rl y a n d s h a rpl y


,
L I GI I T S l /A /J E
42
.

s ep a rat i o n . B ut ev e n so no te d a m a n as h e s h o ul d n ot b e acc ep ted


li t e ra lly , w i t h o u t st ud y an d if t h i s s t a te m en t o r an y o t h e r st at e m en t
,

FI G . 2 1 . F ro m S t u d y b y L e o na rd o d a V i nc i .

does not agree w it h n a t ure or wi t h t h e a rt i st s ow n d ra wi ngs w h ic h


'

. .

h ave b een ac cep t ed as good t h e st u d en t m a y co n c l ud e t h a t t h e


.

art i st d i d not sa y j ust w h a t h e m e a n t .

F ig 2 1 i s fro m a st ud y of d ra per y b y L eo n a rdo d a V i n c i a n d


. .

s h o w s t h e ca re wi t h w h i c h t h e g reate st a r ti st s wo r k a n d st ud y e v e n .
C /I I A li O OS C U A - OI I S II A D E

l L I GT! T A e )

. .

43

a ft e r t h ey b e c o m e f a mo us I t al s o s h o ws t h at t h e ad v i c e as to t h e
.

s oft e n i n g of t h e s h adow s in to t h e l ig h t s m e an s n ot w h a t t h e av e rage


r e ad e r wo ul d su p po s e b ut s i m p ly t h at t h e re m ust be t h e grad a tio n
,

of t h e h a l f l ig h ts fro m t h e s h ado w t o t h e l ig h t a s pre vi ous l y ,

e x p l a i n ed . A rt s t ud e n t s w h e n gi v e n s uc h a s ubj ect as Fi g 2 1 .
,

ofte n at te m p t to m ake t h e d ra w in g w i t h o u t c a reful l y s t udy i n g an y

of t h e l ig h ts s h ado ws re ec t ed l ig h ts et c of t h e s ubj ec t an d if
, , , .
, ,

a s k e d to d r a w t h e m a l l as c aref ul l y a s i n t h e gure t h ey fe el t h a t ,

t h ey ar e i m p ose d u pon a n d t h at s u c h stud y of d e ta i l i s m e c h an i ca l


,

a n d u n n e c es s a ry .

F ig 2 1 s h o ws t h e c a reful d raw in g w h ic h c h arac te ri zes t h e a rt i st


.

a n d w h i c h h e p uts i n to t h e most i m port an t p a rt s of a l l h i s work


an d t h e st ud e n t s h o ul d b e con t e n t t o st ud y n at u re c areful l y un t i l h e
kn o w s t h at h e c an if n eces s ary d raw a l l d et a i l t h a t h e s ee s w i t h o ut
, ,

d est roy i ng t h e m a s ses of l ig h t a n d d ark w h i c h a re t h e rs t i n t h e


ef fe c t fe l t t h o ug h gen e r al l y t h e l a st t h at t h e st u de n t s ucceed s i n
,

r ep res e n t i n g t rul y .

I M P OR T A N T P R I N C I P L ES .

N o r ul e s fo r t h e p ro d u ct io n o f d r awi ngs c an b e st at ed b ut t h e ,

e l e men t ary s t ud e n t w i l l b e ass i s t ed to s ee co rrec tly i f h e u n de rs t an d s

t h at n at u re s e f fe c ts a re gen e ra l ly i n h armo n y w i t h t h e fol lo w i ng


p r i n c i p l es
.1 Obj e ct s are s ee n t h ro ug h co n t ra sts of m asses of l ig h t a n d
m as s es of d ark .

.2 A p p e a ra n c es of l ig h t an d d ark a re r el a t i ve an y ton e be i ng ,

l i g h t i n c o m p ar is on w i t h d arker ton es an d b e in g d ark i n com p a ri so n ,

w it h l i g h t e r ton es .

3 T h e s h a do w a n d c as t s h a do w fo r m t oge t h e r a m ass of d ark


. ,

i n w h i c h esp ec i al l y w h e n obj e ct s are at a d i st a n ce d et ai l s are


, ,

h i d d en . T h i s m as s of d a rk in con t ras t wi t h t h e m ass of l ig h t


, ,

e xp re s s es t h e fo r m s of t h e obj ects an d i s t h u s of rs t i m po rt an c e to
.

t h e s t ud e n t of l ig h t a n d s h ad e .

.
4 T h e m as s of l ig h t c au s e s m uc h of t h e d etai l i n i t t o d is
ap p e a r a n d l ig h t en s t h e e ffe ct of al l s m al l s h ado ws Wi t h i n i t so
,

t h at w h ate ve r d e t ai l i s s e e n i n t h e l ig h t doe s n o t d est ro y t h e e f fec t

of t h e m ass .
L I GH T SH A D E
44 .

5 . a ny s ubj ec t t h ere i s o n e l ig h t w h i c h i s l i g h t e r t h a n al l
In
ot h ers an d on e d ark w h i c h i s d ark er t h a n a l l t h e ot h e rs
,
.

6
. W h e n l ig h t an d d ark are j uxt apo sed t h e l i g h t see m s l ig h t est
,

n ea r e st t h e d ark an d t h e d ar k appe ars d ark est n e a res t t h e l i g h t


,
.

7 A re treat i ng s h a do w s urfac e or d a rk obj ec t app ea rs d ark es t


.

n e a res t t h e e y e .

8
. A ret rea ti n g l i g h t s u rfac e o r l ig h t o bj e ct ap p e ars l ig h t es t
n ea rest t h e eye .

9 Oft wo d ark Obj ec t s of t h e s am e co lo r a n d i n t h e s a m e l ig h t


.

t h e n ea re r ap pe a rs t h e d arke r .

1 0. Of two l ig h t obj ects of t h e s a m e c o lo r a n d i n t h e s am e l ig h t ,

t h e n e are r app e ars t h e l ig h ter .

I I. T h e c as t s h ad o w of a ny obj ect i s d a rke st a n d s h arp est i n out


l i n e n ea rest t h e obj ec t w h i c h ca st s i t .

1 2. W h e n t h e s h ad o w of a ny obj ec t fa l l s u po n t wo i n te rse ct i ng
s u rface s fo r i n stan ce a h o ri z on ta l su rfa c e s up po rt in g a v e rt i c al t h e
, , ,

s h ad o w m us t p a s s co n t i n uo usl y from o n e to t h e o t h e r a n d c h ange ,

i t s d i rect io n a t t h e i n t e rsec t i on of t h e t wo s u rfa ce s .

1
3
. T h e s h ado w of a s t ra ig h t l i n e u po n a p l an e s u rface i s a
st rai g h t l i n e .

1 4. T h e s h ado w of a st ra ig h t l i n e upo n a c u r ve d s u rface gen eral l y


appea rs c u r ved .

1
5 W h en a sp h e re i s ex posed to on e s id e l i g h t t h e h ig h es t l ig h t
.
,

i s n ot u pon t h e con to u r of t h e S p h e re b u t w i t h i n t h e c o n t ou r an d ,

from t h i s gl i tt e r o r h ig h l ig h t t h e re i s a gr ad ua l l y i n cre a s i n g to n e
i n a l l d i recti o n s to w a rd t h e con t ou r T h e s t ro n ge st s h ad ow on t h e
.

sp h e re i s at t h e d iv i di ng l i n e of l i g h t an d s h ad e w h i c h gen e ral ly ,

appea rs an el l i pse . T h e st ron ges t re ec t e d l ig h t i s b e t wee n t h e


co n tou r an d t h e stron ges t s h ad o w .

1 6. W h e n a c yl i n d er i s ex pose d to on e si d e l ig h t t h e h i g h est ,

l ig h t i s n ot u po n t h e co n to ur bu t u pon a n e l e m en t w it h i n t h e con t ou r
, .

Fro m t h i s e l em en t t h er e i s a grad ua l l y i n c re a s i n g t on e i n b ot h d i rce


tion s towa rd t h e co n to u r e l em en ts T h e s t ron ges t s h ado w i s upon
.

t h e el em en t w h i c h sep a ra tes l i g h t fro m s h ad ow an d t h e s t ro ngest ,

re ec ted l ig h t bet ween t h i s e l e m e n t an d t h e co n to u r e l e m e n t .

1
7 W h e n a con e i s ex po sed to o n e s i d e l ig h t t h e h ig h es t l ig h t i s
.
,

u po n an e l em e n t w h i c h i s wi t h i n t h e c o nto u r F ro m t h i s el em e n t
.
C I I /A A O OS C U I I A 0k

A I VD SH A D E

L I GH T
,
.

45

t h e r e i s a gr a d u a l l y i n crea s in g ton e i n bo t h d i re ct io n s to wa rd t h e
c o n to ur el e m en ts . T h e st ron ges t s h adow i s u po n t h e e l e m en t
s ep ar a t i n g l ig h t fro m s h adow an d t h e s t ron ges t re ec te d l ig h t i s
,

b etw ee n t h i s s h ado w e l e m en t an d t h e c on to u r e l em en t .

1 8
. Obj e c t s a r e e i t h er i n w h ol e or i n p ar t l i g h ter or d ar k er t h an

t h e p ar ts agai n s t w h i c h t h ey a re s ee n an d t h erefor e t h e t r ue v al u es
,

a n d e fe c t of an y Obj e ct c an n o t be rep re sen ted wi t h o ut rep re sen t i n g


t h e v a l u es of t h e p arts su rro u n d i n g i t .

1
9
. A n y obj ec t m ay pr es e n t a n i n n ite n u mb e r of d i f
fe re n t
a pp e ar a n c e s
.
CH A P TE R I I .

VA L U E S A N D TH E I R T E STS .

VA LU ES .

D eni t i on . Va l ue me a n s t h e re l at i o n s of ton es to e a c h ot h e r ,

a n d con c er n s t h e qua n t i ty of l ig h t o r d ark t h ey re e c t w i t h o u t regard


t o color so t h ere m a y b e m an y d iffere n t co l ors of t h e s a m e v a l ue
e

,
.

W i t h d i ffere nt col ors t h ere i s us u al l y a d i ffere n c e i n v a l ue so t h at a ,

l ig h t an d s h ad e d raw i n g m ay g en er al l y b e t rue to n at ure i n v al ues


a n d yet s ugges t t h e d i ffe ren t c ol ors t h ro ug h ou t t h e subj ec t .

Va l u e h as t o t a k e i n to a c co un t n o t o n l y d i ffe ren t col o rs b u t d if


fere a t to n e s of t h e s am e col o r a n d al so va r ia t ion s i n t h e e ffec t of
,

on e to n e o r co l o r w h i c h a re prod u ced by d i s ta n c e o r b y l ig h t an d
s h ad e an d va l ue i s gen e ral l y u n ders too d b y a rt is ts to m ea n v a ri a
,

t io n s of l ig h t a nd d ar k p rod u c e d by a n y c a us e w h atev e r A l l t h e .

v ar i at i on s of e ffec t expl a i n e d i n C h ap I are d i f .feren ce s i n v al ue ,

an d t h e s tud en t w i l l at o n ce s ee t h a t up o n t h e v al u es d ep en d s m ost
of t h e m eri t of a ny bl ac k a n d w h i te st u d y .

U ni t of v a l u e . I n a l ig h t a n d s h ad e d raw i n g b l a c k i s u s ual l y
ta k e n as t h e u n i t fo r com p ari son t h e st ro n ges t v a l ue s b e i n g t h os e
,

w h i c h are n eares t b l ac k t h e l owes t (l ig h tes t ) v a l ue s t h os e w h i c h


,

are fa rt h est from b l ack . I n co l o r wor k t h e u n i t for com p a ri so n i s


w h i te t h e st ron gest va l ue s are t h ose w h i c h re ec t t h e mo s t l i g h t to
,

t h e eye an d t h e lowes t (d arkest ) v a l u es t h os e w h i c h s en d t h e l east


,

l ig h t to t h e e y e.

T ru t h of v a l u e . T h e a rt s tu den t s h ou l d b e con t i n ua l l y a ski n g


h i m sel f if h i s d r aw in g i s l i ke n at u re an d h i s rs t p rob l e m s s h o u l d
,

d ea l pr in c ip al l y w i t h c om p a r is o n s of h i s w o rk w i t h n at u r e w h i c h h e
,

w i l l gen era l l y b e abl e to m a k e so a s to d is cov e r an y i m po r ta n t d if


,

fe re nc es . H e re t h e q ue s t ion a ri s es H ow fa r i s i t poss i b l e t o i m i t a te
,


n at u re ? T h e stro n g e st l i g h t of t h e a rt is t i s giv en b y w h i t e p a i n t ;
ev en t h e e ffect of s un l ig h t upon p ure w h i t e m u s t b e r ep res e n t e d b y
m ea ns of w h i te pa i n t . H en c e t h e b ri g h t l i g h t s of n at u re are ofte n
l -
'

1 L UE S T H E /I f T E S T S
47
. . .

m uc h b r ig h te r t h a n t h o s e Of a p a i n t i ng see n i n t h e l ig h t of a n y
co m m o n gal l e ry o r roo m I t i s n at u r al t h e n t o ask i f i t i s pos s ib l e
.
, ,

i n e v e ry c a s e t o p ro d u ce a p ic t ur e w h i c h i s l i k e n at ure I t i s w e l l .

to c o n s i d e r t h i s po i n t al t h o ug h t h is q u es ti on i s m ore i m po rt an t to
,

t h e a rti st t h a n to t h e el em en t a ry s tud en t w h o works i n a s t ud io a n d


d oe s n ot h av e s u -nli g h t e ffe cts to re p res en t .

T h e s t ro n ges t l ig h ts of a l an d s c ape w h et h e r i n su n l ig h t or i n
,

moo n l ig h t ar e repre s e n te d by t h e s a m e w h i te p a i n t wi t h p e r h a p s
, ,

f ai n t t in t s of w a r m a n d c oo l co l o rs r esp ec ti ve ly ad ded S un l ig h t .

i s m an y t i m es b rig h t e r t h an m oo n l ig h t ; a n d yet on e p i ct ur e suggest s


s un l i g h t sat i sf a ctor i ly a n d t h e o t h er m oon l ig h t
, ,
N e i t h er p i c t u re
.

r e p res en t s n a t u re b u t s i m pl y s uggests o n e of h er effec ts


, I n ea c h .


p i c tu re t h e art is t s p rob l e m i s v er y d i ffe ren t f rom t h at of t h e s t ud e n t ,

w h o wo rks i n d oo rs a n d c a n p l ac e h i s d raw i ng bes i de t h e s u bj ec t


a n d s t ud y b ot h a t a n eq ua l d i st a n ce an d i n t h e s am e l ig h t I n s uc h .

a c as e t h o ug h t h e gl i tt e r l i g h t s of t h e subj ec t m ay be l ig h t er t h a n
,

t h o s e of t h e d r awi n g t h ere i s n ot t h e gre at d i fferen ce t h at ex ist s


,

b e t we e n t h e h ig h l ig h ts o u t of doo rs an d t h e e ffec t of w h i t e p a i n t i n
a st ud i o ; h e n ce t h e a rt s t ud en t i s oft e n ab l e to m a k e a d rawi n g
w h o se c o n t ras ts a re as gre at a s t h o s e of t h e s u bj ec t i n a s t u d io .

W i t h col o r h e c a n d o t h i s m o re fre q uen t ly t h a n wi t h b l ack an d


w h i te . B u t w h en h e a t te m pt s s u n l ig h t e f fects i t is im poss ib l e to
,

ob t a i n i n an y d r aw i n g l ig h ts e q ua l i n i n t en s i t y t o t h os e of n at u re ,

W i t h t h e s am e co n t ras ts of b l a c k a n d w h i t e a n d colo r h e i s obl iged


to gi v e t h e e ffe c t of m oo n l ig h t a n d of l ig h t m an y t i m es s t ro n ge r .

N ot reprodu ced , b u t su g g est ed T h e art is t i s ab l e to rep resen t


.

wi t h t h e sa m e p igm en ts s u c h v e ry d i fferen t e ffects b e c au se h e i s ,

n o t ob l i ged to n p m a zzm t h e a ctu al col ors o r co n t ra st s b u t s i m p l y to ,

A s s h o w n i n C h ap I n a t u r e s e ffec ts a re d u e to
'

s ug g es t t h em . .
,

co n t r a st s of m as ses of l i g h t an d d ark a n d col o r an d w h e n ev er ,

t h e se con tr ast s are s ugges ted t h e e ffe ct of t h e subj e c t w i l l be cre


,

ated T h e m a s ses a r e m u c h m o re s i m p l e b y m oo n l ig h t t h a n by su n
.

l i g h t b u t e i t h e r e ffe c t w i l l b e e xp res s ed by r ep res en t i n g cor rec tl y


,

t h e r el at i on s of t h e v ar io u s m a ss es of l ig h t a n d d ark ; i n ot h er
word s t h e p rob l e m i s si m pl y t h at of v al ues I f t h e rel at io n of a n y
,
.

l ig h t o r d ark to e very ot h e r i n t h e m oo n l ig h t s ubj ec t i s corre c t ly


gi v en t h e p i c t u r e w i l l cr e ate a s at i sf a c to ry i mp r es s i on of m o on l ig h t
, ,
48 [ J G /I T A A Z)
'

an d i n t h e sa me w ay t h e e ffec t of s u n l ig h t wi l l b e gi v en by a p i c t ure
w h i c h gi ves t h e r e l at io n s b e t wee n t h e d i f fe ren t m a s ses of t h e s un l it
l an d scap e .

H i g h or low . I n t h e c a se of m oon l ig h t o r t h at of s un l ig h t t h e ,

p ict u re m ay b e i n a h i g h k ey o r i n a l ow key an d s t i l l p rod uc e


a s at i sfacto ry i m p res s io n of t h e s ubj e ct T h us t h e s am e s u n l ig h t
.

e ffec t m ay b e rep rese n te d by t wo p i c t u res o n e v ery m uc h d a rker


.

t h ro ug h o u t t h a n t h e ot h e r ; o r t h e s a m e m oon l ig h t e ffect by t wo ,

p i ct u res of w h i c h o n e t h ro ug h o u t i s v e ry m uc h l ig h te r t h an t h e
ot h er T h e rel at io n s of l i g h t to d a rk i n ea c h p a i r a re h ow eve r t h e
.
, ,

sa m e a n d s o t h ey gi v e t h e e ffe c t o f s un l ig h t o r of m oon l ig h t w h i l e
, ,

t h e i r ge n eral e ffe ct i s v e ry d i ffe ren t I t i s i n fac t p os s ibl e for a


.

s at i sfactory i m press ion of moon l ig h t upo n a n y s ubj ec t to b e given


by a p i ct u re w h ose gen e ral e ffec t i s l it tl e if a n y d arke r t h an t h a t of
, ,

a not h e r can vas w h i c h gi ve s a sat i sfac tory i m p res s i o n of s u n l ig h t


u po n t h e sa m e s ubj ec t .

W h et h er t h e l ig h t u po n a n y s ubj e c t b e st ron g o r w e ak i t w i l l p ro
,

d uc e m ass e s of l ig h t an d d ark an d grad at io n s of to n e ; a n d if t h e


rel at ion s of t h es e m asses a n d to n es are co rr ect l y rep re se nt ed t h e ,

e ffec t of t h e s ubj ec t w i l l b e exp ressed w h e t h e r t h e c on t ra s t b et w e en


,

t h e d i fferen t v al ues i s ve ry st ron g o r n o t T h ere a re n o m o re l i g h ts


.

o r n o m o re s h adows w i t h a s t ro n g l ig h t t h an w i t h a w e ak o n e an d .

t h e re a re as m an y grad at io n s of l ig h t an d s h ad e w i t h t h e fo rm er a s
w it h t h e l atte r ; i n fac t t h e re i s ofte n l es s grad at io n w i t h t h e st rong
,

l ig h t t h a n w i t h t h e w ea k S o i t i s s i m pl y a q uest io n o f v a l u es an d
.
,

t h e we a k n ess of p igm e n ts i n co n t ras t w i t h n at u re i s a d i fi c ul ty


w h i c h h a s b ee n gre atl y m agn i ed To p ro d uc e a s t ron g p i c t ure i t i s
.

n ot n eces s a ry t h a t t h e re s h o ul d b e v i ol en t co n t rast s o f l ig h t an d d a rk ,

b ut s i m pl y t h at t h e rel at ion s of t h e p ri n c i pa l m asses b e tr ul y gi v en


an d t h e stud e n t s h o ul d a p pl y h i m s elf t o t h e s t ud y of v al u es u n t i l
abl e to s e e q u i ckl y a n d re nd e r t rul y t h e rel at io n s be t wee n al l pa rt s
of a s ubj ec t ; fo r u n t i l h e c a n d o t h is h e c an no t p rod u c e a p i c t u re
w h i c h w i l l gi v e t h e e ffe ct of n at u re H e m ay m ake t h e m o st p e rfe c t
.

s t ud i es of for m b ut i f w i t h o u t v al ues t h ey w i l l be u n a t mosp h e ri c


, ,
,

un n at ural a n d u n s ati sfacto ry


, .

M ust b e st u di ed . T h e fal l a cy of t h e b e l i ef t h a t a l l t h at a s t u d en t
h as to d o i s to l ea rn to d ra w an d t h a t v al ues w i l l co m e t h e n a s a
,
50 LI GH T A N !) S l /A D E .

r ul e w h ic h forbi d s t h e us e of p ure b l ack i n a n y co l o r s t ud y B u t t he .

s tuden t of lzg lzt a nd s/za r/e wor k s wi t h m ed i um s f a r l e s s powe rfu l t h an


col o r an d i t i s often n eces s ary or desi r ab l e fo r h i m to r ep rese n t t h e
,

stron ges t d a rk i n h is s ubj e ct by t h e s t ro nges t d a rk to b e ob ta i n e d wi t h


t h e m ed i u m e mp l oye d ; fo r by s o d o in g h e i s ab l e t o gi v e m ore of t h e
grad at ion s i n t h e m ass o f t h e l ig h t t h an c an b e gi ven i f t h e st ro n gest
d a rk of t h e gro up i s r ep rese n ted by gray A n d w h en ev e r t h e st ro n ges t
.

dark of an y s ubj ec t s ee m s v e ry d ark i n co n t ra st wi t h t h e l ig h t a nd ,

n o d et ai l i s seen i n it t h e s tud e n t s h o u l d gen e ral ly represen t t h i s d ark


,

by t h e stron gest d ark to b e ob t ai n ed wi t h t h e m ed iu m u sed B ut .

t h i s a ccen t o r spo t of b l a ck m us t be v ery sm a l l ; fo r i f a n y l a rge p ar t


o f t h e d rawi n g i s wi t h o ut t h e grad a t ion se e n i n al l p art s of t h e subj ect ,

i t w i l l n o t b e a t mosp h er i c a n d t h e refore n o t n a t u ral


, T h e s t ud en t .

m u s t h ave i n a n y d ra w i n g o n e h i g h l ig h t t h a t i s on e l i g h t w h i c h i s
, ,

b ri g h te r t h a n al l ot h ers an d on e d ark w h i c h i s d arke r t h an a l l ot h e r


,

d ar k s b u t h e m ust be p arti c ul arl y carefu l n o t to use p u re b l ac k freel y


, .

A s al ready s h o w n a d r aw in g m ay b e up on a l ig h t k ey o r upon a
,

d ar k on e B u t t h e most t rut h f ul rep rese n ta t ion of t h e a pp eara n ces


.

d ue t o d ayl ig h t e it h e r i n do ors o r ou tdoo rs w i l l b e gi v en by on e


, ,

w h i c h at fi rst gl an c e gi v e s t h e i m p res s ion of l ig h t an d co lo r Gen .

e ra lly t h e s t u d e n t w i l l f
i n d t h e l ig h t est d raw i ng w h i c h c a n b e m ad e

to s ugges t t h e m asse s of l ig h t an d d ar k a n d t h e p ri n c i pa l gra d ati on s


,

i n t h e m as s of l ig h t w i l l b e m o s t t r ue t o n a t ure ; fo r w h e n i t i s seen
f ro m a s h o rt d i s ta n c e t h e d et ai l i s se en a n d w h en s ee n fro m a l on g
,

d i st an ce i t gi v es t h e e ffec t of l ig h t an d n a t ur e w h i c h c an n o t b e pro ,

d u c e d by a d ra w in g w h ose l i g h ts a re so d a rk t h a t a t a d i s t an ce t h e
d r awi n g s eem s l argel y o r w h o l l y d ar k .

V a l u es ma y b e c h a nged T h e v al ue b y w h i c h an y p art of a n y
.

s ubj e c t s h al l b e rep re se n te d d epen d s so m e w h a t upo n t h e exte n t a n d


n atu re of t h e s ubj ec t T h us s uppo s e a g ro up si m i l a r t o t h at of
.
,

F i g 1 8 pl ac e d u pon a t ab l e cov e red wi t h bl ac k d ra p e rv w h i c h h an gs


.
,

i n fol d s to t h e f l oo r t h e group b e i n g l i g h ted b y a fe eb l e l i g h t f rom


,

b e h i n d or a t t h e l eft of t h e sp ect ato r a n d a w i nd o w b e i n g s it u at ed


,

so m e d is t an c e to t h e l eft o f t h e gro up t h roug h w h i c h a s un l i t l an d


,

s c ape i s s een . I f t h e roo m wi t h i ts co n te n t s i s to b e rep res en ted .

t h e m ass of l i g h t w i l l b e t h e w i n d ow T h e group w i l l s e e m co m
.

pos ed of g ra y colo rs a n d t h e s t ron ges t d arks w i l l b e u p o n t h e b l ac k


,
VA L U E S

A A Z) T/l E /A T E S TS

.

SI

d r ap ery . I f s i m p ly t h e gro up i s t o b e rep r ese n ted t h e m os t t r ut h f u l ,

d raw i n g w i l l b e t h a t w h i c h gi v es t h e v a l u es s een w h en t h e gro up i s


c om p are d w it h i t s s u r ro u n d i ngs T h e mos t t r ut h ful rep resen t at io n
.

of t h e l a n d s c ap e al on e w i l l be t h a t w h i c h giv es t h e i mp r ess io n of t h e
b r i l l i an c y of l ig h t an d co l o r s ee n t h ro ug h t h e w i nd ow T h e st ud en t .

s h o ul d a i m to r ep r ese n t t r u l y n o t o n l y t h e rel at i v e v al ues b u t as far ,

as p o s s ib l e t h e ac tu al v a l ues s e en i n a ny s ubj ect an d i n order to d o ,

t h is h e s h o u l d co m p a r e t h e v al ues w it h p ure b l ack m ater i a l w h i c h i s


h e l d i n t h e h an d an d s h ad ed so a s to ap pe ar b l ac k .

W h en t h e st ud en t c an re p res en t t rul y t h e a ct u a l v al u es i n a n y s ub
jec t a s f ar as t h i s i s po ss i b l e t h e v al u es m ay b e c h a nged j u st a s t h e
, ,


fo r m a n d c ol o r m ay b e c h an ge d to m o r e p e rfect l y exp res s t h e a rt i s t s
,

s e n t i m e n ts T h u s t h e v a l u es of a n y s ubj ec t s uc h a s t h e gro up a l o n e
.

m ay b e c h a n ged s o t h a t t h e l ig h ts of t h e gro up are l i g h t e r t h a n t h ey


s ee m w h e n co m p a r ed w i t h t h e h ig h l ig h t s s een t h ro ug h t h e w i nd ow ,

a n d s o t h at t h e d ark s a re s om e w h a t d arke r t h an t h e d ar k s of t h e
gro up ap p ea r w h e n t h ey a re c om pare d w it h t h e s tro nges t d ar k s of t h e
ro o m . A n d i n r ep rese n t i n g t h e l a n d sc ap e a l on e i t s d ark s m ay b e
m a d e d a rk e r t h a n t h ey s ee m w h e n t h ey a re co m p ared w i t h t h o s e of
t h e roo m . B u t i n a l l work i n w h i c h i t i s d es i red to gi v e t h e e f
fe ct of
t h e l ig h t a n d col o r see n i n n a ture i t w i l l b e wel l to keep t h e d r aw i ng
,

as l u m i no u s as pos sib l e an d to h av e t h e s tronge st d ar k s i n i t s i m p l y


,

t h e a c cen ts or s m al l b i t s of d a rk w h i c h m ay b e p u r e bl ack or n ot
, ,

a c cor d in g to t h e n at u re of t h e s ubj e ct a n d t h e m ed i u m u sed .

F ix i n g a c h a rc o a l d r a w i n g d arken s i t esp e c i al ly i n t h e l ig h t er
,

ton es . T h i s i s an o t h er r eas on w h y s u c h d r aw i ngs s h o u l d b e v ery


lum inous .

N ecessa ry i n a ll w ork .S t ud en ts o ften wi s h to l ea rn t o i l l us


t ra t e ; t h at i s to t ak e l es so n s t h at w i l l e n ab l e t h e m to m a k e d raw
,

i n gs t o b e re p ro d u ce d by so m e of t h e s pe c i a l p roc e ss es T h e y .

ofte n t h i n k t h a t t h ey c a n do t h i s w i t h ou t go in g t h ro ug h t h e sev ere


t ra i n in g n e ed ed b y t h e a rt st ud e n t B u t i t is a m i st ake fo r an y o n e
.

to st ud y p ro c ess e s un t i l h e c an dr aw an d t h e st ud en t w h o w i s h e s
,

to i l l us t rat e s h o u l d s t ud y a rt i n t h e s a m e w ay an d j us t a s lo n g a s t h e
art i s t s t ud i es W h en o n e k n o w s h o w to d r aw t h e s ki l l r eq u i red fo r
. ,

m aki n g d r a w i n gs t o b e sp e c i a l l y r e p ro d uc e d w i l l b e ga i n e d i n a v ery
s h ort ti me .
L I GH T A N !) SH A D E
52 .

T ES TS FO R VA LU ES .

P erfect si g h t not mmon


co T h e rs t a n d mos t d i fc u l t p rob
.

le m for t h e a rt st ud en t i s to l e ar n t o see for o n l y a f ew e ve r l e arn


,

to s ee p e rfec t ly ; an d t h ose n o t gi vi n g t h e m a tte r s p ec i al at t en t ion


s el do m s ee t h e a c tu al a pp ea ran c e o f e i t h e r fo rm l ig h t a n d s h a d e or ,

co lo r.

To r eal i z e p erfectl y w h at t h e eye p i ct ures fo r t h e m in d to read


con ce rn i n g s i m p l y t h e a pp aren t fo rm s of o bj ects r e q u i res m any
ye ars of s e rio u s s t udy an d i s so d i f c ul t t h at ev en afte r t h i s st udy
,

t h e art i s t of r ep ut at i on i s v e ry ap t to b e d e ce i v ed an d d ra w w h at is
v ery d iffe re n t fr om t h e i m age of t h e eye I n F ree H a nd D ra wi ng
.
~

i t wa s s h own t h at a co u rs e i n fre e h an d p ersp e c ti v e assi sts t h e


-

s tud en t to a vo i d f a ul ty re p re se n ta t io n s of t h e geom et ri c form s ,

w h i c h a re m os t l i kel y to d e ce i ve e v en t h e p rac t i ce d eye of t h e art ist .

A n y st uden t w h o d raw s t h e geo m et r i c fo rm s a n d t e st s t h e m as ,


expl ai n ed i n Fre e H an d D raw in g w i l l soo n rea l i z e t h at i t i s d i f
-
, c ul t
to s ee co rrec tl y ; for h e n d s w h at h e t h i n ks h e s ee s to b e v e ry d i fer
e n t fro m w h at t h e tests p rov e t h at h e d oes s ee an d i t i s e as y for h i m ,

to co n v i n c e h i m sel f t h a t h e c an n o t s ee correc tl y :
V a lues more di fcult t h a n dra w i ng I o con v i n ce an a rt s t u
'

d en t t h a t h e c an no t se e l ig h t a n d s h ad e o r c ol o r co rre c t l y i s fa r
m ore d i fi c ul t t h a n t o p rov e t h a t h e c a n n o t s ee fo rm c or rec t l y To .

d ra w correc t l y req ui res rs t a n ey e n at ura l ly t rue an d s ec ond a


, , , , ,

se ri o us an d ex ten d ed c o ur s e of st ud y ; b u t al m o st e ve ry se ri o us
s t ud en t c a n i n t i m e t eac h h i m se lf to rep re sen t for m c orrec t ly T h e .

sa m e s t ud en t m ay wo rk m an y m on t h s ev e n w i t h t h e as s i stan c e of a
,

t e ac h e r an d fai l to s ee v al u es o r c ol o r co rre ct l y
, .

To gi ve t h e ac t u al facts p ic t u red i n t h e eye co n ce rn i n g l ig h t d ark , ,

an d col or i s so d ifc ul t t h at fe w s uc ce ed ; an d eve n afte r y e ars of


s tudy m an y se e i n n at u re on l y t h e a c t ua l fac t s kn o wn o r w h a t t h ey ,

h ave beco m e ac c usto m ed t o t h i n k t h ey s e e c on c e rn i n g t h e l oc al


col ors of obj ec ts .

V a lu es not t a u g h t . I f a rt i st s a n d t ea c h e rs gen e r al ly m ad e t h e
s t u d y of v a l ues as i m portan t as t h a t of for m d o ub t l es s m an y st u d e n ts
,

w h o d o no t u n d erst an d w h at v al ue m ea n s wo ul d b ec o m e ab l e t o s e e
v al ues cor re ctl y ; b u t t h e n um b er w o u l d be s m a l l co m pa red w i t h t h at
VA L ( E S
'

J A Y) T H E /I
f
T E S TS
53
x
.

of t h o s e w h o are ab l e to d r a w cor re c tl y for se rio us s t ud e n ts of t h e


,

b es t t e ac h ers o ft e n wo rk for m an y m on t h s be fo re t h ey real i z e h o w


i n c o rre c t l y t h ey s e e v a l ue s .

T h e t eac h e r w h o i n s i st s upo n co rrec t v al u es req ui re s m uc h


p a t i e nc e a n d i n gen u i ty for h i s p up i l s c a n n o t r e ad i l y h el p t h e m
,

s el v e s n or c a n t h ey b el i e ve t h e t e ac h e r w h o t el l s t h em for i n s tan c e
, , ,

t h at t h ey o ug h t to s ee i n so m e s pe c i a l grou p d ark b l ue l ig h t er t h a n
, ,

y e llow w h e n t h ey kno w t h a t t h ey se e i t a s t h ey t h i n k i t o ug h t to ap pear


, ,

d arke r t h a n t h e yel l o w I n s uc h c ases t h e tea c h er m us t ei t h e r b e


.

co n t en t to s ay : I fyo u c a n n ot se e i t yo u m us t d raw i t as I s ay an d
, ,

i n ti m e yo u w i l l s e e i t a s I d o o r h e m us t p ro ve to t h e m t h at at rs t
,

t h e i r ey es te l l t h e m n ot h in g b u t t h e m os t gl ari ng fal s e h o ods abo u t a l l


t h at t h ey s ee .W h e n p u p i l s re a l i z e t h i s fa c t a n d h a v e on ce re c e i ved
,

a ge n u i n e s ig h t i m p res s io n c o n ce r ni ng v a l ue s t h ey w i l l ev er after ,

wa rd s ee t h in gs i n a n e w w ay an d t h e i r i mp rove m e n t w i l l b e ra p i d
, .

E y e sees det a i l s i nst ea d of v a l u es To s ee v al ue s an d rea l i z e


.

t h e e ffe c t of t h e ma s s es t h e ey e m us t b e use d for t h i s p urpos e


,

o n l y T h is i s a d i f c ul t p rob l e m fo r t h e st ud en t fo r n a t ura l l y t h e
.
,

ey e i s foc us e d upon a s in gl e d et a i l w h i c h i s c l e arly s ee n


, Th e .

v i s io n p a sse s ra p id l y o ve r t h e w h ol e of t h e gro up t ak i ng i n a ll i t s ,

d e t a i l s b y m e an s of t h is c a refu l s t ud y w h ic h i s of j ust t h e s am e
,

n a t ur e a s t h a t w h ic h t h e s c i en ti st b esto ws t h ro ug h h is m ic roscop e
up o n t h e sp e c i m e n s h e st ud i es T h e on l y d i ffe ren c e i n t h e i r m et h od s
.

i s t h a t t h e m ot io n of t h e eye o f t h e a rt st ud en t i s v ery rap id an d ,

t h at t h e l en s of t h e ey e t akes t h e p l a ce of t h e m i croscope T h e .

s c i e n t i s t s ee s d et a i l s a n d v e ry p rop e r ly s i n c e t h es e are w h at h e i s t o
, ,

d esc r i b e T h e a r t st u de n t al so s e es d e ta i l s a n d too ofte n h i s wo rk


.
,

i n d i c at es t h a t h e m us t h a v e ex a m i n ed e ac h l i t t l e b i t as i f t h ro ug h a
m i c ro sco p e I n h i s rs t d r aw i ngs h e u s u al l y so magn i es t h e i mpo rt
.

a n c e of e ve ry d e ta i l t h at h i s d raw in g i s u n i n tel l igi bl e an d gi ve s n o t ,

t h e fa i n t es t s uggest io n of t h e i m pres s i o n p rod u ce d upo n t h e eye


w h i c h s e e s t h e e ffec ts ofl ig h t d a rk a n d col o r i n t h e i r t rue r el at i on s
, , .

T h e ar t s t ud e n t mus t l e a rn t h at t h e a r t i s t a n d s c i en t is t work fo r
en ti re l y d i ffe re n t e n d s t h a t t h e a i m of t h e art i st i s n o t de ta i l b ut
, ,

t h e sp i ri t a n d c h a r ac te r of t h e w h ol e an d t h at t h i s c a n n o t b e o b ta i n ed
,

w it h o u t m ak i ng i t of rs t i m po rt a n c e a n d t h i n k i n g rs t of t h e l on g
l i n e s t h e l a rge m as ses a n d t h e e ffe ct of t h e w h ol e s ubj ec t
, ,
.
'

L /Gl / T A A D SH A D E
54 .

B lu r r ed V i si on necessa r y T h e e ffec t of a ny s ubj ec t i s n e ve r


.

rea l i zed w h en t h e s tud e n t l ooks a t an y o n e p ar t ; h e m u s t l ook a t t h e


gro u p a l l a t o n c e T h e w h o l e of an y s ubj ec t c a n b e s een a t o n ce
.

o n l y by s eei ng al l i ts p art s e q u al l y a n d t h us i n d i s t i n ct l y T h a t is .
,

t h e eye m ust foc us on n o on e p a rt b u t b e i n fo c us for a n obj ec t i n


,

fro n t of o r b e h in d t h e gro up ; t h e n al l i t s p ar ts m ay b e see n i n d ist i n ctly


a t o n e t im e T h e s tud en t wi l l rea l i z e w h a t i s m e an t by b l u rred v is ion
.

b y c losi n g t h e e y e s grad u al l y un t i l t h e gro up c an b a rely b e s een b e


t ween t h e l id s a n d t h e l as h es ; t h i s c ut s off mo s t of t h e l ig h t an d
o bs t ru c ts t h e sig h t so t h at t h e obj ect s a re b l u rred B l u rr ed v is ion .

m ay a l so b e ob tai n e d by h ol d in g a p e n c i l i n t h e h a n d a nd i n fro n t of
t h e grou p an d loo ki ng a t t h e p en c i l w h i c h w i l l b e s ee n s h a rp ly w h i l e
, ,

t h e gro up w i l l b e s een v er y in d i st i n ct l y To se e t h e w h o l e a t on c e
.

i s d i f cu l t fo r t h e a rt s tud en t b ut t h e art i st n d s i t e asi e r t h a n t h e


,

s e arc h in g ga ze w h i c h t h e a rt st ude n t e m pl oys b ec aus e t h e ar t is t s ees


,

e ffec ts u n co n s c io u sly wi t h b l u rred v i s io n w h i c h do es n ot t ire t h e eyes


, .

M an y a id s to t h e co rrect se e i n g of v a l u es h a v e b ee n u s ed ; among
t h e m t h e fo l l o wi n g are t h o se of m os t as si s t an ce to t h e st ud e nt .

Cla u de L or r a i n mi r r or T h i s i s a m i rro r w h i c h giv es a r ed uc ed


.

i m age of t h e obj ec t a n d h as a b l ac k re fl e ct i n g s u rfac e w h i c h d i m in


,

i s h e s t h e l ig h t so t h at t h e r el at i ve v al ues m ay b e st ud i ed more re adi ly


t h an i n t h e gro up . A s ub st i t u t e m ay b e m ad e by p a i n t i n g on e s id e
o f an ord i n a r y p ie c e of p l at e g l ass w i t h i vo ry b l ack .

Common mi r r or . T h i s i s ofte n u se d by a rti s ts a n d i s a v a l uabl e


a i d as i ts i m ag e re ve rse s t h e l i n es of t h e gro u p an d t h e d ra wi ng
, .

an d b y s h ow i ng t h e p art s i n n e w rel a t i o n s m akes e r ro rs p rom i n en t to


w h i c h t h e eye h as b ecom e acc us tom ed W h e n t h e d r a w i ng i s p l a ced
.

b es i de t h e gro u p an d t h e m i rro r as fa r a s pos si bl e from t h e group i t


, ,

en abl es comp a ri so n s to be m ad e fro m a d i st a n c e t w i c e t h a t w h i c h


coul d o t h erwi s e be obt ai n ed T h e s t ud e n t w i l l ob tai n m uc h as s ist
.

a n ce from t h i s m i rror .

D i mi ni sh i ng g l a ss T h i s i s a l en s con c ave o n o n e o r bo th sid es


.
,

w h i c h p rod uc es a sm a l l c l ear i mage of t h e gro u p T h e i m age i s so .

s m al l t h at i t m a y re ad i l y b e se e n at on e gl an ce a n d t h u s t h e v al ues .

of t h e d i fferen t p art s b e m ore easi l y see n B u t ev en h e re t h e t en


.

d e nc y i s fo r t h e s t ud e nts to st u d y t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e i m age i n st ea d o f
i ts e ffe c t s an d t h u s l ose t h e ad va n t age to be d e ri v ed fro m t h e gl a ss
,
.
VA L U E S
'

A A I) T H E /R T E S TS .

55

T h o ug h t h e se a id s are v e ry v al u ab l e t h ey oft en fai l to m ake t h e


,

s t ud en t s ee fo r t h e rs t t i m e t h e fa c t t h at a d a rk c ol o r m ay app e ar
l ig h t e r t h an a l ig h t co lo r a n d t h e o n l y m e a n s o n w h i c h acco rd i n g to
, ,

my e xp e r i e n ce t h e begi n n er c a n s afely d epe n d fo r co rrec t io n s of v al ue s


,

a re t h e b l ur gl as s an d t h e c a rd d es c ri bed o n page 57 .

T h e b lu r g l a ss . T h i s i s s i m pl y a n o rd i n a ry m agn ify i ng gl as s of
ab ou t 1 5 i n c h e s fo c us I t s h o ul d n o t b e l ess t h an 1 2 i n c h e s foc us o r
.

mo re t h an 1 6 i n c h es o r 1 8 i n c h es A ro ug h l e n s abo u t 2 i n c h es d i am
.


e t e r c a n b e ob t a i n e d a t an op t i c i an s fo r about ftee n c en ts a nd m ay ,

b e f ra m ed by c ut t i n g a c i rc ul a r h ol e i n a p i e ce of c a rd boa rd so t h at
i t w i l l r e ce i v e t h e l en s a n d t h e n c ut t i ng s ma l l e r h ol es i n two m o re
,

p ie ce s a n d gl u i ng o n e to e a c h s i d e of t h e rs t p i ec e T h e gl ass i s
, .

t h us p ro t ec t ed so t h a t i t wi l l n o t b reak i f d ro pped an d t h e c a rd boa rd ,

i s a l s o a n i m p rov e m en t b ec a u se i t h i d es fro m s ig h t a l l excep t t h e


p a rt s s ee n t h ro ug h t h e gl ass I f t h i s gl as s i s h el d so t h at t h e gro up
.

m a y b e s e e n t h roug h i t t h e o u tl i n es w i l l b e bl u rre d an d a l l d e t a i l soft


,

e n ed. I n t h i s w ay t h e m asse s of l ig h t an d d ark a re ren de red so p rom


i nent t h a t t h e s t ud en t se es t h e m as p e r h ap s h e neve r wo ul d w i t h o ut
t h e gl ass .

I t i s s a i d t h a t t h e use of s u c h a gl a ss m ust b e i n j uri ou s a n d co n ,

s eq ue n tl y p up i l s s h o u l d no t be al l o w ed to u s e i t T h os e w h o t h i n k .

t h us do n o t un d ers t a n d t h a t t h e gl ass i s to be u s ed n o t fo r see in g ,

b u t t o p re v en t s ee in g a n d s h o ul d n ot b e u sed to l oo k l/zr ozgg b b u t


, ,

t o l oo k a t I n ot h e r wo rds t h e eyes m u s t b e fo cu sed upon t h e gl a s s


.
,

h el d i n t h e h a n d an d n o t upon t h e gro up b e h i n d t h e gl as s fo r i f t h e
, ,

s t u d en t l ook s t h ro ug h t h e gl ass at t h e gro up h e wi l l s t ra i n h i s eyes ,

a n d b e al m o s t as b ad ly offa s w h e n w i t h ou t t h e b l u r gl a s s fo r h i s eye s ,

w i l l adj us t to t h e gl as s so t h at h e wi l l st i l l s ee to o m uc h d e t a i _ .

To t e ac h t h e p ro pe r u se of t h e gl as s s e c ure a s h e et of gra y p ape r


,

or of c l o t h o f o n e co l o r upo n t h e w al l o r an y v ert i ca l s u rfac e s o t h at i ts

l owe r p o r t ion m ay r est upo n a h o r i zo n tal s u rfa ce A s k t h e s t ud en t .

t o m ake a l i g h t a n d s h ad e d raw i ng re p rese n t i ng s i mp l y t h es e t wo


s u rfac es .
T h i s wi l l c a use h i m to d ec id e as to t h e d i ffe ren c e i n v al ue
b e tw e e n t h e t wo . H av i n g m ad e t h e d ra wi n g as k h i m to h ol d t h e ,

b l u r gl ass u p s o a s t o s ee t h ro ug h i t t h e ve rt i c a l su rfa c e a n d t h en ,

a sk h i m to l oo k n ot t h ro ug h t h e gl a ss b ut at i t t o d i s co ver t h e c ol or
, ,

w h i c h i t a pp e ars . N o w as k h i m to h o l d t h e gl ass s o t h at t h ro ug h i t
56 L I GH T A N D SH A D E .

t h e h or i z on t a l s ur fa ce i s s ee n a n d t h e n t o l oo k as b efore at t h e gl ass
,

i n ste ad of t h ro ug h i t H av i n g h e l d t h e gl ass c a re ful l y t o se e t h e


.

c ol o r i t appe ars to b e w h en i n fro n t of e ac h of t h e t wo s u rfaces a sk t h e ,

s t ud e n t to m ove t h e gl as s up a n d d own s l ow l y a t rst an d t h e n as


,

rap id ly as pos s ib l e so t h at i t s h a l l t ran sm i t rs t t h e co l o r of t h e ver


,

t ic al s u rfac e an d t h e n t h at o f t h e h o ri zo n t al I f t h i s mot io n i s con


.

t i n ue d a n d t h e s tud e n t l ooks a t t h e gla ss h e w i ll d i scov er t h at t h e


,

d i ffe ren c e i n co lo r b etwe e n t h e two s urfa ces i s m uc h gre ate r t h an w h a t


h e t h oug h t h e s a w an d w h at h i s d ra wi n g rep rese n ts ; a n d h e wi l l at
t h e s a m e t i m e h ave gain ed a t r ue i mp res si on of v al ue s a n d l ea rn ed
to use h i s gl ass p ro pe rl y T h e use of pap e r o r c lo t h of o n e c olor i s
.

of grea t ass ist an c e i n e n ab l i n g t h e p up i l to l oo k a t t h e gl a s s i n stead


of t h ro ug h i t a n d t h i s e xpe ri m e n t s h o ul d b e t h e rs t l esson of p up il s
,

o l d e no ug h to a pp l y it a nd s h o ul d b e rep eat ed a s oft en as i s meces


,

s ary t o e n ab l e al l t h e st ud en ts to u se t h e gl a ss p rop e rl y ; fo r if t h ey
d o n ot use i t p rope rl y t h ey i nj u re t h e i r eyes a n d d es t roy t h e i r b est
c h an ce of b eco m i n g i n d ep e n d e n t a n d ab l e to c o rrec t t h ei r o wn l ig h t
an d s h ad e s t ud i es W h e n l arge m ass e s a re co m p a red t h e bl u r gl as s
.
,

s h ou l d a l ways b e h el d as fa r a s po s s i b l e f ro m t h e e ye ; a n d w h en an y
p ar t i s st ud i ed i t s h o ul d b e h e ld i f poss i b l e f ar e no ug h fro m t h e eye
, ,

t o c a use t h e p art t o b l ur i n t o a form l e ss m a ss of c o lo r w h i c h l l s t h e


en ti re gl ass an d w h i c h i s t o b e looked a t a s i f u po n t h e gl as s
, .

I n st ead of m ov i ng o n e bl u r gl as s to co ve r t h e pa rts to b e com


p ared two bl u r gl as s e s m a y b e use d t h ey s h o u l d b e h e l d t h e sam e
,

d i s ta nc e fro m t h e eye a n d so t h a t t h e t wo p art s to b e com p a red m ay


b e s een at t h e s am e t i m e .

One of t h e s t ron ges t i n fl u e n ces c au s i n g fal se i d e as of v al u e i s t h e


co n t rast of l ig h t an d d ar k i n j uxt apo s i t ion a n d t h e te n d en cy of t h e
,

s t u d en t to com p are o n l y p arts w h i c h are n e a r eac h o t h e r I f h e wo ul d .

com pare p a rts w i t h ot h e rs fa rt h er a way a n d w it h t h e m as s e s h e wo ul d ,

see h ow co n tr as t e ffec ts d ece i v e t h e e y e W h e n t h e bl u r gl ass i s


.

p roperl y us ed i t w il l s h o w t h e rel ati o n s o f p a r ts to ea c h o t h e r a n d t o


,

t h e m ass e s bu t so m e st u d en t s wil l req u i re m o re ass is tan c e t h a n t h e


,

us e of t h e b l u r gl ass .

B la c k p a per P up i l s w h o ca n n ot s ee v al u es by t h e u se of t h e
.

gl ass so as to d is co ver fo r i n s ta n ce t h a t t h e s h ado w s u rf ac e of t h e


, ,

pl i nt h (F i g r 4 ) a ppea rs d a rke r t h a n t h e fo regro u n d w i l l b e as s i sted


.

,
58 L /G /I T A N !)

h el d from t h e eye an d m ay v ary fro m a p i n h o l e to o n e


,
or of

an i n c h i n d ia m ete r .

T h i s c ard w i l l a ss is t t h e s tud e n t t o o bta i n t r ue v al ue s a nd al so to


obta i n w h at i s es sen t i al an d d i fi c ul t to s e c u re a gray an d l u mi ,

n o u s d rawi ng T h e t en d en cy of t h e p up i l i s t o p i l e o n t h e c h a rco al
.

a n d m a k e a b l ack h e av y d ra w i ng an d i t i s d i f c ul t fo r p up i l s to
, ,

rea l i z e t h a t e ffe ct a nd so l i d ity are n o t d u e to b l a ck b u t to co n tra st s ,

of m a sses of grays w h en t h e s t u d en t l oo ks t h roug h t h e c ard w h i c h


i s s h aded by t h e h an d h e re a l i ze s t h at t h e re are n o bl ack s i n h is
,

s u bj e c t .

T h e c h i ef v a l u e of t h e b l ack c a rd l i e s i n t h e fac t t h a t i t e n ab l es
eac h p upi l to re m o v e a t w i l l t h e d ec ep ti v e e ffe ct s d ue to t h e con
t ra s t s of d i f fe ren t v a l u es I f h e co ul d o r wo u l d us e t h e bl u r gl ass
.

p rope rl y t h e c a rd wo ul d n ot b e n e ce ssa ry ; b u t i t i s so d i f
, c ul t for
so m e to l ook at t h e gl ass i n s tea d of t h ro ug h i t t h at t h e c ard i s ve ry
h el pful .

B l a ck fra me A p i e c e of bl a ck l ea t h e r o r c a rdbo ard i n w h ic h


.

a rectan gul ar o pen i ng i s c ut w i l l h el p t o i m p ress t h i s fac t of t h e


l u m i n o s i ty of n at u re s e ffe c t s u pon t h e st ud en t an d to m a ke hi m

real i z e t h at a t ru e d ra wi ng c an n ot b e o n e w h i c h 1 5 bl ac k o r h e avy .

L i g h t i nt o sh a dow T h e stud en t w i l l o ften b e a ss i st ed t o see


.

t h e va l ue s of t w o pa rts as fo r i n stan c e t h e c ast s h ad ow upo n t h e


, , ,

w h it e c a st (Fig . an d t h a t of t h e c a st u po n t h e p an e l l i n g if t h e ,

t eac h e r h ol d s o r p l a c es a n obj e ct s o t h at i t s h al l t h ro w t h e w h o l e of
t h e cast i n to s h a do w T h e p u pi l w i l l o ft en make t h e ca s t s h ado w o n
.

t h e c ast a s d a rk a s t h at o n t h e wa l l fo r t h e co n t ra s t of t h e s h adow
,

a n d l ig h t upo n t h e ca s t m akes t h e s h ad o w ap p ea r m u c h d a rke r t h an


i t re al l y is I ft h e l ig h t pa rt s o f t h e c ast a re t h rown i n to s h ad o w t h e
.
,

p a rt o rigin al ly s h adow c h ange s b u t l i t tl e i n v al u e fo r i t re ce i v es n o ,

more a n d ge n eral ly b u t l ittl e l e ss l ig h t t h an a t rst ; a n d w h en t h e


, ,

e ffec t of con t ra st i s re moved t h e st ud en t w i l l s ee t h a t t h e ca st


,

s h ad o w on t h e c as t i s m uc h l ig h t e r t h a n t h at o n t h e b a c k g ro u n d .

S t u dy a t a di st a nce T h e l ea st m ec h an i cal a n d m ost s a t i sfa c


to ry t est a n d t h e on e w h i c h s h o ul d b e a p p l i ed m o s t f req u en t l y i s
,
,

s i m pl y p l aci n g t h e d ra wi n g bes i d e t h e g ro u p a n d co mp a r i ng i t w i t h
t h e group w h en t h e st ud en t i s a s fa r a s po ss i bl e fro m t h e g ro up .

W h en co m pa ri ng t h em t h e e y e s s h o ul d b e o ut of fo c u s s o t h at t h e
,
,
VA L U E S A A I)
'

T H E / [C TE S T S .

59

d ra w i ng an d t h e gro up m ay b e se en e q ual ly a t t h e s a m e t i m e an d ,

t h e st ud e n t s h o ul d as k if t h e d raw i n g gi ve s t h e i m press io n of t h e
gro up an d of n a t ure o r i f i t gi ve s t h e e ffe ct of a s h ee t of p ap e r
,

s l i g h t l y t i n ted. D oes i t p resen t t h e s a m e m a sses of l ig h t an d d a rk


t h a t t h e gro up d oes a n d a re t h e co n t ra sts of t h es e m as ses as st ron g
,

a s t h o se of t h e gro up ? A r e t h e d arks of t h e d ra wi n g a s s i m pl e an d
d ark a s t h o se of t h e gro up o r are t h ey c u t up by ex agge rate d refl ec ted
,

l ig h ts ? A re t h e l ig h t s of t h e d r aw in g a s b road a n d as l ig h t a s t h o se
of t h e gro up or a re t h ey c ut up by e x agge rat ed grays ? T h e stud en t
,

w h o w il l ask t h es e q u est i o n s w h e n h e se e s b ot h d r aw in g a n d gro up


e q ua l ly a n d of c ou rs e i n d ist i n ct l y c an h a rd l y fa i l to d is cove r t h e m o st
, ,

i m po rt an t e rro r s of t h e d raw i n g .

I t i s v e ry i m po rt an t t h a t t h e d r aw i ng b e t h u s se e n fro m a d i s t an c e
r epe at e d l y fro m i ts ea rl y st ages un t il i ts effec t agrees wi t h t h at of
,

t h e gro up w h e n t h is h ap pe n s t h e s tud en t m us t c o mp l e t e t h e d raw


i ng by gi v i ng t h e e ss en t i a l d e t ai l W h i l e d raw in g t h i s h e m u st be
.

c aref ul n o t to c h a n ge t h e m a sses a n d un t i l t h e d rawi ng is com pl et ed


,

i t m ust b e v i e wed f ro m a d i s ta n c e o cc asi on al l y i n o rde r to m ake s u re


t h at t h e d e ta i l i s n ot too p rom i n e n t .

U se of t h e h a nd A co n ven i en t an d s i m p l e w ay of ob ta i n i ng t h e
.

r es u l ts gi v en by t h e us e of t h e b l a ck c a rd i s a fford ed b y l ook i ng t h ro ug h
a s m al l ope n i n g w h i c h m ay b e fo r med b y co m p res s i ng an d b en d i n g
t h e rs t n ger u pon t h e t h u mb T h e h an d m a y be m ove d so t h at
.

o n e aft er a n o t h e r t h e p ar t s t o b e co m p a re d m ay b e s ee n t h ro ug h t h e
n ge r o r b ot h h an ds m a y b e use d an d two p art s co m p a red at o n c e
,

b y v i e w i n g o n e t h roug h o n e h a n d an d t h e ot h e r t h ro ug h t h e o t h er .

T i ppi ng t h e h ea d . A n o t h er t es t w h i c h i s s i m p l e a n d v er y v al u
,

ab l e i s t h a t of t i pp i n g t h e h e ad u n t i l t h e eyes a re i n a v ert ic a l l in e
,

i n s t e ad o f i n a h o r i z o n ta l on e . A n y o n e w h o w i l l v i e w t h e s i m pl es t
l an d s c ap e i n t h i s w ay w i l l b e s urp ri se d to se e h o w m uc h m o re co lo r
i t s ee m s t o h av e t h a n w h e n s e e n n at u ra l l y T h e p ri n c i p al reaso n
.

f o r t h i s i s t h a t w h en t h e h e ad i s t i p p ed t h e obj ects are s ee n i n s uc h


un u s u al rel a ti o n s t h at t h ei r for m s are n o t t h oug h t of an d al l t h e a t ,

te n t io n i s at t rac ted to co n t ras ts of l ig h t s h ad e an d col o r T h e s t ud e n t


, ,
.

of colo r w i l l n d t h a t t h i s test a c com p l i s h es t h e s am e re s ul t a s t h e us e


o f t h e b l u r gl a s s a n d i t w i l l b e e q ua l l y va l u ab l e i n t h e s tud y of l ig h t
,

a n d s h ad e .
60 L I GH T A N D SH A D E .

T est s i nfer i or t o feel i ng . A t rst ev ery s t ud e n t w i l l r e q ui re


so m e m e c h an i c al tes t or a i d t o en ab l e h i m to s e e v a l ue s correc tl y ,

b u t h e m us t n o t d epen d u pon t h es e tes ts a n y m o re t h an i n d et e rmi n


i n g co n to urs upon m e as ure m e n ts of p ropo r t io n s fo r tes ts a re of no
m or e ass i st a n ce i n p rod uc i n g a wo rk of art w h os e v a l ues a re t ru e
t h an m e as ureme n ts a re i n p rod uc i ng co rre c t d raw i ng Goo d a rt ca n .

n ev e r b e p rod uc ed m ec h a n i c a l l y an d t h e ar ti s t m u st d ep en d upo n
,

h i s eyes an d h i s fee l i ng fo r b ot h goo d d ra w i n g a n d good v a l ues .

B u t t h e s tud en t w i l l ob ta i n h is e d uc ati on i n t h e d i rec t i o n of v al ues


j us t as h e w i l l i n t h a t of fo rm a n d if h e do es n o t a d op t som e m ean s
,

of d i s cove r i ng t h e e rrors of h i s rst s t ud i es h e wi l l rep e a t t h e m an d


,

po s si b l y n e ver d i sc ove r t h e m .

T est s lea d t o feeli ng . T h e stud en t i s ad v i s ed t o a pp ly al l tests


wi t h gr ea t p at i en c e i n h i s rs t w o rk H e s h o u l d b e s a t i s ed t o
.

p rov e h i s wo r k as c areful l y a s po s si bl e u n t i l h e kn o ws t h a t h i s eyes


ar e to b e d epen d ed u pon fo r res u l t s w h i c h w i l l h arm on i z e w i t h t h ose
g iv e n by t h e a pp l i c atio n of t h e t est s Aft er t h i s h e m u s t d epend
.

upo n h i s eyes an d h i s feel i ng fo r t h e n e res ul ts w h i c h d i s t i n gu is h


ar t f rom i n d ust ry T h e st ud en t w h o do es no t u se t h e te st s un t il h e
.

h as p rove n h i s ab i l i ty to se e c orr ec tl y w i t h o ut t h e m o r a t l east to ,

ob tai n by s ig h t res u l ts e q u a l to t h ose gi ve n by t h e a pp l i c at io n of t h e


t es ts a cts v ery u n w i se l y an d w i l l b e co m p el l e d to sp en d m u c h more
,

t i m e i n acq ui ri ng h i s el e m en t ary tr ai n i n g t h an h e wou l d i f h e c h os e


to p ro t by t h e t es ts . M y exp e ri e n c e h as s h ow n t h a t st uden t s w h o
t h in k i t un n e cessa ry t o app l y t es t s gen era l l y m ak e a se r i es of d raw in gs
of w h i c h t h e l as t i s n o b et te r t h a n t h e rst u n t i l t h ey n a l l y d is cove r
,

t h at t h e res t o f t h e c l ass h ave c o m pl et ed wo rk w h i c h t h ey are as


far fro m doi ng as t h ey we re a t t h e rs t of t h e ye ar At t h is time
.

t h ey ge n eral ly d ec i d e to t ry t h e test s a n d t h e re s u l t of su c h d eci s io n


,

i s ofte n as s urpri s i ng to t h e s t ud en t a s to t h e t ea c h e r fo r fre q uen tly


I h av e k n own s uc h stud e n t s to m ak e a d raw i n g as fa l s e as p os s ibl e ,

a nd t h e n ext d ay ,aft er h av in g se rio us l y tr i e d to fol l o w d i rec t i on s


an d a ppl y test s to m ake a d raw i n g w h i c h w as q u i t e t ru e an d s at is
,

f actory .

T h e stud e n t m ust u se tests i n h i s rs t wo rk for i n n o ot h er w ay c an


,

h e l ea rn h o w d i ffere n t a pp e a ran c es are fro m t h e fa c ts b ut h e m u st ai m


,

to d i s pen s e wi t h t h e bl ur gl ass a n d ot h e r m e c h a n i c a l m e a n s a s soon


VA L U E S A A Z) TH E I R T E S TS 61
'

a s po s s ibl e
. I n o rd er to do t h i s h e s h o ul d b eg in by work i n g b y s ig h t
w i t h o u t t h e a i d of an y tests a n d s h o u l d con ti n ue i n t h i s w ay u n t i l
,

h e t h i n ks h i s d raw i n g i s co r rect w h en h e s h ou l d app ly t h e te sts


,
.

W h e n h e h a s wo rked l o n g en o ug h to ob tai n by eye alo n e res ul ts


w h i c h t h e t est s d o n ot c h a n ge h e m ay co n t i n ue h i s work w it h o ut t h e
,

a i d of m e c h a n i c al test s d e p en d in g p artl y upo n co m p ari son s at a d i s


,

t a n c e bl u r r i n g t h e eyes a nd t ipp i n g t h e h e ad b ut p r i n c ip al l y upo n


, , ,

h i s o w n fee l i n g an d c u l t i v a te d p ercep tion s .


CH A P TE R I II .

A I MS OF S TU DE N T A N D A R TI S T .

A m
'

T H E S rU D E N r s
' '

T r u th t he r s t essen t ia l . T h e rs t a i m of t h e a rt s tud e nt s h oul d



be to l e arn to see a n d repres en t t rul y n at u re s e fe c ts fo r i f h e c an ,

n o t r ep res en t t rul y t h e form l ig h t an d s h ade a nd co l o r e ffec ts of


, ,

n at ura l obj ec ts b efo re h i m h e ca n n ot ex pec t to re p re sen t t h e con


,

c e p t i ons of h is mind . I d e as of a l l fo rm s a n i m ate an d i n an i m ate


, ,

m u st b e b ased upo n t h e obj ec ts a n d l i fe fo un d i n n a tu re A fa mo us .

p a i n te r h as s a id t h at i t t a k e s a m a s ter to rep res en t n a t u re tr u l y a n d ,

c erta i n l y t h i s i s a po i n t beyo n d w h ic h f e w c a n ex pec t to go for t h e ,

poet i c te mpe ra m en t n ecess a ry to ide al wo rk i s ve ry ra re a n d t h e ,

a rt s t ud en t s h oul d b e sat i s ed to st u d y se rio usl y un t i l h e i s ab l e to


re prese n t n atu re t r ul y an d read il y M a n y st ud e n t s a re dec e ived and
.

l ed to wo r k fo r fa l se sta n d a rd s b y t h e oft repe at e d st at em e n t t h at t h e


-

ai m of a rt s h o uld not be trut h b ut i d e al i z at ion ; b u t i t c an n o t b e


,

s h o w n t h at t h e h ig h es t art i s pos s i bl e w h en o n e i s n o t m aster of t h e


s i m pl e art of tr u t h fu l rep res en t at ion of n at u ral obj ect s .

D r a w i ng mu st b e na t u ra l To p rod u c e a grea t wo rk o f art t h e


.
,

m i nd m us t be perfec t l y fre e to ex press i ts elf w i t h o u t t h oug h t of t h e


m ateri al s o r m et h od s e m pl o y ed T h e p a in t er ca n n o t do t h i s i f h is
.

a t ten t io n i s fre que n t l y d i ve rt ed to t h e d r a wi n g l ig h t an d s h ad e o r , ,

co lo r in vol v ed o r to t h e m an i p ul at io n of h i s m ate ri al s To work


, .

f reel y h e m us t gi v e t h e d rawi ng l ig h t an d s h ad e a nd col o r read i l y


, , ,

an d b e as l i ttl e co nsc io us of t h e h a nd l i ng o f t h e m ed i u m s use d as i s


t h e o ra tor of t h e se pa r at e word s b y w h i c h h e ex p res s e s t h e e m ot ion s
of h i s m i n d .

A rt si mpl i es na t u r e S o m e of n at u re s e f fe c ts a re b e y on d t h e
'

p owe r of p ai n t o r o t h e r m ed i u m s a nd i n o rd e r to co n vey a su g g e s
,

t ion of t h em i t w i l l b e n ec es sa ry to si m pl ify t h e s u bj ec t a n d to om i t
d e t ai l see n i n bot h t h e s trong l i g h t a n d t h e d eep s h ado w T h is .
A /J /S OE S TUD E A 63
'

T A A I ) A l i T /S T
'

s i m p l ify i n g i s oft en a d v i s ab l e w h e n n ot n e c ess ary as t h e a i m of t h e ,

ar t is t s h o u l d b e to rep re se n t on l y w h at w i l l best expres s a n d i s e sse n


t i a l t o t h e s e n t i m e n t of t h e s ubj e c t .

S i mpli fy i ng t h e most di f cu lt a rt A r t st ud en ts h av e t h e i d e a
.

t h a t o m i s si o n o f d et a i l i s esse n t i al to t h e b es t wo rk a n d s o t h i n k ,

t h a t goo d wo rk w i l l res u l t s i m p l y fro m t h e o m i ss io n of d et ai l T h ey .

d o n o t u n d ers t an d t h a t t h e ar ti s t al ways h a s t h e s e n t i m en t w h i c h h e
d e s i res t o ex p re s s i n h i s m i n d i n u e n ci n g e v ery stroke t h at h e m akes
, ,

a n d t h a t i t i s t h i s e ffor t to s ec u re t h e ide a l w h o l e w h i c h el i m in a te s
al l n o t e s se n t i a l to i t T h e a rt s t ud en t does no t u n d e rst an d t h a t h e
.

ca n n o t work a s t h e a rt i st d oes u n t i l af te r s tud y i ng as l on g a s t h e


ar t i s t h as st u d i ed to ob t a i n t h e p owe r t o see to t h i n k a n d to wo r k , ,

art i st i c a l l y ; t h at i s to s ee t h e b eau ty an d t h e poetry i n n at ure a n d


,

to o v e rl oo k b l em is h e s o r d eta i l s n ot es sen ti a l t o t h e s en t i m en t of t h e
s ubj e c t T h i s be i ng t h e c as e t h e b egi n n e r w h o t h i n k s to i m p ro v e
.
,

h i s wo rk by o m i t t i ng d et a i l h as n o gu i d e an d n o en d to acco m p l i s h ,

a n d h i s d r aw i n gs a re c o n seq ue n tl y w i t h ou t m e ri t .

S i mpli fy i ng follow s ex a ct dra w i ng T h e st ud en t as k s h o w


.

m u c h d e ta i l h e s h al l rep res en t a n d often i s i n c l in ed to feel t h a t h e i s


,

i m po se d u p on i f re q u este d t o r ep rese n t a l l o r n ea rl y a l l t h at h e s e es .

B u t h e o ug h t n o t t o fe e l s at is ed un t i l h e c a n rep resen t t r ul y an d
re ad i l y a l l t h a t h e s ee s To d o t h i s -re qu i re s i n t h e rs t p l ac e t h e
.
, ,

c a p a c i t y fo r s ee i n g fo r m an d v a l ue s t rul y an d se co n dl y t h e p ower
, , ,

to d ra w . I f t h e s t ud en t c a n s ee a nd d ra w i t i s s i m p ly a q u es tio n of
,

p at i en t wor k t o n i s h t h e d ra w in g I f h e c a n n o t se e o r d ra w t rul y
.
,

h e c ert ai n l y n e ed s t h e st udy w h i c h w i l l e n abl e h i m to d o t h i s a n d


-
,

w h i c h i s to b e o b t ai n e d o n l y b y st udy in g d etai l u nt i l i t c a n be co r
re c t l
y re p r es e n te d. W h e n t h e s tu d e n t i s abl e to d r a w co rre ct l y a n d
r ead i l y t h e n an d t h e n o n l y w i l l h e b e abl e to ex pres s a rt is ti c al l y
,

w h a t ev e r h e m ay fee l .

F i ne percept i ons du e t o long st u dy T h e po we r to fee l an d to


.

s ee t h e n e r e ffe cts o f fo r m a n d col o r c a n b e a c q ui red on l y b y lo ng


c o n ti n ued h a rd wo rk a n d s t udy ; i t c an n o t b e i mp a rted by on e w h o
p os ses ses i t to o n e w h o do es n o t po sses s i t C on s e q ue n tl y t h e re i s
.

n o ea sy ro a d fo r t h e s t ud e n t w h o wo ul d b eco m e a n art i st A l l m us t .

w i n w h a te v e r s u c ce s s t h ey a tt a i n a t t h e co s t of repe ated fa i l ures an d


m uc h h a rd wo r k .
64 L I GH T A N D S H A D E .

S t ud en ts a re too a p t to t h i n k t h at fa m e i s d ue t o ge n i us w h i c h i s
t h e b i rt h rig h t of n at u re s f avo r i tes

G e ni u s h a s b e en d e n ed a s t h e
.

c apac i ty for h a rd wor k an d t h e a rt st ud en t wi l l d o wel l to ac cep t


,

t h i s d e n i ti on ; for t h o u g h w e m us t ad m i t t h a t a l l are b orn w i t h d if


fe re nt powe rs we m ust a l so a ckn owl edge t h at t h os e w h os e fa m e i n a rt
,

i s greates t bega n t o wo rk w h i l e you n g an d kep t o n d ra wi n g an d p ai n t


,

i n g t il l t h ey we re i n t h e p r i m e of l i fe b efore t h ey p ro d uc ed t h ei r b es t
wo rk T h e ar t s t ud e n t w h o h o p es to ac h i ev e s ucc es s w i t h ou t wo rk
.

expe cts t o do w h a t t h e m o s t h i g h l y gifte d an d m o s t f a m o us a rti sts


h av e n o t b e e n abl e to ac com p l i s h .

D et a i l sub or di na t e t o ma ss . T h e s t ud en t w h o i s t ol d to re p re
s en t d et a i l m us t r e m e m b er t h at n o p ar t s h ou l d b e ex agge ra ted so as
to i n te rfere wi t h t h e e ffe ct of t h e m a ss es of l ig h t an d d a rk T h es e .

m asses m u s t b e rep re s en ted i n t h e i r p rop er r el at ion s e ve n i f i n ord er ,

to d o t h i s, so m e of t h e n er gra d at ion s a re n o t g i ve n o r are gi ven


l ess s tro ngly t h an t h ey a re see n Fo r i n s ta n ce i n rep re se n ti n g a
.
,

w h i t e pol i s h ed s p h ere t h e con t ras t b et we en t h e gl i tt er po i n t an d t h e


,

p arts n e ar i t i s q u i te m arked ; a n d i f t h e S p h ere i s i n a gro up i n


w h i c h t h e re i s a v e ry d ark obj ec t i t m ay n ot b e p o s sib l e to rep resen t
,

t h e gl i tte r po i n t a s s t ron gl y as i t appea rs w i t h o ut ge t t i n g t h e m a ss of


t h e l ig h t o f t h e S p h e re so d ark t h at t h e d a rk obj e c t c a n n o t b e re pre
s en ted i n i ts actu al re la t i on s t o t h e w h i te S p h e re I n t h i s c ase i t i s
.

m uc h b ette r t o e xpres s t h e rel ati on s betw ee n t h e m as ses of l i g h t an d


d a r k tru l y an d m erel y s ugges t t h e gl i tte r po i n t o n t h e sp h e re ; i n d eed
t h i s m u s t b e d on e i f t h e m ass of t h e l ig h t o f t h e sp h e re is to be l ig h t
e no ug h t o exp res s t h e e ffec t o f t h e s p h e re i n c on t ra s t w i t h t h e d ark
obj ec t .

T A R rrs r s A I M S '
H E
' '

T he r t i st a n i mp r essi oni s t
a . B y m ea n s of p a i n t c rayon o r an y , ,

ot h er m ed i u m w e can n o t rep rod u c e a ny obj e ct b u t c a n on l y p rod uce ,

w h a t m ay c re ate a mo re o r l ess sati sfa c to ry i m p re s sio n of i t Th e .

a rti st s h o ul d al ways a i m t o p rod uce t h e st ron gest e f fect of h i s s ub


je c t t h at c an b e p rod uced b y t h e m ed i u m c h ose n ; h e m us t b e c al l ed
a n fi zz/ r mS zi v zzS t w h ate ver h i s sty l e of p a i n t i n g o r m et h od s o f wo rk
'

, .

A s s uc h h e m ay s eek t o c on vey i d ea s of beau ty of fo r m o r o f co lo r ,

b u t h i s r s t a i m m us t b e to p rod uc e t h e s t ro ngest i m pre s si o n o f t h e


F ro . 22 . F ro m a Ph t g p h
o o ra .

!H a lo

5 Ra ts ms orl .

F ro m a Co l or p
S e ia S k e t ch .
N a y)

\Vi ll 5 . R ob i ns o n
.

FI G . 24 . F ro m a P e nc i l D ra w i n g .

Wi ll S . R ob i nson .

F ro . 2 5 . F ro m a P en a nd I nk D ra w in g .
68 L I GH T A N D SH A D E .

l e ss o r i n acc ura t e d ra wi n g b ut t h e be st d ra wi n g of a l l t h e essen t i a l s


, .

I t dif fe rs fro m t rut h i n o rd er to p ro d uce t h e mo s t t r ut h fu l rep resen t a


t io n of t h e b eau ty t h e a rt i st s ees w i t h h i s d isc ri m i n at i ng eyes w h i c h ,

d o n ot d wel l upo n t h e ugl y o r co m m o n p l ace feat u res .

A t r u e d r a w i ng of a nea r ob ject u nsa t i sfa ct ory T h e s t uden t


.

m ay b e ass is ted to u n de rs t an d t h at t h e be s t d raw i ng i s d u e to fe el i ng ,

a n d no t to a l i te ral rep res e n tat i o n of w h at t h e eye s ees b y s t udyin g


.

p h oto g r ap h s of gures i n w h i c h h e w i l l of ten n d u n p l e as a n t e ffect s ,

d ue to t h e p e rspec ti v e of a h an d o r foot w h i c h is too n ea r t h e ca m e ra


to s ee m i n h ar mon y w i t h t h e ot h er p a rts of t h e gure A s i l l u st rated .

i n C h ap V I I of Fr e e H a n d D raw i n g t h e p h otogr ap h i s l i abl e to


.
-
,

d i sto rt io n s d ue to t h e c a m e ra n o t be i ng p o i n ted d i re c t ly a t t h e oh
jec t. B u t t h e un p l e asa n t p h otograp h m ay b e t aken w i t h t h e c am era
po i n t ed d i r ec tl y a t t h e gure an d t h us b e n e ar l y l i ke t h e i m age of
t h e ey e ; i n t h i s c as e i ts d i s to rt io n i s d ue p ri n ci p a ll y to t h e n e arn ess
o f t h e c am e ra to t h e gure .

A r t i st d r a w s by feel i ng I f a n a rti st d ra ws j us t w h a t h e sees


.

w h e n v er y n ea r a gu re t h e d rawi ng ,

res ul t in g wi l l b e a s u n pl ea s a n t as t h e
d i storted p h oto gra p h of a h orse for ,

i t d i s regard s t h e fac t t h a t t h e a rt i st
s h oul d n ot be n e a re r t h e g u re h e
d ra ws t h an t wo o r t h re e t i m es its
h e ig h t I f t h e a rt i s t i s ob l i g ed to
.

d ra w a gu re w h en s o n e a r t o i t t h at
represe n tin g t h e n ea rer pa rt s of t h ei r
a ct u al v i s ual p ropo rti o n s w o ul d m ake
t h es e p art s see m to o l arge fo r t h e
fa rt h er p arts h e c h an ge s t h e p ropor
,

t io n s un t i l t h ey r ep r es en t t h o se h e
feel s c on c ern i n g t h e gu re an d not
t h e ap pa r e nt v i s u a l p r o p o r t i o n s .

FIG .
5 2 F m Ph t g p h
0. ro o o ra .

W h en d ra w i n g o ut of d o ors h e rep
r esen ts t h e p ropo rti on s h e fee ls an d n ot t h os e of t h e p h otograp h ,

w h i c h often red u ces a nd c h a n g es i m po rt a nt l i n e s v e ry m u c h .

T h e p e rspect i v e of an obj ec t ve r y n ea r t h e e v e i s s o l a rge t h at


w h en t h e eye i s no t at t h e s t at io n po i n t a l l t h e m o re d i s t an t obj ec ts
-
I I JI S OE S T UD E VT A A L) 69
'
~
i A R T /S T .

s e e m v e ry s m a l l. T h e m o s t d i s to rted p h otograp h w i l l giv e a pe rfec t


i m p res s i o n of n a t u r e if i t i s see n f ro m t h e p rope r st at i o n po in t Fol d -
.

a c ard t wo i n c h es fro m o n e edge so t h a t a r ig h t a ngl e i s fo rm ed


, .

T h e n p l a c e t h e c a rd abov e Fi g 2 50 so t h a t o n e p art i s p ara l l e l t o


.
,

t h e p age a n d t wo i n c h es f rom i t ; an d tw i s t a s h a rp l e ad pen c i l i n t o


t h e c ard t o p ro d u ce a h ol e abo u t %; of a n i n c h i n d i am eter a n d oppo ,

s i te t h e c en t e r of t h e g ure W h e n t h e p i c t ure i s see n wi t h t h e eye


.

s tat io n ed a t t h i s h o l e 2 i n c h es fro m t h e p age i t w i l l n o t ap p ea r


, ,

d i sto r te d I t i s n o t w i s e t o r ep rese n t a gu re o r o t h e r obj ec t w h i c h


.

i s q ui te n e a r t h e eye w h e n ot h e r gu res a re fa r fro m i t fo r t h e ,

co r rec t v i s u a l p rop o rt ion s w i l l p ro d uce a d ra w i n g w h i c h m akes t h e


d i s t an t gu re s ap p e ar a s i f d w arfs Ofte n a fe n ce r et re at s in to t h e
.

p i c tu re fro m a po in t n e ar t h e art is t an d if i ts n ea re r p art s are rep


,

r ese n ted b y t h e i r v i s u al p roport io n s t h ey w i l l d warf al l ot h e r p arts of


,

t h e s ubj ec t . I n s u c h c ases t h e a rt is t s h oul d c h a nge t h e p ropo rtio n s


of t h e n ea re r p arts s o t h a t t h e y f l rig h t a

.

V a lu es a re oft en ch a ng ed .I n t h e m a tt er of v al ues t h e a rt is t
c h an ges m o r e freq ue nt l y t h an i n t h e fo rm T h u s i n a portrai t i t i s
.

i m p o rt a n t t h a t t h e h e ad b e t h e p r i n c i p a l f ea t ure a n d to m a k e i t s u c h ,

t h e l ig h t u p o n ot h e r p a rts t h e h a n d fo r in st an c e i s o ften rep resen t ed


, , ,

v e ry gre atl y s ub d ue d i n t o n e s o t h a t i t d oes n o t at t rac t t h e ey e ; an d


a l w ay s i n al l wo rk t h e a rt i s t o m i ts o r s ubord in ates fe at u re s w h i c h
a re u n p l e a s an t o r n o t e s se n t i al to t h e s e n t i m en t w h i c h t h e s ubj e c t
c re ates .

T h e st u dent ca nnot i mi t a t e t h e a rt i st T h e art s t ud en t c a n n o t .

i m i t a t e t h e a r t i s t i n wor k w h i c h i s t h e r es ul t of feel i ng on l y to b e
ob t a i n e d aft e r y e ars o f s tudy a n d t h es e exp l an at io n s h a ve b een
,

m a d e i n o rd er t h a t t h e s tu d en t ma y b e con t e nt t o s t udy u n t i l h e c an

gi v e t ru l y j us t t h e for m v al u es an d col o r s ee n b efo r e h e at t em pt s


, ,

t h e m o s t d if c u l t p rob l e m i n ar t .
CH A P TE R IV .

T E CH N I QU E A N D M E T H OD S .

T EC H N I Q U E .

D epends on i ndi v i du a l i t y . i t t l e wo u l d be sai d upo n t h i s s ub


L

je c t h e re if i t we re n o t fo r t h e fac t t h a t so m uc h a tte n t io n i s often


gi ven to i t t h at i t i s n e cess a ry to s h o w t h a t m a t t ers of tec h n i q ue are
n ot of rs t i m port an c e Tec h n i q ue o r h a n d l i n g m e an s t h e w ay i n
.

w h i c h an y m e d i u m is use d to p rod uce a n e ffe ct a n d to t h e a rti st ,

i t is of gre at i n teres t an d i m port an ce fo r u p on t h e w ay i n w h i c h t h e


,

m ed i u m i s h an d l ed d epe n d s t h e e ffe c t of t h e s k e tc h an d t h e ti m e
req u ired to p rod uce i t . H a n d l i ng i s t h e r es ul t of t e m p e r a m en t an d
e d uc at i on,
an d i s v ery d i ffe ren t w i t h d i ffer en t p eop l e T h e sam e .

s ubj ec t m a y b e rep rese n t ed by h al f a d o z e n d iffe ren t a rti s t s a n d t h e ,

h a n d l i ng of n o two sket c h es be al ike T h e t i m e s pen t upon t h em


.

m ay r an ge from a few h o u rs to m an y d ay s a n d to t h e p ub l i c t h e ,

res u l ts m ay n ot be v ery d i fferen t i n e ffect o r o n t h e ot h er h a n d t h ey


, , ,

m ay be so d i fferen t t h a t t h ey wo ul d h ard ly b e ac cep ted a s p ai n ted


fro m t h e sam e s ubj ect .

D epend s on edu ca t i on T h e av e rage p erso n r a re l y c h an ges t h e


.

h ab i t s a n d i de as w h i c h are h i s by b i rt h a n d ed uc atio n A l most .

e ve r y on e h a s perfect fa i t h i n t h e t h eori es w h i c h h e h ol d s a n d often ,

w i l l n ot ad m i t t h a t t h e t h eo ri es of ot h ers a re wo rt h co n s id e rat ion .

On t h e con t rary h e tr i es to co n v e rt t h o se w h o d i ffe r from h i m an d


, ,

so me t i m es h e refu ses to c on s id er an o p i n ion for w h i c h n o a u t h o ri ty


i s fo u n d i n t h e s c h oo l to w h i c h h e b e lo n gs I f h i s m i n d q u est io n s
.

t h e c o rrectn es s of an y poin t d ec i d ed by h i s a ut h o ri t i e s h e i s ofte n too ,

t i m id to l et h i s doub t be kn o w n a n d h e t h us s ees an d t h i n ks t h roug h


,

o t h ers.

We oft e n recogn i z e i n t h e work of a n a rt i s t t h e t e c h n i q ue of t h e


t eac h e r w i t h w h o m h e h a s s t ud i ed a n d if we kn o w h i m n d t h a t h e
, , ,

s e es n o m eri t outs i de t h e wo rk of h i s o wn sc h ool T h e a b i l i ty to b e .

i n d epe n den t i s possess ed by t h e fe w w h o l ead N a t u r al l y t h e m aj o r


.
QU E M E TH OD S
'

7 E CH A A Vl)
i .

7I

i t y se e k so m e o n e to fo l lo w o r ra t h e r fo l lo w in st i n c t i ve l y t h e l e ad e rs
, , ,

w i t h w h o s e t e m pe r a m e n ts t h ey a r e i n h ar m on y I n a rt t h i s c a uses t h e
.

d i ffe re n t sc h o o l s a n d gi v es r ise to t h e con i c t i n g i d ea s con c ern i ng


,

a r t ed u c at i on .

A rt ju dg ed b y u ni mport a nt det a i l s T h e p ub l i c gen e ral l y i s


.

p l e ase d b y d e ta i l t h e m o re d et a i l t h e be t te r an d i t com p ar es al l w o rk
, ,

w i t h t h at of a M e i s son ie r o r w i t h a p h otograp h S om e w h o h av e.

st ud i ed h av e p as s ed b eyo n d t h e st age of sea rc h for d e t ai l b ut ev e n ,

t o m a n y of t h e m a r t oft e n con si sts p r i n c ip al l y of t h e t ec h n i q ue of t h e


p i c t ure w h i c h i s good if S i m i l a r to t h a t of t h e a rt i sts w h o s e work
,

t h ey h av e c h o s en as i d e al s .

A rt i nst ru ct i on i n u enced b y fa ds T h e i n s t r uc t ion i n s c h ool s


.
,

b o t h e l e m en t ary a n d ad v a n ce d i s too l arge l y i nfl ue n c ed by t h e l atest


,

t e c h n i c al fad w h i c h i s t h e t e c h n i q ue of t h o s e w h o i n u en c e a rt m at te rs
,

a t an y p a rti c ul a r t i m e S o m et h od s up e rsed e s m et h od
. t h er e i s n o
ac cep ted st a n d a rd a n d a r t i n st r uct i on ofte n d e al s w i t h m at ters re l a t
,

i n g t o a m ed i u m a n d it s h an d l i n g w h i l e t h e fo un d at i o n of d ra w in g
,

an d va l ue s re ce i v es far t oo l i t tl e at ten t io n .

T h i s i s esp ec i al ly t r u e of t h e wor k i n t h e p ubl i c s c h ool s w h er e i t ,

h a s often b e e n n e cess ary t o h a v e i ns t r uct io n in d ra w i ng gi ve n by


te ac h e rs w h o h av e h ad l i tt l e Op port un i ty to st ud y d raw in g C o u se .

q u en t ly s t u d en ts h av e s o m et i m es b een tol d t h at a l l m et h od s e xcep t


o n e a r e o ut of d ate an d h a rm ful a n d t h a t d rawi ngs m ade i n o t h e r
,

ways a re b ad . Fo r i n st an c e i t h as b e en cl ai m e d t h at a c h a rco a l
,

o r ot h e r l ig h t a n d s h a d e d r awi n g m us t b e m ad e w h ol l y w i t h t h e
p o i n t of t h e c h a rco al o r ot h er p e n c i l an d co n s i st of se p a rate l i n es ,

a n d t h a t a d r aw i n g i n w h i c h t h e l i n es are a t al l b l en d ed to form
a t i n t i s n o t goo d T h e r es ul ts of s uc h t ea c h i ng a re ge n e ral ly m os t
.

m ec h an i ca l d r aw i n gs al t h o ug h t h ey ar e oft e n b et te r t h an so m e of t h e
,

cop i e s p r ov i d e d to S h o w p ub l i c s c h oo l p up i l s h o w to m ake l ig h t an d
s h ad e d ra w i n gs .

L ess i mp ort a nt t h a n t rut h .Te c h n i q ue b e a rs t h e s am e re l at io n


to d r aw i n g t h at s tyl e d oes to t h e st ud y of t h e el e m e n ts of l an guage .

T h e refo re t h e t e ac h e r of e l e m en ta ry work s h o u l d n ot al low h i s p up i l s


to con s i de r t e c h n i q ue a t a l l T h e p up i l s h o uld t h i n k s i mp l y of t h e
.

tr ut h of t h e d r aw i n g an d t h e t e ac h e r of t h e way i n w h i c h t h e p up i l
,

m a y ob t ai n t h e t r u t h m os t q u i ckl y a n d e as i l y T h e t ea c h er s h o ul d
.
L l Gl / T A N !) S i lA D E
72 .

rem em be r t h a t ev e r y m ed i u m m a y b e us e d i n m an y d i ffe re n t w ays ,

an d s h ou ld n o t re st ri ct i n d iv id ual i ty of ex p res s io n t h a t p rod uc es t r ue


d raw i n gs .

T h e ai m of a d rawi ng i s to c reate an i m p res si o n of n a t ure a n d an y ,

d ra wi n g m u s t b e b a d w h i c h i n st ead of do i ng t h i s c aus es o n e to
, ,

t h in k at o n c e of p aper a n d crayon o r w h at ev er o t h e r m ed i u m m ay be
u sed or of t h e w ay i n w h i c h i t is us ed T h i s i s a goo d t es t fo r poor
,
.

t e c h n i q ue.

W it h an y m ed i um c ert a i n fa cts a r e se lf ev i den t as fo r i n sta n ce


-
, , ,

t h a t t h e s u rfa c e of t h e p ap e r m us t n o t b e d est royed by er as i n g ; b ut


s uc h essen ti al poi n ts w i l l be d i sco ve red by an y on e w h o s t ud i es an d ,

w h a t i s m ean t i s t h at t h e sp i ri t of t h e d r aw i n g s h o ul d al ways b e
t h o ug h t of rst an d t h a t d i f
,
c ul t m e t h od s s h ou l d n o t b e s t u d i ed be
c au se t h ey are i n tere s ti n g to s om e n o te d p e r son .

Concerns t h e a dv a nced st u dent . T h e ar t st ud en t m us t b e i n ter


e st e d i n t ec h n i q ue fo r i t i n vo l ve s t h e m ec h a n i ca l po i n ts w h i c h
,
he
m u s t m aste r t h oro ug h l y b efo re h e ca n ex p ress h i m s e lf f re el y ; but
q u es t i on s of tec h n i q u e co n cer n p r i n c ipa l l y ad van c ed st ud e n ts T h e .

el e men ta ry st ude n t s h o u l d b e ta ug h t t h a t t h e m ed i um m us t n o t force


i ts el f o r i ts h a nd l in g upo n t h e eye t h a t t h ere m u st b e i n an y d raw
i n g a h a rmo ny of tre at m e n t t h ro ug h o u t i ts p a rts t h at i t w i l l no t do
to n is h on e p a rt p erfe ct l y a n d s m oot h l y an d h a ve p a rts e qua l ly i m
port an t i m perfe ctl y a nd roug h l y n is h ed .

T h e ab i l i ty a n d t ra i n i n g of t h e s t ud en t an d h i s a i m i n s t udyi ng
, ,

m us t de ci d e w h et h er an y m ed i u m o r pa r ti cu l a r w ay of u s i n g i t s h oul d
be c h o se n b ut t h e el em en tary teac h e r m us t con si d er s i m p l y h o w h e
c a n m os t q u ic kl y t rai n h i s pup i l s to s ee an d d ra w corre c t l y a n d h e
,

w i l l d isca rd an y m et h o d w h i c h m akes t h e p up i l t h in k of t h e p o i nt
an d t h e ki n d of l i n e h e i s d raw i n g i n stead of t h e fo rm o r v a l u e t h at
s h ou l d be rep rese nt ed .

M a ny w a y s of u si ng ev ery medi u m T h e p ic t u res a nd d raw


.

i n gs of t h e b es t a rt i s ts s h o ul d b e st ud i ed fo r t h e s t uden t wi l l b e
,

gre atl y h el ped a n d i n sp i red by t h e m G re a t v a r i et y of h an d l in g w i l l


.

b e fou n d i n t h em a n d al so i n t h os e by a n y on e a rti st an d s t udy of ,

t h e te c h n i q u e of o t h ers w i l l so on co n v i n ce on e t h a t t h ere a re m a nv
w ays i n w h i c h an y m ed i um m ay b e u sed wi t h t h e b est res ul ts i f on e ,

wi t h a rti st i c fe el i n g can d ra w wel l .


Fu z 26 . F ro l
m P e nc i S k e t c h b y R a ph l
a e .
T E CI I A I OL E
' '

75

W h e n a d raw i n g s uc h as F ig 2 6 i s t o b e c areful l y s h ad ed t h e
.
,

m as s es of s h ado w s h o ul d b e c aref ul ly i nd i c at ed an d d e n ed by l ig h t
t o u c h es u n t i l al l t h e c ont ouf an d s h ad ows a re s een to b e i n co r re c t

FI G . 2 7
. F rom P en c i l S t u dy b y L e on a rd o da V i nc i .

d raw i ng T h e s h a do ws m ay t h e n b e s t re n gt h e n ed t h e a c ce n ts ad d ed
.
, ,

an d t h e d ra w in g n i s h e d as i n F igs 2 7 a n d 59 T h i s n at u ral p ro c es s
. .

of m a ki n g a l ig h t a n d S h ad e d ra w i n g h a s b ee n fol l owed by t h e m os t
fa mo us art is ts of t h e p a st an d i s an ar t i st i c m e t h od of st ud yi n g fo rm
, .

M an y of t h e o l d m a st e rs d ra w in gs i l l ustra t e t h i s m et h od a n d al so
'
76 L I GH T A N D SH A D E .

t h e fac t t h at d raw i n gs w it h l ig h t a n d s h ad e e ffec ts m ay b e v e ry co n


v e nt i ona l an d f ar fro m rep resen t i ng t r uly a l l t h e v a l ue s of t h e s ub

je c t . T h ey are d rawi n gs ra t h e r t h a n p ai n t i n gs ; t h at i s t h ey are ,

s t ud i e s of form m ore t h a n of v al u es a n d d o n ot giv e e it h e r t h e re l a


,

t i v e v al ues of t h e obj e ct al o n e o r i ts v al ues i n co m p ari son w i t h i t s



s u rro un d i n gs T h e word p a i n t i ng a s h er e u sed m e an s a d raw i ng
.
, ,

i n w h i c h v al ue s a nd t h e e ffec t a re m ad e of rs t i m porta n ce an d in '

t h i s se n se a p ai n ti n g m a y b e d o n e i n c h a rcoa l o r t h e p en ci l as wel l as
w i t h t h e b r us h.

U se of b a ck gr ou nd . A d raw i n g beg u n i n t h i s w a y m ay be c ar
r i ed a s fa r as i s d es i red ; i t m ay gi ve al l t h e v al ues of t h e obj e ct
al o n e i t m ay s ugg est a ba c k gro u n d o r i t m ay gi ve t h e f ul l v al ue s
, ,

of t h e obj ect an d i t s b ac k g roun d .

A d ra w i ng s uc h a s F i g 2 7 m ay b e re l i eve d b y a b ac k groun d
.

w h erever t h e obj ec t ap pea rs l i g h t e r t h a n t h e b ackgro u nd Wi t h ou t .

b ei ng st ro n g e n oug h to b e a co m pl e t e st udy of v al u e s s uc h a d rawi ng ,

m a y be i n terest in g an d t ru e i n exp ressi n g t h e c h aract er of t h e s ubj ect


i t s sol i d i ty a nd con s t r u ct io n .

L ig h t a nd s h ad e d rawi n g s c a rr i ed on as ex pl a i n e d ab ov e give t h e
, ,

ve r y bes t p racti ce i n d rawi n g a nd w h at e ve r t h e a i m of t h e p u p i l m ay


,

b e h e s h o u l d wo r k i n t h i s wa y p art o f t h e t i m e l es s t i m e b e i n g re q ui red
, ,

to st u dy t h e rel a t i v e v al u es of t h e obj ec t or gu re t h a n i s req u i red to


re presen t t h e obj ec t an d i t s su rro un d i n gs .

T o st u dy v a l u es T h e bes t m et h o d of s t udy i ng w h e n v al ue s a re
.

rs t i n i mport an c e m us t n ow b e con s id e red I n t h i s cas e i t i s most


.

n ece ss ary to obta i n t h e e ffec t of t h e m as ses a n d t h e st ud en t s h ou l d ,

b egi n by s uggest in g t h em A s q ui ckl y a s poss i bl e t h e e nt i re s urface


.

of t h e p ape r s h o ul d b e co vered so a s to l i g h tl y ex pres s t h e p ri n c i pa l


l i g h ts an d d ar k s W h en t h e m a sses of d ark h ave b ee n s ugge sted
.
.

t h e st ud e n t S h o ul d s t u d y for m a n d co n str uc t ion u n t i l t h e m asses are


s ee n to be correc tl y i nd i c ated ; t h e n t h ey s h o ul d b e st ren gt h e ned t h e i r .

d eta il s b ro ug h t ou t a n d t h e st udy n i s h ed by ca ref u l l y rep res en ti n g a l l


,

d eta i l s j us t as i n t h e c as e of t h e d ra w i ng t F ig 2 7) w h i c h i s a s t udy of .

form a n d l oca l v al ues i n s t ead of a s t ud y of ful l val ue s B ut t h e st u .

d en t m us t n o t forget t h e i m pres s ion of l i g h t an d d a rk w h i c h t h e s ubj ec t


c re ates a nd w h i l e p erfec t i ng t h e d ra w i n g t h e g rea te st pa i n s m ust b e
. .

t a k e n n ot t o l o s e t h e va l u e s .
T E C I /A I QU E OU S
'

A /Vl) ll E T I I

r .

77

D ra w i ng a nd pa i nt i ng I n
re al i t y t h e s t ud en t s h o ul d be wo rki n g
.

In on e of t wo d i re c ti o n s w i t h o u t r ega rd to t h e m ed i um w it h w h i c h h e

Fm . 28 . F ro m C ha rc oa l St u dy by S ir j o sh u a R ev nold s .

m akes t h e l ig h t a n d s h ad e d raw i n g s h o ul d be s t u d y i n g d ra wi n g
. H e

o r s t u dy in g p a i n t i n g us i n g t h e wo rd p ai n t i ng i n t h e s en s e t h a t
,

a rep res en tat ion of al l t h e v a l ues ca uses o n e t o t h i n k of t h e s ubj e ct


L I GH T A A Y) S /l A /J E .

s i m pl y a n d n ot of t h e m ed i u m em pl o y ed an d i n t h e se n se t h at a ,

d r awin g or p i ct u re i s a w o r k of a rt i n p rop o rt i o n a s i t h i d es t h e m e
d i u m e mpl o y ed a n d i ts h a n d l i ng .

To ob t a i n t h e b es t res u l t s t h e a rt s t ud e n t m u st b ot h d ra w an d
p a i n t a nd e ve n w h i l e w o rki n g w i t h bl a c k an d w h i t e h e m us t us e
, , ,

bot h m et h od s Fre quen t l y a r t s tu d e n t s s t ud y d r aw in g a lo n e a nd


.
,

t h i s accoun t s fo r t h e gen er al d i s regard of v al u e s R ep res e n t i n g a .

c as t or a gure w i t h c rayon o r p en c i l upo n w h ite p ap e r wi t h o ut t h e


us e of a b ac k g ro un d i s s tu dy of d rawi ng an d c e rta i n l y c an n o t g i ve ,

t h e ef fec t of t h e o b j ec t w h e n t h e obj ec t i s l ig h t agai n s t da r k i n s t ead


,

of d a r k agai n s t l ig h t I t i s n o t s u rp r is i n g t h a t p up i l s w h ose wo rk
.

h as b ee n l a rgel y o f t h is n a t ure s h o ul d n o t be ab l e to s e e t h e v al ues


i n a s i m pl e gro up of s t i l l l i fe .

T h e d i ffe ren ce b et we en a s k et c h a n d a s t u dy an d t h a t be tween a ,

st u dy or d ra w i n g an d a p ai n t in g (u s i n g p a i n t i ng i n t h e sen se of a
,

d ra w i n g gi v i n g v al ues ) i s s h o wn by Figs 2 6 2 7 an d 2 8
, .
, , .

Fig 2 6 i s b y R ap h a e l a n d rep res e n t s t h e V i rgi n an d c h i l d I t


.
, .

s h ow s t h e rs t l i g h t to uc h es a nd t h e st ron ge r o n es b y w h i c h t h e
for m wa s g rad ual l y obt ai n ed a nd i l l us t rat es t h e fac t t h at t h e
,

a r t i s t w orks upon gure s ubj ects j u s t a s t h e s t ud e n t was d i recte d



in Fre e H an d D ra wi n g t o b e g i n h i s st ud y of t h e geo me t ri c
-

so l id s .

F ig 2 7 i s f rom a p e n c i l s t ud y b y L eon a rdo d a V i n c i i t i s a c arefu l


.

an d t rue d rawi ng a s fa r as c h ara c te r an d mo de l l i n g a re c o n ce rn ed b ut ,

i t does n o t gi v e t h e v al ue s an d i s n ot a p ai nt in g i n t h e sen se of re pre


,
~

s en t in g l i g h t a nd colo r i n add i t io n to t h e form .

Fig 2 8 i s f ro m a c h a rco al s t ud y b y S i r Jos h ua R eyn ol d s an d w h en


.
,

c o m p a red w i t h Fig 2 7 i l l u st r at es t h e d i ffere n ce b et w ee n a st udy of


.

fo rm si mp l y o r a d rawi n g a nd a s t u d y of v a l u es w h i c h m ay b e c al l ed
, ,

a p ain t i ng A l t h o u g h d on e w i t h c h a rcoal t h i s d ra w i n g gi v e s at rst


.
,

gl an ce t h e e ffec t of n a tu re a s regard s l i g h t col o r a n d fo rm w h i c h i t , , ,

s h o ul d b e t h e a i m of t h e pa i n ter to rep res en t an d i t i s m u c h m ore


s ati sfac to r y as a p a i n t i n g t h a n m a n y col o red p a in t i ngs w h i c h are n ot
t r u e i n v al ues .

W h e n t h e st ud e n t i s at wo rk h e s h ou l d a l w ay s h av e i n m i n d t h e
m a k in g of a sketc h s uc h as Fig 2 6 o r a st u d y s uc h a s F ig 2 7 o r a
.
, . ,

p ai n t i ng s u c h a s Fig 2 8 b u t h e m u s t n ot fo rget w h i l e w o r k i ng fo r
.
,
A A L) JI E T H OD S
'

79

t o n e a n d v al ue s t h at F ig . 2 8 i s as ca refu l an d as t r ue i n d raw in g as
Fig 2 7. .

P a i nt i ng met h od a dv i sa b l e T h e publ i c sc h ool p upi l s h ou l d b egi n


.

w i t h p e n c i l o ut l in e fro m t h i s h e s h o ul d advan ce to l ig h t an d s h ad e
w o rk w i t h t h e p en c i l w h i c h m ay at r st re pres en t obj ects w i t h out a
,

b ac k gro u n d ; b u t i n t h e h ig h s c h ool h e s h ou l d s t u dy v a l u es a n d ,

al t h o ug h p up i l s st udy d raw in g wi t h o u t i n t en d i ng to m ake a S p ec i al ty


o f ar t t h ey s h o ul d b e t a ug h t to l ook a t n at ure a rt i s t ic al ly so as to
,

re al i z e t h e e ffe c ts of l ig h t an d d a r k a n d col o r w h i c h s h e p rese n ts .

To d o t h i s p up i l s m ust s tud y v al u es a nd n ea r ly al l l ig h t an d s h ad e
,

st ud y i n h ig h a n d al l el e m en t ary sc h ool s s h ou l d rep re s en t t h e obj e c t


a n d i ts s urro u n d in gs i n t h e i r tr ue r el at io n s of l ig h t an d d ark .

T i me-sk et c h es S t ud en t s so fre q ue n t ly fo rget t h e s ubj ec t t h e y


.

a re s t ud yi ng w h i l e t h i n ki ng of t h e m ed i um or of un i m port an t de t ai l s
, ,

t h at t i m e s ketc h e s are n eces sary if rap i d p rogress i s to b e m ad e ;


-

a n d regard l ess of t h e m ed i u m u sed st ud en t s of l ig h t an d s h ad e


, ,

s h o u ld b e ob l iged f re q uen t ly to m a k e t i m e sketc h es i n so s h o r t a t im e -

t h at t h ey a r e c om p e l l e d to wo rk i n t h e r ig h t way I f t h e ti m e of t h e .

rs t s ke tc h es i s l i m i ted to a fe w m i n u tes e ac h p upi l s a re ob li ged to ,

l oo k f o r t h e es s en t ia l s an d t o s uggest t h em by l ig h t to uc h es I f
, .

t h ey m e c h an i ca l l y t ry to p ro d u ce n i s h ed r es u l ts rep resen t i n g d eta i l s


t h e i r d r a w i ngs a re too i n co m p le t e a n d poo r to s at i sfy t h e m s el v es .

S t u d en t s w h o wo rk m ec h an i c a l l y an d st u dy d eta i l s wi l l o n co m ,

p ari n g t h e i r wo r k w i t h t h e d ra wi ngs of s tud en t s w h o h ave wo rke d


p rop er l y ge n er al l y t ry to se e e ffe cts a nd to suggest t h e m l ig h tl y
, ,

an d q ui ck l y .

T h e rst t i m e s ke tc h es i n l ig h t an d s h ad e m ay do l i t tl e m ore t h an
-

s ugge s t t h e p r i n c i p a l m as se s of l ig h t an d d a rk S t ud e n t s s h o ul d .

u n d e rs t an d w h i l e m aki ng t h em t h at t h e i r a i m m us t b e to re p res en t
, ,

w h at i s s ee n as fa r a s t h i s i s p o ss i b l e in t h e t i m e an d to d o t h i s by ,

t el l i n g t h e t r ut h a l w a ys a n d n ev er al lo w i n g a n y p ar t of t h e d rawi n g
,

t o b e d i ffe r e n t i n e ffec t fro m t h e p a rt i t r ep res en ts S tu de n ts oft e n .

wo rk c ar el es s l y kn o w i n g t h at p a rt s of t h e d r awi n g are d i ffe ren t fro m


,

t h e p a rt s t h ey re p res e n t b u t i n t en d i n g to c h an ge t h e m l a te r o n S u c h
,
.

wo rk p ro d u c es d r aw i n gs w h i c h a re d a r k w h e n t h ey s h o ul d b e l ig h t ,

a n d w h i c h are v e ry u n s at i s fac to ry a n d d i fferen t f ro m w h a t t h e s t ud en t s


k n o w t h ey o ug h t to b e .
80

L /ol / T A N D SH A D E .

A st ud en t s h ou l d n ot begi n t o m a k e a d r awi ng u n t i l h e h as st ud i ed
t h e su b j ect a n d d e te rm i n ed j u st w h at h e h as to do i n o rd e r to p l ace ,

n o d arks upo n t h e d raw i ng exc ep t to s u gges t co rrespo nd i n g d ar k s of


t h e obj e ct an d i n o rd e r to avo i d rep re s en t i ng un i m po r t an t d et a il s
,

e it h er of l ig h t o r o f d a r k b efo re t h e m asses a re co r re c t l y e x p ressed .

T h e spi ri t an d t h e e f fect are t h e i m po rt an t t h i ngs an d t h ese s h oul d ,

b e t h o ug h t of rs t an d l a st ; i f t h is i s n ot don e t h e d ra w i n g m ust
al w ays b e m e c h an i c al T h e a rt i s t i c m e t h od i s t h at w h i c h a t rst
.

l ig h t ly s ugges ts t h e i mp ort a n t fea t u re s a n d t h en a s t h e v a re fo un d


, ,

to be co rrec t s t rengt h e n s t h e m an d ac ce n ts t h e d ra w i n g n eve r al l ow


, ,

i ng i t t o re m a i n fa l se i n e f fe c t o r v a l u es so t h at w h en ev e r t h e st udent
,

s tops wo r k t h e d rawi ng i s s at i sfacto ry a n d t r ue a s fa r a s i t h a s been


c a rri ed.

U nsa t i sfa c t or y me t h ods S t ud en t s a re ofte n a l l o w ed t o d raw


.

a n obj ect o r a grou p of obj e ct s by s tud yi n g a n d n i s h in g i ts p arts



i n d eta i l . A s e x pl a i n ed i n Fre e h an d D ra w in g t h i s m et h od is
-
.

v e ry u n s at i sfa cto ry fo r n o on e h as a n eye p erfe c t en o ug h t o obta in


,

m ass es a n d p ropo rt io n s co rrectl y by si m p l y con si d er i n g t h e d et ail s


of t h e m a ss e s .

A n o t h e r m e t h o d i s t h at of b l ocki n g o ut w h i c h c o n s i d e rs c urv e s
,

as co m posed of stra ig h t l i n es a n d c urv ed su rfaces a s co m po se d of


,

m a n y p l an e s u rfa c es T h e st ud en t w i l l be a s si s ted i n m a ki n g a cor


.

r ec t d ra w i n g i f aft er h a v i ng s uggest ed t h e form h e st ud i es i t i n d et ail


, ,

to d i sc ove r a n y ten d en cy to a n gu la rity i n p a rts w h i c h a t rst gl an ce


s e e m of regul a r c urv a t u re B u t h e w i l l n o t b e as si s t ed i n st udy in g
.

n at u re b y an y m et h od w h i c h m a kes h i s d raw i n gs b e co m e fal se i n an y


p art i cu l a r o r b eco m e m e re i l l ust rat i o n s of m et h od s o f w ork i n g or
,

te ac h i n g .

A n i l l ust rat io n of t h e bl oc k i ng ou t m et h od i s g i ve n by Fig 2 9


-
. .

T h i s d ra w i n g s h o w s h ow s t ud en ts s o m et i m es rep re sen t t h e m a sses


of l i g h t a n d da r k by t wo ton es w i t h o u t grad at i on an d oft e n s epa rat ed ,

by ar b i tra r y s t r aig h t l in e s w h e n i n n at ure t h e grad a t i o n fro m l ig h t


,

to s h ado w i s q u i te g rad u al a n d n ot a t a ll an gu l a r Freq u en t ly m an y .

h o u rs a re s p e n t upo n d ra w i n g s w h i c h a re n o t c a r ri ed b eyon d t h i s
con ven t io na l stage S uc h w ork i s i n t en d ed t o c a us e t h e s t u d en t to
.
.

r e a l i z e t h a t t h e e ffec t of t h e obj ec t i s d ue to o ppo sed m a s s e s of l i g h t


an d s h ad o w w h i c h a re b u t sl i g h t l y va ri ed i n ton e a n d a re o f t e n s h a rp l y
8 [ I O/I T
'

2 A A D S l /A /J E .

an d co p ies w h i c h ar e ev en l es s sa ti sfa ctory t h an F ig 3 0 are of te n .

giv en t o p ubl i c s c h ool p up il s i n o rd e r to s h o w t h e m h o w to m ake .

l ig h t an d s h ad e d raw i n gs .

T h e o ri g i n of t h i s m e t h od i s p rob abl y fo un d i n t h e f ac t t h at t h e
us e of t h e s t um p te nd s to c a r el ess wo r k on t h e p art of t h e p u p i l an d ,

al so i n t h e fa ct t h at sepa rat e l i n e s c an be rep rod u ced b y c h e ap p ro


c esses B u t as of t en t a ug h t i t i l l ustrat e s t h e abs u rdi ty of att e m pt i ng
.
,

to for m ul at e rul es b y w h i c h l i g h t an d s h ad e d raw in gs m ay b e m ad e .

Cent er li nes . A c o m mo n way of b e gin n i n g i s b y d ra w i n g a ce n ter


l i n e a bo ut w h i c h pa rt s m a y b e s y m m et r ic al l y p l aced T h us i n .

Fig 8 t h e axe s o f t h e co ne an d c y l i n der wo u l d b e d ra wn before


.

an y p ar ts of t h e con to u rs an d i n gure d r aw in g a d i agra m m at ic s k e le


,

t on m ig h t b e sketc h ed b y m ea n s o f l in es rep rese n t i n g t h e c en t e r l in es


of t h e l i mb s an d t h e b od y as in F ig 3 1 o r a v ari at io n of Fig 3 1 m ig h t
.
, .

be m a d e by s u g g est i n g t h e m ass of t h e r ibs a n d t h at of t h e p e l v i s .

C en t e r l in e s a re no t us u a l l y s e en an d t h os e m e n t i on ed fo r t h e gro up
, ,

Fig 8 a n d t h ose of F i g 3 1 s erve s i m p l y to s ugge st t h e d i rectio n s of


.
, .
,

t h e m asses .T h e s t ud en t w h o d ra ws f ro m n at ure w i l l
obta i n t h e r e s u l ts g i ve n b y t h e c en t e r l in es m u c h
m ore s a t i sfa c t ori lv b y s u gg es t i n g i n st e ad of c en te r,

l i n es w h i c h are i n v i s i bl e a nd w h i c h a re o ft e n d i fc u l t
to i m ag i n e t h e p ri n c i pa l co n to u rs of t h e p arts ; t h ese
,

are v i s i bl e no a c t of t h e i m agi n at i o n i s req u i red to


.

d et erm i ne t h em an d t h e l ig h t l i n e s w h i c h s uggest
,

t h em a re a n ai d i n t h e co m p l e t ion of t h e d rawi n g a nd
often w i l l rem a i n i n t h e n a l e ffect w h i l e c en te r l i n es
, .

if d rawn m u s t b e e rased
, .

Fm 3"
W h e n t h e st u d en t does n ot d ra w f ro m n at ure c en ter .

l i n es w i l l b e of g rea t ass i st an ce a nd t h e st ud e n t i s ad v i sed to d ra w


,

t h em . M uc h pl e as u re a nd p ro t w i l l b e d er i v ed from t h e d esi gn ing


o f g u r e co m pos it i on s i n w h i c h t h e gures a re rep res en t ed a s i n Fig .

3 1 or b y v ar i ation s of t h i s s k e tc h
, b u t w h en i t i s n o t n e cess ary t o
d epen d u pon t h e m emor y u n ne ces s a ry l i ne s s h o u l d not be d ra wn
.
.

a n d t h e p ro g ress of t h e d ra w i n g s h o ul d d epe n d n o t so m uc h u po n
an al ysi s of t h e co nst r uct i on as upon a f eel i n g of t h e fo rm w h ic h fro m
t h e rs t l ead s to t h e e x p res si on of i ts e sse n t ia l s b v m ea n s of t h e m ost
i mporta nt feat ur e s a c t u a l l y se e n .
T E CH A I Q01 5 A I E T H OD S 83
'

A N D .

A ut h ori t y for a ll i s possibl e t o n d n ot ed a u t h ori


met h ods . It
t i es fo r a l mo st a n y v i ew of an y q u es t i on a nd i n a rt t h e word s o r ,

work o f m en w h o are or h av e be en p ro m i n en t a re u sed i n s uppo r t of


m et h od s op posed t o t h os e of t h i s b oo k T h e s t udy of v al ues fo r .
,

i n st a n c e h as b e e n n egl e ct ed i n m an y of t h e s c h ool s of t h i s coun t ry


,

an d E urop e a n d i s gi ve n l i t tl e a t ten t ion eve n n o w i n som e q u it e


,

n ote d o n e s I n s o m e s c h ool s p u p i l s ar e al lowe d to n is h o n e p a r t


.

of a d r aw i ng b efore o t h e r p art s ar e ev en s ugges te d T h u s i n a g .

ure w e n d t h e m p a i nti n g t h e rs t d ay t h e h e ad t h e seco n d t h e ,

s h o ul d ers a n d so o n t i l l o n t h e l a s t day of t h e pose t h ey ge t t o t h e


,

f e e t o r pos sibl y n o t so fa r as t h i s t h e b ac k gro u n d b e i ng ca rr ied ,

a lo n g w i t h t h e gure B y s uc h wor k i t i s al m ost i m poss ibl e to oh


.

t ai n a h a r m o n io u s w h o l e for t h e e ffec t w h i c h a ny p ar t w i l l p rod u c e


,

c an n o t b e d et e rm i n ed u n ti l i t c a n be com p a red wi t h al l t h e ot h e r
p a r ts an d un t i l t h e w h ol e c an v as i s co vered so as to gi ve t h e d esi re d
,

e ffec t T h i s p r i n c ipl e ap p l i e s as m uc h t o an o ut l in e or a l ig h t an d
.

s h ad e d r a w i ng a s to a col o r st ud y B u t eve n if t h e ey e we re tr a i n e d
.

to wo rk co rrec t ly un d e r s uc h d i f c u l t cond i t io n s i t wo u l d b e i m poss ib l e ,

to ob t ain h ar mo ny by corr ec tl y d ra wi n g w h at i s befo re t h e eye a t


reu t t i m es fo r t h e l ig h t an d s h a de an d co l or e ffect s of t h e s ubj ec t
'


a z ,

a re c on t i n u al l y c h a n gi n g E v en i n t h e s t u d i o t h e e f
. fect s du e to s u n
s h i n e an d a gray d a y a re e n t i re l y d i ffe re n t N ot on l y t h i s b ut d u r i n g
.
,

d i ffe ren t h o u rs of t h e s a m e d ay t h e e ffect s of col or an d l ig h t an d


s h ad e are d i ffe ren t a n d i t w i l l b e i m po ss ib l e to prod uc e a s at i sfac t ory
,

w h o l e b y s i m p l y rep re se n t i n g w h at i s s ee n w h en t h e p up i l works
upo n a n d n i s h es t h e d i ffe ren t p arts .

Ef fect mu st b e ch osen T h e sen t i m e n t of t h e d raw i n g an d i t s


.

e ffe c ts of l i g h t a n d s h a d e an d co l or m us t b e s el ected b y t h e a rt i s t
fro m t h e d i ffe re n t c h an ge ab l e e ffe ct s w h i c h t h e s ubj ect p r es en ts a n d ,

t h en h e m u s t wo rk a l l t h e t i m e w i t h t h ese d es i red effe cts i n m i n d .

To do t h i s h e m us t sugge st as q u i ckl y as p o ss i b l e t h e d es i red effec t


w h e n i t i s b efo re h i m an d i n al l l at er work h e m ust be c aref ul n o t to
,

l os e o r i nj u re i t I t i s m o st i m por t a n t t h a t bo t h t h e st ud e n t a n d t h e
.

art i s t wo rk fo r t h e sp i ri t a n d t h e e ffec t of t h e w h o l e u n t i l i t i s corre ctl y


s ugges t e d ; t h e n t h e d et ai l m ay b e s tu d i ed an d t h e p a rt s n is h ed .

P u b li c i dea ls oft en fa l se N ot o n ly i n v al u es b ut i n o utl i n e


.

wo rk i s a ut h or i ty to b e fo u n d fo r i n a rti s t i c m et h od s T h u s we ar e .
84 LI GH T A N D

tol d t h at a d raw i ng s h o ul d b e n i s h ed b i t b y b i t w i t h rm d e c id ed
, ,

an d ex a ct n e l i n es or p e r h ap s w i t h s oft gr ay l i n e s d raw n a t o n e
,

to u c h . I t i s n ot s t ran ge t h e p ub l i c h as co m e to regard t h e p e rfect


c i rc l e d rawn at rs t to uc h by G iotto as t h e sy mbo l of t h e best a rt
work an d t o b e l i ev e t h at pe rfec t io n at rs t to uc h i s n ot o n ly
,

d esi rab l e bu t pos s i b l e to ob ta i n We a re tol d t h a t t h e re m u s t b e


,
.

n o v a ri et y of l i n e i n a n o u tl i n e d raw i ng an d t h a t i n l ig h t an d s h ad e
,

a n ex ac t an d p e rfec t o ut l i n e s h o ul d b e sec u red a nd t h e n t h e l ig h t


,

an d s h ad e p l ace d w it h i n i t I f i n s te ad of fo l lo wi n g t h e a d vi ce of
.

an y on e a u t h or a rt i s t or teac h e r ea c h p e rson s h o u l d s t u d y fo r h i m
, , ,

sel f al l t h e po i n ts i n vol v ed t h e ad op t io n of i n a r ti s t i c m et h od s w o ul d
,

b e far l ess gen e ra l T h ose w h o st udy fo r t h e m se l v e s wi l l b e l ed to


.

a s k w h y begin i n l ig h t an d s h ad e w o r k w i t h an o ut l i n e w h i c h often
re p res e n ts c o n to urs t h at a re lo st i n t h e s h a do w an d w h i c h c an n o
,

m o re ex p ress ro u n d n es s t h a n t h e c i rc l e sug g ests t h e l ig h t a n d s h ad e


u po n t h e s p h e re .
CH A P TE R V .

C H A R C OA L D R A WI N G .

T H E S TU D I O A N D F I TT I N G S .

T he st u di o . T h e s t u d i o s h o u l d be a ro om n ot l es s t h an 2 0 f ee t
s q u ar e o n e t h a t i s 2 0 fe et w i d e an d 3 0 fe et l o n g o r l a rge r i s d es i r , ,

abl e . I t s h o ul d h av e a l a rge w i n dow fac in g i f po ss ibl e sl ig h tl y e as t


, ,

of n o rt h t h i s d i r e cti o n s h o ul d be d e t erm i n ed by t h e N ort h S ta r as ,

t h e com p a s s poi n ts d ue n or t h i n v e ry fe w pl aces T h e s tud io s h ou l d .

b e a t t h e top of t h e b u i l d i n g i n ord er to a vo i d re ect ion s f ro m o t h e r


b u i l d in gs an d i t s wa l ls s h o u l d b e v ery h i g h
,
R oom s are s el do m
.

h ig h e n o ug h for s t ud io s an d i t i s c usto m ary to ext en d t h e i r h e ig h t


, ,

b y m e an s of a s k y l ig h t w h i c h f aces n o rt h an d h as a w i n do w 6 o r 8
fe e t h ig h ab o ve t h e ce i l i ng .

S t u di o li g h t T h e l e n gt h of t h e s tud io s h oul d exten d east an d


.

w es t so t h at t h e p r i n c i p al w i n do w m ay fa c e n o rt h an d be i n t h e
c e n t e r of a l on g s i d e T h e p ri n c i pa l wi n do w s h ou ld b e abo u t I O
.

fee t w i d e o r w i d er an d ex t e n d fro m n e a r t h e fl oo r to t h e ce i l i n g
, , ,

w h ere i t s h o ul d co n n e c t w i t h t h at of t h e s kyl i g h t w h ose a ngl e s h o u l d


b e ab o u t T h e roof of t h e skyl ig h t s h ou l d b e i n c l i n ed an d m ee t
t h e c e i l i n g a t a bo ut t h e ce n t er of t h e room o r far t h e r b ack if t h e
,

c e i l i n g i s l o w B y m e a n s of t h e skyl ig h t t h e neces s ary h eig h t m ay


.

b e gi v e n t o a n y p art of a roo m w h i c h i s to be con verted i n to a s t ud io .

T h e re s h o ul d b e n o m ul l i on s o r l a rge fra m e work to d i vi d e t h e w i n d ow ,

w h i c h s h o u l d ext en d un b rok en f ro m t h e top of t h e skyl ig h t n e arly t o


t h e oo r.

A roo m w i t h s i m p l y a n o rt h w i nd ow i s ve ry c h e e rl e ss I fpo ss ibl e .

an ot h e r w i n d o w s h o ul d b e s o p l a ce d t h at s u n l ig h t m ay en t er t h e
ro om ; i t s h ou l d b e so c u rt a i n e d t h a t t h e l ig h t m ay b e co mp l et el y
ex c l u de d a t w i l l .

Cu rt a i ns T h e p r i n c i p a l w in do w s h o ul d b e p ro v i d ed w i t h t wo
.

o r t h re e c u r ta i n s a r ran ge d t o d r aw u p f ro m t h e bo t tom an d an o t h e r ,

s e t s h o u l d b e s e c ure d a t t h e t op to d ra w d o w n wa rd T h u s l ig h t o f .

a n y a m o un t m ay b e ob t a i n e d fro m v ar io us d i rec t i on s .
86 SH A D E
'

L A A I) .

It i s of t e n d esi ra b l e es p ec i a l ly w h e n l i g h t r e ects fro m o t h er


,

b u i ld i ngs to softe n t h e l ig h t by a sc ree n m a d e of c h ee se c l o t h o r


,

o t h er t h i n w h i t e m ate ri al w h i c h m a y be a rran ged i n t h e fo rm of a


,

c u rt ai n to rol l o r t o s l i d e upo n w i res A c u rt a i n of t h i s ki n d wi l l .

ofte n give a fa i r l ig h t w h e n pl aced at a so u t h w i n d o w b u t t h e n or t h .

w i n do w gi ves t h e o n ly l ig h t s u i t ab l e fo r a rt i sts o r s t u d en ts .

S ch ool st u di os S uc h a st ud i o i s s u it abl e fo r t h e art i s t an d a l so


.

fo r a rt cl ass es an d w h en sc h ool b u i l d i ngs a re d es i gn ed s uc h sp ecial


, ,

room s s h o ul d be pl an n e d for t h e d rawi n g room s W h en t h ey are to -


.

be used fo r st i l l l i fe work a s h el f abo u t 1 5 i n c h es o r 2 0 i n c h e s w id e


-

m a y b e sec u red to t h e e as t wa l l abou t 2 2 i nc h e s f rom t h e oo r or ,

s h e l ves ma y b e s u pported upon m o vab l e sc r ee n s P u p il s s h oul d .

w or k m os t of t h e t im e wi t h t h e l ig h t co m i n g fro m abo ve an d a t t h e

l eft b ut s u c h a roo m w i l l al l o w an y arran gem en t


,

of t h e gro u p wi t h refe ren c e to t h e l ig h t .

T h e st i l l l ife st ud i o s h o u l d h av e a t ab l e fo r eac h
-

s t ud en t ; i ts top s h o ul d be ab ou t 1 0 i n c h es w id e
an d 3 0 i n c h es lo ng a n d it s h o u l d h av e a s h e lf or ,

d ra w e r for m ate ri al s .

A n ease l si m i l ar to Fig 3 2 i s p refe rabl e to .

t h e tab l e an d n o more exp en s i ve T h e p i ece A .

s h o u ld be b ut a fe w in c h es w id e an d s h o ul d s up .
FI G. 3 3. A S id w
e fe .

por t t h e s h e lf w h i c h s h o ul d b e ad j us tab l e v e rti c al ly


an d s u p po r ted at a n y an gl e by t h e a r m B T h is easel w i l l req u i re .

l es s o or sp ace t h an a ta bl e a n d h a s t h e ad va n t age of n o t ex te nd i ng
.

as ot h e r eas el s do abov e t h e d ra w i n g a n d so p reven ti n g s tud en ts


f ro m see i n g t h e g ro u p .

MA '

rE R t -
\Ls
. F OR CH A R C OA L D RA WI N G .

P a p er . P a pe r
for c h a rcoal wo rk m us t b e of good q ua l i ty and
ro u g h i n text u re T h e L al an n e an d M i c h el e t p a pe rs a re s ati s fa c to ry
.

a nd cos t s i x c en t s pe r s h e et T h e C oq uel i n p ap er i s h ea v i er a nd
.

g en eral l y m os t sat i sfac to r y ; i t cost s e i g h t c en t s p e r s h eet 1


( h eape r .

p apers can b e o b ta i n ed b u t a re n ot a d vi s abl e a s e ve n t h e bes t g rad es ,

1 Th e s e a nd fo l l o w i ng r eta i l pri ces a r e g i e n t o s h o w t h e c o m pa rat i v e e x p e nse


v

o f t h e m ate r i als T h p ri ce s w i l l o f c o u rse f


. e l u ct u ate
. , .
C l /A A C OA L

D A A

WI N G .
87

n a m ed ar e ofte n so u n ev en i n q ua l i ty t h at un ifo r m to n es c an n o t b e
ob t a i n ed . A l l t h es e p ap e rs h av e w at e rm arks i n t h e for m of s trai g h t
p ara l l e l l i n e s abo ut an i n c h ap art w h i c h ar e seen m o st p l a in l y w h e n
,

t h e s h e et s ar e h el d to w a rd t h e l ig h t W h en t h us h e l d t h e wate r
.

m arke d n a m e of t h e p ap er i s s een a n d t h e s i d e f ro m w h i c h i t i s re ad
,

i s t h e r ig h t s i d e of t h e p ap er an d s h o u l d a l w ays b e u sed T h e s h ee ts .

a re of un ifo r m s i z e abo u t 1 9 i n c h es by 2 5 i n c h es Wh a t ma n s c ol d .

p re s se d p ap e r m ay b e used b u t n o p ap e r i s as s at i sfactory as t h e
,

regul ar c h arco al p ap e rs n a m ed .

Ch a rcoa l T h ere a re m an y gra d es of c h arco al of w h i c h o n ly t h e


.

b est s h o ul d b e u s ed for w i t h c h eap grad es w h i c h are oft e n gr i tt y o r


, ,

b row n good r es ul t s c a n n ot b e obt ai n ed Good c h arco al s h o uld giv e


,
.

a p e rfe ctl y b l ack s moot h t i n t w h en rubb ed in to t h e p ap e r w i t h t h e


,

n ger . E ve ry s t ic k s h ou l d b e t r ied upo n t h e edge of t h e paper i n


t h i s w ay b efo re i t i s u sed a n d i f i t is gri tty or un eve n i n t ext ure o r
,

gi v e s a b rown to n e it s h o ul d b e b roke n a n d t h rown a w ay W h e n


,
.

t h e st i cks co n s is t of ro u nd t w igs t h e c en t ra l p ar t of a st i ck i s ofte n


s oft an d b ro w n w h i l e t h e o uter p arts a re b l ack c are m us t be take n
t o a v o i d us i n g s t i cks n ot b l ac k t h ro ug h o ut .

T h e c h a rco a l m ad e i n Fr an ce b y C on t of sp l i t tw igs an d c al l e d

F w a zm i s v ery s a t isfa ctory I t i s p acked i n boxes h ol d in g


5 0 s t i ck s an d co st s abo ut 4 5 cen ts a box .

E x tra h ard c h arco al i n boxes h o ld i n g 5 0 st i c k s c os ti ng abo u t 55 ,

c en ts p e r b ox a n d l ab el l ed F zzm m s Vnet /m E x fm D u r i s prep ared ,

b y B e rv i l l e T h e s t ud en t w i l l do w el l to obt a i n a bo x of t h i s grade a n d
.
,

i f n e cess a ry a few st i cks of a s ofter gra d e s uc h a s t h at rst n a m ed


,
.

B oa rds T h e s urfa ce of a d ra w in g b oa rd i s u nyi el d in g an d


.

u n s at isfact ory t o wo rk upo n fo r t h e gr ai n of t h e woo d a n d al l


i rregu l a ri t i es of i ts s u rfa c e i n d en t t h e p ap er a n d i n j ure t h e d ra wi n g .

I n s t e ad of a d ra wi ng b o a rd a c a n v as t h e s i z e of t h e s h e et of c h arcoal
,

p ap er o n w h i c h t h e d r aw i n g i s m a d e s h o ul d b e us ed an d t h e p ap e r ,

s e c ure d u pon i t by t h u mb t acks I t s y i e ld i ng s u rf ace w i l l h el p


.

gre at l y t o prod u c e a n art i sti c d raw i ng .

A p o rtfo l i o m ay al so b e u sed a s a b oa rd an d t h e p ap er s ec ure d to ,

i t by t h u m b c l i p s b ut i t i s n o t a s sat i sfa c tory as t h e ca n v as


,
.

P ap e r m ay b e s t retc h e d upo n cl ot h se c u red to a s t retc h e r or i t ma y


b e s t ret c h ed u pon t h e fra m e w i t h ou t t h e cl ot h W h e n t h e d r awi n g .
88 [ J G /I T A N D SH A D E .

i s com pl e ted i t i s t h en read y to b e fr a med I t i s b est t h a t p ape r upo n .

a st ret c h e r s h oul d h av e t h e p rot ec t ion of t h e c l ot h or c a n v a s b a cki ng .

Cra y ons C rayon s are som et i m e s use d i n n i s h i n g a c h a rco al


.

d rawi ng as t h ey a re h ard e r a n d mo re e as i l y kept s h a rp T h ey give


,
.

a deepe r b l ack t h a n c h a rcoa l b ut i t i s o f a d i ffe ren t n at u re an d t h e


, ,

s tuden t i s ad v i sed t o wo rk w h o l l y wi t h t h e c h a rco al or w h ol l y w it h


t h e c r ayon .

C on t e c rayon s i n p e n c i l fo rm c o s t e ig h t cen ts e ac h an d co m e i n

ve n u m be rs o f w h i c h N o 2 i s s u i t a b l e fo r m os t w o rk
, . .

C on te c rayon s i n sti c k fo rm abo u t 2 i n c h es l on g co st 1 8 c en ts a


do z e n an d co m e i n t h re e grad es .

A s c rayo n c an n o t b e read i l y c h an g ed o r e rased i t i s t h e refore a .

m ed i u m for t h e a rti s t a n d n o t s u i tabl e fo r t h e s t ude n t


, .

Cra y on sa u ce

C on te c rayo n sa uc e com es i n ro l l s abo u t }4


.

i n c h i n d ia m e ter a n d 2 i n c h es lon g cost i n g si x c en t s e ac h , Th is .

s au c e i s appl i e d w i t h a stu m p an d al t h o ug h so m eti m es u sed i n co n


,

ne c t i on w i t h c h a rco al t h e re i s t h e sa m e obj e ct io n t o i t s u se a s to t h e
,

c rayo n p enc i l .

S t u mps .A c h a rc o al d raw i n g m ay b e m a d e w h ol l y w it h t h e po in t
of t h e c h a rcoa l an d wi t h o ut an y bl en d in g o r rub b i n g of t h e ton es or
i t m ay con s i s t of ton e s p rod uc ed by r ubbi n g t h e c h a rco al i n to t h e
p ape r w i t h a s tu m p B o t h m e t h od s of w ork h a v e been an d a re
.

t a ug h t a n d t h ere are t eac h e rs w h o t h i n k t h a t a d raw in g ca n b e m ad e


,

i n o n l y on e of t h es e w ays .

T h e obj e cti o n to t h e us e of t h e s t um p i s t h a t s t ud en ts s eem to


t h i n k t h e st um p w i l l m ake t h e d ra w i n g i f i t i s ap pl i ed v igo ro usl y to
t h e pape r ; an d as a res ul t t h e s u rfa c e of t h e p ap e r i s q u ic kly des
t roy ed by t h e s tu m p so t h a t n o a m o u n t of w ork c an p ro d u ce a s at is

fac to ry d ra wi n g .t h e po i n t o f t h e c h a rco al i s us ed w it h out


t h e st um p t h e s tud en t i s mo re l i k el y to t h i n k of fo rm B ut to sec ure
, .

t h e b es t d raw i n gs i t i s n o t n ec essa ry t h at a d raw i n g b e m ad e w h ol ly


b y u se of t h e poi n t a n d t h e b es t m et h od i s t h a t w h i c h co n n es t h e
,

p upi l to n o o n e way of worki ng b ut al l ows h i m to s e c u re e f . fect s i n


t h e read i es t w ays .

P a pe r st u mps T h e se a re m ad e of gra y p ap e r i n m an y s i zes


.
,

a nd cos t fro m
5 c en ts to 1 5 c en ts eac h ; t h e y are i n t e n d ed to b e
u sed for p rod uc i n g eve n ton es b y bl en d i n g t h e ton e s g i ve n b v t h e
L I GH T A N D S l /A D E
90
.

as i t w i l l q u i c k l y rem o v e t h e c h arco a l f ro m t h e p ape r w i t h o ut t h e


sl ig h te st i nj ury to i ts s u rfa ce I t m a y b e ro l l ed i n to po i n t e d st ump
.

l i k e p i e ces b y w h i c h s m a l l l i g h ts m a y b e t a k en ou t a n d i t i s p refer
, ,

ab l e to a s h a rp po i n t ed e ra se r b ec a u se i t d o e s not i n de n t t h e p aper
-

a n d b ec a use it p ro d uc e s a l ig h t w h i c h i s n ot too k een edged for -

art i st i c d ra w in gs .

R a ppi ng A n y d a r k m a y b e l ig h t e n ed by ra pp i n g t h e p ape r w it h
.

a pe n c i l o r o t h e r h a rd obj ec t so t h a t t h e p a rt i c l es of c h a rco al are set


i n m oti on an d c a us ed to fa l l f ro m t h e p aper .

F a b er s p enc i l er a ser T h i s e r ase r i s m a d e i n t h e form of a l ead


.

pe n c i l a n d i s t h e b es t fo r m of r ubb e r e ra se r fo r l ig h t an d s h ade
,

wor k a s t h e woo d k e ep s t h e r ubb e r f ro m b e com i ng soi led and


,

m a k e s i t co n ven i en t to d ra w w i t h I f t h e p ap e r i s wor k ed upon so


.

l ong t h at b re ad w i l l n ot rem o v e t h e d ark fro m an y p a rt w h ic h s h ould


b e l i g h t i t m ay b e ne ce ss ary to use a r u bb er p en c i l era se r
,
.

N i g ri v ori ne T h i s i s a s h a rp p oi n t ed rubb e r i n k e ras e r ; by


.
- -

g i vi n g i t a t h i n wedge s h ap ed po i n t i t m ay b e u sed t o p rod uce a


-

n arrow l i g h t w h en t h e p ap e r h a s b ee n wo r k ed upon so lo n g t h at t h e

b read w i l l n ot l ig h t e n i t s u f c ie n t l y I t s h o ul d b e used w i t h care so


.

as n o t t o i n d en t t h e p a pe r an d on l y w h e n t h e b rea d o r kn eaded
,

e ra s er w il l n ot a n s w e r .

T h e art i st m ay so m et i m es u s e i n pl ac e of t h i s e ras e r a s h arp


k n i fe wi t h w h i c h t h e l ig h ts a re s c rat c h ed o u t b ut p up i l s s h o ul d not
, ,

b e a dv i se d or a llo wed t o u se t h e k n i fe w h i c h at be st d oes n ot i m ,

p ro ve t h e d ra w i ng I t re q ui re s m uc h sk i l l to us e a k n ife w i t h out
.

spo i l i n g a d ra w i ng .


F e r s k n e a ded e r a s e r
a b T h i s i s a n e ra s er co n s i s t in g of rubber
.

w h i c h m a y b e w o r k ed i nto a ny fo rm a s if i t we re a p i ec e of b read :
i t i s soft pl i ab l e do es not i n j u r e t h e pa pe r a nd res e m b l e s brea d so
, . ,

m u c h i n i t s res u lt s t h at i t m a y b e u sed i n i ts p l a c e t h u s avoi d ing .

t h e d i rt occ as ion e d b y t h e us e of b r e ad .

Clot h a nd C h a moi s s k i n co m m o n c l ot h or c h a m oi s s k i n m ay '

b e used a s a n e ras e r b u t t h e s t ud e n t i s a d v i s ed t o us e t h e m e an s p re
.

v i o u sl
y expl a i n ed i n prefere nc e as t h es e fo rc e t h e c h a rc oa l i n to t h e
.

g ra i n of t h e p ape r s o t h o ro u g h l y t h at u n l es s t h e s u rfa ce i s aft e rwa rds


w o r k ed ov e r w i t h t h e c h arcoa l po i n t t h e re i s n o t e n o u g h va ri ety of
to ne an d c o ns e q u e nt lv t h e d r a w i n g l a c k s a t m os p h e re
. .
C l /A A
'
w A L D A A

WI N G .

9I

Fix a t if
.
T h e ton e s of a c h a rco al d ra w i ng con s i st of n e bl ack
po wd e r w h i c h as h as be e n ex p l a i ned i s read i l y s h ifte d abo ut o r
, , ,

r e m o ved fro m t h e s urf ac e of t h e p ape r a n d i n o rde r to p reserve t h e ,

s ke tc h i t m us t b e x ed o r v ar n i s h ed w h en i t i s c om p l et ed wi t h a ,

l i q u i d c al l ed x a t i f .

G oo d x a t i f s h o u l d b e v ery l ig h t c ol ored an d s h o ul d dry upon t h e


-
,

h an d so a s to b e q ui te a d h esi v e j ust b efo r e i t i s d ry b ut i t s h o u l d ,

l eav e n o po wd e r upo n t h e h an d I n fer io r gr ad es of x a t if are oft e n


.

s o l d of w h i c h sev era l t im e s t h e q u a n t i ty t h at s h oul d b e req u ir ed m ay


,

b e u sed w i t h o u t x i n g a d r aw i n g b ut often p rod uc i n g a s urf ac e of


,

p o wd e r upo n t h e d raw i ng w h i c h spo i l s i t,


.

F i x a t if m ay b e m ad e by ad d i n g to a p i n t of t h e b es t al co h ol abo ut
4 o u n ce s of t h e w h i te s h e l l ac l i q u id v arn i s h an d al l owi n g i t to ,

s t an d u n t i l t h e u p p e r p art b eco m es a c l e ar a mb e r col o r w h en t h i s ,

c l ea r p ar t m ay b e po ure d i n to an ot h e r bot tle T h e x a t if m ay b e .

u s ed b efo re i t h as se t t l ed b u t upo n t h e b est d rawi ngs on l y t h e cl e ar


,

x a t if s h o ul d b e use d T h e r e s h o u l d n o t be e n o ug h s h el l a c i n t h e
.

x a t if to c au s e i t to b e v e ry st i cky fo r t h i s w i l l m ake t h e d r aw in g
,

s h i n e a n d w i l l sp o i l i t .

F i x i ng t h e d r a w i ng A n y co m mo n a to m i z er wi l l s erv e to sp ray
.

t h e x a t i f u po n t h e d r a wi n g b u t t h os e w i t h n e t ub es w il l be
,

c logged w i t h t h e gu m i f t h ey a re n o t c l e an ed wi t h al co h o l e ac h t i m e
t h ey a r e u se d . T h e b est a to m i z er i s on e m ad e of t wo l a rge fo l d in g
t i n t ub e s an d cos t i n g 2 5 ce n t s .

T h e a t o m i z e r m a y b e u se d to S p r ay t h e x a t if u po n t h e d r aw i ng ,

o r t h e x a t i f m ay b e app l ie d t o t h e b a ck of t h e d r aw i ng w i t h a b r u s h .

To us e t h e at o m i z er t h e d raw i n g s h o u l d be p l a ced h o ri zo n t al ly u po n
a t ab l e T h e ato m i z e r s h o ul d b e h el d f a r en o ug h fro m t h e d rawi n g
.

s o t h at n o l a r ge d ro p s w i l l re ac h i t a n d t h e s p ray s h o ul d b e d irec t ed
,

abo v e i t s o t h a t i t f al l s ge n t l y up on t h e d r a w i n g I f t h e atom i z er i s .

n e ar t h e d ra w i n g o r t h e sp ray st ri k e s i t fo rc ibl y t h e c h a rcoa l w i l l


b e m ov ed ab o u t o n t h e p ap e r an d t h e d ra w i n g w i l l t h u s b e s po i l ed .

A little x a t i fs h o ul d b e b l own upo n t h e d raw i n g w h i c h s h o u l d t h en ,

b e a l l o we d t o d ry fo r i f t h e s u rf a c e of t h e p ap e r beco m es wet t h e
,

d r aw i n g wi l l b e s po i l e d W h e n t h e l i g h ter p a rts h av e bee n x ed s o


.

t h at t h e c h a r co a l wi l l n ot r ub off u po n t h e nger o r cl ot h a h o l e ,

s h ou l d b e c u t i n a p i ec e of p ape r so t h at x a t ifm ay b e b l o w n t h ro ug h
L / o l
'

l T A A I)
'

92

i t u po n t h e d a rke r p a rts w i t ho ut s t ri k i ng t h e l ig h te r p a rts No .

m ore x a t if s h oul d b e a ppl i ed to an y p a rt t h a n i s re q u i re d to h ol d


i t for t h e d ra w i ng wi l l b e spo i l ed if v arn i s h ed s o t h a t i t s h i n es
,
.

T h e c h a rcoal is m os t ap t to b e b lo wn o r o ated from i ts p rope r


pos iti on i n t h e rst stages of x i ng so v e ry l i ttl e s h o ul d t h en be ,

a pp l i ed w i t h o u t w a i t i ng fo r i t to d ry .

T o app l y x a t if wi t h t h e b r us h t h e d rawi n g m us t b e se c u re d i n a
,

h ori z on ta l p os i t ion fa c e d own wa rd w it h n o t h i n g u n d e rn e at h i t t h at


, ,

m ay t ou c h i t I t m ay b e t acke d t o an y f ram e o r st ret c h e r o r op posi te


.
,

e d g e s m a y b e s ec ured t o w ood en st rip s C a re m u st b e t aken n ot t o .

ru b t h e d ra wi n
g w h i l e t h us s ec uri n g i t T h e x a t ifs h ou l d b e appl i ed
.

t o t h e b a ck of t h e d ra w i n g w i t h a b rus h abo ut 3 i n c h e s w i de T he .

d ra w i n g w i l l t h u s b e x ed w i t h o u t d an ge r o f i nj u ry by d rops o r b y
m a k i n g t h e d raw i n g s h i n e T h e p ap er s h o ul d re m a i n h ori zo n ta l
.

u n t i l t h o roug h l y d ry Fi xa t i f ap pl i e d to t h e b ac k s h ou l d b e st ro nger
.

t h an t h a t w h i c h s h o ul d b e u se d u po n t h e fro n t of t h e d ra w i n g .

MAK ING A CH A R C OA L D RA WI N G .

F i r s t di r ec t i ons. T h e rs t wor k i n c h a rcoal s h o ul d be t h e q ui c k


s k e t c h i n g of s i m pl e g ro u p s of st i l l l i fe co m po sed of obj ec t s of di f
fe re nt col o rs ; b u t i f s t ud e n ts h ave n o t h ad s u f fi c i e n t p ra ct i ce to en abl e
t h e m to d raw i n ou t l i n e corre ctl y t h ey m ay w o rk fro m sin gl e obj ects
, ,

t es t i ng t h ei r val u e s as ex pl a i n ed i n t h i s b ook a n d t h e d ra w i n g a s
,
, .

"
expl ai n ed i n Free H a n d D raw i ng

.

T h es e ti m e s k et c h es s h o u l d be upo n h al f s h e ets of c h arco al p aper


- -
,

a n d n ot even t h e y o un ges t pu p il s s h o u l d us e p a pe r sma l l e r t h a n a

q u arter s h eet fo r c h a rcoa l i s no t s u i ted to s m a l l d ra w i n gs


-
, .

I t i s i m poss i b l e for t h e st u d e n t to re al i z e t h e e f fec t of h is d ra w i n g


i f i t i s not h el d as far as pos s i bl e fro m h i m a n d a t rig h t an gl es t o
t h e d i rec ti on i n w h i c h h e l oo k s u pon i t : an d w h i l e d ra w i ng t h e arm ,

s h o ul d al w ays be o ut st retc h e d fo r i f m uc h b e n t i t wi l l be so c ra mped


, .

t h at fre e w ork c a n not b e d o n e a n d i t wi l l al so c a use t h e ey es t o b e


,

too nea r t h e d rawi n g E v e n a t a rm s l en g t h t h e s t ud e n t w i l l fa i l t o


'

real i ze t h e e rro rs of t h e d ra w i n g a n d h e s h o ul d rem e m b er to pl ace i t


,

bes id e t h e g ro u p oft en a nd st u d y b o t h fro m a d i sta n ce .


FIG .
33 . Ffo m C ha rc o a l S ke t ch Ti m e, H our .

F I G 34
. . F ro m C ha rc o a l S k et ch h
'

l i me

, y. H ou r .
A A D
96
'

L l G /I T

c h a rcoa l s h o u l d be pa ssed reg u l a rl y a nd ra p id ly a l on g t h e s urface ,

p r od u c i ng a t i n t by bot h t h e upward st ro k e an d t h e d ow n wa rd s tro k e .

T h e d irect io n of stro k es t h ro ug h o ut t h e e n t i re d raw i n g s h ou l d b e


abo u t t h e s am e b ut t h e d i rec ti on i s of n o i m po rta n ce as lon g as i t i s
,

n ot un p leas an tl y n o ti ceabl e i n t h e e ffe ct T h e m ass es m ay b e l a id


.

i n by us i ng a s h ort st ub of c h arco a l p l a c ed at o n t h e p ap er .

T he r st st a g e T h e rst st age of t h e d r aw i n g s h o ul d con si st


.

of h at c h i ngs s uggest in g t h e m asses of dark mo re l ig h t l y t h an i n


,

Fig 3 3 a n d n o t bo un ded by o ut l i n es T h us in F ig
.
,
.t h e d ark .

m as ses ar e t h o se of t h e d ark v ase a n d i t s c a st s h ado w t h e s h adow ,

an d c as t s h adow of t h e m ug an d t h e s h ad o w of t h e p l i n t h
,
The .

st ud e n t s h o ul d no t s pen d ov e r v e m i n ut es i n suggesti n g t h ese


m as ses a n d s h o ul d n o t s ep arate t h e c as t s h ado ws fro m t h e s h adows
,
.

W h e n t h es e m ass es a re l ig h t l y s uggest ed t h e i r p ropo rt ion s m ay b e ,

t ested by m eas ur i n g t h e h eig h t a n d w i d t h of t h e w h ol e gro up ; an d


i f n o t correct t h e p roport io n s s h o ul d be c h a n ged i n cr e asi n g t h e ,

s t ren gt h of t h e to n es as t h i s i s do n e .

T h e second st a g e T h e secon d st age of t h e d raw i ng i s s h own


.
_

b y Fig 33 an d i s ob ta i n ed b y p ut ti n g i n t h e b a c k gro un d an d
.
,

s t rengt h en i n g t h e da rks t o b ri ng o ut t h e c a s t s h ado ws T h e st u .

d en t s h o u l d no t d ra w ou tl in es or d eterm i ne co n to u rs ex c ept as t h ey
co m e fro m grad ua l ly d ev el op i ng t h e form s of t h e m a s ses of t h e d i f fer
e nt v al ues I n doi n g t h i s t h e c h a rcoa l s h o u ld b e c a rr i ed ove r t h e
.

obj ect s ac ro s s t h e co n to urs an d t h e b ac k gro un d as of ten as pos s ible ,

i n o rd er t h at s h a rp o u tl i n e s m ay n ot d est roy t h e e f fect of a t mos


p h e re w h i c h co m es fro m t h e con t ras t of t on e s o n l y
,
T h e s tud en t .

s h o u l d be abl e to p rod uc e t h e seco n d s t age of t h e r en d e r i n g of a


si mpl e s u bj ec t s uc h as Fig 3 5 i n n ot o v er ftee n m i n u t es for if h e
, . ,
,

works s l ow l y h e w i l l b e t h i n ki ng of o utl i n es a n d d e t a i l s i n s te ad of
,

e ffec t s a n d m ass es a n d if h e begi n s t h us h e w i l l co n ti n ue to wo rk ,

m ec h an i cal l y for t h e u n im po rt an t w i t h o ut obta i n i n g t h e ess en t i al s


, .

S t u d en ts h av e b ee n so gen eral l y t aug h t to m a k e a n o ut l i n e d ra win g


b efo re b egi n n i ng to s h ad e t h at m a n y n d i t ve ry d i i c u lt n o t t o
t h i n k abo ut o u t l in es ; b u t if t h ey do n o t fo rc e t h em s el ves to co ve r
t h e p ape r s o as to s ugges t t h e p r i n ci p al m a ss es a s i n F ig 33 i n a , .
,

fe w m in utes t h ey w i l l n eve r b e abl e t o fo rget o ut l i n e s an d work


,

f ree l y an d a rt i st i c al l y .
98
'

L / G /l 7 SH A D E .

s h o u l d rs t b e d ri ed by r u bb i n g i t upo n c h arco a l h at c h ed n e ar t h e
edge of t h e p ape r .

I t i s esp ec i al l y i m porta n t t h at t h e nge r b e p asse d ov e r a l l t h e


c o n to u rs of t h e o bj ects for if t h e gr ai n of t h e p ap e r is n o t worked
,

upo n at t h e c on tou rs as m u c h as e l s e w h er e an at m o sp h eri c e f


, fec t
c a n not b e prod u c ed . T h e s t ud e nt m us t n o t d ra w o u tl i n e s i n an y
st age o f a l ig h t a n d s h ad e d r awi ng o r pos i t i v el y p l ac e co n to u rs u n til
,

t h e v e ry e nd T h en h e w i l l n o t b e afr ai d of lo s i n g o u t l in es or of
.

go i ng o ve r t h e co n to u rs as t h e y are s u g g es t ed i n F ig 3 4 . .

T h e st u de n t m ust n o t om i t to wo rk o v e r t h e en t i re s urfa ce of t h e
p ape r eve n t h at of t h e l ig h t es t p a rts : t h u s t h e s i de of t h e p l i n t h o r
,

of a ny l ig h ter obj ec t s u ppos i ng s uc h to b e in t h e gro u p m us t rec ei ve


, ,

a l ig h t t in t a n d a s m uc h r u bbi n g as a ny o t h e r p ar t fo r t h e l ig h tes t
,

s u rfa ces h a v e gradati on upo n t h em an d a n a t mo sp h e ri c d ra wi n g c an


,

no t b e m a d e if t h e gra i n of t h e p ape r u pon t h ese p a rts i s no t w orked

upo n as m u c h a s el s e w h ere .

I t m ay of t e n b e n e cess a r y t o p l a c e a t i n t u po n a l ig h t s u rfac e a nd
t h e n remov e i t i n w h ol e or i n pa rt i n o rd er t o de s t ro y t h e gra i n of
. ,

t h e p ap er an d p rod uc e a t i n t as l i g h t as i s d esi red .

F i ni s h i n g t h e dra w i ng . W h e n t h e g ra i n of t h e pa pe r h a s t h u s
bee n e q u a l l y w or k ed upo n an d t h o ro u g h l y l l ed t h roug h o u t t h e ,

stud e n t m ay w o r k upo n t h e res ul ti n g ton es w i t h t h e poi n t of t h e


c h a rcoa l a nd w i t h t h at o f t h e to rti l l o n o r rol l ed b re ad o r k n ead ed
era ser d ra w i ng d et a i l s a n d p e rfec t i n g v a l u es
. I t w i l l n ot b e mec es
.

sa r y for f u rt h e r r u bb in g t o b e don e o r t h e n ger o r s t u m p u sed


.

excep t as a n e rase r to l i g h te n pa r t s m ad e too d a r k .

l n t h u s n i s h i ng t h e d ra w i n g a l o n g p i ec e of h ard c h arco a l s h o ul d
be us ed w h i c h i s s h a rpen ed to a w ed g e s h aped po i n t s i m i l a r i n form
-
,

to t h a t o f a pen c il us ed fo r m e c h an i c al d ra w in g i n o rd e r t h a t t h e
,

po i n t m a v w ea r l o n g e r t h a n a con i c a l po i n t . I t m us t b e s h arp en ed
u pon s a n d pape r o r a l e . A s h o rt p i ec e of c h a rco a l s h o u l d b e
pl aced i n a c rayo n h old er .

T h e st ud en t m u s t a i m to u se t h e c h arcoa l po i n t so a s t o obt ai n
j u st t h e r ig h t fo rm a nd va l ue fo r ev e ry p a rt a n d h e s h o ul d u se t h e
.

p o i n t of t h e t ort i l l on o r ot h e r e rase r t o ob ta i n n a rro w l ig h t s By .

m ean s of t h ese d i ffere n t po i n ts h e s h o ul d ca ref u l l y w ork a l l d et a i l


i nt o pl a c e u po n t h e fo u nd a t i on g i v e n b y r u b b i n g w i t h t h e fi ng e r t h e
d r a w i ng i l l u s t ra t e d b y F ig 3 4 .
CH A I fG OA L D E A 0 .

99

No sh a rp cont ours .T h ere m u st b e n o v ery s h arp edge o r keen


s e p a r a t i o n s i n t h e d r aw i n g T h i s i s v ery d i f c ul t for s t ud e n ts to
.

re al i z e ; oft e n t h ey w i s h t o l ay a st raig h t edged p i e c e of pa p e r


-

d o wn a l o ng t h e edges of a p l i n t h fo r i ns t an ce an d t h en u s e t h e
, ,

e ra ser a l on g t h e p ap er to p rod uc e a str a ig h t ed ged co n to u r I f p rop


-
.

e rl y t aug h t t h a t a free h a n d o u tl i n e d ra w i ng m us t b e m ade en t i rel y


-

f ree h an d a n d s o t h at i t s l i n es d o n ot r es e mb l e t h ose giv en b y t h e


-

us e of a st ra ig h t edge t h ey wo ul d not exp ect to m a ke a good l ig h t


,

an d s h ad e d raw i n g i n s uc h a w ay fo r t h ey wo ul d u n d e rstan d t h a t no
m ec h an i c al a i d n o r m e c h an i c al a cc u racy i s p e rm iss ib l e i n a n a rt i st i c
r ep res e n t at i o n of ev en t h e m o st geo m et ri c an d exa ct o bj ec t An .

a rt is t i c d ra w i n g m ust h av e t h e v a ri ety i n bot h l i n e an d t o n e w h i c h


res ul ts fro m fr ee b a nd d r a w i n g u pon a surface s l ig h tl y y i e ld i n g a n d
-

n o t p e fec t ly s m oot h . T h ere m u st h o wev er b e a d e n ite rep rese m


, ,

t a t i on o r sep ara t i o n of s uc h p a rts as t h e edges of t h e p l in t h an d

o t h e r o bj ec ts .

I f t h e s h a r p l i n e gi v en by u s in g t h e e raser a l o n g t h e st rai g h t edge


i s s l ig h tl y b l en d ed by u s i ng t h e to rt i l l o n st um p t h e e f fe c t w i l l b e
,

i m prov ed a nd i f edges n o t q ui te st ra ig h t w h i c h co m e from u se of t h e


,

c h arc o al p o i n t fre e h an d a re to o s h arp (as oft e n t h ey w i l l b e ) t h e


~
,

po i n t of t h e tort i l l o n m ay b e used to b l en d t h e m s li g h t ly a nd t h u s
gi v e a s ep a rat i on w h i c h i s d ec id ed a n d al s o soft en o ug h to b e
a rt i st i c .

T h e s tud en t m ust r e m em b er t h a t t h er e a re n o ou tl i n e s i n n atu re .

a n d t h a t h e c an n ot i n l i g h t a n d s h ad e a rti st i ca l l y rep resen t obj ect s


b y o ut l i n i n g t h em ei t h e r w i t h d ar k o r w it h l ig h t T h e on l y p art s .

w h ere t h e re s h oul d b e t h e e f fe c t of a l i n e ar e t h e p art s w h i c h re p re


s e n t v ery n ar ro w s h ado ws or v e r y n a rro w l ig h t s U n d er t h e p l i n t h
.

in F ig 1 7 i s a s h ad o w w h i c h gi v es t h e e ffec t of a l i n e an d w h i c h
.

m u s t b e r ep res en ted an d s o m us t a l l s i m i l a r d e t a i l s of da rk o r o f
,

l i g h t ; b u t n o obj e ct i s c om p l etely or e ve n la rgel y o u tl i n ed b y s uc h


e ffe c ts an d n o work of art t ru e to n a t ure c a n be o u t l in ed fo r o u tl in e s
, ,

a r e p u re con v en t i on s .H e n ce t h e st ud e n t s h ou l d n o t begi n a l i g h t
an d s h ad e d r aw i ng by o u t l in es for t h ey wi l l be w o rke d o ut o f t h e
e ffe c t w i t h d i f c ul ty I n no p a rt m us t t h e con to u rs b e d e n ed by
.

kee n edged ton e s an d t h e tort i l lon s t um p m u s t a l w ays b e u sed to


-
,

s oft e n a l l s ep ara t io n s t h a t h av e b ecom e too s h a r p .


P i n 36
. . F ro m C ha rc oa l St u dy .
FI G .
38 . F o
r m C ha rc oa l S t udy .
1 04 L I GH T A N D SH A D E .

V a r i et y necessa r y T h e re m us t b e v ar i ety i n a l l d raw i n gs an d


. ,

s o i n c h a rcoa l wo r k i n so m e p art s t h e con to urs m us t b e m o re s h a rp l y


d raw n t h a n i n ot h ers ; t h ese are t h e p a rt s w h i c h are a c c e n t ed b y
k een l ig h t s stro n g s h ad ow s a nd by s t ro ng co n t ras ts an d t h ey m ust
, , ,

b e m o re prom i n en t t h an t h e c on to urs w h i c h a re m o re o r l es s l ost


i n t h e m as ses of l ig h t o r t h e m a s s es of s h ado w T h es e s h arpe r .

p a rts of t h e d ra w i n g a re i t s a c cen t s b u t t h ey w i l l n ot b e n ot i ced if,

a l l p art s a re m a d e q u i te s h a rp I t w i l l n ot d o to h a v e co n to urs
.

un ifor m l y s h a rp eve n if t h ey a re n o t v e ry k een fo r t h i s w i l l p ro d uc e ,

a h ard a n d m ec h an i cal e ffec t On t h e o t h e r h an d i t wi l l no t do to


.
,

h ave al l co n tou rs an d d e n i t ion s u n i fo rm l y soft fo r t h i s w i l l p ro d uc e ,

a n un p l ea sa n t a n d c h a r act erl ess e ffec t .

T h e p h oto g ra p h s m ay a s si st t h e st ud e n t t o u n d e rst an d t h e above


re marks .Fig 1 4 rep res e n ts c on t o urs a n d d et ai l s by a l m o s t u n i fo rm
.

s h arp n ess a n d i s fa r l ess p l e as i n g t h a n Fig 2 0 i n w h i c h t h e con to urs


,
.
,

a re d ec id ed i n pa rts an d al mos t l os t i n o t h e r p a rts T h e se gu res .

i l l u stra t e t h e fac t t h a t a p h o tograp h a s wel l a s a d ra w i n g m ay b e


m ec h an i ca l an d h ard t h ro ug h un ifo rm s h a rpn es s of d e n i t ion o r m ay .

be pl ea s in g an d arti sti c t h rou g h v ar i ety of d e n i t ion a n d s ubo rd i n a


t i on of d e t ai l .

T h e b a c k gr ou nd s u b or di na t e I n a ny s t ud y t h e l i n e s o r d eta i l s
.

of t h e b a c k gro u nd o r ot h e r u n i m po rta n t pa rts s h o ul d n ot be m ad e a s


p rom i n en t as in Fig 1 4 b ut s h o ul d b e s uggested a s s l ig h tl y a s i n Fig
.
, .

2 0 o r o m i tted al toget h e r i n o rd e r t h a t t h e t i m e m ay b e sp e n t i n st ud y
, ,

of t h e d et ai l of t h e obj ec ts w h i c h for m t h e gro up a n d a re i m po rt an t .

T h e i l l u st r a t i ons Fig 3 6 i s fro m a c h arco al d ra w in g upon w h ic h


. .

se ve ral days we re sp en t T h e l ig h t wa s d i rectl y ov e r h ead a n d t h e


.
,

p l aster roset t e w as v e ry da r k i n col o r fro m a g e so t h at t h e d raw in g ,

seem s d ark ; i t is h ow eve r q u i t e t ru e to n at u re i n v al ues


, , .

Fig 3 7 give s f u l l si ze a p a rt o f t h e rose tt e a n d b o ttl e of Fig 3 6


.
, , ,

a nd s h ows t h e t ext u re p ro d uc ed by wo rki ng as ex pl ai n ed To pro .

d u ce t h e b est e f fec t of a t m o sp h e re t h e gr a i n of t h e p a pe r s h o ul d
s h ow ab o u t as st rongl y a s i n t h i s gu re I t i s not n e ce ssa ry t o co m .

p le t e ly wo rk o u t t h e wat e rm a rks of t h e p a ral l el l i n e s u n l ess t h ey


co m e i n p a rts w h e re m uc h n e d et ai l i s t o b e rep rese n t ed .

Figs 3 5 3 9 a nd 4 1 are fro m t wo h ou r t i m e sketc h es b y rs t yea r


.
, ,
- - -

a rt sc h oo l st u d en ts ; t h ey i l l u s tr at e t h e wor k w h i c h i s of gre ates t


-
F I G 42
. . F m C ha rcoa
ro l St u dy .
I m I-
ro m C h a l St

.
43 . rc oa u dv .
I I O L I GH T S I /A D E .

v al u e to t h e a rt st ud en t .H e s h oul d b e s at is ed to begi n to st ud y
as expl ai n e d a n d s h o ul d con t i n ue to m ake t i m e sk et c h es u n t i l abl e to
,
-

rep resen t s u c h gro ups as wel l or n e a rl y as we l l a s t h es e gu res so fa r ,

as v a l ues an d d raw i n g are con c ern ed b efore a tt e m pti ng to p a in t o r


,

m a k e h i g h l y n is h e d d rawi ngs T h e st ud e n t w h o att em p ts to p ai n t


.

or m ake n is h ed d rawin gs w h e n n ot abl e to s e e m as ses a n d v al u es ,

w i l l w as te h i s t i m e an d p ro d uce s i m pl y c h il d i s h o r m e c h an i c al d raw
i n gs w i t h o ut bre ad t h o r e ffec t .

Figs 3 6 3 8 4 0 an d 4 2 are fr om d r aw in gs u pon f ul l s i z e s h eets


.
, , ,
-

of c h ar co al p a per by stu d en ts of t h e en t e ri ng c l ass of t h e M ass a


c h u se t t s N orm a l A rt S c h ool T h ey i l l us t rate t h e work t h e st ud en ts
.

s h ou l d l e ar n to d o aft er t h ey a re abl e t o m ake good ti m e sket c h es -


.

T h e rep rod u ctio n s a re n o t q u i t e t rue i n v al ues to t h e o r igi n al s but ,

t h ey s h ow t h e c a reful s t u d y of m asses a n d d e t a i l s w h i c h s t ud en t s
s h o u l d b e l ed to m ake i n ord er t o obt a in a good fo u n d ation fo r m ore
adv an ced wo r k A l l w h o i n t en d to st ud y p a in t i n g s h o ul d rst st udy
.

v a l ues i n c h a rcoa l fro m sti l l l i fe fo r t h is s t u dy w i l l d o m ore for t h e


,

b egin n er t h an a n y ot h e r wo r k i t w i l l giv e h i m k nowl edge w h i c h h e


m ay b e m a n y yea rs i n obt ai n in g if h e begi n s pa i n t i n g wi t h o ut t h e
fo un d at io n of d r awi n g an d v al u es .

Aft er t h is st ud y of st il l l ife w h i c h en ab l e s t h e st uden t t o se e form


an d v al ues h e m a y d raw fro m t h e a n t i q u e s u c h s ubj e c t s a s Figs 4 3
, .

an d 4 4 after t h i s wo r k h e m ay d raw f ro m l ife ; an d n al l y h e m ay


.

s tud y p a i n t i ng b egi n n i ng w i t h sti l l l i fe w h i c h w i l l p rep a re for t h e


,

p a i n t in g of t h e h e ad an d gu re .

A rt i st s often u se gray pap e r a n d p ut i n t h e l ig h t es t p arts wit h


w h i t e c h al k b ut t h e s tu d e n t i s e arn e st l y ad vi s ed to us e s i m pl y w h i t e
,

p ape r a nd c h a rcoal a n d to us e h i s j udgm e n t as t o w h e n to a pp ly t h e


,

v ar ious me t h ods ex pl ai n ed fo r er asi n g an d c h an gi n g t h e d rawi n g an d


t h e v al u es re m em ber in g t h a t al l m et h od s m a y a t d i ffe ren t t i m es b e
,

s erv i ceab l e p a rt i c ul arl y t h ose rst on t h e l i st


, .

W h en t h e st ud e n t ca n d raw h e m ay com bi n e d i ffe ren t m et h od s


a n d m ed i u m s i n t h e s am e d r aw in g an d us e as m uc h l at it ud e as t h e
,

a rti sts of t h e p a st d i sp l a y i n t h e work t h ey h a v e l eft for u s to st udy .

a n d w h i c h we w i l l st u d y to o u r great ad va n t a e i f w is e e n o u g h to
g
pro t b y o u r o pport un i t i es .
CH A P TE R VI .

P E N CI L D RA WI N G .

M AT E R I A L S .

P enci l s e n c i l s s h o ul d be of good q ua l ity fre e fro m gri t an d


. P , ,

c a p ab l e of p ro d uc in g soft gr ays a n d st ron g bl ac ks I t i s n o t pos .

s i b l e to sp e c ify t h e grad e of p en c i l re q u i red fo r free h an d d r aw in g -

e i t h er i n o u tl i n e o r i n l ig h t a n d s h ade wo rk T h e b ro ad gray l i n e .

d r aw n wi t h a v ery sof t p en c i l i s ofte n t h o ug h t to b e e ssent i a l to good


d r aw i ng ; b u t a d raw i ng m us t b e j udged n o t by t h e q u al i ty of l i n e ,

e m p l oye d b ut by w h a t i t rep resen ts


, A s d i fferen t d rawi ngs rep .

r es en t d i ffe ren t s ubj e c ts a n d d i ffer en t e ffec t s t h ey c an no t b e t re at ed ,

i n t h e s a m e w ay an d so o n e m ay re q u i re a soft p en c i l a n d an ot h e r
,

a h ard o n e .

T h e grad e o f p en c i l to b e use d d ep en d s upo n t h e s i z e of t h e


d r aw i n g up on w h et h er i t s c h ief p urpose i s to rep resen t fo r m o r
,

v a l ues a n d a lso upo n t h e amo un t of d e tai l i t i s to r epresen t


, .

I f a p e n c i l s ket c h i s to b e m ad e q u i ckl y as a n ote s im p l y of l ig h t


a n d s h ad e e ffe ct s a s oft p en c i l w i l l b e n ec essa ry to ob t a i n t h e best
,

r es ul ts . I f t h e ske t c h i s q u i t e s m al l an d i n t en d ed as a st udy of
t h e fo rm a n d d e tai l s of co n str uc t io n of a h ead o r o t h e r s ubj ec t m ore ,

t h a n as a s tud y of t h e m ass es of l ig h t an d d a rk i t w i l l be n e cess ary ,

to u s e a m e d i u m o r e ve n a h a rd p en c i l I t i s i m pos s i b l e to m a ke a
.

s m al l d ra w i ng w h i c h re p res e n ts m an y d eta i l s by t h e u se of a soft


pe n c i l o r a b ro ad gray l i n e a n d t h e s m al l e r t h e d r aw i ng an d t h e
,

mo re d e t a i l i t h a s t h e h ard e r t h e p e n c i l m ust b e T h e o l d m as te rs
,
.

oft e n use d a p e n c i l m ad e of p ur e s i l v er w h i c h ga ve a sof t s m oot h , ,

gray l i n e ; i t cou l d b e m ad e v e ry s h a rp an d woul d r eta i n i ts po i n t ,

fo r a l on g t i m e an d wa s w e l l s u i ted to t h e ca reful s tud i es of fo rm


, ,

s u c h as F ig 2 7 w h i c h t h ese f a m o us a rt i s ts ofte n m ad e T h e p e n c i l
.
,
.

us ed m u s t b e s ui te d to t h e work t o b e d on e an d m ay ran ge fro m t h e ,

soft es t (6 B o r 4 B ) w h i c h m ay b e use d fo r su c h sketc h e s a s Figs


, .

2 4 5 0 53
, , 5 4 a n d 6 0 to gr ad e s s uc h a s 2 B B or H B w h i c h m ay
, , , , , ,
1 1 2 LI GH T A /VD S H A D E .

b e us ed fo r s uc h work as Figs 56 a n d 5 7 w h i le pe n c il s a s h ard as


.

2
H o r ev e n 4 H m ay be used upo n v ery s m al l d r aw i n gs o r v e ry
c a reful st ud i e s su c h as Fi g 2 7
. . .

Fo r al l st ud i es of v al u es an d rap id no te s of e ffe cts i t i s w e l l to ,

u se as s oft a pe n c i l as t h e si z e of t h e d ra w in g a n d t h e surfac e of t h e
p ap e r wi l l pe rm i t S t ud en t s w h o h av e to m a k e m an y tr i a l l i n es i n
.
'

orde r o bt ai n p ro po rt i on s c an n o t use sof t p en c i l s m aki ng

Fl o 4 5
. .

t h ese to uc h es fo r t h ey w i l l p rod uce l i n es s o h e av y t h a t t h e eraser


,

w i l l b e req u i red a n d e ven t h e n t h e p ap er m ay n ot be l eft i n good


,

co nd i t io n .P upi l s w h o ca n n o t d raw fa i rl y w el l s h ou l d use i n begi n .

n i ng a ny s k etc h a m ed i um o r h a rd p en c i l v e r y l ig h t l y so as n ot to
, .

i nd en t t h e p ap er : b u t in acc e n ti n g an o utl i n e d r awi n g w h os e l in es


h ave b een t h u s d e t e rm i ne d or i n gi v i n g si m pl y l ig h t an d s h ade
f

e ffect s a soft p en c i l s h o u l d b e u sed


,
.

P a pe r . T h e pa per t o be us ed d ep e n d s upo n t h e d ra w i n g to b e
-

m ad e . I f t h e d rawi n g i s to be a stud y of fo rm pri n c i p al ly s uc h as ,


I I [J G /I T A A H)
4

w h e n t h e s ubj ec t d oes n ot re q u i re s tron g d a rks T h i s m e t h o d of


.

b l en d i ng a pe n c i l d ra wi n g to o bt a i n va l ue s is m ore d ifc ul t t h a n t h e
u se of t h e c h a rcoal fo r i t d o es n ot al l ow c h a nges as r ead i l y as t h e
,

h e .
47 .

use of c h a rcoa l . I t i s a l so l es s d i rec t t h a n t h e us e o f t h e pe n c il


poi n t co n se q uen tl y s t ud en ts are ad v i se d t o obt a i n grad at io n by t h e
,

use of t h e poin t w h en eve r t h i s i s poss i bl e a n d to d ra w so as t o be


,

obl iged eras e r b ut l i ttl e .

FI G . 48 .

T h e s u rfa c e of t h e pa pe r m ust n ot b e gl a zed o r h a rd a n d s moo t h .

for i t wi l l not t a k e t h e pen c i l read i l y : i t m us t no t b e so s oft a s to


b e to rn by t h e p en c il o r by t h e e ra ser if i t i s n e cess a ry t o u se t h is
, .

A g ood pa pe r fo r s uc h sketc h es a s Fi g s 50 5 4 5 5 a n d 56 i s gi v en
.
, , ,
P E /VC /L D A A I V/rVG

.

I I 5

b y us i ng t h e s moot h s id e (t h e b ac k s u rfa c e ) of E ngl is h cr ayon p ap er .

T h i s p ap e r i s h o we v er v e ry exp en s iv e a n d c h e ap pap ers w i l l often


, , ,

b e fo un d w h i c h gi ve good r es ul t s P a p e r as c h e ap a s t h at of a
.

da i l y n e w sp ape r is ofte n b e tter s u i t ed fo r rap i d n otes of e ffe ct s t h an


ex p en s i ve p ap ers . P ap er v ar i es so m u c h t h at of two lo t s of t h e
sa m e m ak e an d gr ad e on e m ay b e e xc el l en t an d t h e o t h e r u nsa t i s
,

f acto ry a n d p rac t i c e al on e w i l l e n ab l e o n e to sel ect p ape r an d p e n


,

c i l s s u it ab l e fo r an y p a r ti c ul ar d ra w i n g ; b ut p up il s s h o ul d re m em be r
t h a t s u ccess i s n ot so m uc h a q u e stion of m ater i al s as of ab i l ity to
d r aw .

E ra sers a nd st u mps . A l l t h e m at er i a l s s ui t abl e for c h a rco al


an d c rayon d r aw i n g m ay b e u se d upon a p e n c i l d rawi ng an d i n t h e ,

s a m e w ay s .

M AK IN G A P ENC L I D RA WI N G .

T h e e ffe cts of l ig h t an d s h ad e seen i n n at u re h a v e be en exp l a i n ed ,

a n d a l so t h e w ays i n w h i c h t h ese e ffec ts s h oul d b e s t ud i e d an d


rep resen t e d i n a c h ar coal d r aw i ng I t m ust n ow b e u n derstood
.

t h at t h e s t ud e n t w h o rep r esen t s n a t u re by l ig h t an d s h ad e h as t h e
s a m e prob l em s w h at e v er t h e m ed i u m h e e m p loys a n d su c ces s ,

d ep e n d s m or e upon ab i l i ty to s ee t h a n upo n m ed i um or te c h n i qu e .

I f t h e s t ud e n t c a n d ra w h e c a n d ra w w i t h an y m ed i u m ; h e w i l l o f
, ,

co urse ac q ui r e fac i l i ty of ex e c ut io n by lon g us e of t h e m ed iu m b u t


, ,

n o d i rec t io n s c an be gi v e n w h i c h w i l l p rod uc e p l e as i n g h a n d l i n g
exce p t t h e a dv i ce to s t udy l o ng e n oug h to d ra w q ui c kl y an d tr ul y .

U se of penci l poi nt .T h e m os t im por ta n t d i rect ion s fo r p en c i l


d r a w i n g h av e b ee n gi ve n un d e r t h e top i c s P e n ci l s a n d P ap er ;

b u t i n a d d i ti o n i t m ay b e sa i d t h a t t h e res ul t s h o ul d al ways b e
ob t ai n e d a s d i r e c tl y as pos s i b l e ; a n d i n r ap i d sketc h es s uc h a s ,

Fig 5 0 t h e s t u d e n t s h o ul d ai m to p ro d uc e t h e e ffe ct of atmosp h e re


.
,

a n d of n at ure b y m e an s of ton e s p ro d uc e d b y h at c h i ng w id e p e n ci l
l i n e s c l o sel y toge t h er s o as to p rod uce t h e e ffect of a n e ve n ton e of
s h ad e . I n mor e n i s h e d d r aw i n gs s uc h a s Fi g 2 7 t h e e f
,
fec t of .
,

t h e gra d e d t o n es r e q u i re d s h ou l d b e p ro d uce d by wo rk i n g o v e r t h e
s u rfa c e of t h e p ap e r w i t h t h e p e n c i l p o i n t a l o n e .

I n r ap i d n ot es s u c h a s F i g 50 c a re m u st b e t ak en t h a t a n u n
,
.
,

p l ea sa n t e ffe ct of s ep a ra t e l in es i s n o t p ro d uc e d by too m uc h s p a c e
I 1 8 S I /A D E
'

L /G /I T A A I) .

T he s i mp l es t c h a ng e i n a n o u t l i n e d rawi n g i n t h e d i rec t io n of
l i g h t a n d s h ad e i s gi v e n b y re p rese n ti n g t h e n a rro w s h ad o ws a nd by
s u g g est i n g t h e w i d e r on e s b y t h ic ken i n g t h e o u tl i n es ; t h i s p ro
d u ces w h a t h a s b ee n ca l l ed a n a cc en t ed o ut l i n e d ra w i n g F ig 4 5 . .

i s of t h i s n at u r e a n d m u c h mo re s at i sfac to ry t h a n a u n ifo r m o ut l i n e
'

T h e n ex t st e p i n ad v a n c e i s gi ve n by rep resen ti n g c ast s h ado w s


an d by s uggest i n g t h e s h ad ow s b y i n crea s in g t h e w i d t h o f t h e ou t

53 .

l i n es . W h en obj ec ts a re co m posed of sm al l p a rt s a s t h e stool (F ig . .

t h i s t re at m en t p rod uce s a n e ffe ct i ve s k et c h w h i c h s uggest s t h e


p ri n c i pal d iv i si o ns of l ig h t s h a do w an d c ast s h a do w
. . T h e gure .

s h o ws h ow m uc h t h e cas t s h a d o w s ad d to t h e e ffe c t gi ve n b y t h e
ac ce n t ed o u t l i ne
.

4
l i g 4 7 i s si m i l ar t o F i g 4 6 t h e e f
. .
. fec t b e i n g l a rgel y d u e to o u t
l i n e a nd to t h e ca st s h ad o ws T h e d rawi n g d i ffe rs h o we v er f ro m
.
. ,

F ig 4 6 a s i t rep rese nt s t h e s h ad o w u pon t h e h e el a n d t h us gi ves


.
,
,

t h e co nt ras t of t h e m a sse s of l ig h t s h ado w a nd c a st s h a do w by


, .
,

w h i c h p ri nc i pal l y W re c o g n i z e o bj ect s
e .
m [VI /VG
'

P E N CI L 01 . I 1 9

S h ado ws an d c as t s h a do ws are gi ve n to p ro d uce a st ron ge r i m


p res s io n of n at u r e t h a n c a n be ob t a i n e d f ro m a n o ut l i n e and n o ,

s h ad i n g w h i c h d o es n ot h el p to s ugges t t h e fact s s h o u l d ever b e


pl ac e d u po n an y d r aw i n g I f t h e c ast s h ado w i n Fig 4 9 we re giv en
. .

wi t h o u t t h e s h ado w s id e t h e e ffe ct wo ul d n ot b e a s s at i sfacto ry as a


,

s i m p l e o ut l i n e for t h e o utl i n e wo ul d s ugges t t h e c ube w h i l e if t h e


,

c ast s h ad o w w e re r ep res en t e d w i t h o u t t h e s h adow s id e t h e rs t ,

i mp re ss i on t h e d r aw i n g wo u l d create wo ul d b e t h a t of c u rios ity co n


c e rn i n g t h e n at ure of t h e c ub e w h i c h t h rows a cas t s h adow a n d
yet h as n o s h ad o w s urfa c e . G e n er al l y w h en t h e c ast s h a dow of

FI G .
54 .

a n obj ec t i s s h o wn t h e s h ad ow su rfa ce adj o i n i ng t h e cas t s h adow


,

s h o ul d b e r ep re s e n t ed w h en e v er i t i s v i s i bl e ; an d t h e l a rge r i t i s
an d t h e more t h e obj ec t re s em bl es a t yp e so l i d t h e m ore n ece ss ary
,

i t i s to r ep re s en t i t.

I f t h e s h ad o w s id e of a n obj ec t t h e cub e for i n s t a nc e (F ig


, ,
.

i s rep r es en ted an d t h e c as t s h ado w i s o m i t t ed a s at i sfactory d raw


,

i ng m ay re s ul t fo r an obj e c t i s ofte n s een w h en s i t u at ed so t h at i t s


,

ca s t s h ad o w i s so m e d i s tan ce aw ay from i t or e v en i n v is ibl e ; b u t


w h e n an obj ec t i s r ep res en ted as res t in g u p o n an y ot h e r obj ect an d
i s s h ad ed t o r e p res en t a s h ad o w s u rfa ce t h e d rawi n g w i l l gen e ral ly
,

be un s at i sfa ctory i f t h e s h ado w of t h e obj e ct c a st upon i t s s up port


i s n o t rep res e n t ed
.
M G 55
. .
F rom P
a e nc l
i S ke t ch.
I i2 4 L I GI /T A N !) SH A D E

l i n e s w h ic h m a y b e v a ri e d i n w i d t h a n-d so sp a c e d a s t o g i v e t h e
{

e ffe ct of s h a de wit h ou t j o i n i n g e ac h o t h e r w h il e t h e s am e e ffe ct i n


was h or bl en ded d r a w i n g c an not b e c h e apl y re p ro d uce d ,

t h e st ude n t h a s t i me t o st udy mo re de ta il t h a n i s

Fm
. . S
5 . l l ' c ll u l-
l S k e tc h .

re ndle ri ng he
s h ou l d e mpl o y a b ac k gro u n d a s i n P i g s
, . .

and t h e stud y i n t h i s w a y o-f s uc h gro u p s of s t i l l l i fe I s a d vi sabl e


"

a s it g i v es t h e be st p repa rat i o n for w or k fro m l i fe s u c h a s Fi gs 59 .

a nd 60 .

F ig . s h ows t h e b e gi n ni ng of a sk et c h f ro m li fe
58 I t is c ar ri ed
.
.

b u t l it tl e fart h e r t h an t h e o u t l i n e st ag e i l l us trated by Fi
g 3 6 b ut a .
,

sk et c h b eg u n i n t h i s w a y m a y b e c ar e fu l l y ni sh ed w i t h -ou t a ba c k
I 2 6 [ J G/I T A N D SH A D E .

i l l u str ates t h e fac t t h a t t h e b ac k gro u n d i s a l wa y s l e ast n e c essa ry


w h en a n obj ec t app ears d a rker t h an i t s b a c k gro u n d

W
.

I nt er i or s a nd l a ndsc a pes ren rep re se n t i n g i n t er io rs an d


l a nd s c ap e s ubj ect s t h e ar t i st h a s t h e s am e c h oi c e a s to w h at h e
w i l l rep resen t as w h en d r aw i ng t h e s ubj e ct s a l re ad y co n s id ered .

H e m a y use s i m pl y o utl in e I f t h i s i s do n e t h e d r awi n g woul d


.

FI G . (so . F ro m ( ra v t m h ke t t h bv

g e n e ral ly
b e a ccen ted : b ut i f n o t con n ed to o u tl i n e l ig h t a n d ,

s h ad e e f
fect s w ou l d be i n t rod u c ed j us t a s i n t h e s k e t c h es p rev i ou sl y
ons i d e re d
"
.

Fi g 55 rep res e n t s t h e m a ss es of l i g h t a nd s h a d e a n d co lo r a nd
.
.

s h ows t h e m et h od u sed i n Fi gs 5 0 a nd 5 4 a p pl i ed to a m o re
.

x t e nd e d s u bj e c t
. F igs 5 6 a n d 5 7 s h o w t h e sa m e m et h od ap pl i e d
.
I E A CI L D I VA l V/zVG
'

.
I 2 7

i n l an d sc ap e . I t i s po s sibl e t o ma ke w i t h a p e n c i l s t ud i e s of f ul l
, ,

v a l u es of s uc h s ubj ec ts ; b u t i t i s n o t e asy to d o t h is a n d ge n e r al l y ,

t h e a r t i s t i s s a t i s ed to gi v e t h e for m an d s ugges t t h e e ffec t by rep


re sen t i n g t h e m a s ses of l ig h t a n d s h ado w an d al so t h ose of d a rk,

col o r
.

T h e mo re p i c t ures q u e t h e s ubj e c t t h e m o re n ecess ary i t b eco m e s


,

to re n d e r i t art i s t i c al l y an d t h e more i mpo rt an t i t i s to avoi d o u t


,

l i n es ; o r if t h i s c an n ot b e d on e to av o id m ak in g t h em u n i for m i n
, ,

str en gt h o r d i re c t i on . Ou tl i n es s h o ul d n e ver b e d raw n w h e re t h e


fo rm i s exp res sed by s h ad i n g an d w h e n e ver po ss ib l e form s h o ul d b e
, , ,

gi v e n by h at c h i n gs of l i n es fo rm i n g a ti n t o f s h ad e or s h ado w a s
i l l ust rate d by t h e l i n es of t h e r id ges of t h e s h h ou ses of F i g 2 5 . .

T h i s app l i e s to al l wo rk w i t h t h e p e n as we l l as t h e p e n ci l .

T h e d i re c t io ns gi v e n i n C h ap V an d i n t h i s c h ap te r to a v oi d
.
,

u n i fo r m i ty a n d r egu l ar i ty i n bot h o ut l i n e s an d v a l ue s m us t n ot b e ,

co n s t r ue d to m e an t h a t regu l a r o bj ec ts are to b e rep r es e n t ed a s


i rregu la r. S t u d en ts ofte n t h i n k t h a t i t is n ec ess ary to rep res e n t a
regu l ar c ur ve s uc h as a n el l ip se by a n i rreg u l a r l i n e an d a s t r aig h t
, , ,

l i n e by l i n es i n d i ffe re n t d i rect io n s ; b u t s u c h d raw in gs are m ore


u n s at i sfacto ry t h an t h os e w h i c h m ec h an i c a lly represen t t h e fact s ,

fo r t h ey d o n ot r ep res en t t h e f ac ts a t al l R egu l ar it y c an no t b e
.

r ep rese n t ed b y w h a t c re a tes t h e id e a of i rregu l a ri ty an d t h e s t uden t ,

w h o t akes p a in s to p ro d u c e v ar i ety w i l l gen e ral l y p ro d uc e m e c h an i c al

an d u n p l e as an t e f fec ts fo r p l e as in g v ar i ety i s d ue to t h e acc id e n t a l


,

e ffec ts p ro d uc ed by t h e at te m p t to exp r ess d i rect ly w h at is fe l t .

I t i s p os s i b l e to m ake a rt i st i c a n d i n art i st i c d r awin gs of an y s ub

jec t w h i c h s h a l l be e q ua l ly t r ue as fa r as t h e fact s of fo r m a re
co n c e r n ed T h us t w o po rt ra i ts of t h e sa m e p erson m ay be e q ual l y
.
,

co rre c t a s l i ke n e sse s an d o n e b e m e c h a n i c a l an d un s at i sfacto ry


, ,

w h i l e t h e ot h e r i s a rt i s t i c an d p l eas i n g i n co n s eq uen ce of s l ig h t
grad at io n s an d v a r i at io n s w h i c h p ro d uce a n at mo s p h er i c an d n a t u ra l
e ffec t w i t h o ut c h a n gi n g t h e fo rm S t ud en t s m us t rea l i z e t h at t h e
.

v ib ra t i on s of t h e a tm os p h e re p ro d uc e sl ig h t l y i r regu l a r app e ara n ces


i n regul a r obj e ct s b u t d o n o t c h an ge t h e gen era l i m p re ss i on of t h e
,

l i n es an d m as s es a n d an y v a r i a ti on fro m m ec h an i c al ac c ura c y w h i c h
,

c a uses fal s e id e a s of fo r m m us t b e avo i d ed .


CH APT E R Vll .

B RU SH D R A WI N G .

Nl x
'

rr R I A L s

B r u s h es . R o un d s abl e b rus h es s h o uld be p ro v i d ed fo r st ud y i n


w a te r col o r i f t h e b es t r e s ul t s a re d e si red T h ese b r us h e s a re very
.

ex pen s i ve a s t h ey cost from t wo to seve n do l l a rs ea c h b ut t h e a rt


, ,

s t ud en t can n o t n d a s ati sfac to ry s u b st i tut e a n d s h ou l d h av e at l e as t


,

on e l a rge b r us h a b o u t S of an i n i n d i am e te r an d I f
.
j i nc h e s l on g ; i ts
h an d l e s h oul d b e at l ea s t 9 i n c h es lon g T h e b rus h s h o u l d h ave a
.

n e po i n t so t h at as n e a l i n e c an be d rawn w i t h t h e l a rges t b rus h


as w it h t h e s m al l est S abl e b r us h es a re rm e l a st ic a n d al ways
. , ,

k e ep t h e i r s h ape i f t h ey a re c areful l y w as h ed aft e r us i n g a n d b roug h t



t o a po i n t before t h ey a re l a i d as i d e C a m el s h a i r b ru s h e s an d
.
-

b rus h e s m ad e i n j a p an a re c h e ap a n d s ui ta bl e fo r us e i n t h e p ubl i c
s c h oo l s .

B ri st l e brus h e s a r e u sed b y som e fo r pa i n t i n g T h ey a re al s o v e ry .

v a l ua b l e fo r w as h i ng o ff col or a nd o b t a i n i n g h ig h l ig h t s as t h ey a r e .

s t i ff a n d w i l l q u i c k l y r e mov e t h e C ol o r ; a at s h o rt a n d st i ff b ru s h . .

s h o u l d b e u s ed fo r t h i s p urpo s e T h e sa bl e b ru s h s h o ul d n e v er b e
.

used for w as h i n g o r obt ai n i n g l ig h ts a s t h i s w il l soon s po i l i ts poi nt


. .

P i g m e nt s . T h e b rus h m ay b e u sed w i t h a ny p i gm en t i n m aki n g


1 wa t e r col o r m on o c h ro m e
-
b u t s at i sfa ct o ry res u l ts w i l l b e ob ta i n ed
,

on l y b y t h e use of tran sp are n t col o rs B ri g h t co l o rs s uc h a s red a n d


.

o ra ng e m a y be used b ut t h e rs t i m p re ssio n c re at ed b y t h ei r us e i s
,

g e n e ral l y t h at o f t h e c o lo r i n st ea d of t h e s ubj ect of t h e p i ct ure a nd ,

t h e st u d en t i s adv i sed to use no br ig h t co l or fo r m on o c h rom e w or k .

T h e b es t re s ul ts w i l l b e g i ven b y t h e u s e of se pi a n e ut ra l t i n t o r . ,

l ayn e s g ra y T h ese col ors s h o ul d be t h e m oi s t co lo rs p rep a red i n


'

.

p an s or i n t u b es from w h i c h t h e y m a y b e sq u ee z ed i n to pan s .

I n d i a i n k m ay b e u sed b u t t h i s i n k s h o ul d b e p re p a red by gri n d


.

i ng a s t i c k of i n k a s t h e l i q u i d i n k s co n ta i n c h e m i ca l s w h i c h ca u s e
.

t h e m t o p e n e t rat e t h e p a p e r s o t h a t c h a n g e s a re m a d e w i t h d i fc u l ty .
L / GI / T A N D SII A D E
1 30 .

poster wo r k n o w do n e ; o r t h e co l or v al u es an d a lso t h e d e ta i l s of form


an d col o r w i t h in t h es e v al u es m ay be gi v en as i n Japa n es e p ai n t i n gs .

T h e b r us h i s al s o u sed to p rod uc e m ore o r l es s com p l e t e st ud i es


of fo rm a n d v al ues s uc h a s h a v e be e n expl a i n e d p rev iousl y .

T h e m et h od exp l ai n ed i n C h ap V I by w h i c h ske t c h e s a re m ad e
.
,

b y rep resen t in g s h ad ows ca s t s h ado ws an d co l ors by t h e use of


, ,

t h ree o r fo ur ton es i s wel l ad ap te d to b ru s h r en d eri n g upon d ry


,

p ap e r an d s ubj ec ts s u c h as Figs 5 0 5 4 an d 56 a re ofte n re p re


, ,
.
, , ,

FI G . 6 I . F ro m S ke t ch b y R e m b ra nd t .

s en ted i n t h i s way wi t h t h e b rus h I n fa ct an y of t h e d rawi ngs do n e


.

wi t h t h e c h a rco al o r p en c i l m ig h t h av e b ee n r en d e red i n t h e s am e
w a y so far as v al ues a re con cern ed by t h e u s e of t h e b r us h
, , .


Two v ery d i st i n c t m et h od s of wor k i ng i n wa ter col o r w i t h t h e
b r u s h are bri e y ex pl ai n ed a s fol l o ws :
T h e dry met h od . I n t h i s t h e p ap er m us t b e s t re tc h e d by w et ti ng
i t an d t h en sec u r in g i t to t h e bo ard by m ea n s o f m u c i l age t acks or , ,

i n an y ot h e r way I n st ea d of st ret c h i n g t h e pa per m an y a rti sts use


.
.

w a ter -colo r p ap e r w h i c h h as b een s tre t c h ed a n d p rep a red i n t h e fo rm


of b locks .
B R US H I 3I

T h e p ap er i s ofte n se c u red to t h e b oa rd by m ea n s of a fram e


w h i c h i s a rr an ged to t upo n t h e e dge of t h e bo a rd an d to cl a m p t h e
p ap er t o i t I n t h i s c a se to s t ret c h p ape r it is on ly n eces sary to w et
.
,

i t a n d t h e n to cl a m p i t t o t h e bo ard by t h i s fram e .

S o m e art i s ts p r efe r to s t r et c h t h e p ap e r upo n a st retc h e r s u c h a s ,

i s us ed fo r a c an v as i n o i l p ai n t i n g se c ur i n g t h e pap er to t h e stret c h e r
,

b y m e an s of t ac ks . W h en t h us p l a c ed upo n a st retc h e r bot h s i d es,

of t h e p ap e r are e xpos ed to t h e a i r so t h a t t h e p ap er w i l l d r y m u c h
mo r e q u i c kl y t h an w h en upon a b oa rd . M uc h v al u ab l e t i m e is spe n t
i n w a i t i n g fo r w as h es to d ry a n d t h e us e of a s tretc h er i n t h i s w a y
,

i s con se q uen tl y h el pf u l .

W h e n t h e p ap e r h as b ee n s tret c h ed so m e a rti sts w i l l sugges t t h e


,

for m v e ry l ig h t ly i n o utl i n e w i t h t h e pen c il ; o t h ers wi l l u se t h e po i n t


of t h e b r us h a n d c o lo r to i n d i c at e t h e p r in c ip a l l i n es an d propo r
t i o n s ; s om e t i m es t h e fo rm s of t h e s h ado ws m ay a l so b e l ig h t l y
i n d ic at ed S o m e a rt i s ts m ay n ot con sid er i t n eces s ary to dra w an y
.

o u tl i n e s of t h e fo r m s o r s h ado ws b efore b egin n i n g to rep resen t t h e


v a l ue s b y wa s h es app l i e d wi t h t h e b ru s h F ew s t ud en ts w i l l h o w
.
,

ev e r b e ab l e to d ra w d i re ctl y w i t h t h e b ru s h an d s i n c e wa te r colors
,

a re not e as i l y c h an ged w h e n o n c e t h ey a re p l ace d upon t h e p ap er ,

s t ud en t s are ad v i se d t o d et erm i n e t h e for m an d p ri n c ip a l l i n es v e ry


l ig h t ly w i t h t h e p en c i l u nt i l ab l e to d r aw we l l a t rst touc h In .

t h u s us i ng t h e p en c i l o r t h e b rus h c are m us t b e t ake n n o t to m a k e


,

t h e to uc h es s t ron g e n o ug h to s h ow w h en t h e d rawi n g i s n i s h ed for ,

i n a l l work o ut l i n es m u s t b e avo i ded .

W h e n t h e d rawi ng i s t h u s s ugges t ed t h e s t uden t m ay b egi n to


,

was h i n t h e v al u es . A l arge b r us h s h o u l d b e u sed a n d t h e c ol or


,

t ake n w i t h i t fro m t h e p an an d m i x ed wi t h w a t er e n o u g h to p ro d uc e
t h e d es i red t i n t ; t h i s s h o ul d t h e n b e ap pl i ed w i t h a b r us h ful l of
-
co lo r T h e w a s h s h o ul d b e q ui ckl y o at ed ov e r t h e e n ti re su rfa ce t o
.

b e co l ored i n o rd e r t h a t a cl ea r to n e m ay b e p rod uced T h e w as h


,
.

s h o ul d b e m ov e d wi t h a regu l ar m ot i o n of t h e b rus h an d s h o ul d n o t
,

b e a l l owed to s t an d i n on e p l ac e lon ge r t h a n i n an o t h er I t s h ou l d
.

n o t b e al l ow ed t o d ry w i t h i n an y p a rt w h ere an ev en v al ue i s de si r ed .

a s w h ere a w a s h d ri es i t p rod u ces a w a ter m a rk T h e w as h e s s h o ul d


.

b e b egu n at t h e t Op wi t h t h e p ap er sl i g h t l y i n c l i n e d so t h at t h e was h
o ws t ow ard t h e bo tto m of t h e bo ard T h e s id e of t h e b ru s h s h o u l d
.
L /G I / T S I /A D E

1 A A D
32 .

b e app l i ed to t h e p ap er w h en l arge sp ace s a re to b e c ov e red an d t h e ,

p oi n t of t h e b r us h w h en sm a l l p arts are wo rked u po n o r w h e n c a reful


d raw i ng is req ui red .

T h e st ud en t s h o u ld c arr y t h e rs t w as h es ov e r as m u c h of t h e s u r
f ace of t h e pap er as pos s i b l e T h e rst was h w h i c h m us t b e ve ry
. ,

l ig h t c an ge n e ral l y be c a rri ed ov er t h e e n t i re p ap e r w i t h t h e
,

FI G . 62 . F ro m a Wt
a l
e r-c o o r p
S e i a D ra w i n g .

ex cept ion of t h e h ig h l ig h ts B e fo re be g i n n i n g w i t h t h e w as h es
.
.

so m e a rt i s ts go o ve r t h e e nt i re pape r w i t h c l ea r i n ord e r to
d am pe n t h e p ape r so t h at t h e wa s h es w i l l n o t d ry to o q u i ckl y a n d
p rod u c e wate r m arks ; but t h i s i s n o t n ece ss a ry as t h e rst l ig h t ,

was h wi l l d am pen t h e e nt i re p ap er w i t h t h e ex cep t io n of t h e h ig h


l ig h t s .

W h en t h e rst w as h h a s d ri ed a se co n d m ay b e p l a ced upo n i t


, .

b ut i f t h e secon d i s a ppl i ed w h i l e t h e pape r i s w e t t h e rs t w i l l .

b e a t l e as t p art i al l y re mov ed T h e s e con d wa s h s h o u l d b e ca r ri ed


.

ov er a s m uc h of t h e p a per a s poss i bl e a n d ov e r t h e co n tou rs of .


FI G 6 3
. . F ro m l
-Co o r p
S e ia S t u dy .
B R US H D I I A I VI A G
'

.
I 35

t h e d i f c u l t i es of p rod uc i ng a rt i st i c e ffec t s by t h i s m et h od al on e a re
so gre at t h at s t u d e n ts a re ad v i sed n ot to att em p t i t T h ey s h o ul d .

ob t a i n e ffe cts b y work in g o ver o u tl i n es as m uc h a s po ss ib l e an d b y


d e c rea s i n g t h e s iz e of t h e w as h es a s t h ei r st ren g t h i n c reases un ti l ,

n a l l y t h e acc e n t s of d a rk w h i c h co m p l et e t h e d raw in g a re a dd ed
, ,
.

'

W h e n a b ru s h d raw in g i s we l l s ta rted i t w i l l b e w el l t o gi v e i n ,

so m e s m al l p ar t a n a ccen t of d ark as s t ron g a s m ay b e d e si red i n


,

t h e n i s h e d d r aw in g i n o rde r t h at as t h e d raw i ng p rogres ses t h e


,

d a rks m ay b e co mp are d w i t h t h i s ac cen t I n t h i s w ay t h e v al ue s


.

m ay b e gi ve n so a s to avo i d m ak i n g to o l ig h t o r too d a rk a st udy .

I f t h e co l o r r un s o r i s d ropp e d up on p a rts w h ere i t i s n o t d e si red ,

i t m ay b e r em ov e d b y a bso rb i n g i t w i t h b l ot ti n g p ap er o r w i t h a b rus h
fro m w h i c h t h e co l or h as be e n p res sed .

W h en t h e s t udy i s h a rd an d c r ude a s a r es u l t of u n avoi d abl e


wate r l i n es t h e p ap e r s h o ul d b e d r i ed a n d t h en t h o ro ug h l y w as h ed
,

wi t h c l ea n w a te r an d a soft s pon ge o r a b r us h T h e gr ai n of t h e
.

pape r s h ou l d n o t be in j ure d i n do i n g t h i s a n d if l i ttl e ro l l s of p ap e r


,

b egi n to form t h ey s h ow t h at t h e w as h i n g p ro cess m us t sto p i f t h e


,

pa pe r i s n ot to b e spo i l ed W as h i n g i n t h i s way w i l l gre a t l y i m p rov e


.

a h a rd d r aw i n g a n d m ost s at i sfactory e ffec t s are so m et im es p rod uc ed


,

by w as h i n g a d raw i ng w h i c h i s apparen t l y i n a h ope l es s con d i t ion .

S o m e a rt i s t s ob t a i n t h e i r e f
fe c ts p ri n c i pal l y b y us e of t h e s pon ge
a n d b r us h upo n d r aw i n gs i n ten t ion al l y m ad e cr u d e an d h ard i n ,

o rder t h a t t h ey m ay b e soft en e d a n d b ro ug h t toge t h er by w as h i n g .

S t ud e n ts s h o ul d kn o w t h e v al u e of t h i s m et h od b u t t h ey s h ould a i m
,

t o p ro d uc e res u l t s d i re c t ly a n d s h ou l d n e ver wo rk w i t h t h e i n ten t io n


,

of p ro d uc i n g fal s e e ffe cts w h i c h a re to b e s ubj e cted to t h e ac t ion of


a cc id en t a l p ro cess es .

S t ud en t s s h o ul d a i m to p rod uce a n at mosp h er i c e f fec t by gr ad i n g


t h e w as h es a s t h e y a r e ap pl i ed an d esp e c i al ly b y grad i n g t h em a l ong
,

t h e c on to u rs . A h a rd e ffec t w i l l b e gi ve n by a n y d ra w i n g i n w h i c h
t h e w as h es ar e k ee n a n d s h a rp at t h e co n to urs o r i n w h ic h l in es of
,

l ig h t o r of d a r k a re fo r med b y wat er l in es o r b y w as h es w h i c h d o n ot
q u i t e m eet .

T h e w et met h od T h is m et h o d is c al l ed t h e D u tc h m et h od
b ec au se use d b y t h ese p a i n te rs an d i t d i ffe rs fro m t h e d ry m e t h o d
,

i n m ak i n g u s e of p ap e r w h i c h i s k ep t we t u n t i l t h e n is h i n g tou c h es
05
38
I L I GH T A N D .

are appl ied .


T h i s avo i d s t h e c r u d e e ffec t gi ven by t h e d r y m et h od
w h en obj ects a re s h arpl y d e n ed o r w h e n w as h es d ry an d form
,

w ate r l i n es .

T h e p ape r to be us ed i s so aked i n w a te r an d a l so a p ie c e of blot


,

t i n g pa p er as l arge as t h e p ap er an d t h e t wo are t h en p l ac ed
,

toget h er upo n t h e d raw in g boa rd t h e b lo tti n g p ap er b e in g un de r


,

t h e w ate rco lo r p ap er an d bot h are se c ure d to t h e bo ard by r ubber


,

b an d s en c i rcl i ng t h e boa rd a n d pl a ced upo n t h e ed ges of t h e paper .

T h e d raw i ng is t h e n m ad e w i t h t h e poi n t of t h e b ru s h j us t en ou g h
.

w a te r be i ng used to m oi sten t h e b r us h a n d c a use i t to t ak e up t h e


col o r W h en t h e p ri n c i p al fo rm s a re s uggested i n outl in e t h e m asses
. .

of d ar k are p ut in w i t h t h e si d e of t h e b ru s h j u st en oug h w at er being


,

u sed to c a u se t h e c olor to m i x an d to ow fro m t h e b rus h to t h e wet


p aper T h e wa te r u po n t h e p ape r d i l u tes t h e c ol o r an d ca uses it
.

to ow e ve n l y a n d p rod uce to n es w h i c h soft ly b l en d i n to eac h ot h e r .

N o t en d en cy to h ard ou tl i n es i s p rod u c ed b u t on t h e co nt ra ry t h e
. , ,

e ffec t of t h e d raw i ng i n i t s rs t sta g e s i s ex t rem el y b l u rred for t h e


,

d i ffere n t ton es grad e i n to eac h ot h e r a n d p rod uc e s i mp ly m asses of


l i g h t a n d d a r k wi t h n o se p arat i o n s o r d e c id ed fo rm s t h ro ug h ou t t h e
d ra w in g T h e p aper bei n g wet al l t h e t i m e t h e re i s n o d an ge r t h at
.
,

t h e col or w i l l d ry an d p rod uc e water l i n es an d as m u c h ti m e a s is


,

d esi red m ay be sp en t i n st udy i n g t h e p ropor t io n s a nd form s of t h e


d ar k m asses a s t h ey are p ut i n . W h e n t h e p ape r h as b e en covered
so as to s ugges t t h e e ffect of l ig h t an d s h adow t h e d ar k s s h o ul d b e
.

s t ren gt h e ned by worki ng m ore col o r i n t o t h em w it h t h e b rus h T h e .

col or s h ou l d be t a k en d i rec tl y f rom t h e p a n an d wor k ed i n to t h e d ark


m ass es t h ro u g h o ut t h e d ra wi n g un t i l t h e p ro pe r con trasts of l ig h t
a n d d ark are obt ai ned . I n t h u s st ren g t h en i n g t h e d a rks if t h e
.

color s pre ad s i nto t h e l ig h t s i t m a y b e t aken u p w it h t h e b l otter ;


an d t h e b ri st l e b rus h m a y b e us ed to l i g h te n an y p ar ts w h i c h may
be to o d a rk .

W h en t h e m ass es a n d t h e e ffec t h a ve be en ob ta i n ed as expl a in ed .

t h e p aper s h o u l d b e a l l o w ed to d ry so t h a t if c ol or i s pl aced upo n i t


wi t h t h e br us h f u l l of col or i t w i l l n o t ru n T h e n ece s sa ry d ec is ion
.

an d t h e a cc en t s s h o ul d t h e n b e p u t i n wi t h w as h es w h i c h a re
al l owed t o d r y w i t h o u t b l en d i n g : a nd t h e d rawi ng s h ou l d b e n i s h ed
b y c a ref u l l y d ra w i n g w it h t h e poi n t of t h e b r u s h a n y d eta i l s of d a rk
1; (1 5 1 1-
1) 1 m [VI / V
G .
I 39

n e ed ed an d b y t a ki ng o u t w i t h a st i ff b ri s tl e b rus h an y a cc e n t s o f
,

lig h t.

T h is m e t h od giv e s soft n es s ex c e pt w h e re d ec is ion i s p rod u ced by


,

t h e n i s h i n g t o u c h e s a n d i s a n ar t i s t i c m et h od c a p abl e of p rod uc ing


,

t h e m o s t b ea ut i fu l e f fect s . T h e m et h o d i s at rst d i i c u lt p a rt i c u
,

la rly w h e n col or s are us e d i f t h i s m e t h od i s n o t u sed by s tu d en ts ,

i t s p ri n c i pl e s h o ul d b e appl i e d a s f a r as po ss i b l e so a s to ca us e t h e
w as h e s p l ac ed upo n d ry p ap e r to b l en d an d to softe n i n t o e ac h o t h e r
i n a l l t h e rst s t ages o f a ny d r aw i n g D e c i sion an d ke en n ess are
.

gi v e n o n l y b y t h e ac cen ts p rod uc ed by t h e l ast work upo n t h e


d r aw i n g .

T h e b est m et h od fo r t h e st ud e n t w h o re p re se n t s v al ue s s eem s t o
b e a com b i n at io n o f bot h m et h od s t h e rs t wo rk b e in g don e wi t h
,

t h e p ap e r w et a n d wi t h col o r w h i c h i s wo rk ed i n t o t h e p ap e r so
,

t h at t h e d i ffe ren t v a l ue s t h roug h o ut t h e d ra wi n g a re represen t ed


by t o n es w h i c h s oftl y grad e i n to e ac h o t h e r W h en t h e m as ses
.

a re q u i t e st ron gl y i n d i ca ted t h e pa pe r s h o ul d b e al l owed to d ry an d


,

t h e d ra wi n g n i s h ed a s ex pl ai n ed u nd e r t h e d ry met h od .


F i gs 6 2 6 3 6 4 an d 6 5 are st ud e n t s d raw i ngs i n ten d ed as s t ud i es
. . , ,

o f v a l ues a n d m ad e b y c o mb i n i n g bot h m e t h od s as ex pl a i n ed above ;


,

t h ey s h o w h ow t h e kn o wl edge ga i n ed by s ti l l -l ife s t u dy i n c h arco a l


.

m ay b e ap pl i ed to m ore i n te re s ti ng s ubj e c t s .
CH AP TE R Vll l .

D R A WI N G I N T H E P U B L I C S C H OOL S .

TH E P EN cI I . oR TH E . B RU SH .

T h e q u es t io n w h et h e r t h e p ubl i c sc h oo l p up i l s h a l l rs t st ud y
i n o u t l i n e i n l ig h t a n d s h ad e or i n col o r i s o n e upo n w h i c h ver y
, ,

d i fferen t Op in io n s are h el d S o m e tea c h ers c l ai m t h a t t h e p upi l


.

s h o ul d b egi n w it h col o r ot h ers t h a t h e s h o u l d b egi n w i t h l ig h t an d


s h ad e an d ot h e rs cl ai m t h a t h i s rs t st udy s h o ul d b e i n o ut l i n e .

I f p up i l s co ul d st art r ig h tl y a nd un d e r t h e best co n d i t ion s i t i s ,

n ot a m at te r of great i m p orta n ce w h et h e r p up il s b egi n w i t h out


l i n e or wi t h l ig h t an d s h a d e b u t i t is gen e ral ly i m po ss ibl e to sec ure
t h e best con d i t ion s a nd t h e q uesti o n re al l y is w h at i s ad v i s able ,

con sid e rin g t h e fac t t h a t m o st of t h e i n st ru c t io n i s gi ve n by grade


te ac h e rs an d i s gi v e n un d e r very poo r co nd i t io n s a s to l ig h t an d
,

m ateri a l s .

Outl i n e i s a med i u m w h i c h co nven tion al l y rep resen ts t h e l east


i m portan t fea t ures of a s u b j e c t ; l ig h t a n d s h ad e effec ts a re fa r
more i m porta n t t h an con to urs an d col or e f fec ts are more im portan t
t h an l ig h t an d s h ade . B u t t h e q ues t io n of t h e re l a t i v e i m po rtan ce
of t h e t h ree i s of l i ttl e a s s i s t an ce i n en abl i n g u s to d ec i d e h o w t h e
p upi l m ay m ake t h e mos t rapi d ad v an c e fo r h e m ust b e abl e to ,

dr aw a n d ab l e to gi ve v al ues a n d al s o col or e ffe ct s if h e i s to p ain t


, ,

a p i c t u re ; an d h i s trai n i n g m us t n o t gi ve un d ue a tten t io n i n an y
on e d i rect ion .

I t i s a l so ev i d e n t t h a t i t s h o ul d n o t p resen t t h e m os t d i f
c ul t p rob
l em s to t h e yo un ges t p u p i l s I t i s a q uest i on if w or k i n l ig h t an d
.

s h ade wo uld be m o re d i f c ul t fo r yo un g p up i l s t h an wor k i n o utl in e ,

i f t h e pup i l s co u l d h av e as i n st ructor an a rt i s t w h o was a t t h e sa m e


, ,

ti m e a trai n ed t eac h e r ; b u t as rega rd s c ol or t h ere c an h a rd l y b e ,

m u c h d i ffe ren ce of o p i n ion P rob abl y m os t a rt i s ts wi l l say t h a t


.

t h ey h av e p erso n al l y s ee n co lor as i t re al l y app ea rs o n l y afte r h av in g


s t ud ie d m an y yea rs ; an d o ften t h e y w i l l s a y t h a t t h ey h ave fo r t h e
-
1 42 y ou r A m i
1)

T h e wor k don e i n t h e p ast h as b een p ri n c i p al ly in p en c i l o utl i n e


h en c e t h e p en c i l i s n o w d is card ed i n favo r of c rayon c ol o red cr ayon s , ,

t h e b ru s h an d p e n an d i nk E ve n t h e rs t i n s t r u ct ion in some
,
.

s c h oo l s i s w i t h t h e b r us h a n d so m et i m es b r us h work i s t h e p rin cipal


,
-

i n s truc tio n giv en t h ro u g h a l l t h e grade s A s a res ul t of s uc h m et h o ds


.
,

we n d on ex h ibi t i o n i n so m e p l aces dra wi n gs w h i c h to t h e pu b l ic are


m uc h mo re i n te rest i n g t h a n t h e p en c i l o utl i n es ex h i bi t e d i n form er
ye ars an d p up i l s a re m uc h m o re i n te res ted i n s u c h wo rk t h an i n
,

t h e work form e rl y do n e T h ere i s n o q u est ion t h at in te res t i s i n


.

c reased by a ny a n d a l l wor k w h i c h s uggest s p i ct u re m a k in g B u t -


.

t h e i n tere st of t h e p upi l i s n o t t h e on ly p o i n t to be con si d ered ; if _

i t were w e s h oul d n o t a s k h i m to s t ud y s p el l i ng o r ari t h m e t i c if h e


,

d o es n ot l ik e t h e se st ud i es o r s h ows m ore i n t erest i n m a n u a l t rain



i ng c h e m i st ry or a ny ot h er s u bj ec t T h e p up i l s i n t e res t i s d es i rable
, , .
,

b u t i s i t to be al l owed t o i n f l u en c e i n s tr u cti o n i n d r aw in g more t h an


i t does i n st ruc t io n in ot h e r s u bj e c ts ? Good i n st ru ct io n w i l l c reate
i nterest an d y e t i n teres t i s n o t p roof of good i n st ru ct i o n fo r m et h od s
,

w h i c h m a k e t h e p u p i l s wor k or t h e t e ac h e r s wo rk easy w i l l often


b e pop ul ar a n d t h e mo re h ar mful t h es e m et h ods a re t h e m o re i n t erest


, ,

t h ey wi l l often c re at e .

T h e pop u l ar i n t erest i n l i g h t a n d s h ad e i n cr a y o n d r aw i n g i n
. ,

co l o red c r a y o ns i n b ru s h wo r k i n p ai n t i n g an d i n p e n a n d i n k
.
, ,

i n t h e l owe r grad es of t h e p ub l i c s c h oo ls i s l argel y d ue to t h e re a c


ti o n fro m t h e m ec h an i ca l wor k of o utl i n e d r a w i ng mrf/ mm m /l r t a ng /I I
'

an d i s often n ot b ased o n s ou n d p ri n c i pl es o r so un d i n st ruct i on Th e .

p u p i l w h o recei ves i n s tr uc ti on n ot b ased u pon so un d a rt pri n c ipl es


w i l l b e no b et te r off t h a n t h e o n e w h o fo r m e rl y wa s t a ug h t to m ake
m e c h an ic al free h an d d rawi n gs
-
T h ere w i l l h o w ev er b e a great
.
. .

dif fe re n c e i n t h e cost for w h i l e i n st r uct io n i n p en c i l d raw i n g is


,

i n exp en s i ve as fa r a s m at eri al s a re con c ern ed t h e i n s t ruc ti on w h i c h ,

al l ows t h e pu pi l to t h i n k t h at h e ca n p a i n t b efore h e c an d ra w wi l l
cos t m an y ti m e s a s m u c h fo r m a te ri al s a s t h a t form e rl y prov i d ed .

T h e p u b l i c s h o ul d un d er st an d t h at t o giv e a boy a p ai n tbox does


n ot m a k e h i m an a rt i st or gi ve h i m t h e po we r t o d ra w any m ore
.

t rut h ful l y t h an h e c a n d ra w w i t h t h e l ead p en c i l P ub l ic sc h ool .

gr ad u ates h ave g en e ral ly b een un abl e to d ra w wi t h an y d egree of


faci l i ty or ev en acc u ra cy t h e si m pl es t obj e ct s abou t t h em an d
, , .
D I A l V/zVG
V
I A "

7I I E I U R L I C S C I / 0OI S

. .
l 43
'

co n se q u e n t ly t h e p ub l i c d em a n d s t h at so m e c h ange i n d ra wi n g b e
m ad e T h i s d e m a n d i s n o w m e t i n so m e p l ac es by p utt in g i n to t h e
.

h an d s of t h e p up i l a br u s h i n ste a d of a p e n c i l W i t h t h i s b rus h t h e
.

p u p i l m akes d raw i ngs w h i c h a r e fre er t h a n t h e o ut l i n e d raw i ngs h e


fo r m er ly m ad e ; b u t are t h ey an y t r u er a ny m ore l ike t h e obj ec ts
,

s t ud i e d a n d w i l l t h i s tr a i n i n g en ab l e t h e p u p i l to d r aw correc tly ?
,

W it h t h e b ru s h t h e p up il dr aws l e av es fl ow ers v egetabl es etc , , ,


.

T h ese s u bj ec t s ar e su c h t h at t h ey are re co g n i z ed if t h e d rawi ngs


a re f ar f ro m c o rre c t ; t h e h an d l in g of t h e br us h p rod u ces v ari e t y
a nd ac c i d en t al e ffe ct s w h i c h a re of te n p l e as in g an d arti st i c so ,

t h a t to t h e c a su a l ob se rv er w h o c an n ot co m pa re t h e d raw i n gs w i t h
,

t h e obj e c ts i t m ay see m a s if t h e wo rk w as a grea t ad van c e ove r


,

t h e s i m pl e o ut l i n e work p rev io u sl y don e B u t a sk t h e p up i l w h o


.

h as us e d t h e b r us h exc l us iv el y or ev en la rge ly t h ro ug h a l l t h e
, ,

grades to d ra w a c h ai r o r a c orn e r of a roo m o r a l a n d sc ape


, ,

a n d h e w i l l i n m an y c as es d ra w n o b e t ter t h a n h e form e rl y d id .

T h e r e m edy fo r poo r d raw in g i s n o t to b e fo un d i n a c h ange of


m e d i u m s I f i n s tr uct i o n i n d raw i ng i s b ased upo n good m e t h od s
.
,

t h e p e n c i l o r t h e b r us h o r an y o t h e r m ed i u m c an be u sed an d t h e ,

s t u d e n t w i l l l e ar n to d ra w ; b u t u n t i l h e s t ud ie s t h e a pp earan ces of
n at u re an d n ot s i m p l y t h e h an d l i ng of an y m ed i u m h e w i l l n ev e r
, ,

d ra w a n y b et t er t h an h e h as d r awn w i t h t h e i n str ucti on of t h e p as t ,

w h i c h h as t a ug h t h i m to u se a p en c i l m ec h a n i c al ly .

I d o n o t m ean to s ay t h at i n m an y pl a ces good m a y n ot r es ul t


fro m t h e p res en t m ove m en t i n favo r of ot h e r m ed i um s t h a n t h e p en
c i l b u t t h i s w il l co m e p ri n c ip a l ly w h en d i recto rs of d rawi n g b as e
,

t h ei r e ffor ts on t h e se r io us s t udy of n at ure an d on t h e ca refu l co m


p ar i so n a n d c o rre c t i o n of a l l wo rk un t i l t h e ey e h as l e arn ed to se e
,

t rul y en oug h to a l lo w t h e h an d to exp res s fo rm ra p idl y .

T h e p up i l w h o h a s n o t l e a rn ed to d r aw q u i te t r ut h fu l l y b y t h e
us e of t h e p e nc i l or so m e o t h er m ed i u m w h i c h p e rm i ts fre q u en t
, ,

c h a n ges w i l l o n l y w ast e t i m e a nd m o n ey by t aki n g up work w it h


,

t h e b r us h a n d I n d i a i n k o r wo rk i n c o lo r ; an d t ea c h e rs a r e e arn est ly
,

a dv i s ed n o t to a l l o w p up i l s to atte m p t t h i s wor k un ti l t h ey ca n d r a w
fa i r l y we l l i n o u tl i n e .

I f p rop e r i n str uc ti o n i n t h e l o we r gr ad es i s gi ven i n p e n c i l o utl i n e ,

p up i l s w i l l b e i n t e res ted an d t h ey w i l l l ea rn to d ra w b efo re t h ey


,
I L I GH T A N D S l /A D E
44 .

en te r t h e h i g h e r gram m a r grad es so t h at i n t h es e gr ad es i t wi l l b e
,

po ss ib l e to b egi n t h e us e of t h e b ru s h a n d o t h e r m e d iu m s m ore
di f cu l t t h a n t h e p en c i l T h e rs t su bj ects for b r us h in str uct io n
.

s h o ul d b e fo l i age veget ab l es etc for e r ro rs i n d ra wi ng wi l l not


, ,
.
,

app ear at rs t gl an ce i n t h i s wo rk ; b ut t h e b rus h s h o ul d no t be


us ed un t i l p up i l s c a n a vo i d t h e m os t se r io u s e rro rs of d raw i ng .

P up i l s m ay rece i ve good i n s tr ucti o n i n outl i n e a n d l ig h t an d s h ade


an d s t ud y excl us i vel y o r l a rge l y wi t h t h e b rus h b u t t h e y w i l l gain ,

n ot h i ng b y so do i ng On t h e con t rary t h ey w i l l l o se ; fo r t o l e arn to


.
,

d raw i s a di i c u lt p robl e m if m ad e a s s im pl e as pos si bl e an d t h e ,

b r us h m a k es i t m uc h mo re d i f c ul t t h an ot h e r m ed i um s t h e p up i l
m a y u s e wit h far l es s ex pen d i t u re of t i m e a n d m o n ey T h e pe n c il
. .

i s cl e an er t h an an y ot h e r m ed i u m an d m o re d urabl e ; i t i s eq u al ly
wel l ad apted for t h e s l ig h test s k et c h o r fo r t h e mo st c arefu l s t udy ,

an d it a l l o ws c h an g es to b e m ad e m u c h m ore re ad i ly t h a n m os t
ot h e r m ed i ums .I t i s a t t h e s am e t i m e t h e c h eap es t m ed i um t h e ,

m os t e d uca t i on al an d t h e bes t i n a l l w ays ; an d f ar from be ing


,

c h i l d i s h o r m ec h an i c al i t i s an d h a s been a fa vo ri t e m ed i um of
, , ,

n ear l y al l great a rti st s .

T h e pe n ci l i s a da pted n o t on l y fo r t h e rs t wo rk i n t h e p ub l i c
,

sc h ool s b u t for t h e u s e of al l art stu d en ts an d w h en s t ud en ts h ave


,

t h e ad v an tages of a st ud io a n d a n a rt i st a s t eac h er t h ey s h o ul d u s e ,

t h e p en ci l p a rt of t h e t i m e ev en if t h ey b egi n w i t h t h e st udy of
,

l i g h t a n d s h ad e i n c h arcoa l for i t i s n ece ssa ry t o st u dy fo rm as


,

w el l as va l u es . To w h i c h ev e r s ubj ec t t h e st ud en t rs t gives h i s
att en tion h e s h ou l d c h ange fo r a t i m e a n d m ak e t h e ot h e r of rs t
, .

i m port a nc e .

C h a rcoal i s b ett er a da p t ed for t h e st udy o f v a l ues t h a n a n y ot h e r


m ed i u m fo r c h a n ges i n t h e v a l ues o f t h e c h a rcoa l d r aw i n g m a y b e
,

m ade m ost read i l y T h e p en c i l i s bet te r a d a p t ed to t h e study of


.

fo r m t h a n t h e c h arco al for i t h as a n e d u ra bl e po i n t a n d w i t h
, , ,

i t t h e fa i n test to uc h es m a y b e m ad e ; so t h a t i t i s poss i bl e to
c h a nge a d ra w i n g m a ny t i m es wi t h ou t an y us e of t h e e ra se r by ,

g rad ual l y st rengt h en i n g t h e to uc h es M a k in g a d r a wi ng i n t h i s way


.
.

w i t h o u t t h e use of t h e e ra ser un t i l t h e co rrec t l i n e s h av e b een fo u nd


.
.

g i ves t h e b est d ri l l i n d rawi ng an d i s t h e o n l y a rti s t i c m et h o d


, an d
t eac h ers of p ri vat e cl a sses a nd of a rt -s c h oo l st ud en t s s h oul d d epen d
1 46 LI GH T A N D SH A D E .

t h e p up i l s c an se e i t on ly t h roug h t h e h o l e c u t i n t h e p ape r p l ace d


in fron t of i t T h e re are few p up i l s w h o w il l n ot see t h e l ig h t a n d
.

d ar k upo n t h e cyl i nde r w h e n i t i s t h us s i t uat ed a n d a fte r t h ey h ave ,

don e t h i s t h e pa pe r i n fro n t of t h e cyl in de r m ay b e re m ov ed an d


, ,

t h ey wi l l t h e n real i ze t h a t t h e l ig h t an d d ar k was re al ly u pon on e


w h i t e obj ec t an d d ue w h o l l y to l ig h t an d s h ad e
,
P upi l s w h o c an .

s ee t h es e e ffec ts of l i g h t an d s h ad e wi l l re ad i l y rep re se n t t h em by

s i mp l e m ass es a n d m ay t h us b egi n t h e i r st udy of n at u re s l ig h t s an d
,

s h ado w s .

W h e n wo r k m o re ad va n c ed t h a n t h i s i s d e s i red i t w i l l b e wel l to ,

s t u dy t h e c ub e o r a s i m i l a r obj ec t a s fo l lo ws
, ,

F i rst pl ac e t h e c u b e i n a s i d e l ig h t p rod uc i ng a n e ffec t s i m il ar to


t h a t of t h e pl i nt h i n Fi g 8 an d h a v e t h e p up i l s rep r esen t t h e e ffect
.
,

a s i n Fig 4 9 N ex t pl a c e t h e c ub e w i t h t h e l i g h t i n fro n t of t h e
. .

p upi l s so t h a t t h e e ffe c t i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of t h e p l i n t h i n Fig 1 1 . .

T h e p up i l s wi l l re p res en t t h e ca st s h ad o w an d t h e t w o v erti cal


s h ado w s u rfaces b y d ark to n es an d t h e top o f t h e c ube b y an ,

o u t l in e N ext p l ace t h e c ub e s o t h at t h e l i g h t co m es fro m be h i n d


.

t h e p up i l s an d so t h at t h e e ffec t i s s i m i l ar to t h a t of t h e pl i n t h i n
,

Fig ( 0 a n d as k t h e pu pi l s to m a k e a l ig h t an d s h ad e d r awi ng of t h e
.
,

c u be T h e pup i l s h ave been ac c us to m ed t o rep resen t t h e c ast s h adow


.

an d t h e s h ado w s u rfa ces by d a rk ton es w h i c h h ave p rod u c ed t h e


effect of t h e d r awin gs B u t now t h e e ffec t of t h e s ubj ec t i s e n t i rely
.

l ig h t an d c an not b e rep res en ted by s h a d i n g a ny s u rface of t h e obj ect


,

a s t h e p upi l s h a ve been i n t h e h ab i t of do i n g T h i s e ffect w il l s h ow .

t h e p u pi l s t h a t i t i s o ft en n e c ess a ry to us e a b a ckgro un d an d t h i s ,

m ay no w be rep re s en t ed so t h a t t h e c ub e co m es o u t l ig h t aga i n st i t
as t h e obj ect do es a g ai n st i t s b ac k groun d i n n at ure .

T h e c u b e s h o u l d n ow b e pl aced i n d i ffe re n t posi ti on s an d wi t h d if


fe re nt ba c k g ro u n ds so t h a t i t s s h ado w s u rfa ce appe a rs rs t d arker
,

a n d t h en l ig h t e r t h a n t h e ba ckgro un d an d t h e pup i l s s h o u l d b e a sked


,

to rep resen t t h e va l u e of t h e ba ckgro un d a s we l l a s t h a t of t h e '

s h ado w an d cas t s h ado w D raw i ngs s uc h as Fig 5 1 w i l l re s ul t


. . .

I t i s n ow t i m e to ask t h e p u p i l s to o bse rv e t h at t h e l ig h t fac es a r e


n o t e q ual ly l ig h t a nd t h e sp h e re s h o ul d b e s t ud i ed to s h o w t h e gra
,

d at i on t h at t h ere is i n t h e m a sses b ot h of l i g h t an d o f s h ad o w T h e .

pup il s s h o ul d m a k e a ca ref u l st ud y of t h e s p h ere from t h e obj ect ,


D I VA TH E P UB L I C S C H OOL S .
1 47

an d s h o ul d gi v e al l t h e gr ad at io n s t h at c a n b e s een Aft er t h i s t h ey
.

m ay s t udy a c ol o red obj e c t a n d a w h it e obj ec t at t h e s am e t i m e I n .

t h e i r wo r k f ro m t h i s t i m e o n t h ey s h o u l d re presen t a b ackgro un d o r
n ot ac co rd i ng to t h e n at u re of t h e s ubj ec t T h ey s h o ul d u n d e rst an d
, .

t h at a d ark obj ec t s ee n aga i n s t a l ig h t b ac k gro un d or a n y obj ec t ,

w h i c h ap p e ar s d a rker t h an i t s b ackgrou n d m ay b e e ffec ti vel y r en ,

d e r ed w i t h o ut a b a c kgro un d ; b u t w h en an y obj ec t app e ars l ig h te r


t h a n i t s b a ckgro u n d i n w h ol e or i n p art a sketc h t rue i n v al ues can
, ,

no t b e m ad e w i t h o ut t h e u s e of a b a c k gro un d I f p up i l s are t a ug h t
.

to ob s e rv e n at ure an d un d erstan d t h at t h e i r sk et c h es s h o u l d b e
,

t r u t h f ul rep res en t at i on s of w h at t h ey s ee t h ey wi l l b e i n te reste d i n


,

t h e w ork a n d w i l l m a k e r ap i d p rogress
,
.

T h e ar t i st i c m et h od of m a k i n g t h es e p e n c i l s k et c h es i s to sugges t
t h e p rop ort i on s of t h e d ra wi n g a n d i ts p r in ci p al m asse s by l ig h tl y
i n d i c at i n g t h e p r i n ci p a l s h adows an d c ast s h ad o ws an d t h e n s t ren gt h
,

e ni n
g t h em so a s t o obta i n d raw i n g an d val u es a t t h e s am e t i m e a s ,

exp l ai n ed i n C h a p V . P ub l i c s c h ool p up i l s w i l l n ot be ab l e h ow
. ,

e v er to d r a w w el l e n o ug h to wor k in t h is w ay at rs t an d t h e y wi l l
, ,

b e ob l i ge d t o i n d i c at e t h e o ut l i n e s of t h e obj e cts before b egi n n i n g


t h e s h ad i n g I f i n ob ta i n i ng cor rec t for m t h e ou tl in e s b eco m e
.

st ron g t h e e r as e r s h o ul d b e us ed to m a k e t h e m v e ry fa i n t b efo re
,

t h e d raw i n g i s s h a d ed W h en po s s ib l e n o s h ad ow o r edge s h o ul d
.

b e d e n ed i n a n i s h ed d ra w in g by a n o utl i n e ; an d w h e n ev er a
b ackgrou n d i s u sed t h e fo rm s m a y al w ays b e s h o wn by t h e v al ue s
al on e .

P e rfe ct l y acc u ra t e geo m et ri c s ol i d s a re n o t t h e b est s ubj ec t s fo r


t h i s work a s i t i s d i f c ul t to r ep re se n t t h e fa c t s of t h e i r fo rm i n a
,

d r aw i n g a rt i s t i c al l y h an d l ed an d a s u bj ec t s uc h as Fig 54 i s fa r
,
.

p refe rabl e to t h e c ub e of Fig 4 9 T h e typ e so l i d s s h o u l d h o we ver


. .
, ,

b e s t ud i e d rs t an d sket c h es s i m i l ar t o Fi g 5 2 a re ad v i sab l e as t h e y
,
.
,

s h o w a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e s t ude n t s c ap ac i ty for d rawi n g t r ul y a nd


fo r r en d eri n g l ig h t a n d s h ad e e ffe c ts .

A t rs t p up i l s s h o ul d b e a l l owed to work s lo wl y a n d c aref ul l y i n


o rd e r t h a t t h e s h ad i n g m ay n ot e x t en d beyon d t h e o utl i n es ; an d
n o d i re ct i o n s s h o ul d be gi ve n res t ri ct i ng t h e m to s h ad in g by m e an s
of l i n e s o r by m e an s of s t rokes i n an y s pe c i a l d i rec t ion T h ey s h o ul d .

us e a soft p e n ci l h a v i ng a w i de p oi nt so a s to p rod uc e ev e n to n es
, ,
.
1 48 L I GI /T A N !) SH A D E .

i n an y w ay t h a t o cc u rs to t h em an d s h ou l d at rs t t h i n k o n l y of
,

t h e v al ue s a n d t h e form s of t h ese to nes .

Afte r t h e s t ud en ts h ave wo rked fo r so m e ti m e represen ti n g t h e


d arks by to n es sec u red by w h a t ev e r us e of t h e p en c i l i s n at ura l to
t h e m t h ey w i l l wo rk m ore free l y a n d d i re ct l y an d t h ey m ay t h en b e
, ,

as ked to p rod uce s h ad in g by m ov i n g t h e p en c i l b a ck an d fort h i n


t h e d i rect ion of t h e su rfac e t o b e s h ad ed s o as t o ob t a i n t h e s h ad ing
,

by m ean s of l i n es w h ose d i rect i on h el ps to exp res s t h e s urfa ce T h u s .

o n t h e fo regro u n d t h e s t rok es of t h e pe n c i l m a y b e abou t h o ri zon ta l ,

an d u po n t h e b ac k gro u n d t h ey m ay b e v ert i cal o r i n c l i n e d a l i ttl e


f ro m t h e vert i ca l . T h e p en c i l s tro k es t h at fo r m t h e s h ad in g upon
an y obj ec t m ay h av e s u c h a d i rec t ion t h at t h ey h el p to exp ress t h e
fo r m of t h e obj ec t b u t i t w i l l not b e po s si bl e to fo rm u l a te rul es for
d e t e rm i n i n g t h e d i recti on of t h e p en ci l l i n es u s ed i n s h ad i n g for ,

t h ere m u st a l ways b e v ar i ety a n d t h e p r i n c i pa l d i rect i on s m us t be


,

c o nt ra sted by l i n e s h av i ng ot h e r d i re c t ion s I t w i l l n o t do for t h e


.

l i nes of s h ad i ng al wa y s to b e ve rt i c al upon v e rti c al s urfaces o r h o ri


,

z ont a l u po n h ori z on ta l s u rface s o r ob l i q u e up on ob l i q ue s urf aces


, ,

o r to fol l ow t h e ex a c t c u rv a t ure of c urved s u rfa c es : b u t t h e p up i l


w i l l be as si ste d by re m e mb e ri n g t h at s uc h d i rect ion s w i l l oft en pro
d uc e t h e mo s t sat i sfac tor y resu l ts T h e e f
. fec t w i l l b e most sa t i sfa c
t ory w h e n t h e s h a d in g fo l l o w s t h es e gen e ral d i re c t i on s an d i s v ari ed
,

b y ot h e r l i n es w h i c h ke ep t h e effec t from b ecom i ng m on oton o us .

P u pi l s i n t h e l owe r g rad es do n ot d raw f reel y en o ug h t o p ro t by


d evot i n g m u c h atten tio n to t h e d i re c tio n a n d k i n d of l i n es b y w h ic h
t h e s h ad i n g is ob ta i n ed . U n t il p up i l s c a n d ra w q u ite f reel y an d
giv e t h e m ass e s of l ig h t an d s h ad e read i l y i t w i l l on l y b e n ec es sary
,

to s ee t h a t t h ey us e t h e s id e of a soft p en c i l so a s to p ro du c e e v en
to n es of s h ad e ; a n d a l so t o s ee t h at t h ey do n o t use i ts po in t o r a ,

s h a rp or h ard pen c i l s o as to p rod uce n e l i n es e i t h e r w h en s h a d


.

i ng o r w h en d rawin g t h e con t ou r of an y obj ect .

T h e h el p t o b e d eri ved from t h e most s u i ta b l e d i re ct io n of t h e


p en c i l l i n es or rat h er t i n ts by w h i c h t h e s h ad i n g i s giv en i s m en
, .

t i one d i n o rd e r t h at te ac h ers m ay un d ers tan d t h at ru l es fo r h an d l in g

ca n n o t b e gi v en a n d t h at t h e on l y po i n t w h i c h s h o ul d d e c id e s a t i s
,

fa ctory t ec h n i q u e i s w h e t h e r i t gi v es a p l e asi n g a n d t ru e i m pres s i on


of t h e obj ect represe n t ed .
L I GH T A N D SH A D E
1 50 .

t h ey wis h to m a ke l ig h t a n d s h ade d ra wi n gs a n d t o p a in t b efo re t h ey


c a n d raw i n o utl i n e t h ey w i s h to d ra w t h e h u m a n g u re b efore t h ey
c an d raw a c u b e Of te n te ac h ers al l ow p up i l s to sp e n d t h e i r t i m e i n
.

at tem pt i ng t h e ad va n ce d w h en t h ey can not rep res en t t h e si m pl e s ub


je c t s . T h us i n t h e p ubl i c s c h oo l s pup i l s ofte n m ake i l l ust rat ive
, ,

d r awi ngs from i m agi n a t i on d e p i cti n g s ubj ects t h at wo ul d re q u i re t h e


,

s k i l l of a t ra i n e d il l us t r ato r to d raw wi t h a n y degree of t r ut h S uc h .

wo r k i n t e res ts t h e p up i l s a n d t rai n s t h e i n tel l ec t an d i s va l uab l e i n


.

t h i s way b ut i t c an n ot t ra i n t h e eye to see


,
I t i s n ot p rop erl y t h e
.

s t udy of d rawi ng a n d s h o ul d no t be p e rm i t te d to take t h e p l ac e of


,

t h a t s t udy of n a t ure a n d t h at c ri t i c i s m of al l d ra w in gs w h i c h d i s
co v ers t h e i r erro rs fo r ad va nce i s i m poss i b l e ex cep t by d iscov ery of
.

e rro r T h e te ac h i n g w h i c h i s b ased upon t h e i d ea t h a t c ri t ic ism of


.

d ra w i n gs wi l l d is co u rage t h e p u p i l a n d t h at i f a l l owed to wo r k w i t h
,

o u t c ri ti c i sm h e w i l l i n t i m e o utgro w h i s e rrors an d d raw co rre ct ly ,

w i l l res ul t i n t h e los s of m u c h v al u ab l e t i m e an d e ffo rt .

A rt st u d e nts w h o real i z e t h e d i fc ul ty of su c cess a s a rti sts w i l l do


we l l to con s id e r t h e p robl e m of t eac h i n g d r awi n g i n t h e p ub l i c
s c h ool s fo r by g i v i n g pa rt of t h e i r t i m e to t h i s tea c h i ng t h e y c an
,

s up po rt t h em se lves so t h at t h ey ca n p ai n t f ro m l ov e of art To
. .

te ac h d ra wi n g wel l i s n o t a l ow ai m a n d i f ad v an ce d a rt st ud en ts
,

s h o ul d t t h em se l ve s fo r teac h i ng b y n orm a l st ud y t h ey w oul d often .

ben e t t h em selv es w h i l e el ev at i n g d raw in g i n st ru c t i on .

S c h oo l com m i ttees w o ul d a ssi st i n i m p rov i n g d ra w i n g i n struct ion


if i n sel ect i ng t eac h ers of d raw i ng t h ey a c ted o n t h e p r i n c ip l e t h a t
t h e bes t te ac h e r i s ot h e r t h in gs b ei n g e qual t h e on e w h o c a n d raw
, .

an d p ai n t t h e b est I t s h o uld b e u n d e rstood t h a t t h e a rt tea c h e r


.

c an n eve r b eco m e pe rfect i n h i s profes si on b ut m ust al wa y s be .

st udyi ng a n d growi n g in art i sti c po w e r .

I f t h e b es t res ul ts are d es i red t h e d i re c to r o r s p ec i al te ac h e r of


,

d ra w i n g s h o u ld h av e at l e ast t wo d ays ea c h w eek i n w h i c h to st udy .

to d ra w or to p ai n t
, D ra wi ng te a c h e rs are ofte n e xp ec t ed an d
.

feel com pel l ed to p repa re p apers a nd m a te ri a l s for t e ac h ers an d


c l asses so t h at al l t h ei r ti m e ou t of s c h ool i s occ upi ed i n wo rk w h i c h
.

am o u n t s t o t h e m ak in g of tex t boo k s an d co p i es fo r t ea c h ers a n d


-

p upi l s T h ere i s n o mo re re aso n w h y t h e d raw i n g t eac h e r s h o ul d


.

b e expected to make s u c h cop ie s t h a n t h e re i s w h y t h e m us i c t ea c h e r


D A A H I A G [I V T H E U b L /C S C I /OOL S
' '

I .
1 51

s h o ul d b e e x pec t e d to p re p a re m u s i c c h a rt s . D r aw i ng t e ac h ers
s h o u l d n o t b e ob l iged to do s u c h w ork T h e wo rk t h ey do i n sc h o ol
.

i s fa r m o r e t ry i n g an d d i ffi cu l t t h a n a n y ot h er te ac h i ng a n d i n st e ad
,

of w ork i n g al l t h e t i me in s c h ool a n d o ut t h ey s h o ul d d o j ust i ce to


. .

t h e m sel v es an d t h e i r p u p i l s by st u dy i ng n atu re part of t h e t i m e .

I n n o o t h e r w ay c a n t h i s mo s t d i f c ul t s ubj e ct of i n st r uct io n b e
p rop e rl y p re s en t ed . C o m m i t te es s h o ul d al so un d erst an d t h at n o
syst e m of d raw in g i n st r uct io n c an b e d ev i se d w h i c h w i l l d i sp e n se
w i t h t h e s p ec i al t ea c h e r o r w h i c h c a n s uc ce ed w i t h o ut a com pe t en t
.

sp ec i al i s t to i n s t ru c t a n d d i r ec t t h e regul a r tea c h e rs
.
CH A P TE R IX .

A D VI CE TO T H E A R T S TU D E N T .

T h e person w h o w i s h es t o st u dy a rt s h o ul d r ea l i z e t h a t i t i s a
p rofess ion i n w h ic h n ot h in g of a rt is t i c v a l ue c a n b e p rod u ced wi t h
ou t p at i e n t s tud y an d seri o us a n d l on g con t i n u ed e f
-
fo rt T h e l ife .

of t h e art i s t i s o n e of n eve r ce as i n g wor k To i t h e m us t b ri n g t h e


-
.

e n t h us i asm of you t h t h e s t ren gt h of m an h ood a n d al l t h e en ergies


, ,

of h i s so ul ; fo r h i s prob l e m i s n ot t h e rep re sen ta t ion of t h e ex ter io r


a lon e b u t t h e s t ud y of t h e so ul t h e so ul of n at ure T h e most
, .

t al en t ed m en fa i l to sol v e t h e m ys te ri es of n at ure an d t h e p robl em s ,

of t h e a rt i st c an n o m o re ea s i l y b e s o l v ed i n a fe w ye a rs o r i n even ,

a l ifet i m e H e m us t a lw ays b e a st ud en t an d b y s t u dy adv an ce d ay


.
.

by d ay i f h e doe s n ot w i s h t o go b ackw ard


, T h i s i s t rue n o t on ly
.
,

of t h e wo r k w h i c h d i st i n gu i s h es a rt fro m i n d u s t ry b u t of t h e m ec h an
,

i c al p h ases o f h i s work a nd st ud en ts s h o u l d n o t b egi n t h e st udy of


,

a rt w i t h o u t s e r iou s con s i d e rat i on o f al l t h a t i t i n vo l ves .

M any be g i n t h e st u d y of ar t w i t h n o d e n i te p u rpos e o r w it h .

s i m pl y t h e a i m to a c q u i re s l ig h t ge n eral kn owl ed g e Of co u rse i t .


,

i s d esi rab l e t h at art s h o ul d b e a s ubj e c t of gen e ral s tudy a n d t h at ,

a l l sc h ool s s h o u l d gi v e a rt i n s t ru c t i o n s u i ted to t h e i r p up i l s N ot h .

i ng w i l l d o m o re t o a dva n c e a p eop l e t h a n t h e st ud y of a rt an d t h e .

lo ve fo r a rt an d n atu re w h i c h i t wi l l p rod uce b ut t h os e w h o st udy


s h o ul d h av e a d e n i te resu l t i n v i e w a nd o ne w h i c h i s possi bl e fo r
,

t h e m to at tai n .

A dv i ce i s n eed ed b y t h o se w h o sp e nd t i m e a nd m o n ey on t eac h ers


ign o ran t of a r t a n d w h o se m et h od s con s i s t si m pl y of al l o w in g p u pi l s
,

to t h i n k t h at t h e y are st udy i n g p a i n t i n g w h i l e m a k i n g copi es w h ic h


a re wo r k ed u po n by t h e tea c h e r so t h at as a r e s u l t of a fe w l esson s
. .
,

o i l pa i nt in g s a re p rod u c e d w h ic h a re t a k en h o me fo r fra m i n g T h e
. .

p u bl i c s h o u l d u nd e rst an d t h at n o on e ca n p rod u c e wo r k t fo r e x h i
b i t iou wi t h o ut l on g s t u dy ; an d t h a t n o te ac h e r i s g i v in g good i nst ru c
tion w h e n h e wo r k s l on g u pon h i s p u pi l s d ra w i n gs '

N o t e ac h e r
.

s h oul d al l o w p up il s t o t h i n k t h e i r rs t wo r k m o re s a t i sfact or y o r
'

1 [ J G /I T A A I) S I /A D E
54 .

fro m s i m p l y t h e s al e of a rt i s t i c p a i n t i n gs T h e re a re h owev er m any .


, ,

good p a in t e rs w h o d o n ot se l l o ne p i ct u re a ye ar a n d w h o l i v e by ,

i l l ust ra t in g t ea c h i n g d es ign i n g o r by ot h er wo rk w h i c h i s a nec es


, , , ,

si t
y an d n o t a c h o i ce an d w h ic h p reve n ts t h e m fro m do in g i n a rt t h e
,

bes t work of w h ic h t h ey are c ap ab l e .

I f a rt st ud e n ts wo ul d ask t e ac h ers w h o m t h ey respe c t a n d w h ose


wo rk m ay often b e w id el y k n ow n t h ey wo ul d n d t h a t often t i m es ,

t h es e t eac h ers co u l d n o t l i v e by t h e sa l e of t h ei r p a i n t in gs an d if ,

i n ves tigat i ng fu rt h er t h ey d i s cove r t h at e ve n t h e p a i n ters w h ose


,

work oc cup i es t h e b es t p l ac es at t h e l e ad in g ex h ib i t io n s ofte n sel l


co m p ara t i ve l y fe w p i ct ures t h ey m i g h t w i sel y d ec i de t o en t er som e
,

ot h er p rofess ion .

T h e s t ud e n t w h o c on s i d e rs t h e se fa cts w i l l r eal i z e t h a t if h e t ri es
fo r t h e b est i n a rt t h e c h a n ces a re t h a t h e w i l l h av e a s m al l and
u n c erta i n i n co m e an d t h at h e w i l l ga i n su c ce ss if at a l l on ly after
, , ,

m an y ye ars of h a rd s h ip ; a nd t h at for on e w h o n a l l y s uc ceed s in


m aki n g m o n ey by t h e sal e of real l y goo d p i ct ure s t h ere a re a h un
d red w h o t ry a nd fa i l T h ese fai l ures are n o d o ubt oft en d ue t o t h e
.

fa c t t h at t h e work i s n ot arti s t i c al l y gre at ; b ut i t i s ve ry d i sco uragi ng


to t h e art ist w h o tri es to b e s erio u s an d to p rod u c e good work
an d w h o su cceed s i n a m eas ure to wi tn es s t h e n an ci a l success
of m an y w h o ar e n ot se r io us w h o a re n ot s tud en t s of n at u re o r ev en
,

cl ev er p a in ters .

Fi n an c i al s ucces s i s gai n e d i n m an y d i ff ere n t w ays m os t ra re i s


t h at d u e to i n sp i ra tion to t h e ge ni u s w h i c h p rod u c es great art
, .

T h i s gen i u s i s ge n er al l y recogn i z ed a n d re w a rd ed w h e n ever great


wor k is p ro d uced t h o ug h m an y of t h e p ai n te rs n o w a cco rded gre at
,

n ess l i v ed a l ar g e p ar t of t h e i r l i v es i n a l m o st pov erty Fi n an c ia l .

s ucc es s i s h o w eve r freq uen tl y d u e not to a rt i st i c m e r i t b ut to b us i


, , . .

n es s a b il ity or soc i al i n f l uen c e I t i s a l so d ue to t h e e f


. fo rt to su i t
t h e p u b l i c a nd to p ai nt i ts i d e al s or i n ot h e r wo rd s to p ai n t w h at
. , ,

u n ed u c ated eyes see in ste ad o f g ood a rt a n d t h e t r ut h con cern i ng


n at u re T h i s i s esp ec i al ly t r u e re g ard i ng l an d s c ap e a rt
.
I n gu re .

wo rk i t i s e as i e r to app re ci at e t h e b est art b u t oft e n i n t h i s l in e t h e ,

wo rk w h i c h i s h a rd m e c h an i ca l a n d m ost l i k e a s h a rp p h otograp h
. .

i s t h at w h i c h i s soug h t for a nd t h e i n a rti st i c pa i n ter i s o ft e n mos t


.

s uccessful n an ci al l y .
A D VI C E TO TI /E S TUD E N T .
1 55

To m a ke m o n ey i t i s n o t n ec e ss a ry to st udy art s e rio us l y or to


'

att e m pt to re p re se n t n a t ure s e ffec ts of co l o r or ev en t h os e of l ig h t


,

a n d s h a d e fo r t h e p i ct u re w h i c h s el l s i s too of t en t h e on e w h i c h
.

m e c h an i ca l ly p res en t s a p l e a s i n g s ubj ec t trut h ful l y as far as fo r m


i s co n c e r n ed b ut w h i c h en t i re ly d i s rega rd s t h e a ppea ran c e as fa r
,

as l ig h t a n d s h ad e an d c ol o r e ffe cts a re con ce rn ed .

I t i s v e ry d o ub tfu l i f a re a l ly gre a t p i c t u re h as e ver b ee n pro d uced


by a p a i n t e r wh os e so l e a m b i t ion h a s b een to m ake m on ey Art is
.

d ue t o a l ov e fo r be a uty w h i c h m akes t h e a rt i st d es i re to pro du ce


t h e v ery b e s t w h i c h c a uses h i m to h av e n o o t h e r a i m ; w h i c h l ead s
,

h i m to go to n at ure fo r i n s p i rat i on an d to st udy h e r p at i en tl y a nd


s e ri o usl y t o wo rk e arl y a n d l at e to e n d u re pove rty a n d h ar ds h i p an d
, , ,

t o a l l o w n o t h i n g t o i n te rfe re wi t h t h e co m m u n i on of h i s s o u l wi t h
t h e so u l of n a t ure w h ere i n l i e s at o n c e h i s c h i ef p l e a s u re an d h is
,

e d uc a t i on . T h i s l o v e fo r n a t u re a n d fo r bea ut y w il l p rod uce t h e


gre at a rt w h i c h i s r ecogn i z ed a n d w h i c h i n t i me b ri n gs f am e a n d
,

m on ey to t h e few w h o are gen i us es B u t grea t ge n i us i s v e ry rare


.
,

a n d mo s t w h o t h i n k t h ey pos ses s i t w i l l fai l t o re al i z e t h e i r exp ect a


t io n s ; a n d t h oug h t h ey m ay p ro d uc e rea l l y good an d ser io us wor k
i t i s n o t t h e b es t a n d n o t so ug h t by t h e few w h o app rec i a te t h e
,

b est art .

T h e a r t s t ud en t s h o ul d u n d ers t a n d t h es e f acts an d i n t h e begin


,

n i n g d ec i d e e i t h er to wo rk fo r l ov e of n at ure an d of t h e bes t a rt o r ,

to m ak e a b us i n ess of art B efo re de c i d i n g fo r t h e fo rm e r h e s h o u l d


.

c aref u l l y s t ud y t h e ex p er i e n c es of t h e fe w w h o are a rt is ti c al ly great


a n d no t e h o w m a n y ye ars t h ey st ud ied b efore t h ey ob ta i n ed s uccess ,

a n d h ow h a rd t h ey wo r k e ve n at t h e h eig h t of t h e i r s uc cess to s at i sf y
t h e m se l ves I f s t ud e n ts o n l y re a l i ze d t h at t h e m aste r w h ose work
.

t h ey ad m i re s o m u c h v e ry l i ke ly p ai n ted a d o z e n o r even more t i m es


t h e h e ad o r h an d w h i c h s ee m s s o h ast i ly do n e w i t h b ro ad an d ca re
l ess s t ro kes b efo r e t h e n al s at isfac to ry r es u lt was secu red t h ey
, ,

wo u l d b egi n t o app re c i a t e t h e d i f c u l t i es of t h e a rt i s t a n d to co n s id e r
m ore s er i o us l y t h e p rob l e m befo re t h em S t u d en t s s h o u l d r e al i z e
.

t h at gre a tn es s i s d ue to i n sp i ra t i on or gen i us b u t t h at gen i us i n t h e


,

c a s e of t h e p a i n te r m us t b e c o m bi n ed w i t h t h e fac u l ty fo r h ard work .

S o m e wo rk l o n ge r t h an o t h e rs to a c co m p l i s h t h e s am e res u lt s b ut ,

t h e h i sto ry of a rt re co rd s n o n e w h o h ave p ai n t ed m ast erp i eces w h i l e


r 56 L I GH T A N D SH A D E .

t h e y h av e b een m ere c h i ld ren C h i l d re n n o t i n t h e i r tee n s as to n is h


.

t h e worl d by t h e i r gen i u s i n m usi c ; i t c e rta i n l y i s n o t d u e t o work


o r st udy w h en t h e m o st d i f c u l t m a ste rp i e ce s an d b e aut if ul com po
s i t i ons a re pe rfectly ex ec ut ed w i t h o u t t h oug h t o r s t u dy by t h e gen i us

of t h e c h i l d B u t t h e l an gu age of t h e p ai n te r i s m o re d i f
. c u l t even
for t h e i n sp i r at io n of t h e ge n i u s w h o m us t work lo ng a n d m os t seri
,

ou sly to acq ui re t h e m an u al ski l l a n d d exte ri ty w h i c h w i l l p erm i t h i s

gen i us t o exp re s s i tsel f T h e e arl i e r t h e se ri ou s art s t ud en t real i zes


.

t h i s an d b egi n s to stud y n at u re pa t i en t ly t h e gre at er h i s c h ances ,

1
of s ucce ss .

I f t h e s t ud en t d ec i d es t h at n a n c i al s u c ces s i s h i s a i m h e wi l l ,

mo s t e as i l y an d s u re l y obt a i n i t by m a ki n g s oci a l a ffa i rs an d b usi


n es s m et h od s h i s c h i ef co n ce rn H e s h ou l d s t udy a rt i sts an d t h ei r
.

wo rk to d i s cov er t h e tas te of t h e p ub l i c a n d w h en h e h as d ec ided ,

w h a t se l l s best h e s h o ul d p ai n t i n l i ke m an n e r .

P eop l e m a y assert t h a t al l are c re ated free a n d eq ual bu t t h e ,

s tud en t of n a tu re c an n o t agree w i t h t h i s st atem e n t for h e d i scovers ,

t h at t h ro ug h al l t h e lowe r a n d t h ro ug h a l l t h e h ig h er fo rms of l ife


n at u re gi ves un eq u al po w ers A s fo r m en n o two are al i ke i n every
.
.

respect T h e st ud en t of n a t u re i s los t b efo re h e r my steries an d


.
,

wi t h a we an d reve ren ce h e con t em p l ates t h e m ig h ty i n tel l ige nce .

t h e G od w h o r ul es a nd d i rec ts al l t h i n gs H e soo n i s com p e l l ed to .

ad m i t t h at n ot h i n g i s b y c h an c e t h a t l a w regu l a t es a l l t h ings
. .

p rod uc es al l l i fe a n d arran ges e ve n t h e s i m pl est d e t ai l s of al l l ife


, ,

s o t h at f rom t h e pl an ets d own to m an an d h i s most i n s i gn i can t


1
U nt i l a yea rs a g o C h a v a nnes ne ve r s ol d a p i ct u re M i l l et l iv e d h i s lif e
fe w .

i n p e nu ry a nd obsc u ri ty B u t t h ir ty yea r s of p e rs i ste nt ri d i c u l e h a v i ng fai l e d t o


.

d est r oy D e g as g e ni u s s om e r ec o g ni t i on h as bee n e x te nd e d t o i t T h e f ate of



. .

a ll g reat a r t ists i n t h e ni netee nt h ce nt u ry i s a sc o r e ofyea rs of ne g l ect a nd ob l oq uy .

T h ey m a y h a rd ly h op e fo r r ec og ni t i o n be fo r e t h ey a r e fty ; s o m e fe w cases poi nt


t h e o t h e r w ay b t v e ry fe w T h e r u l e is t h i rty yea rs of ne g l ect a nd obl oq u y t h e n
. u .
.

a fl ag of t r u ce w il l b e h e l d ou t t o t h e recalc i t ra nt a r t i st w h o ca nnot b e p r e e nte d v

fro m p a i nt i ng bea u t if u l p i ct u r es C o m e l et u s b e fri e nds ; l et 5 k i ss a nd mak e


.

i t u p ; se nd a p i ct u r e t o t h e aca d e my ; w e ll h a ng i t o n t h e l i ne a nd m ake y o u a n
'

aca de mi c i a n t h e rst aca ncy t h at o cc u rs T o day t h e aca d e my w o u l d li k e t o


v

g e t M r Wh i st l e r b u t M r Wh i st l e r r e p l i es t o t h e aca d e m y as D e g as r e p li e d t o t h e
.

.
, .

g o v e r nm e nt o f c i al w h o w a nte d a pi ct u r e fo r t h e L u x e mb ou rg je ne v e u x:

-
s Ct r e c o nd u i t a u p o st e pa r l es se r e nts d e v ill e
p a g F r om M o d e rn
b y G e or g e M oor e

P a i nt i ng . .
r 58 [ J G/I T 5l D E .

t h at i ts h ol d e r w as q u a l i ed t o te ac h a rt S uc h c erti c at es m ay h ave
.

en ab l ed t h ei r posse sso rs to ob t ai n po si t i on s b ut t h ey coul d not ,

e n ab l e t h e m to tea c h w h a t c an o n l y b e a c q u i re d by ye a rs of s t udy
an d exp eri en ce an d m uc h of t h e b ad i n s t ruc t ion i n d ra wi n g h a s been
,

d ue to t h e m e t h od s w h i c h al l o we d s t ud e n t s w h o we re j us t b egi n n i ng
to s t udy d r awi ng t o rec e i ve d i pl o m a s s tat i n g t h at t h ey w ere q ua l i ed
to teac h a r t .

T h e stud en t of a r t at p res en t m us t re al i z e t h a t a l l t h i s i s c h an ged ,

an d t h at now t ra i n ed d rau g h tsm en a n d even t h e be s t art i st s are co m


p eti n g for t h e wo r k w h i c h a fe w y e ars ago t h e a rt st uden t fo u n d to
do an d t h e pos i t ion of t eac h er i n a ny a c ad e my or p r iv a t e sc h ool is
,

e agerly so ug h t by art i sts w h o h ave ge n e ra l l y st ud i ed a bro ad m a ny


year s .

T h e t eac h e r of d rawi ng i n t h e p ub l i c s c h ool s re q u i res t ra in i ng


w h i c h t h e art ist se l do m obt ai n s T h i s n o rm a l t rai n i n g i s obt ai n ed
.

at n orm a l a n d no rm a l ar t s c h ool s an d at p resen t t h ere a re m an y


,

fi rst cl a ss t e ac h ers of experi en ce w h o h av e stud i ed i n a rt a n d n orma l


-

a rt s c h oo l s fro m fo u r t o si x y ears a n d o ft en lon ge r w h o a re w ai ti ng


, ,

fo r a c h an ce to tea c h d rawi n g i n t h e pub l i c s c h ool s I n t h e fut ure .

i t wi l l n ot b e poss i b l e fo r a rt s t u d e n ts t o s uppo rt t h e m se l ves af t er a


year o r t w o of s t ud y for t h e po si t i on s w il l be obta i n ed o n l y b y t h e
,

ver y bes t an d t h o se w i t h t al en t or i n fl ue n c e S o t h e s tuden t m us t


.

real i z e t h a t w h et h e r h i s a i m i s to t eac h o r to p ra ct i ce a rt h e s h o ul d ,

n o t en ter an ar t sc h ool u nt i l h e h as s h o w n t h a t h e h as u n us ual


arti st ic t a l e nt .

I t i s n ot n ec ess a r y for a s t ud en t to en t er a s c h ool o r to st udy w i t h


a t eac h er t o d i scove r w h et h e r h e h as tal en t o r n ot I f h e h a s ab il i t y
.

h e wi l l b e fon d of ar t an d of d raw i n g an d h e wi l l d raw a n d p rov e


,

h i s t al en t o r at l ea st h is t aste for a rt an d h e m ay by h i s own e f


, , , for t s
a c qu i re en oug h s k i l l to p rov e t h e q ues ti on of ta l en t T h e s t uden t .

w h o c an n o t tak e a fe w l esson s at a good a rt s c h o ol o r w i t h a good


a rt i s t s h o u l d st udy t h e a rt m aga z i n es w h ic h rep rod uce a rti sts

d ra w in g s an d w h i c h gi ve d i rec t i o n s b y a rt i sts a nd good te ac h e rs


,

for art stud y ; a n d h e s h oul d st udy p a rt i c u l a rl y t h e rep rod u ct ion s


of t h e d rawi ngs an d stud i es by t h e ol d m ast e rs for t h ey gi ve t h e ,

b est poss ibl e m at eri al fo r st ud y a n d i n sp i rat i on H e s h o ul d take


.

t h ese d ra w i n gs n ot a s co pi es bu t t o s h ow h ow to wo rk a n d st u d y
, .
A D VI C E TO TI I E A A T

S TUD E A W

.
1 59

fro m n a t ure A n y s t u d e n t w h o w i l l d ra w from n a t ure w it h s uc h


.

m a t e ri a l t o en t h us e a n d s uggest w ays of wo rk in g w i l l no t go as t ray .

a n d w i l l oft e n b e b ett er of f t h a n if w i t h a poo r t ea c h e r o r a t a poo r


a rt sc h o o l . T h e s t u d en t w h o s t ud i es i n t h i s w ay at h o m e m ay i n a
f ew ye a rs b e f a r i n a dv an c e of t h os e w h o h ave s t ud i ed an e q u al t i m e
u n d e r p oo r i n s t r uc t ion .

T h i s i s p os s ib l e b ec au s e m et h od s of wo r k are ofte n al l o wed to


o c c up y t h e a tt e n t io n of a r t s c h oo l s t ud e n ts so t h at t h ei r a i m i s n o t
,

a rt i s t i c b u t m e c h an i c al a n d i t i s p o s s ib l e fo r s t ud en t s to st udy m a ny
, ,

y e a rs i n ev e n n ot e d a rt s c h oo l s w i t h o ut ob ta i n i n g t h e rs t i de a of
w h a t a rt i s o r h o w t h ey o ug h t to wor k to s e c u re a rt i s t i c res u l ts In .

t h e boo k M o d ern P a i n t i n g w h i c h al l a rt stu d e n ts o ug h t to s tudy


, ,

M r G eo rge M o o r e s p ea k s of t h e n ot ed E n gl i s h s c h o o l a t S o ut h
.

K e n s i n gt o n as fo l lo ws
F i v e a n d t w e n ty ye a rs ago t h e s c h ool s of a rt at S ou t h K e n si n g
ton we re t h e m os t c o m i c al i n t h e w o rl d ; t h ey w ere t h e m o st co mp l et e
p a rody o n t h e c on t i n e n t al s c h oo l of a rt po s si bl e to i m agi n e T h ey .

are n o d o ub t t h e s am e t o d ay a s t h e y w ere v e an d t w en ty y ears ago ;


-

an y w ay t h e e d uc ati o n a l r es ul t i s t h e s a m e
. T h e s c h ool s as I
.

r e m em b e r t h e m w er e fau l tl e ss i n e v e ryt h i n g ex c ep t t h e i n s t r uc t i o n
d i s p e n s ed t h e r e T h e re we re n ob l e s t ai rca s es t he oors we re c ov
. .

e re d w i t h coco a n u t m at tin g t h e roo m s ad m i rabl y h eat ed wi t h h ot


,

w at e r p i p es t h e re w er e p l as t e r c as ts a n d o f c i al s I n t h e rs t ro o m
, ,
.

t h e st u d en t s p ra ct i c e d d ra w i n g f rom t h e at E n graved o utl i n es of .

el ab o ra t e o rn a m en t at i o n w e re g iv e n t h e m an d t h es e t h ey d re w w it h
,

l e ad p en c i l s m ea s ur i ng t h e sp ac es c a reful ly w i t h co m p ass es
,
In .

abo u t s i x m o n t h s o r a y e ar t h e s t ud e n t h a d l e arn ed t o use h i s com


p ass e s co r re ct l y a n d t o p ro d uce a n e h ard b l a c k l ea d o ut l i n e t h e
, . ,
-

h a rd e r an d n er t h e o u t l i n e t h e more t h e d r aw i n g l ooked l i k e a
,

p robl e m in a b ook of E u cl i d t h e b ette r t h e ex a m i n e r w as p l e ase d


. ,

a n d t h e m o re w i l l i n g w a s h e to sen d t h e st ude n t to t h e roo m up s t a i rs ,

w h e re d ra wi n g w as p r ac t i c ed fro m t h e an t i q u e .

T h i s wa s t h e ro o m i n w h i c h t h e w i sd o m of S o ut h K e n sin gton
attain e d a co m p l e t e efore sc e nc e I s h al l n ev er fo rge t t h e sc en es I
.

w i tn es s e d t h ere .H av i n g m ad e c h o i c e of a c a s t t h e s tud en t p ro .

c e e d e d to m e as u re t h e n u m b er o f h ea d s ; h e t h e n m e as u red t h e c as t

i n ev e ry d i re c ti o n an d as ce rt a i n ed b y m ean s of a pl u m b l i n e ex ac tl y
,
1 60 L I GH T A N D SH A D E .

w h e re t h e l i n es fel l I t was m o re l i k e l an d s u rveyi ng t h an d r a w ing


.
,

a n d to a ccom p l i s h t h i s portio n of h i s t ask too k gen e ral ly a fo rtn ig h t ,

worki n g s i x h o u rs a w eek H e t h e n pl aced a s h e e t of t i s s ue p ap er


.

u pon h i s d ra w i n g l e av in g on l y on e s m a l l pa rt un cove red an d h av in g


, , ,

r edu ced h i s c h al k p en c i l t o t h e n e s t p os s ibl e poi n t h e p roce ed ed to ,

l ay i n a s et of ex t re m el y n e l i n e s T h es e w ere c ros sed by a seco nd


.

s e t o f l i n es an d t h e t wo set s of l i n es w e re el abo ratel y s tip pl ed eve ry


, ,

b l ack spot b ei ng c areful ly p i cke d o u t w i t h b read W i t h a p ati en ce .

t r ul y s ub l i m e i n i t s fo l l y h e co n t i n u ed t h e p ro ce s s a l l t h e wa y down
,

t h e gu re accom p l i s h in g i f h e we re t rul y i nd ustr io us abo ut a n i n c h


, , ,

sq u ar e i n t h e co u rs e of a n even i n g Ou r ad m i rat ion wa s ge n eral ly


.

d i rec te d to t h ose w h o h a d sp en t t h e l on ges t t i m e o n t h e i r d rawi ngs .

A ft er t h ree m on t h s wo r k a st ud e n t bega n to b e n ot i ced ; at t h e en d


of fo ur h e becam e a n i m port an t perso n age I r em e mber o n e w h o


.

h a d con t ri ve d t o S p en d s i x m on t h s o n h i s d raw i n g H e w as a sort .

of de m igod an d we us ed to w at c h h i m an x iou s an d al a rme d l es t h e


, ,

m i g h t n ot h ave t h e ge n i us to d evot e st i l l an ot h er m on t h to i t ; a nd
o u r en t h u si asm k n e w no b o u nd s w h en we l e ar n e d t h a t a wee k before ,

t h e d raw i ngs h ad to b e se n t i n h e h ad taken h i s d ra wi ng h om e an d


,

s pen t t h ree w h ol e d ays s ti p pl i n g i t a n d p i cki n g o u t t h e bl ack spots


w i t h bread .

T h e poo r dr aw i n g h a d n ei t h e r c h a ra cte r n o r c on si s t en cy ; i t
l oo k ed l ike not h i ng un de r t h e s un ex ce pt a d raw i n g do n e at K en
,

s i ngto n a at fool i s h t h i ng b ut v er y soft an d s m o ot h


, , , B ut t h i s .

w as e no ug h i t wa s passe d by t h e e x am i n e rs a n d t h e st ud en t we n t ,

i n to t h e L ife R oo m t o cop y an I tal i an m od el a s h e h a d cop i ed t h e



A pol lo B el ved ere .

S i m i l a r cen s ure h as b een d eserved by ot h er sc h ool s a n d t h e st u .

de n t w h o i s un abl e to s tu dy i n an art s c h ool m ay c on sol e h i m se lf


w i t h t h e t h oug h t t h at h e m i g h t wa st e m uc h t i m e i f n o t fort un at e
en o ug h to en ter on e of t h e r ig h t k in d ; an d ev e ry s tud en t s h o ul d
u n d erst an d w h e t h er h e stud ie s at h om e or n ot t h at h e i s an d m us t
, .

b e h i s ow n b est tea c h e r a n d t h a t i f h e h as a ny ab i l i ty or c ap ac i ty for


,

a rt h e c a n devel op i t s u f c i en tl y b y h om e st ud y t o k n o w w h e t h e r i t
wi l l b e w i se for h i m to m a k e a rt h i s l ife work I f h e h a s n o t ab i l i ty
.

w h i c h w i l l m a k e i ts el f ev i d en t b y h o m e s t ud y n o a m o u n t of s t udy
,

w i t h t eac h ers o r i n a rt sc h ool s w i l l en abl e h i m to ob ta i n re s ul ts of


1 02 L I GH T A N D SH A D E .

n ot ab l e to p ro t by t h ese ad v an t ages a s a r e t h os e w i t h m o re ex pe ri
e n ce an d con se qu en tl y m an y s t u de n ts go ab ro ad a nd s t u dy fo r sev er al
,

years a n d r et u rn to A m e ri c a n o t k n o w in g w h a t t h ey o ug h t to h ave
,

k n own b efore goi ng ab road to p ro t by t h e i r s tudy T h e st u de n t is


.
,

t h en advi se d to st ud y i n a n art sc h ool a t h o m e fo r t h re e o r fo u r year s


,

a n d t h e n to go a b roa d fo r as l on g a pe ri od as h e c a n fo r t h e re h e i s ,

un d er t h e i n uen c es of t h e bes t art of t h e wo rl d a n d a way fro m t h e


petty j ealo us i es an d d i st rac t ion s of a b us i n es s an d i n art i st i c atm os
p h e re w h i c h m a kes t h e bes t work m o r e d i f
,
c u l t i n A m eri c a t h a n i n
E u rop e .

M an y s t ud en ts begi n t h e s t udy of ar t w h o h av e n o t t h e m on ey
req u i red fo r con t i n uous s t ud y du r i n g s ev er a l yea rs c ul t to
I t i s dif
.

ad v is e suc h st uden t s fo r som e m ay be s i t ua ted s o t h at t h ey ca n s up


,

po rt t h em s e l ves w h il e s tudyi n g an d o t h ers c an n o t d o t h i s G e n eral ly


, .

i t w i l l b e d i f c ul t to s tud y p ro t ab ly i f t h e m in d c a n n o t be w h o l l y given
t o st ud y a nd i t w i l l b e bette r fo r t h e st ud e n t to w o rk u n ti l h e can
,

st u dy for a fe w y e ars ; w h i l e do i n g t h is h e w i l l h av e h ol i d ays an d


ev en i n gs i n w h i c h to s tudy an d i n t h i s t i m e h e m ay i m p rov e i n d raw
,

i n g if h e ca n no t obtai n t h e b est res ul t s i n a r t from a b rai n w h i c h i s


,

t ired w i t h o t h e r a ffai rs T h e st ud en t w h o h as ab i l i ty h as t h e oppor


.

t u ni t y t o c o m pete fo r t h e s c h ol a rs h i ps g i v en fo r fo re i gn s t udy an d ,

oft e n i n t h i s way h e m a y con ti n u e h i s ed u c at io n .

B u t t h e a rt st ud en t w it h a l l ot h e r st ud en ts s h o ul d rea l i z e t h at
n a t u re i s t h e great an d on l y perfec t t ea c h er a n d t h a t s uc cess i n an y
,

perm a nen t fo rm c om es on l y fro m t h e free a n d h on est e xp res s ion of



o n e s ow n i n d i v id ua l i ty I n a l l d i rect io n s t h e t en d en c y i s n ot to be
.

h on es t an d o rigi n al b ut to cop y so m e ot h er pe rso n an d i t i s too


, ,

ge n eral ly b el i ev ed t h at n ot h i ng c a n b e r ig h t if a u t h o ri ty c a n n ot b e
q uoted for i t s s up por t M ost peopl e i n s te ad of st ud y i ng n at ure
.
,

or t h e fac t s of an y q u es ti o n t o fo rm t h e i r ow n o pi n ion s st u dy b ook s ,

an d t h e o pi n i on s of ot h ers a n d n ev er t h i n k of q u est i on in g t h e v i ews


,

of ac cepted a ut h o rit i es T h e abs u rd i ty of so d oi ng i s rea l i z ed on l y


.

b y st u dy of t h e p a st w h os e reco rd s p rov e t h at upo n al l subj e cts


,

Op i n i on s are co n t in u al l y c h a n gi n g ; an d ev e n i n t h e d o m ai n of sc i en ce

t h e ac cept ed t h eor ie s h a ve b een al m os t as n u m ero u s an d a s c h a nge


a b l e a s i n t h at of re l igi o n To d ay for i n s t an c e w e d i s c ov e r t h at
.
-
. .

t h e re i s a l i g h t o r forc e w h i c h en a b l es us t o se e t h ro ug h wood m etal . ,


A D VI CE TO TI I E A A T S T UD E A 63

I
T . 1

an d ot h e r so l i d s ub s tan c es a n d eve n t h ro ug h o ur ow n bod i es as i f


, ,

t h ey w e re t ra n s l uc e n t . T h e e l e m e n ts ar e be i n g d i v id ed a n d we a re ,

s o ac c us to m ed t o t h e m a r v e l s of s c i e n t i c i n v e n t ion t h a t w e s h oul d
h a rd l y b e s u rp r i sed i f to l d t h a t t h e p rob l e m of t h e ages h as b e e n
so lv ed an d gol d p ro d uce d fro m o t h er s ub s t an c es T h e reco rd s of
, .

t h e p as t p ro v e an ev o l u t i on of m i n d as w e l l as m att er a nd s h o w t h at ,

t h e a ut h o r i t i e s h av e at d i ffer e n t t i m es s uppo rt ed m an y d i ffe ren t a n d


op po sed v i e ws of t h e s a m e s ubj e cts a n d i t wi l l b e pos s i bl e t o
,

q uo t e a ut h o r i ty fo r al m o s t a n y v i ew of an y s u bj e ct t h at m ay b e
b ro ug h t up .

I n a l l age s a d v a n c e h as b ee n d u e to t h o s e w h o h av e d i f fere d fro m


pop u l a r op i n i o n to t h os e w h o h av e d is c ard ed a u t h ori t i es an d st ud i e d
,

n at ure T h e a r t s t u d en t i s e ar n est ly a dv i sed t o st udy t h e wo r k of


.

a l l gre at a rt is t s an d n at u re a t t h e s am e t i m e an d n o t to ac cep t
, ,

an y v i e ws n ot i n h a r m o n y w i t h t h e o p i n io n s w h i c h h e h as fo un d ed
up on h i s o w n c a refu l s t u dy of n a t ur e S tu d e n ts of art an d sc i en c e
.

a l so w i l l b e w i se to go t o n a t u r e rs t a n d al ways an d n e ve r t o ,

acc ep t t h eo r i es co n cer n i n g w h i c h t h ei r o w n st ud y of n at u re o cc as ion s


t h e l e a st do ub t o r u n c e rtai n ty .

I t i s of t e n s t at e d t h at t h e i n v e n t i o n s of t h e l as t fe w ye ars h av e
b ee n so n u m ero us an d s o gre a t t h a t t h e e n d m u s t soo n b e reac h e d ;
b ut t h e s t ud en t c an n ot a c c ep t t h i s c on c l us i on a n d m u st b el i eve t h at
,

t h e e n d w i l l n ev er b e r e ac h e d an d t h at as l ong as m a n ex i st s h e w i l l
,

be ad d in g to h i s k n o w l edge un t i l h e h as s ol ved al l t h e p robl em s p os


s ib l e to c on ce i v e of n o w a n d m an y as y e t n o t t h o ug h t of Wh o c a n .

s ay t h at t h e m y st e r i es of l i fe d e a t h t h e so ul a n d t h e fu tu re s h a l l
, , ,

n o t so m e d ay b e so l v ed b y t h e s c i en t i st a n d l ife b e m u c h m or e j oyfu l
,

an d t h e wo rl d i n n i tel y m ore b e a ut iful to t h os e w h o t h e n w i l l b e


st ud e n t s of a n art an d s c i e n ce i n w h i c h o ur p res en t k n ow l edge an d
po w e r i s m e rel y t h e al p h a of t h e res ul ts w h i c h t h e fut ure wi l l w i t h o u t
do ub t b r i n g for t h
I n t h e ef fo rt t o h a st e n t h i s d ay of k n o wl ed ge w h i c h i s t h e d a y of
,

po wer an d h ap p i n e ss l e t us ex er t a l l o u r e n ergi e s to b e s erio u s


,

a n d h o n es t s t u d e n t s an d t h us workers for o u r o wn w el fare a n d t h a t


,

of t h e wo rld .
66 z /o
'

A a D SH A D E
'

1 .

A p ex . S ee Ve r t ex . T he s u mm it , or h ig h e ist p oi nt of a n o b j ect .

A pp a rent C ol or . T he c ol or w h i c h a ny o b ject a pp e ars to h av e .

A pp e a ra nc e . T he imag e pr od u c ed i n t he ey e by the for m lig h t


, a nd

s h a de , or c ol or of a ny ob jec t .

A rc . S ee C ircl e .

A rr a n g e m e nt . T he o rd e rl y di s p osi t i on ofob j ec ts or forms .

A t mo sp h e re . T he ef f ec t of r e al i ty d ue t o co rr ect dra w i ng a nd v a lu es
a r t is t icall y r e nd e r ed .

A x i s ofa S oli d . im a g i na r y st rai g h t li ne pa ss i ng t h r oug h it s c e nt er


A n
a nd ab ou t w h ic h t he di ff e re nt p a r ts a r e sy mm e t ricall y a rra ng ed .

A x i s ofa Fi g ur e A s t raig h t li ne p ass i ng t h r ou g h


. t he c e nte r of a g u re ,

a nd dividi ng i t i nt o t w o e q u a l p a r ts .

B a l a nc e . T he e q u a li ty of p a rt s , o bt ai ned by t he pr ope r di s t ri b u t i on of
li nes o r of li g h t a nd dar k .

B a se . para ll e l p ol y g ons of pri s ms T h e p ol yg on opp o


T h e opp os it e .

s i te t h e v e r t e x of a p y ra m id T h e pl a ne s u rf a c e s o f c y l i nd e r s a nd c ones . .

T h e opp os i t e parall e l s id es o f a parall e l og r a m or t r a p e z oi d T h e s h ort es t .

or l ong es t sid e of a n i s osc e l es t ri a ng l e a nd a ny sid e i n an y ot h e r t ri a ng l e , ,

b u t u s u all y t h e l o w e st .

B i se c t . To divid e i nt o t wo e q u a l p a r ts .

B le nd . To s oft e n a nd b ri ng t og e t h e r .

B lo c k i ng -i a L i ne s li g h t es t . T he a nd s impl e s t s ug g e s tio ns of t h e l e ad
i ng l i ne s a nd m a s s es oft h e s u bj e c t .

B lu r G la ss . A ma g nify i ng g l ass of ab o u t 1 5 i nc h e s foc u s .

B ri g h t ne s s or L u mi nos i t y . s t r e ng t h of t h e li g h t s e nt t o t h e ey e
T he
by a n
y c ol or . A l u m i nou s or b ri g h t c ol o r s e nd s a l a r g e am ou nt of li g h t
to the e
ye .

B r ok e n C olor . C ol or c h a ng e d by t h e a ddi t i o n o fg ra y .

B re a dt h . S i mpli c i t y d u e t o l a rg e m a sses w h i c h s u b ordi na t e d e tail s to

t he s pirit a nd e ff e c t of t h e w h ol e .

Ca st . A n o bj e c t mad e of pl as t e r o f P a ri s -
.

C e nt e r ofV i si o n . T he p oi nt on t h e p i c t u r e pla ne di re ctl y opp osit e t h e


s ta t i on poi nt - .

C hia r o -o sc u ro . T he a rt of om c b i ni ng li g h t a nd s h ade .
D E F I N I T I ON S .
1 67

C i rc l e A pl a ne g ur e b o u nd e d by a c u rv e d li ne call e d a
.
,

c irc umf e r enc e a ll p oi nts of w h i c h a re eq u a l l y dista nt from a


,

poi nt w it h i n cal le d t h e ce nt er .

T h e b ou ndar y l i ne i s c a ll e d t h e C I R C U M E E R E N C E .

I A M ET E R A s tr a i g h t l i ne dr a w n t h roug h
D . the c e nt e r ,
a nd c on

nec t i ng opposit e p oi nts i n t h e circ u m f e r e nc e as , a b .

RA D IUS . T he di s t a nc e from its c e nte r to t h e c ir c u m f e r e nc e ,

as e e .

E M ICI RCL E
S . H alf a c i rcl e f or med by b i s ecti ng i t w i t h a
,

dia m e t e r as a d , b a .

A RC . A ny p a r t of t he circ u m fe re nc e a s , e b .

C H OR D . A st rai g h t l i ne w h os e e nd s a re in t he circ u m f e re nc e ,

as fg .

S EG M E NT . T he p a rt of a c ircl e b o u nd ed by a n a rc a nd a c h or d ,

a s f ft e f
S E C T OR . T he part of a circl e b ou nd e d by t wo ra dn a nd a n a rc ,

as b e c b .

QU A N T A s e c t or b ou nd ed by
D RA . t wo radu a nd one f ou r t h of

t he ci rcumf e re nc e as a e d a ,
.

T A NGENI A st rai g h t li ne w h i c h m e e t s a circ u m f e r enc e b u t


.
,

be i ng prod u c e d do e s not c u t i t as la 1 1 T h e p oi nt of m ee t i ng i s ,
.

call e d t h e fa i nt of cont a ct or p oi n t of t n eney .

C ol d C ol ors . T h os e in w h ic h b l u e pr ed omi na t es .

C ol or . r e s u l t of t h e d e co mpo s i ti on of li g h t i nt o t h e v a ri ou s
T he
e l e m e nt s comp osi ng i t I t i s a s e ns a t i on due t o t h e e ff e c t s prod u c ed u p on
.

t h e ey e by t h e w av es ofdi f f e r e nt l e ng t h s fo u nd i n li g h t a nd d oe s not exi s t ,

o u tsid e of o u rs e lv es P r a ctical l y w e sp e ak of ma t e ri al c ol or as t h a t w h ic h
.

d e c ompos es l ig h t and most ob j e cts ar e c ol or ed i n t h e s ens e t h a t t h ey


,

d e compos e li g h t a nd s e nd t o t h e ey e ra y s w h i c h a re not w h ite T h u s a .

b od y w h ic h r e e cts a l l t h e ra ys e q u a ll y i s w h i te ; one w h i c h a bs or bs al l
t h e ra y s e xc ept t h e re d ra y s is re d ; a nd one w h i c h a bs or bs all t h e ra ys

e xc e pt t h e b l u e i s b l u e ; a nd one w h ic h a b sor bs pr a c t i c all y all t h e rays


is b l a ck .

C om p os i t i on T h e a rra ng e m e nt oft h e diff e r e nt li ne s part s a nd mas ses


. , ,

of a s u b j e c t .
I 68 L /GH T A N !)

C onc a v e . C u rvi ng i n w a rdl y .

C one A s olid b ou nd e d by a pl a ne s u rf a c e c a ll ed t h e ba se w h ic h is a
.
,

c i rc l e e llip s e or o t h e r c u rv e d g u re a nd by a l a t e r a l s u rfac e w h ic h i s
, , ,

e v e ry w h e re c u rv e d a nd t ap e r s t o a poi nt c a ll e d t h e v a r /ex I t s b a s e na mes


,
.

t h e c one T h u s a ci r c u l a r c o ne i s one w h ose b a se i s a c ir c l e


. .

A RIGH
T C I R C U L A R C ON E i s g e ner at ed by a n i s os c e l e s tria ng l e
w h i c h r e v olv es ab ou t i ts al t i t ud e as a n axi s T h e e q u a l .

s i de s o f t h e t ri a ng l e i n a ny pos i t i on a re c a ll e d elf/1 1 3 1 1 1 3 of
t h e s u rf a c e T h e l e ng t h of a n e l e m e nt i s c a ll ed t h e s la n t
.

g /zf of t h e c one U nl e ss o t h e r w is e s t a ted co ne f'


lzezj .
,

m e a ns a ri g h t c ir c u l a r c one .

C o ns t ru c t iv e D ra w i ng . A dra w i ng i nt e nded for t h e w or k ma n w h o i s


to m ake t h e ob j ec t .

C o nt ou r . T he ou t l i ne or p e rip h ery of t h e a pp ea r a nc e ofa n o bj ec t .

C ont ra e ffe c t d u e t o t h e j u xt a pos i t i on ofdi ff e r e nt li nes


st . T he , d i ff e r e nt
f or m s diff e r e nt m asses of li g h t a nd d a rk or di ffer e nt c ol or s
, ,
.

C o nv e nt a r t t h e e xpre ss i on of t h e s pi ri t a nd i m p or t a nt
i ona li z a t i o n In ,

t r u t h s ofnat u r e by a s u b ordi na t i on of l e ss i mp or ta nt f e a t u r e s .

C onv e rg e nc e . e x te ndi ng t o w a rd a c omm on poi nt


L i nes , or pl a nes ex

t e nd i ng t o w a rd a c ommo n li ne .

C o nv ex . R i s i ng or s w elli ng i nt o a s p h e ri c a l or ro u nd e d f or m .

C o r ne r . T h e p oi nt of m e e t i ng of t h e edg es of a s oli d . or of t wo si des


of a pl a ne g u r e .

C y li n d e r s oli d b ou nd e d by a c u rv ed s u rfa c e a nd b y t w o
. A
Op p os i te f a c es c a l l e d bas es ; t h e b ases ma y b e e llip s es c ir c l e s or , ,

ot h e r c u rv e d g u r es a nd na m e t h e c y li nd e r T h u s a c i r c u l ar
, .

c y li nd e r (t h e ordi na ry for m ) i s one w h ose ba se s ar e c i r c l es .

A I G H T C I R C U L A R C Y L I N D E R i s g e ne r a t ed by t h e r e v ol u t i on
R

of a r e c ta ng l e ab ou t one s i d e as a n a xi s T h e s id e a b ou t w h i c h .

t h e r ec ta ng l e r e v olv es i s c a ll e d t h e Mfg /ft o f t h e cy li nd er a l s o i ts ,

a x is T h e s i d e op pos i te t h e a xi s d esc ri b es t h e c u rv e d s u rf a c e of
.

t h e cy li nd e r a nd i n a ny o f i t s p os i t i o ns i s c a ll e d a n c lem en t of t h e
,

s u rf a c e .

C ut up . H a vi ng it s e ff e ct d es t r oye d by e x a g g e ra te d d e t a il .

D e si g n . A n
y a rr a ng e m e nt or c omb i na t i on to prod u c e d e s ir e d r e s ul ts in
i nd u st r y or a rt .
L I GH T A N D SH A D E
I 70 .

F OC I e a nd j , a r e s i t u ate d i n t h e l ong diam e te r


T he , ,
a nd t he

d is t a nc e of e ac h f oc u s fr o m c or d i s e q u al t o one h a l f a b .

P a ce . One pl a ne s urf ac e s
of t h e of a s olid . I t ma y b e b ou nd e d by
s t r a ig h t or c u rv ed e dg es .

F i ni s h i n g . C ompl e t i ng
a dra w i ng w h os e l i nes or m asses h av e bee n ,

d e t e r m i ne d by r e pr e se n t i ng d e ta i ls a nd by str e ng t h e ni ng a nd a cc e nt i ng
,

w h er e t h is is r e q u ir ed .

F ix a t if . A t h i n v a r ni s h u s ed t o x c h ar c oal dra w i ng s .

F o re s h ort e ni ng . Appar e nt d e cr e a s e in l eng t h , du e t o a p osi t io n ob li q ue


to t he vi s u a l r ay s .

F re e -h a nd . E x ec u t e d by t h e h a nd , w i t h ou t t h e a i d of n i st r u me nts .

G ra d a t i o n . A g r ad ua l c h a ng e fr om li g h t to dark , or fr om one c ol or to

a no t h e r .

G rou p .
-
A ny c oll ec t i o n ofo bj e c ts to be s t udi ed .

H a nd li n g . S e T e c h niq u e .

H a rd . A ny st ud y at u r e i s h a r d c r u d e or m ec h a nical w h en i t s out
of n , ,

li ne s a r e t oo kee n , or w h e n ob j e c t s a r e ou t li ned w i t h li g h t or w i t h dar k or ,

a r e f a l se i n v a l u es .

H a r m o ny . T he pl e as i ng a rr a ng e m e nt of li ne s li g h t
,
a nd d ar k , or

co ol r .

H a l f-t i n t . T he s h a d i ng pr od u c ed by m e a ns of par a ll e l e q u i d i st a nt
li ne s .

H o ri z on . In pi c t ori a l a r t a h ori z ont a l l i ne a t


, the l e v e l of t h e eye .

H o ri z ont a l . P aral lel t o t he s u rf ac e of s moot h w a te r .

dr a w i ng s a li ne p a r a ll e l
In , to the t op a nd b ott om of t h e s h ee t is c a ll ed
h oriz ont a l .

I ns t ru m e nt a l . B y t he u se o f i nst r u m e nts .

K ey . T he sc a l e of l ig h t a nd d a rk , or c ol or .

L a t e ra l S u rf
a ce . T he s u rf ac e o fa s ol id e xcl udi ng , t he b a se or b a se s .

L a t e ra l E d g e . One not b ou ndi ng a base .

L ig ht . t w h i c h pr od u c es vi s i on
T he L i g h t i s s u pp os ed t o
a g en .

t r a v e l i n s t r a i g h t li nes by m e a ns of m i nu t e u nd u l at i ons or w a v es i n t h e
p a r t i c l es of e t h e r w h i c h ll a ll s p a c e A r ay of s olar l i g h t i s c omp os e d .

of a la rg e nu mb e r of d iff e r e nt l y c ol or e d r ays o f li h t w h i c h u ni t i n
g g f orm ,

w h i t e li g h t .
D E F /N I I 7I

L I G H T M A S S OF T h e e nt ir e s u rfa c e w h ose e ff e ct i n c ons t ra s t w i t h t h e


, .

s h a do w s i s t h a t of s t ro ng li g h t I t i s d es i g na te d by t h e w or d
, .

li g h t .

H
I G H or G L I TT E R T he b ri g h t est part of a n s u rfa ce t he
,
y
.

par t t h at g li t t e r s .

H A L F . T he p a r t i nte rm edi a t e in v al u e b e t w ee n t h e s h a d o w a nd

t h e lig h t .

I R E C T R ays fro m t h e s u n m oo n
D .
, , or a ny ar t i ci a l li g h t . In
a s t u dio r ays fro m t h e w i ndo w
, .

ND I R EC T I R ay s r e ect e d to a n o b j ec t fr om surr ou nd i ng
.

y
ob j e c ts .

L oc a l a c t u a l c ol or of t h e li g h t w h ic h i s
c ol or . T he not a b s or b e d by
a ny o b j ect T h i s c olor i s visi b l e w h e n t h e ob j e c t i s ne ar
.
t he e e a nd d oes
y
not r e e c t c olor ed li g h t r e c eiv ed from a ny ot h e r o b ject .

L e v e l of t he E y e . T he l e v el or p os i t i on of a h ori z ontal p l a ne p as si ng
t h r ou g h the s e p ct at or s
ey e .

L i ne . A li ne h a s l e ng t h on ly . I n a drawi ng i ts r e pr e s e nt a t i on ha s
w idt h , b ut i s c all ed a li ne .

LI NE S T R A I G H T
, . One h ic h
w h as the s a me dir ec t i on
t h r ou g h ou t it s en t ir e l eng t h .

CU R VED . One no p a rt of w h ic h i s s t r a i g h t .

ENB One c omp os e d


R OK . of di ff e r e nt s u c c ess iv e
str a i g h t l i ne s .

M I XE D . One c omp os ed ofs trai g h t a nd c u rv e d li nes .

M e di u m . T he p e nci l cr ay on c ol or
, , , or o t h er ma t e ri a l u s ed to pr od u c e
t h e dr a w i ng .

M od e l . A n o b j ec t u s e d for st ud y .

M ono c h rom e . A p a i nti ng in o ne c ol or .

N eu t ra l C ol or . C ol or w h ic h i s not p u re or b ri g h t .

Op a q u e C ol or . P i g m e nt h a vi ng a b od y w h ic h h id es t he s u rfac e rece i v

i ng t h e c ol or .

P a i nt i n g A r epre se nt a t i on of v a l u es m ad e by
. t he u se of t h e b rus h a nd

c o l or . It ma y b e i n mo no c h r om e or i n c ol or .

P a ra lle l . H av i ng t h e s a m e dir ec t i on a nd e v e r y w h e r e e q u all y


d ista nt .
[ J G /1 T A /Vl) SH A D E
1
72 .

P a ra ll e log ra m . S ee Qu adril a t e r a l .

P e r p e n di c u la r . At a n a ng l e of

P e rs p e c t i v e . T he a rt of r e pr ese nt i ng on a s urf a c e t he a pp e a ra nc es
s e e n fr om a ny g iv en po s i t i on .

L I NEA a r t of ma k i ng up on a pl a ne c a ll e d t h e p i c/u re
R . T he ,

p la ne s u c h a re p r e s e nt a t io n of o b j ec ts t h at t h e li ne s of t h e dr a wi ng
-
,

a p p ea r t o c o i nc id e w i t h t h o se of t h e o bj ec t w h e n t h e ey e is a t one ,

x e d p oi nt c a l l ed t h e a non p oi n t -

A ER I A L T he a rt r epr es en t i ng a t u r e s e ff ec ts by li g h t
'

. of n a nd

s h a d e or by c ol or ,
.

D M IA A l i ne a r p er s p e c t iv e o b t ai ne d sc i ent i c a ll y by p er
GRA .

s pec t i v e m e t h od s I t i s of t e n v e r y f a l s e pic t ori a ll y w h e n not s e en


.

fr om t h e s t a t i on poi nt -
.

P ELA RA L L A li ne a r pe r s p e c t iv e w h ic h r e pr es e nt s a c u b i c a l
.

obj e c t by t h e u s e of o ne va ni s h i ng p o i nt (t h e c e nt e r of vi s i on) a nd -
,

a s u rf a c e p a r a ll e l t o t h e pi c t u r e pl a ne by i ts r e al s h a p e .

NGU L A R
A . A l i nea r p e r s p e c t iv e w h i c h r epr e s e nts a c u bi c a l
u s e of t w o v a ni s h i n
obj e c t by t h e g p oi nts on t h e l e v e l of t h e ev e
-
.

OB L I Q U E
A li ne a r p e r s p ec t iv e w h i c h r e pr ese nts a c u b i c a l ob j e c t
.

by t h e u se of t h r e e v a ni s h i ng p o i nts no t more t h a n one b ei ng on t h e -


,

l e v e l of t h e eye .

N D or M OD E L D R A WI N G A dr a w i ng w h i c h w i t h ou t
F R E E -H A . ,

c on ni ng t h e ey e t o t h e s ta t i on p oi nt r e pr ese nts a s far as p oss i b l e -


.

t h e ac t u a l a pp e a r a nc es of obj ec ts I t i s m a d e fr e e h a nd a nd i s .
-
.

m or e sat i s f ac t or y t h a n a n e x a c t di a g r a m p e r s p e c t iv e e xc e p t w h e n .

s u bj ec ts c a u s i ng v e r y l a rg e vi s u a l a ng l es a r e t o b e r e p r es e nt e d .

P la n . P l a n,
h ori zont a l pr oj e c t i o n a nd t op vi e w h a v e t h e sa m e m ea n .

i ng a nd d es i g na te t h e r e p r e s e nta t i on of a n obj e c t m a d e o n a h o ri z onta l


,

pl a ne by m ea ns of v e r t i c al pr oj e c t i ng li nes I n a rc h i t ec t u r e i t m e a ns a .

h ori z ont a l se ct i on .

P l a ne F i g u re . A part of a pla ne su rf a c e b ou nd ed by li nes .

P li nt h . pri s m w h os e a xi s i s i t s l e a s t d i m en
A c y l i nd e r or

s i on I t is ci r c u la r fr i a zrg u /a r sq u a r e et c a c c ording a s i t
.
, , , .
,

h as c ircl es t ria ng l es s q u a r es e t c for bases


, , . . , .
L I GH T A N D SH A D E
I 74 .

A n O I sL I QU E P R I sM is o ne w h ic h
in t h e ed g e s c onnec t i ng t he

b a s es a re not p e rp e ndic u l a r to t h e b as e s .

A R EG U L A R P I
R S M i s a ri g h t pri s m w h os e bas e s a r e r e g ul a r
pol y g ons .

T he of a pri s m i s t h e p e rp e ndi c u l a r d i sta nc e b e t w ee n


t he b a ses .

T h e A X I S o f a r e g u l a r pri s m i s a st rai g h t li n e c o nne c t i ng t he

c e nt e rs ofi ts ba se s .

P r of
i le . T he c o nt ou r ou t li ne of a n o bj e c t .

P j i o n or t h og r a p h i c
ro e c t , T h e vi e w or r e pr e s e nt a t i on of a n ob j ect
.

ob tai ned u p on a pl a ne by pro j e c t i ng li n es p e rp e ndi c u l ar t o t h e pl a ne .

P ure or N o rma l C olo r s . T he s pe c t r um c ol or s .

P y r a mi d A s olid of w h i c h o ne f ac e c a ll e d t h e ba s e i s a p ol y g on a nd
. . , ,

t h e ot h er f a c es c a ll e d j i n es a r e t ri a ng l e s h avi ng a c ommon v er t ex
'

, ,

cal l ed t h e wa r /m o i t h e p y r a m i d T h e i nte r se c t i ons oft h e l a t e ral fac e s a re


.

c a ll e d t h e

A p y r a mi d i s c all e d t r i a ng u la r , s u a r e ,
q e t c a c c ordi ng as i t s
.
,

b a se i s a t r i a ng l e s q u a r e e t c , , .

A R E G U L A R I Y R A M I I ) i s one w h os e b a s e i s a reg ular p ol y g on


a nd w h ose v e r te x i s i n a p e rp e ndi c u lar e r e c t ed a t t h e c e nt e r of t h e

b a se I t s o t h e r f a c es a r e e q u a l i s os c e l es t ri a ng l e s T h e a l t i t u d e of
. .

a u v o f t h ese t r i a ng l es is c all e d t h e s la n t of t h e p y ra mid .

T he A N I s of a r e g u l a r p y r a mid i s a st rai g h t li ne c onne c t i ng t he

v e r te x a nd t h e c e nt e r of t h e base .

T he of a p y r a m id is t h e p e r p e ndi c u l a r d i sta n c e from


t h e v e r te x to t h e ba se .

Qu a d r il a t e ra l . A p l a ne
g u r e b o u nd e d by fo u r s t r a i g h t li nes . T h es e
li nes a re t h e s i d es T h e a ng l es f or m e d b y t h e li nes a r e t h e (mg /cs
. , a nd t he

v er t ic e s of t h ese a ng l es ar e t h e r a f fi a s oft h e q u adril a t er a l '


, .

A P A R A L L E L OG R A M is a q u adril a t e r a l w h i c h h a s i t s pp os i t e
o

s id e s p a r a l l e l .

A T R A I I CZ I U M is a q u a dril a t e r a l w h i c h h as no t w o

s id es p a r a ll e l .

A T R A l li Z O I l ) i s a q u a d ril a t e r a l w h ic h h a s t wo s id e s ,

a nd o n ly t wo s i d es p a r a ll e l
. .
D E F /X I T / o/v s .
I 75

A R E C T A N G L E i s a p a r a l l el og r a m w h os e a ng l es a re

ri g h t a ng l e s .

A S Q U A R E i s a r e ct a ng l e w h os e sid e s a r e e q u al .

A R H O M B O I D i s a p a r a ll e log ra m w h os e a ng l es a re

o b liq u e a ng l e s .

A R H OM B U S is a R h om b oid w h ose s id e s a re e qu a l .

T he s id e u po n w h ic h a p a r a ll e l og r a m s t a nd s a nd t he o pp osi t e s id e a re

c all ed r e s p ec t iv e l y it s low er a nd upp er oa ses .

R e e ct e d p a r t of t h e s h a do w of a ny ob j ec t w h ic h i s
L ig ht . T he
l ig h t e ne d by r ays r efl e c t ed t o i t fro m s o me o t h er ob j e c t .

R e nd e ri n g or H a n d l i ng . T he w ay in w h ic h a m edi u m i s u se d .

R e p re s e nt a t i on . A ny k i nd of dra w i ng p a i nt i ng
, , or s c u lpt u r e .

R e t re a t mg . ( 1 0mg a w a y fr om .

S ec t i on proj e c tio n u p on a pl a ne p a r a l l e l t o a c u tt i ng pl a ne w h i c h
. A
i nt e rs ec t s a ny o bj e c t T h e s e cti on g e ne r a ll y r epr e s e nt s t h e p a rt b e h i nd t h e
.

c u tt i ng pl a ne a nd t h e c u t s u rf a ce s a re r e pr es ent ed by c ross h a t c h i ng
,
- .

S ha de . a lf L i g h t A l s o a t o ne o f a c olor pr od u c e d by t h e a ddi
S ee H .

t i on of b l a c k pi g m e nt t o m at e ri a l c ol or s a nd by t h e ac t i on of a f e e b l e li g h t ,

u p on im m a t e ri a l colors .

S h a d ow . T he p a r t of a ny s u rf a c e w h i c h a pp ea rs d a rk in c ons e q u enc e
of e r c e ivi ng no dir e c t li g h t .

SH A D W
O , CA S T . T he s h a d o w proj ec t e d u p on one o b j e ct by
a no t h e r .

S i m p le . N ot g ivi ng too m u c h or e x a g g e rat ed d e t a il .

S k et ch . A h ast y a nd u n n i s h e d dra w i ng .

T IME . A s k e tc h m ad e in a s p ec i e d t i m e .

S oli d A s ol id h a s t h r ee d i m e ns io ns l e ng t h b r e a dt h a nd t h ic k ness
.
, , , .

I t m a y b e b ou nd e d by pla ne s u rf a c es by c u rv e d s u rf a c es or by b ot h pla ne , ,

a nd c u rv ed s u rfac e s A s co m mo nl y u nd e rs t ood a s olid i s a li m i t ed p orti on


.
,

of s pa c e l l ed w it h matt e r b u t g e o m e tr y do es not c ons i d e r t h e m at t e r a nd


, ,

d e a ls simpl y w it h t h e s h a p e s a nd s i z es of s olid s .

S p h e re A s oli d b o u nd ed b y a curv e d s u rfa c e ev e r y p oi nt


. of

w h ic h is e q u all y d i s t a nt fro m a p oi nt w it h i n c a ll e d t h e c e nt e r .
76 SH A D E
'

I L I GH T A A D .

S t il l L ife . Obj e c ts i nte nd e d fo r u se or or na-me nt .

S t i p p li n g . F illi ng i n t h e s p ac e b e t w ee n h a tc h i ng l i nes or produci ng ,


a n

e ff ec t by
,
m e a ns of d ots .

S t udy . A n
y c a r e f u ll y ni s h ed dr a w i ng or p a i nt i ng .

S ub je c t . A ny o bj e c t , g ro u p , or e ff ec t of n at u r e to be r e pr es e nt e d by
t h e ar tis t .

S u rfa ce . T he b ou nd a r y of a s olid . It h as b ut t w o di me ns i ons l eng t h ,

a nd b r ea d t h .

S u rf ac es a re pl a ne or c u rv e d .

A P L A NE S U RFA L E

is o ne u p on w h i c h a s t r a i g h t li ne ca n be
dra w n i n a ny dir ec t i on .

A C uR v E D S U R FA CE i s one no part of w h ic h i s p la ne .

T he s u rf a c e of t h e s p h e r e i s c u rv ed i n e v e r y dir e c t i on w h il e t h e c u rv ed ,

s u rf ac e s of t h e cy l i nd e r a nd c one a r e st r a i g h t i n one d ir ec t i on .

T a ng st r a i g h t l i ne a nd a c u rv e d l i ne or t w o c u rv e d li nes a r e
e nt . A , ,

ta ng e nt w h e n t h ey h a v e one p oi n t c omm on a nd c a nnot i nt e r se c t li ne s or


s u rf a c e s a re t a ng e n t t o c u rv e d s u rf a c es w h e n t h ey h av e one poi nt or one
li ne c om mon a nd c a nnot i nt e r se c t .

T e st . A n
y pr oc ess u se d to prov e t h e wo rk .

T i nt t one of a c ol or prod u c e d by t h e a d d i t i on of w h i t e t o oi l
. A
c ol or s w ate r t o w ate r c ol or s a nd of w h i t e li g h t t o t h e i mma t eri a l c ol or s of
, ,

t h e s p ec t r u m .

T e c h ni q u e . T he h a ndli ng or w a y in w h ic h a n e fe f ct is o b t a i ned .

T ex t u re . T he c h a r ac t e r of a s u rf a c e .

T o ne . d es i g
a t es t h e c h a ng es w h i c h c ol or u nd e rg oes by t h e
T o ne n

a d d i t i o n o f w h i te w h i c h li g h te ns o r of b l ack w h i c h d a r ke ns i t s nor m al
, , ,

t one T h e w ord a l s o m e a ns t h e e ffe ct of s om e pr ed omi na t i ng c ol or p ro


.

d u c e d by t h e c o l or o ft h e li g h t w h i c h ill u mi na te s t h e o bj e ct .

S EL F T ON I-
1s . T ones of t h e sa m e c ol o r .

T r a n sp a r e n t C ol o r s
h os e i n w h i c h t h e c ol or t i nts t h e p a p er or
. T
c a nva s w h i c h s h o w s t h r o ug h t h e c ol or a nd a c ts w i t h i t i n pr od u c i ng
, ,

t h e e ff e c t .

T ri a ng le pl a ne g u r e b ou nd e d b y t h ree s t r a i g h t li nes T h es e l i nes


. A .

a re c a l l e d t h e s i des T h e a ng l es t h a t t h ey f or m a re c a l l e d t h e a ng les of
.

t h e t ri a ng l e a nd t h e v e r t i c es o ft h es e a ng les t h e
, o f t h e t ri a ng l e . .
78 L I GH T
I A N D SH A D E .

V a ni s h . To e x t e nd t o w a rd s a v a ni s h i ng p oi nt .

V a ni s h i ng . C onv e r g i ng t o w a rd s o ne poi nt or li ne .

P OI N T . A p oi nt t o w a rd s w h ic h parall e l li ne s co nv e rg e .

V a ri e t y . T he e ffe c t du e t o t h e com b i na t io n of par ts w h ic h a re not

ali k e .

V e rt i c a l . U pri g h t or p e rp e ndi c u l a r t o a h ori z ont al pl a ne


,
or li ne .

Ve r t i c a l a nd p e rp e ndi c u l a r a r e not sy nony mou s t e rms .

V e rt ex . S ee A ng l e Qu a d ril ate r a l T ri a ng l e T h e v e r t e x
, , . of a s oli d is
t h e poi nt in w h ic h i ts a xi s i nt e r sec ts t h e l a t e ral s u rf a c e .

V i ew . S ee li le v a t i o n . Vi e
w s a r e c a ll e d fr ont t op ri g h t or l e f t s i de , . ,

b a c k or b ott om a cc ordi ng a s t h ey a re m a d e on t h e diffe r e nt pl a ne s of


, .

proj ec t i on T h ey a r e a l s o s om e t i m es na m e d a cc ordi ng t o t h e part of t h e


.

o b j e c t s h o w n a s edg e V i e w e nd vi e w
, or f a c e V i e w , ,
.

V i su a l R a y . A s i ng l e ray or li ne of g li h t fr om a ny o b jec t t o t h e ey e .

A NGL Il -
. T he a ng l e f or m e d at t h e e
ye by t h e o u te r v i s u a l rays
from a ny o bj ec t .

W m C ol o
a r rs . T h ose in w h ic h re d a nd ye ll o w pr e d omi na t e .

Wo k i ng D
r ra w i ng . One w h ic h g iv es al l t he i nf or m a t i on ne e c ss a r y to

e nab l e t he wo r k m a n t o c ons t r u ct t h e ob j ect .


I N D E X .

A cce nte d ou tl i ne d ra w i ng , 1 1 2, I b l ock i ng m et h od 8 0 8 1 , , .

1 2 6, bl ot t i ng p a p e r 1 35 1 38 . , .

acce nts 1 3 50 1 04 1 35 1 38 1 39
. , , . , , . bl u r g l ass 3 6 55 56 . , , .

acc i d e nta l e ff ects 1 33 1 35 1 4 3 , , . . b oa r d s 8 7 , .

ae ri a l p e rs p ect iv e 49 . . b r ea d u s e of 8 9 9 7
, , , .

a i d s see tests
, . b reat h u s e of 8 9 , , .

a ng u l a ri ty S o , . b ro a d g ray li ne 1 1 1 , .

a nt i q u e 1 1 0 , . b ru s h w ork 1 3 8 1 4 2 ; d ry m et h od , , , 1
30 .

a pp ea ra nces 1 2 3 . , , . 1
3 1 ; w et m et h od 1 35; d i f cult , , 1 44 .

a r t d u e t o 1 55 1 6 1 , , . b r u s h es 93 1
3 1 ; b ri stl e 1 2 8
, , , . 1 38 .

a r t i s d i fc u l t 1 52 1 53 1 57 , , , . 1 39 ; ca m e l s h a ir 1 2 8 ; Ja a n ese
p

-
, , 1 38 .

a r t j u dg m e nt 7 1 , .

a r t sc h ool s 1 3 1 9 1 60 1 61 C a me ra 3 1 68
5 5 , , , . .
, , .

a r t st u d e nt s a i ms 6 2 6 3
, , . ca nvas 8 7 , .

a r t st u dy 1 52 1 55 , , . C a r e f u l d r a w i ng , 3 5 39 40 4 3 , , , .
51 , 62 ,
a r t teac h i ng 7 1 1 40 1 4 4 1 50 1 53
, , , . , . 1 43 , 1
56 .

a r t i c i a l li g h t 2 3 38 40 , , , . ea s t sh a do w , 4 , 7, 8 , 1 1 , 1
5 , 1 8 , 1 9 , 2 1 ,

a r t i st i c re nd e ri ng S o 1 4 7 , . . 2 5 38
, , 44 , 58 , 1 1 9; un sat i s fact ory
a r t i st s a i ms 6 4 6 8 1 52 1 55

, . , ,
. w i t h o u t t h e s h ad o w 1 1 9 , .

at m o s p h e r e t o obta i n 98 1 04 1 3 5
, . , . . ce nte r li ne s 8 ,

at om i z e r 9 1 , . c h a moi s sk i n 90 , .

a xi s 8 2
, . c h a rc oa l S 7 93 ; st u b of 96 ; t o s h a rp e n
, , , ,

98 ; u s e of poi nt 9 5 98 , ,
.

B ack g ro u nd , use of, 76 . 1 3 4, c h a rcoa l g ray 1 2 9 , .

1 47 , 1 49 . C h a v a nnes 1 56 , .

back g ro u nd s u b ordi nat e 1 04 , . c h eese c l ot h 8 6 , .

be a u ty 2 5 1 55
. ,
. c h i a ro osc u ro 1
-
, .

be g i nne r 1 40 1 4 5, , . c h romo 1 53 , .

B e rvill e 8 7 , . C l a u d e L o rr a i n m irr or 54 , .

b l ack no t see n 4 9 58 ; use of 50


, , , . . c l ot h 90 , .

bl ack ca rd 57 , .
c ol or st ud y d i f c u l t 1 40 1 4 1 ; e x p n , , e

b l ack fra m e 58 , . s iv e 1 4 1 , .

b l ack p a p e r 56 , .
c ol or e d obj ects 1 4 1 5 2 0 30 3 5 38 , , , . .
. .

b l e nd i ng 8 1 97 ; p e nc il w o rk 1 1 3
, , , . 1 1 47 .

bl ock i ng ln l i nes 93
-
, .
c o l o rs . m o i st . 1 28 .
80 I I VI J E JI
'

1 .

c omp a ris on necessa ry 3 1 1 4 3 , , . E ase l 8 6 , .

c o m pos i t i o ns 8 2 , . e ffect d u e t o p os i t i on 5 2 8 , , .

c one 1 2 1 9 44, , . e ffect of c on-t rast 2 56 58 , , , .

C o nt 8 7 8 8 , , . e ffec ts c h a ng eabl e 8 3 , .

c ont o u r 39 4 0 , ,
. el e m e nt 30 3 5 , , .

c ont o u r el e m e nt 1 3 , . e l im i nat i on of d eta i l 6 2 1 04 , .

cb n t o u rs no- t s h a rp 98 99 1 3 e rase rs 90 ; u se oif 1 1 4 1 4 7


3 , , , , , , , .

c on t rast 2 2 0 2 3 2 7 34 4 3 , , , , , , , E u rop e 8 3 , .

1 2 1 ; d eli cat e 2 3 ; st ro ng e v ol u t io n 1 6 3
-
3
25 ; , , , .

c o l or 1 2 1 ,
. e x a g g e rate d d eta il 3 1 53 , , .

C oq u e li n S 6 ,
. e e n or m a l 2
y ,
3 1 53 8 0 ; h a lf c l ose d , , , , ,

c ray on h ol d e r 98 , .

c rayon pap e r I 1 5 ,
.

c r ay on sa u ce 8 8 , .

c rayo ns 8 8 ,
f ee l i ng d ue t o 60, 6 3 st u dy , .

c ri t i c i s m 7 1 73 ; ne cessa ry 1 50 ng e r , u se of 8 9 9 7 98 , , , .

, , ,
.

c u be 7 8 9 , , , .

c ur ta in s 8 5 1 49 rst d i rect i o ns 9 , l
l

a t if 9 1
, , .

x
cyl i nde r 9 4 4 1 4 5 , .

xi ng 5 1 9 1 9
, , , .


, , ,

fo h a g e 1 4 3, 1 44 =
D a rk a pp e a ri ng l i g h t 2 2 2 3 3 1 ,

, , ,
fo es h or r t e ne d 39
.

d a rk e f fects 2 1 2
, .


, _ ,

for m st u dy w i t h t h e p e nc il 1 44
D e g a s 1 56
, .

l u sa i ns V e net i e n 8 7
, .

I

d etai l i n t h e h a - lfl i g h t 34
, .

-
, .

de ta i l i n t h e li g h t 43 . .

G en i u s 1 54 . .

d eta i l i n t h e s h a d o w 3 5 38 4 3 , ,
g e o met r i c f o r m s 52 78 99 1 1 7 1 4 7
, .

, , , , , .

d eta i l s b o r d i nate 3 1 37 6 3 6 4 1 04
u , , , , , .
G i ot t o 8 4 . .

d i ctat i o n 1 4 5 ,
g l a z e d obj ects 2
.

d iffe r e nt l i g h ts 1 5
g l i tte r l i g h t o r p oi nt see h i g h l i g h t 6
, .

, . .

di f fic lt ef u fects 2 0 1 9 3 47
,
. _ , .

d if f u se d l i g h t ,
g ra dat i on 1
3 14 19 , , . .
35 4 4 , , 1 46 .

d i m i ni s h i ng g l ass 54
g ra d e d w as h es 1 33
, .

, .

d i-ect l ig h t 9 1 3 36
g r a m m a r of a r t 1 6 1
r , , ,
.

.
, .

d i rect i on of s h a d i ng 9 6 1 48
g ray d ra w i ng s 50 5 1 58
.
, , .

, , . .

d ir ec t or of d r a w i ng 1 50 ; r e q u ir e d 1 51 ,
g r o u p s 1 49
,
, .

d i sta n ce 6 8 , .

d i st or te d p h ot og ra p h 6 8 6 9 , , . l l a lf l ig h t 6 , .
34 .

d i st o r t i on 68 6 9 , . . h a nd li ng 7 .

d i v i d i ng l i ne of l i g h t a nd s h a d e 4 . . h a r mony 2 . , .
73 8 3 9 7 . . .

34
3-
5 h atc h i ng 96 , , 1 1

d ra p e ry 4 2 , . h i g h l ig h t 6 9 12 15 , , , . 2
5 .
_8
2 . 29; r a ri es
d ra w i ng 2 , ,

8 . in s t re n t h c o lo i
g a . , nd fo rm , 2 6, 2 7,
l
( I
'

y th e t h 0 d, 30 1 .

D u tc h m et h o d 1 35 , . h om e st u dy . 1 61
1 8 2 A VL ZE X .

pe rs p ect iv e 68 6 9 , ,
. se v e ra l li g h ts 4 0 , .

p h o t og ra p h s 5 7 30 66 1 04 1 53 , , , , . ,
. s h a d e see h a lf lig h t
, .

p i ct u re m a k i ng 1 4 2 s h a d i ng i nstea d of o u t li nes 1 2 7 1 47
-
, , ,
. .

p i ct u r es q u e 1 2 7 , . s h a d o w 3 4 8 9 1 2 1 3 1 5 2 4 3 5 36
, , , , , , , , , , ,

p i g m e nts 1 2 8 , .
44 ; w i t h o u t cast s h a d o w 1 1 9 . .

p oi nt u e o f c h a r c oa l 7 1 90 9 5 97 s h a do w e l e me nts 9 1 2
. s , , . , , ,

98 ; of p e nc i l p oi nt 1 14 1 1
5 1 47 , , . . s h e ll ac 9 1 , .

1 48 ; of b r u s h p o i nt 1 2 9 32 1 38 , , . . s i g h t i mp e rf ect 1 2 53 ; d u e t o mem , , ,

p ol i s h e d obj ects 7 2 6 36 , , , . cr
y, 1 .

p op u l a r m et h od s 1 4 2 ,
. s il h o u ette 1 2 9 , .

p oste rs 1 30 ,
. s im pl e m asses 2 4 3 1 , , .

p r ess u r e 8 9 , . s i mp lifyi ng d ifC u lt 6 3 , .

p r i nc i p l es r e v i e w e d 4 3 44 4 5 , . , . sketc h 79 , .

p rog r ess 1 49 sketc h b ook 1 2 1 -


, .
,
.

p rom i ne nt d eta il 34 , . skyli g h t 8 5 , .

p u bl i c sc h oo ls 7 1 8 6 1 40 1 4 5 , , , ,
. S o u t h K e ns i ng t on 1 59 , .

p u p i l o f eye 3 1 . .
s p h e r e 3 4 5 6 7 1 4 44 1 4 6
, , , , , . . , .

py r a mi d 1 3 ,
. s p ong e 1 35 , .

sta g es 96 97 , , .

R ap h ael , 74 78 . . stat i onpoi nt 6 9 , .

r a pp i ng u se o f 90 , . . st i l l l if e 1 1 0 , .

rays of li g h t 3 . . st r etc h e r 8 7 2 1 3 1 , , , .

r ea lis m 4 6 4 7 , , . st r etc h i ng p a p e r 1 30 ; b y fra m e 1 3 1 , , .

re ecte d d a rk 1 5 36 , , . st u di o 8 5 , .

r e ecte d l i g h t 6 7 9 . . , , 18 . 2 0. 36 37 . ; st u d i o e ffects 9 1 1 1 9 2 1 2 2 8 8 3 , . , . . .
2
.

no t l i g h t 37 , . st u di o li g h t 8 5 , .

re ect i o ns 5 2 7 2 8 , , , . st u dy 78 . .

r el at i o ns 4 7 48 , , . st u dy abroa d ( 6 1 , .

R e m b a nd t 1 2 5 1 2 9
r , ,
. st u dy at d i sta nce 58 9 2 , , .

R ey no l ds 77 7S , , . st u dy re q u ire d 1 5 ,
2

r ubbe r ba nd s 1 38 . . st u mps 8 8 8 9 , , .

r u l es i m p oss i bl e 4 1 82 , , , 1 48 . s ub ord i nat i on of d eta il 6 2 6 4 1 0 , , .

s u ccess d ue t o c orr ec t see i ng 1 1 ,

S ab l e br s h 1 2 8 u ,
. s u cce ss na nc i a l 1 53 1 54 1 56
, . , , .

sa nd pa p e r 98 , . s u g g est i on 4 7 6 2 76 1 1 7 1 2 7 , , . , , .

sc h ol a rs h i ps 1 6 2 , . s u nl i g h t 3 1 8 33 4 7 8 5 . . . . . .

sc h oo l c o mm i t tees 1 50 , . syste m 1 5 1 . .

sc h oo l st u d i os 8 6 , .

sc i e nce fal l i bl e 1 6 ,
2
T abl e 8 6 . .

sc i e nt i st 53 . . t eac h e rs ofd ra w i ng 1 4 4 1 4 5 1 57 1 58 ; , . . .

sel ect i o n 8 3 ,
. o f p a i nt i ng 1 58 161 . . .

se lf t ra i ni ng 1 4 9 1 59 1 6 1
-
, , , . t ec h ni q u e va ri es 70 72 73 1 4 8 ; c h oi c . , . ,
i

se nt i m e nt i m p or ta nt 6 5 . . o f 7 2 ; d e e nds o n e d u cat i o n
.
p 70 : no ,

se pi a 1 2 8
. . a r t 73 : test fo r 2 1 48
. , . .
1 1 V1) E X .
1 83

t ests for a lu es 2 54 55 56 57 58
v , , . , , , , c h-
a-rc oa l , 1 44 ; sca l e of, 48 , 1
35 ; of

59 6 0 6 1 ; i nf e ri o r t o f ee li ng 6 0 ; l ea d
, , , r e ect i o ns 37 ; no t ta u g h t 52
, , ,

t o f e e li ng 60 , . c h a ng e d 6 9 , .

t e x t b ook s 1 50
-
, . v a ri ety n ecessa ry
99 1 04 1 49 ; cast , , ,

t h u mb c li p s 8 7 , . s h a d o w 38 , .

m e s k e tc h es 79 9 4 9 7 1 04 v e etab le s 1 44
. . , , .
g , .

1 10 . v ig n ette d 1 2 1
,
.

i -
pp ng t h e h ea d 59 , . V i nc i L e ona rd o d a , 4 1 4 2 7 5 78
, , , , .

ri a l l i nes v i s i on b l u- rre d

1 1 2
, 1 44 , .
, 32 4 9 55 , , , ,

t r ut h esse nt i a l 6 2 ; un sat i sfact ory


, , 66 . na t u r al 2 3 1 53 S o
, , , ,
.

v i s u a l i ma g es
2
,

U nif or mi ty u np l easa nt , 1 1 7
Was h
.

un it of va l u e 46 , .
,l ay a 1 3 1 1 32 1 33
to , , , .

u n u al i e d teac h e rs 1 4 1 w ate r co l or b l ocks 1 30


-
q , .
, .

u nsat i s f act o r y m et h o d s 93 ,
. w ate r c ol or st u d y 1 49
-
,
.

u se o f h a nd 59 ; o f e r ase r , ,
w ate r m a rk s 1 3 1 1 32 1-33C
1 3
5, , ,
u 2
(
4 , .

w et m et h o d 1 3 5 ,
.

h a t ma n s p a p e r 8 7 1 1 3 1 2 9
"
V a l u es ,

30, 3 1 , 4 5 46 5 1
-
2, , , , .

Wh i st l e r 1 56
, , .

be st u d-i e d 48 5 1 , 76 79
, , , , , .