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SAFETY.CAT.

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C18
GENERATOR SET
Maintenance Intervals

Excerpted from Operation & Maintenance Manual (SEBU7898-12)


2009 Caterpillar
All Rights Reserved
108 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule

i03671315 Every Week


Maintenance Interval Schedule Automatic Start/Stop - Inspect ............................. 113
Electrical Connections - Check ........................... 125
(Prime Product) Generator - Inspect ............................................. 139
Generator Lead - Check ..................................... 144
SMCS Code: 1000; 7500
Instrument Panel - Inspect .................................. 147
Jacket Water Heater - Check .............................. 151
Ensure that all safety information, warnings,
Space Heater - Check ........................................ 161
and instructions are read and understood before
Standby Generator Set Maintenance
any operation or any maintenance procedures Recommendations ............................................ 161
are performed. The user is responsible for
the performance of maintenance, including all
adjustments, the use of proper lubricants, fluids,
Initial 500 Hours (for New Systems, Refilled
filters, and the installation of new components Systems, and Converted Systems)
due to normal wear and aging. The performance Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) -
of this product may be diminished if proper Obtain ............................................................... 121
maintenance intervals and procedures are not
followed. Components may experience accelerated
Every 500 Service Hours
wear if proper maintenance intervals and procedures
are not followed. Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) -
Obtain ............................................................... 121
Note: Use whichever of the following that occurs
first in order to determine the maintenance intervals: Every 2000 Service Hours or 6 Months
fuel consumption, service hours, and calendar time
. Before each consecutive interval is performed, all Generator Set Vibration - Inspect ....................... 145
maintenance from the previous intervals must be Generator Set Vibration - Test/Record ................ 145
performed. Insulation - Test ................................................... 147

Products that operate in severe operating conditions Every Year


may require more frequent maintenance.
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) -
When Required Obtain ............................................................... 121
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
Battery - Replace ................................................. 114 (SCA) - Test/Add ............................................... 122
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................. 115
Engine - Clean .................................................... 125 First 9500 L (2500 US gal) of Fuel or 250
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Service Hours
Clean/Replace .................................................. 125
Ether Starting Aid Cylinder - Replace ................. 133 Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust .................... 132
Fuel System - Prime ........................................... 134
Generator - Dry ................................................... 138 Every 9500 L (2500 US gal) of Fuel or 250
Generator Bearing - Lubricate ............................ 140 Service Hours or Yearly
Generator Set - Test ........................................... 144
Generator Set Alignment - Check ....................... 145 Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test .............................. 111
Rotating Rectifier - Test ...................................... 159 Battery Electrolyte Level - Check ......................... 115
Severe Service Application - Check ................... 160 Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ............................. 116
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
Daily (SCA) - Test/Add ............................................... 122
Cylinder Head Grounding Stud - Inspect/Clean/
Annunciator Panel - Inspect ................................. 111 Tighten .............................................................. 124
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check .............. 120 Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................ 130
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ... 128 Engine Oil and Filter - Change ........................... 130
Engine Oil Level - Check .................................... 129 Engine Protective Devices - Check .................... 132
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate ............................. 134
Drain ................................................................. 136 Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ............ 136
Generator Bearing Temperature - Test/Record ... 143 Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ............... 137
Generator Load - Check ..................................... 144 Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................ 146
Power Factor - Check ......................................... 158 Magnetic Pickups - Clean/Inspect ...................... 151
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 163 Radiator - Clean .................................................. 158
Rotating Rectifier - Check ................................... 159
SEBU7898-12 109
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule

Every 19 000 L (5000 US gal) of Fuel or 250


Service Hours
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean ................... 129

Every 19 000 L (5000 US gal) of Fuel or 500


Service Hours
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ............................................ 134

Every 114 000 L (30 000 US gal) of Fuel or


3000 Service Hours or 2 Years
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ............... 124

Every 114 000 L (30 000 US gal) of Fuel or


3000 Service Hours or 3 Years
Alternator - Inspect .............................................. 111
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change ......... 116
Cooling System Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add ... 119
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator -
Replace ............................................................. 123
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ............... 124
Engine Mounts - Inspect ..................................... 129
Engine Speed/Timing Sensors - Check/Clean/
Calibrate ............................................................ 132
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust .................... 132
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect ......................... 133
Starting Motor - Inspect ...................................... 162
Turbocharger - Inspect ........................................ 162
Water Pump - Inspect ......................................... 164

Every 228 000 L (60 000 US gal) of Fuel or 12


000 Service Hours or 6 Years
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............ 118

Every 600 000 L (158 500 US gal) of Fuel


Overhaul (Top End) ............................................. 154
Overhaul Considerations .................................... 155

Every 1 200 000 L (317 000 US gal) of Fuel


Overhaul (Major) ................................................. 151
Overhaul Considerations .................................... 155

Overhaul
Generator Bearing - Inspect/Replace ................. 140
110 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule

i03671310 Standby Generator Set Maintenance


Recommendations ............................................ 161
Maintenance Interval Schedule
(Standby) Every Year
Alternator - Inspect .............................................. 111
SMCS Code: 1000; 7500
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ............................. 116
Ensure that all safety information, warnings, Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) -
Obtain ............................................................... 121
and instructions are read and understood before
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
any operation or any maintenance procedures
are performed. The user is responsible for (SCA) - Test/Add ............................................... 122
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ............... 124
the performance of maintenance, including all
Engine - Clean .................................................... 125
adjustments, the use of proper lubricants, fluids,
filters, and the installation of new components Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) -
Clean/Replace .................................................. 125
due to normal wear and aging. The performance
Engine Mounts - Inspect ..................................... 129
of this product may be diminished if proper
maintenance intervals and procedures are not Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................ 130
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ........................... 130
followed. Components may experience accelerated
Engine Performance - Test ................................. 132
wear if proper maintenance intervals and procedures
are not followed. Engine Protective Devices - Check .................... 132
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust .................... 132
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect ......................... 133
Note: Use whichever of the following that occurs
first in order to determine the maintenance intervals: Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate ............................. 134
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
fuel consumption, service hours, and calendar time
Element - Replace ............................................ 134
. Before each consecutive interval is performed, all
maintenance from the previous intervals must be Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ............ 136
Generator - Dry ................................................... 138
performed.
Generator Set Vibration - Inspect ....................... 145
Products that operate in severe operating conditions Generator Set Vibration - Test/Record ................ 145
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................ 146
may require more frequent maintenance.
Insulation - Test ................................................... 147
Radiator - Clean .................................................. 158
When Required Starting Motor - Inspect ...................................... 162
Battery - Replace ................................................. 114 Water Pump - Inspect ......................................... 164
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................. 115
Ether Starting Aid Cylinder - Replace ................. 133 Every 3 Years
Fuel System - Prime ........................................... 134
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change ......... 116
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator -
Drain ................................................................. 136 Cooling System Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add ... 119
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator -
Generator Bearing - Lubricate ............................ 140
Replace ............................................................. 123
Generator Load - Check ..................................... 144
Generator Set - Test ........................................... 144 Cylinder Head Grounding Stud - Inspect/Clean/
Tighten .............................................................. 124
Rotating Rectifier - Test ...................................... 159
Engine Speed/Timing Sensors - Check/Clean/
Calibrate ............................................................ 132
Every Week Rotating Rectifier - Check ................................... 159
Automatic Start/Stop - Inspect ............................. 113 Turbocharger - Inspect ........................................ 162
Battery Charger - Check ...................................... 114
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check ......................... 115 Every 6 Years
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check .............. 120
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............ 118
Electrical Connections - Check ........................... 125
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ... 128
Engine Oil Level - Check .................................... 129 Commissioning
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ............... 137 Generator Set Alignment - Check ....................... 145
Generator - Inspect ............................................. 139
Generator Bearing Temperature - Test/Record ... 143
Generator Lead - Check ..................................... 144
Instrument Panel - Inspect .................................. 147
Jacket Water Heater - Check .............................. 151
Power Factor - Check ......................................... 158
Space Heater - Check ........................................ 161
SEBU7898-12 111
Maintenance Section
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test

i01546702 7. Inspect the core in order to ensure cleanliness.


Pressure test the core. Many shops that service
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test radiators are equipped to perform pressure tests.
If necessary, repair the core.
SMCS Code: 1064-070; 1064-081
8. Install the core. Refer to the Service Manual for
1. Remove the core. Refer to the Service Manual the procedure.
for the procedure.
For more information on cleaning the core, consult
2. Turn the aftercooler core upside-down in order to your Caterpillar dealer.
remove debris.

i02676048
NOTICE
Do not use a high concentration of caustic cleaner to
clean the core. A high concentration of caustic cleaner
Alternator - Inspect
can attack the internal metals of the core and cause SMCS Code: 1405-040
leakage. Only use the recommended concentration of
cleaner. Caterpillar recommends a scheduled inspection
of the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
3. Back flush the core with cleaner. connections and proper battery charging. Inspect the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
Caterpillar recommends the use of Hydrosolv order to ensure proper battery performance and/or
liquid cleaner. Table 18 lists Hydrosolv liquid proper performance of the electrical system. Make
cleaners that are available from your Caterpillar repairs, as required.
dealer.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
Table 18 proper operation. If the batteries are properly
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners(1) charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
Part batteries should be kept warm because temperature
Description Size
Number affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
1U-5490 Hydrosolv 4165 19 L (5 US gallon) the battery will not crank the engine. The battery will
not crank the engine, even if the engine is warm.
174-6854 Hydrosolv 100 19 L (5 US gallon) When the engine is not run for long periods of time
(1) Use a two to five percent concentration of the cleaner or if the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
at temperatures up to 93C (200F). Refer to Application may not fully charge. A battery with a low charge will
Guide, NEHS0526 or consult your Caterpillar dealer for more freeze more easily than a battery with a full charge.
information.

4. Steam clean the core in order to remove any i01148030


residue. Flush the fins of the aftercooler core.
Remove any other trapped debris. Annunciator Panel - Inspect
5. Wash the core with hot, soapy water. Rinse the SMCS Code: 4490-040
core thoroughly with clean water.
Inspect the annunciator panel for good condition.
Perform a lamp test. All of the warning lamps should
illuminate. If a warning lamp does not illuminate,
replace the bulb immediately. If the alarm does
Personal injury can result from air pressure. not sound, investigate the problem and correct the
problem.
Personal injury can result without following prop-
er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a pro- Check the condition of all of the gauges. If a gauge
tective face shield and protective clothing. is broken, repair the gauge or replace the gauge
immediately.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes. Frequently monitor the following parameters during
normal engine operation:
6. Dry the core with compressed air. Direct the air in
the reverse direction of the normal flow. Engine Oil Pressure
Engine Coolant Temperature
112 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Annunciator Panel - Inspect

Inlet Air Restriction


Exhaust Temperature
Record the data in a log. Compare the new data to
the data that was previously recorded. Comparing
the new data to the recorded data will establish the
normal gauge readings for the engine. A gauge
reading that is abnormal may indicate a problem with
engine operation. Abnormal gauge readings may
also indicate a possible problem with the gauge.

Record the Performance of the


Engine
Table 19 is offered as an example for use as a daily
engine log. Record the engine performance regularly.
Retain the recorded information for reference.
Compare the recorded data in order to provide an
indication of engine condition.

Records of engine performance are an important


element of a maintenance program. Record
information about the engine operation on a daily
basis. This will help to reveal the trends of the engine
performance. Records of engine performance will
also provide a baseline for evaluating the mechanical
condition of the engine.

The data on engine performance can help to predict


problems with operation. This data can provide
your Caterpillar dealer with information that is
useful for recommending maintenance management
information. A maintenance program that is properly
managed will provide your engine with an optimum
service life.
SEBU7898-12 113
Maintenance Section
Automatic Start/Stop - Inspect

Table 19
Daily Engine Log
Date

Authorization

Engine Serial Number

Engine Hours

Engine Speed

Percent Load

Ambient Temperature

Inlet Air Restriction

Engine Coolant Temperature

Engine Oil Temperature

Engine Oil Pressure

System Battery Voltage

Exhaust Manifold Temperature

Generator Voltage

Generator Amperage

Comments

i01942284 The control switches are in the correct position for


automatic starting.
Automatic Start/Stop - Inspect
The switchgear and the automatic transfer switches
SMCS Code: 4462 that are associated with the generator are enabled.
The generator set must be ready to operate under a
load at any time. After performing maintenance on
the generator set, inspect the position of the control
switches. Ensure the following conditions:

The starting system is enabled.


114 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Battery - Replace

i02153996 8. Connect the cable from the ground plane to the


NEGATIVE - battery terminal.
Battery - Replace
SMCS Code: 1401-510 i01917570

Battery Charger - Check


SMCS Code: 1401-535
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gas-
es to ignite. This can result in severe personal in- Checking Before Start-Up
jury or death.
Check the battery charger for proper operation. If
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in the batteries are properly charged, the needle of the
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in or- ammeter will register near 0 (zero).
der to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are The battery charger must not produce excessive
serviced. current during start-up. Alternatively, the charger
must be automatically disconnected for start-up.
If the engine has an alternator, the charger must
be automatically disconnected during start-up and
during engine operation.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The bat- Charging the Battery
tery cover should be removed before any servic-
ing is attempted.

Removing the battery cables or the batteries with


the cover in place may cause a battery explosion Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or bat-
resulting in personal injury. tery circuit cable from the battery when the charg-
ing unit is operated. A spark can cause an explo-
sion from the flammable vapor mixture of hydro-
1. Turn the key start switch to the OFF position. gen and oxygen that is released from the elec-
Remove the key and all electrical loads. trolyte through the battery outlets. Injury to per-
sonnel can be the result.
2. Turn OFF the battery charger. Disconnect the
charger.
Perform the following procedure to charge the
3. The NEGATIVE - cable connects the NEGATIVE battery:
- battery terminal to the ground plane. Disconnect
the cable from the NEGATIVE - battery terminal. 1. Ensure that the charger is turned OFF.

4. The POSITIVE + cable connects the POSITIVE 2. Adjust the voltage of the charger in order to match
+ battery terminal to the starting motor. the voltage of the battery.
Disconnect the cable from the POSITIVE +
battery terminal. 3. Connect the POSITIVE + lead of the charger
to the POSITIVE + battery terminal. Connect
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a the NEGATIVE - lead of the charger to the
battery. Return used batteries to an appropriate NEGATIVE - battery terminal.
recycling facility.
4. Turn ON the battery charger.
5. Remove the used battery.
Overcharging of Batteries
6. Install the new battery.
Overcharging reduces the service life of batteries.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that Use a battery charger that will not overcharge the
the key start switch is OFF. battery. DO NOT charge the battery if the meter of
the battery charger is in the RED zone.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE + battery terminal. Overcharging is indicated by the following symptoms:

The battery is very warm to the touch.


SEBU7898-12 115
Maintenance Section
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check

A strong odor of acid is present.


The battery emits smoke or a dense vapor (gas). All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
Perform one of the following procedures if the battery
shield and protective clothing when working on or
shows symptoms of overcharging:
near batteries.
Reduce the rate of charging by a significant
amount. Complete the charging at the reduced 1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
rate. level to the FULL mark on the battery.

Turn OFF the charger. If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
Table 20 describes the effects of overcharging on water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
different types of batteries. softened water.
Table 20 2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with the
Effects of Overcharging Batteries 245-5829 Coolant Battery Tester Refractometer.
Type of Battery Effect 3. Keep the batteries clean.

Caterpillar General Service All of the battery cells have


Clean the battery case with one of the following
Batteries a low level of electrolyte. cleaning solutions:
Caterpillar Premium High
Output Batteries A mixture of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) of baking soda and
1 L (1 qt) of clean water

A mixture of 0.1 L (0.11 qt) of ammonia and 1 L


When the plates of the (1 qt) of clean water
battery are inspected
through the filler holes, the Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
plates may appear to be
warped. This is caused by Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
an excessive temperature. terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
The battery may not pass until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
a load test. remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit properly.
Caterpillar Maintenance The battery may not accept Coat the clamps and the terminals with 5N-5561
Free Batteries a charging current.
Silicone Lubricant, petroleum jelly or MPGM.
The battery may not pass
a load test.
i01492654

Checking After Stopping Battery or Battery Cable -


Disconnect
Ensure that the battery charger is connected
properly. Observe the meter of the charger. Record SMCS Code: 1402-029
the amperage.

i02601752
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
Battery Electrolyte Level - removed with the battery cover in place. The bat-
Check tery cover should be removed before any servic-
ing is attempted.
SMCS Code: 1401-535
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries resulting in personal injury.
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing.
116 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace

1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the i02139869
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads. Cooling System Coolant
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal at the
(DEAC) - Change
battery that goes to the start switch. Ensure that SMCS Code: 1350-070; 1395-044
the cable cannot contact the terminal. When four
12 volt batteries are involved, the negative side of Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
two batteries must be disconnected. system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
3. Tape the leads in order to help prevent accidental
starting. The engine overheats frequently.
4. Proceed with necessary system repairs. Reverse Foaming is observed.
the steps in order to reconnect all of the cables.
The oil has entered the cooling system and the
i02673191
coolant is contaminated.

Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
SMCS Code: 1357-025; 1357-040; 1357-510
NOTICE
Inspection Use of commercially available cooling system clean-
ers may cause damage to cooling system compo-
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the nents. Use only cooling system cleaners that are ap-
belts for wear and for cracking. Check the belt proved for Caterpillar engines.
tension. Adjust the belt tension in order to minimize
belt slippage. Belt slippage will decrease the life of Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
the belts. temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
To check the belt tension, apply 110 N (25 lb) of force the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
midway between the pulleys. A correctly adjusted the hoses, if necessary.
belt will deflect 13 to 19 mm (0.50 to 0.75 inch).
Drain
Adjustment
If the belts are too loose, the belts will vibrate. This
vibration is enough to cause unnecessary wear on
the belts and on the pulleys. Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
If the belts are too tight, unnecessary stresses are stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
placed upon the pulley bearings and upon the belts. components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
These stresses will shorten the life of the belts and of pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
the pulley bearings. sure.

If new belts are installed, check the tension again 1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
after 30 minutes of engine operation at the rated rpm. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
Replacement system filler cap.

For applications that require multiple drive belts, 2. Open the cooling system drain valve (if equipped).
replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing only If the cooling system is not equipped with a drain
one belt of a matched set will cause the new belt to valve, remove one of the drain plugs.
carry more load because the older belt is stretched.
The additional load on the new belt could cause the Note: If equipped, be sure to drain the heater and
new belt to break. any related supply and return lines.

Refer to the Service Manual for more information on Allow the coolant to drain.
the procedures for the following topics: belt removal
and belt installation procedure.
SEBU7898-12 117
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change

5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.


NOTICE Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
Dispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle. in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the
Various methods have been proposed to reclaim used cooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve
coolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full (if equipped) or remove the cooling system drain
distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling
Caterpillar to reclaim the used coolant. system with clean water. If equipped, be sure to
flush the heater and any related supply and return
lines. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean
For information regarding the disposal and the the drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to
recycling of used coolant, consult your Caterpillar the Specifications Manual, SENR3130, Torque
dealer or consult Caterpillar Dealer Service Tool Specifications for more information on the proper
Group: torques.
Outside Illinois: 1-800-542-TOOL
Inside Illinois: 1-800-541-TOOL Cooling Systems with Heavy
Canada: 1-800-523-TOOL Deposits or Plugging
Flush Note: For the following procedure to be effective,
there must be some active flow through the cooling
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order system components.
to remove any debris.
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean the to remove any debris.
drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to
the Specifications Manual, SENR3130, Torque Note: If equipped, be sure to flush the heater and
Specifications for more information on the proper any related supply and return lines.
torques.
2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean the
drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to
NOTICE the Specifications Manual, SENR3130, Torque
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal) Specifications for more information on the proper
per minute to avoid air locks. torques.

3. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of clean NOTICE


water and Caterpillar Fast Acting Cooling System Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
Cleaner. Add 0.5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per 15 L per minute to avoid air locks.
(4 US gal) of the cooling system capacity. Install
the cooling system filler cap.
3. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of clean
4. Start and run the engine at low idle for a minimum water and Caterpillar Fast Acting Cooling System
of 30 minutes. The coolant temperature should be Cleaner. Add 0.5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per
at least 82 C (180 F). 3.8 to 7.6 L (1 to 2 US gal) of the cooling system
capacity. Install the cooling system filler cap.
NOTICE 4. Start and run the engine at low idle for a minimum
Improper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling system of 90 minutes. The coolant temperature should be
can result in damage to copper and other metal com- at least 82 C (180 F).
ponents.

To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure NOTICE


to completely flush the cooling system with clear wa- Improper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling system
ter. Continue to flush the system until all signs of the can result in damage to copper and other metal com-
cleaning agent are gone. ponents.

To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure


to completely flush the cooling system with clear wa-
ter. Continue to flush the system until all signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
118 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change

5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. i02694670


Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the Cooling System Coolant (ELC)
cooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve
(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drain
- Change
plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling SMCS Code: 1350-070; 1395-044
system with clean water. Close the drain valve
(if equipped). Clean the drain plugs. Install the Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
drain plugs. Refer to the Specifications Manual, system before the recommended maintenance
SENR3130, Torque Specifications for more interval if the following conditions exist:
information on the proper torques.
The engine overheats frequently.
Fill
Foaming is observed.
NOTICE
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal) The oil has entered the cooling system and the
per minute to avoid air locks. coolant is contaminated.

The fuel has entered the cooling system and the


1. Fill the cooling system with coolant/antifreeze. coolant is contaminated.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Refill Capacitites and Recommendations topic Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
(Maintenance Section) for more information on clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
cooling system specifications. Do not install the replaced.
cooling system filler cap.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the temperature regulator after the cooling system has
engine rpm to 1500 rpm. Run the engine at high been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine. the hoses, if necessary.

3. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level


within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
Drain
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level within
13 mm (0.5 inch) to the proper level on the sight
glass (if equipped).
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
cap and install a new cooling system filler cap. sure.
If the gasket that is on the cooling system filler
cap is not damaged, perform a pressure test. A 1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump is used to perform Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
the pressure test. The correct pressure for the order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
cooling system filler cap is stamped on the face of system filler cap.
the cooling system filler cap. If the cooling system
filler cap does not retain the correct pressure, 2. Open the cooling system drain valve (if equipped).
install a new cooling system filler cap. If the cooling system is not equipped with a drain
valve, remove the cooling system drain plugs.
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for proper operating temperature. Allow the coolant to drain.

NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle.
Various methods have been proposed to reclaim used
coolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full
distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by
Caterpillar to reclaim the used coolant.
SEBU7898-12 119
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add

For information regarding the disposal and the 2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Caterpillar engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
dealer or consult Caterpillar Dealer Service Tool idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
Group: the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.

Outside Illinois: 1-800-542-TOOL 3. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
Inside Illinois: 1-800-541-TOOL within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
Canada: 1-800-523-TOOL pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level within
13 mm (0.5 inch) to the proper level on the sight
Flush glass (if equipped).

4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the


1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris. gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler
Note: If equipped, be sure to flush the heater and
any related supply and return lines. cap and install a new cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
not damaged, use a 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump
2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean the
drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. For the in order to pressure test the cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
proper torque, refer to the Specifications Manual,
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
SENR3130, Torque Specifications.
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
NOTICE cooling system filler cap.
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
per minute to avoid air locks. 5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for proper operating temperature.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap. i02482066

4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the Cooling System Coolant
temperature reaches 49 to 66 C (120 to 150 F).
Extender (ELC) - Add
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
SMCS Code: 1352-045; 1395-081
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the
Cat ELC (Extended Life Coolant) does not require
cooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve
the frequent additions of any supplemental cooling
(if equipped) or remove the cooling system
additives which are associated with the present
drain plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the
conventional coolants. The Cat ELC Extender only
cooling system with clean water. Close the drain
needs to be added once.
valve (if equipped). Clean the drain plugs. Install
the drain plugs. For the proper torque, refer to
the Specifications Manual, SENR3130, Torque NOTICE
Specifications. Use only Cat Extended Life Coolant (ELC) Extender
with Cat ELC.
Fill Do NOT use conventional supplemental coolant addi-
tive (SCA) with Cat ELC. Mixing Cat ELC with conven-
NOTICE tional coolants and/or conventional SCA reduces the
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal) Cat ELC service life.
per minute to avoid air locks.
Check the cooling system only when the engine is
1. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life Coolant stopped and cool.
(ELC). See Special Publication, SEBU6251,
Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations for more information on
cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
120 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check

i01197583

Cooling System Coolant Level


Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam
and alkali. - Check
At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot SMCS Code: 1395-082
and under pressure. The radiator and all lines
to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns. and cool.

Remove cooling system pressure cap slowly to


relieve pressure only when engine is stopped and
cooling system pressure cap is cool enough to
touch with your bare hand.

Do not attempt to tighten hose connections when


the coolant is hot, the hose can come off causing
burns.

Cooling System Coolant Additive contains alkali.


Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

NOTICE g00285520
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained Illustration 64
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test- Cooling system filler cap
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
Dealer Service Tool Catalog for tools and supplies
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
products.
sure.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates. 1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
1. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure. Remove the cooling 2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)
system filler cap. of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
2. It may be necessary to drain enough coolant from level to the proper level in the sight glass.
the cooling system in order to add the Cat ELC
Extender.

3. Add Cat ELC Extender according to the


requirements for your engine's cooling system
capacity. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Refill Capacities and Recommendations
article for more information.

4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the


gaskets on the cooling system filler cap. Replace
the cooling system filler cap if the gaskets are
damaged. Install the cooling system filler cap.

g00103639
Illustration 65
Typical filler cap gaskets
SEBU7898-12 121
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain

3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and check the Obtain the sample of the coolant as close as possible
condition of the filler cap gaskets. Replace the to the recommended sampling interval. In order
cooling system filler cap if the filler cap gaskets are to receive the full effect of SOS analysis, you
damaged. Reinstall the cooling system filler cap. must establish a consistent trend of data. In order
to establish a pertinent history of data, perform
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks. consistent samplings that are evenly spaced.
Supplies for collecting samples can be obtained from
your Caterpillar dealer.
i02837191

Cooling System Coolant Use the following guidelines for proper sampling of
the coolant:
Sample (Level 1) - Obtain
Complete the information on the label for the
SMCS Code: 1350-008; 1395-008; 1395-554; 7542 sampling bottle before you begin to take the
samples.
Note: Obtaining a Coolant Sample (Level 1) is
optional if the cooling system is filled with Cat Keep the unused sampling bottles stored in plastic
ELC (Extended Life Coolant). Cooling systems that bags.
are filled with Cat ELC should have a Coolant Sample
(Level 2) that is obtained at the recommended interval Obtain coolant samples directly from the coolant
that is stated in the Maintenance Interval Schedule. sample port. You should not obtain the samples
from any other location.
Note: Obtain a Coolant Sample (Level 1) if the
cooling system is filled with any other coolant Keep the lids on empty sampling bottles until you
instead of Cat ELC. This includes the following are ready to collect the sample.
types of coolants:
Place the sample in the mailing tube immediately
Commercial long life coolants that meet the after obtaining the sample in order to avoid
Caterpillar Engine Coolant Specification -1 contamination.
(Caterpillar EC-1)
Never collect samples from expansion bottles.
Cat DEAC (Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant)
Never collect samples from the drain for a system.
Commercial heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze
Submit the sample for Level 1 analysis.
Table 21
Recommended Interval For additional information about coolant analysis,
see this Operation and Maintenance Manual, Refill
Type of Coolant Level 1 Level 2 Capacities and Recommendations or consult your
Every 250 Caterpillar dealer.
Cat DEAC Yearly(1)(2)
Hours(1)
Cat ELC Optional(2) Yearly(2) i01987714
(1) This is the recommended interval for coolant samples for all
conventional heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze. This is also the
Cooling System Coolant
recommended interval for coolant samples of commercial
coolants that meet the Cat EC-1 specification for engine
Sample (Level 2) - Obtain
coolant.
(2) The Level 2 Coolant Analysis should be performed sooner if a SMCS Code: 1350-008; 1395-008; 1395-554; 7542
problem is suspected or identified.
NOTICE
NOTICE Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.
use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling. Using the same pump for both types of samples may
Using the same pump for both types of samples may contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This
contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incor-
contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incor- rect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both
rect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both dealers and customers.
dealers and customers.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Note: Level 1 results may indicate a need for Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain
Level 2 Analysis. for the guidelines for proper sampling of the coolant.
122 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add

Submit the sample for Level 2 analysis. Cooling Systems that Use
For additional information about coolant
Conventional Coolant
analysis, see Special Publication, SEBU6251,
This maintenance procedure is required for
Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engines Fluids
conventional coolants such as DEAC.This
Recommendations or consult your Caterpillar dealer.
maintenance is NOT required for cooling systems
that are filled with Extended Life Coolant.
i02839449
Test the Concentration of the SCA
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) - NOTICE
Test/Add Do not exceed the recommended six percent supple-
mental coolant additive concentration.
SMCS Code: 1352-045; 1395-081
Test the concentration of the SCA with the 8T-5296
Coolant Conditioner Test Kit.

Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali. Add the SCA, If Necessary
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
the skin and eyes. Do not drink cooling system
coolant additive.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
NOTICE
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentra-
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
tion can form deposits on the higher temperature sur-
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
faces of the cooling system, reducing the engine's
sure.
heat transfer characteristics. Reduced heat transfer
could cause cracking of the cylinder head and other
high temperature components. 1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly.

Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentra- 2. If necessary, drain some coolant in order to allow
tion could also result in blockage of the heat exchang- space for the addition of the SCA.
er, overheating, and/or accelerated wear of the water
pump seal. 3. Add the proper amount of SCA. For the
proper amount of SCA, refer to this Operation
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supple- and Maintenance Manual, Refill Capacities
mental coolant additive concentration. and Recommendations topic. The proper
concentration of SCA depends on the type of
coolant that is used. For the proper concentration
NOTICE of SCA, refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test- Recommendations.
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- 4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Install the
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo- cooling system filler cap.
nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar


Dealer Service Tool Catalog and to Special Publica-
tion, GECJ0003, Cat Shop Supplies and Tools for
tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain flu-
ids on Caterpillar products.

Dispose of all fluids according to applicable regula-


tions and mandates.

Note: Caterpillar recommends an SOS coolant


analysis (Level 1).
SEBU7898-12 123
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator - Replace

Cooling Systems that Use Water i03645060

and SCA Cooling System Water


Test the Concentration of the SCA Temperature Regulator -
Replace
Test the concentration of the SCA with a 298-5311
Coolant Nitrite Test Kit for SCA or perform an SOS SMCS Code: 1355-510
Coolant Analysis. The test kit includes the following
items: a tool for the testing, 30 ampoules for testing Replace the water temperature regulator before
nitrite, instructions, and a case. 294-7420 Test the water temperature regulator fails. This is a
Kit contains the refill ampoules for the 298-5311 recommended preventive maintenance practice.
Coolant Nitrite Test Kit. Use the instructions that are Replacing the water temperature regulator reduces
included with the test kit in order to properly conduct the chances for unscheduled downtime. Refer to this
the testing. Operation and Maintenance Manual, Maintenance
Interval Schedule for the proper maintenance
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, interval.
Maintenance Interval Schedule for the times at
which the procedures should be conducted. Test the A water temperature regulator that fails in a
concentration of the SCA more frequently if more partially opened position can cause overheating or
frequent testing is indicated by the results of the overcooling of the engine.
SOS Coolant Analysis.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed
NOTICE position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive
Do not exceed the recommended eight percent sup- overheating could result in cracking of the cylinder
plemental coolant additive concentration. head or piston seizure problems.

A water temperature regulator that fails in the open


Add the SCA, If Necessary position will cause the engine operating temperature
to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the
cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri- in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear
ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap, of the cylinder liner.
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres- NOTICE
sure. Failure to replace your water temperature regulator
on a regularly scheduled basis could cause severe
engine damage.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly.
Caterpillar engines incorporate a shunt design cooling
2. If necessary, drain some coolant in order to allow system and require operating the engine with a water
space for the addition of the SCA. temperature regulator installed.

3. Add the proper amount of SCA. For the proper If the water temperature regulator is installed incor-
amount of SCA, refer to this Operation and rectly, the engine may overheat, causing cylinder head
Maintenance Manual, Refill Capacities and damage. Ensure that the new water temperature reg-
Recommendations topic. For the proper ulator is installed in the original position. Ensure that
concentration of SCA, refer to Special Publication, the water temperature regulator vent hole is open.
SEBU6251, Caterpillar Commercial Diesel
Engine Fluids Recommendations. Do not use liquid gasket material on the gasket or
cylinder head surface.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
Refer to two articles in the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, Water Temperature Regulators
- Remove and Water Temperature Regulators -
Install for the replacement procedure of the water
temperature regulator, or consult your Caterpillar
dealer.
124 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect

Note: If only the water temperature regulators are Inspect the damper for evidence of fluid leaks. If
replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system to a fluid leak is found, determine the type of fluid.
a level that is below the water temperature regulator The fluid in the damper is silicone. Silicone has
housing. the following characteristics: transparent, viscous,
smooth, and difficult to remove from surfaces.
i00894991
If the fluid leak is oil, inspect the crankshaft seals for
Crankshaft Vibration Damper leaks. If a leak is observed, replace the crankshaft
seals.
- Inspect
Inspect the damper and repair or replace the damper
SMCS Code: 1205-040 for any of the following reasons:

Damage to the crankshaft vibration damper or failure The damper is dented, cracked, or leaking.
of the crankshaft vibration damper can increase
torsional vibrations. This can result in damage to The paint on the damper is discolored from heat.
the crankshaft and to other engine components. A
deteriorating damper can cause excessive gear train The engine has had a failure because of a broken
noise at variable points in the speed range. crankshaft.

The damper is mounted to the crankshaft which is Analysis of the oil has revealed that the front main
located behind the belt guard on the front of the bearing is badly worn.
engine.
There is a large amount of gear train wear that is
Rubber Damper not caused by a lack of oil.

Your engine may be equipped with a rubber damper. Refer to the Service Manual or consult your
The rubber damper uses a ring which is mounted in Caterpillar dealer for information about damper
rubber in order to reduce vibrations in the crankshaft. replacement.

Inspect the damper and repair or replace the damper i01259098


for any of the following reasons:
Cylinder Head Grounding Stud
There is deterioration and cracking of the rubber. - Inspect/Clean/Tighten
There is slippage of the outer ring from the original SMCS Code: 7423-040; 7423-070; 7423-079
position.

The engine has had a failure because of a broken


crankshaft.

Analysis of the oil has revealed that the front main


bearing is badly worn.

There is a large amount of gear train wear that is


not caused by lack of oil.

Refer to the Service Manual or consult your


Caterpillar dealer for information about damper
replacement.

Visconic Damper Illustration 66


g00421378

Cylinder head grounding stud (side view)


Your engine may be equipped with a visconic
damper. The visconic damper has a weight that is Inspect the harness for good connections. Inspect
located inside a fluid filled case. The weight moves in the condition of the harness.
the case in order to limit torsional vibration.
SEBU7898-12 125
Maintenance Section
Electrical Connections - Check

The cylinder head grounding stud must have a wire


ground to the battery. Tighten the cylinder head NOTICE
grounding stud at every oil change. Ground wires Water or condensation can cause damage to gen-
and straps should be combined at engine grounds. erator components. Protect all electrical components
All grounds should be tight and free of corrosion. from exposure to water.

Clean the cylinder head grounding stud and the


terminals for the cylinder head ground strap with NOTICE
a clean cloth. Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire haz-
ard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
If the connections are corroded, clean the spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on
connections with a solution of baking soda and the engine.
water.
Do not steam clean the generator. Water may
Keep the cylinder head grounding stud and the damage the generator.
strap clean and coated with MPGM grease or
petroleum jelly.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
i01228274 benefits:
Electrical Connections - Check Easy detection of fluid leaks
SMCS Code: 4459-535 Maximum heat transfer characteristics
Check all exposed electrical connections for Ease of maintenance
tightness.

Check the following devices for loose mounting or i01553486


for physical damage:
Engine Air Cleaner Element
transformers (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
fuses SMCS Code: 1054-037; 1054-510

capacitors NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
lightning arrestors installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
Check all lead wires and electrical connections for
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
proper clearance.
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent air-
i01866598 borne debris from entering the air inlet.

Engine - Clean
NOTICE
SMCS Code: 1000-070 Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.

Personal injury or death can result from high volt- Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
age.
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
Moisture could create paths of electrical conduc- can split the material of the air cleaner element.
tivity. Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal engine
wear. Your Caterpillar dealer has the proper air
Make sure the unit is off line (disconnected from cleaner elements for your application. Consult your
utility and/or other generators), locked out and Caterpillar dealer for the correct air cleaner element.
tagged "Do Not Operate".
Check the precleaner (if equipped) daily for
accumulation of dirt and debris. Remove any dirt
and debris, as needed.
126 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace

Operating conditions (dust, dirt and debris) may 2. The secondary air cleaner element should be
require more frequent service of the air cleaner removed and discarded for every three cleanings
element. of the primary air cleaner element.

The air cleaner element may be cleaned up to Note: Refer to Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
six times if the element is properly cleaned and Elements.
inspected.
3. Cover the turbocharger air inlet with tape in order
The air cleaner element should be replaced at least to keep dirt out.
one time per year. This replacement should be
performed regardless of the number of cleanings. 4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
Replace the dirty paper air cleaner elements with
clean air cleaner elements. Before installation, the 5. Remove the tape for the turbocharger air inlet.
air cleaner elements should be thoroughly checked Install the secondary air cleaner element. Install a
for tears and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect primary air cleaner element that is new or cleaned.
the gasket or the seal of the air cleaner element for
damage. Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner 6. Install the air cleaner cover.
elements for replacement purposes.
7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
Dual Element Air Cleaners
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
The dual element air cleaner contains a primary
air cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner Elements
element. The primary air cleaner element can be
used up to six times if the element is properly cleaned NOTICE
and inspected. The primary air cleaner element Caterpillar recommends certified air filter cleaning ser-
should be replaced at least one time per year. This vices that are available at Caterpillar dealers. The
replacement should be performed regardless of the Caterpillar cleaning process uses proven procedures
number of cleanings. to assure consistent quality and sufficient filter life.

The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable Observe the following guidelines if you attempt to
or washable. The secondary air cleaner element clean the filter element:
should be removed and discarded for every three
cleanings of the primary air cleaner element. When Do not tap or strike the filter element in order to re-
the engine is operating in environments that are move dust.
dusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require more
frequent replacement. Do not wash the filter element.

Use low pressure compressed air in order to remove


the dust from the filter element. Air pressure must not
exceed 207 kPa (30 psi). Direct the air flow up the
pleats and down the pleats from the inside of the filter
element. Take extreme care in order to avoid damage
to the pleats.

Do not use air filters with damaged pleats, gaskets, or


seals. Dirt entering the engine will cause damage to
engine components.

The primary air cleaner element can be used up


to six times if the element is properly cleaned and
Illustration 67
g00736431 inspected. When the primary air cleaner element is
cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material.
(1) Cover
(2) Primary air cleaner element
The primary air cleaner element should be replaced
(3) Secondary air cleaner element at least one time per year. This replacement should
(4) Turbocharger air inlet be performed regardless of the number of cleanings.

1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air Use clean primary air cleaner elements while dirty
cleaner element. elements are being cleaned.
SEBU7898-12 127
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace

Vacuum Cleaning
NOTICE
Do not clean the air cleaner elements by bumping or Vacuum cleaning is a good method for cleaning
tapping. This could damage the seals. Do not use el- primary air cleaner elements which require daily
ements with damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dam- cleaning because of a dry, dusty environment.
aged elements will allow dirt to pass through. Engine Cleaning with pressurized air is recommended prior
damage could result. to vacuum cleaning. Vacuum cleaning will not remove
deposits of carbon and oil.
Visually inspect the primary air cleaner elements Note: Refer to Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
before cleaning. Inspect the air cleaner elements for Elements.
damage to the seal, the gaskets, and the outer cover.
Discard any damaged air cleaner elements.
Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
There are two common methods that are used to Elements
clean primary air cleaner elements:

Pressurized air
Vacuum cleaning

Pressurized Air
Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than two times. Pressurized air will not remove
deposits of carbon and oil. Use filtered, dry air with a
maximum pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi).

g00281693
Illustration 69

Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.


Use a 60 watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears
and/or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element
for light that may show through the filter material. If it
is necessary in order to confirm the result, compare
the primary air cleaner element to a new primary air
cleaner element that has the same part number.

g00281692
Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has
Illustration 68 any tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not
use a primary air cleaner element with damaged
Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are pleats, gaskets or seals. Discard damaged primary
cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside) air cleaner elements.
in order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
Storing Primary Air Cleaner Elements
Aim the hose so that the air flows inside the element
along the length of the filter in order to help prevent If a primary air cleaner element that passes inspection
damage to the paper pleats. Do not aim the stream will not be used, the primary air cleaner element can
of air directly at the primary air cleaner element. Dirt be stored for future use.
could be forced further into the pleats.

Note: Refer to Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner


Elements.
128 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect

g00281694 g00103777
Illustration 70 Illustration 71
Typical service indicator
Do not use paint, a waterproof cover, or plastic as a
protective covering for storage. An airflow restriction Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
may result. To protect against dirt and damage, wrap element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
the primary air cleaner elements in Volatile Corrosion should be replaced when one of the following
Inhibited (VCI) paper. conditions occur:

Place the primary air cleaner element into a box The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
for storage. For identification, mark the outside of
the box and mark the primary air cleaner element. The red piston locks in the visible position.
Include the following information:

Date of cleaning Test the Service Indicator


Service indicators are important instruments.
Number of cleanings
Store the box in a dry location. Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.

i01900118 Check the movement of the yellow core when the


engine is accelerated to the engine rated speed.
Engine Air Cleaner Service The yellow core should latch approximately at the
Indicator - Inspect greatest vacuum that is attained.

(If Equipped) If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
SMCS Code: 7452-040 the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
Some engines may be equipped with a different indicator may be plugged.
service indicator.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge frequently in environments that are severely dusty, if
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet necessary. Replace the service indicator annually
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure regardless of the operating conditions. Replace the
that is measured before the air cleaner element and service indicator when the engine is overhauled, and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner whenever major engine components are replaced.
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is Note: When a new service indicator is installed,
equipped with a different type of service indicator, excessive force may crack the top of the service
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service indicator. Tighten the service indicator to a torque
the air cleaner service indicator. of 2 Nm (18 lb in).

The service indicator may be mounted on the air


cleaner housing or in a remote location.
SEBU7898-12 129
Maintenance Section
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean

i02263740 i02139969

Engine Crankcase Breather - Engine Mounts - Inspect


Clean SMCS Code: 1152-040
SMCS Code: 1317-070
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
proper bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
NOTICE by the following conditions:
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Improper mounting of the engine
If the crankcase breather is not maintained on a
regular basis, the crankcase breather will become Deterioration of the engine mounts
plugged. A plugged crankcase breather will cause
excessive crankcase pressure that may cause Any engine mount that shows deterioration should
crankshaft seal leakage. be replaced. Refer to the Specifications Manual,
SENR3130, Torque Specifications. Refer to your
Caterpillar dealer for more information.

i00623423

Engine Oil Level - Check


SMCS Code: 1348-535-FLV

Hot oil and hot components can cause personal


injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
g01136454
Illustration 72
Typical example
(1) Hose clamp
(2) Breather assembly
(3) Retaining clamp
(4) Seal

1. Loosen hose clamp (1) and remove the hose from


breather assembly (2). Illustration 73
g00110310

(Y) ADD mark. (X) FULL mark.


2. Loosen retaining clamp (3). Remove the breather
assembly and seal (4).
NOTICE
3. Wash the breather element in solvent that is clean Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
and nonflammable. Allow the breather element to
dry before installation.
1. Maintain the oil level between ADD mark (Y) and
FULL mark (X) on oil level gauge (1). Do not fill
4. Install a breather element that is clean and dry.
the crankcase above FULL mark (X).
Install the seal, the breather assembly, and the
clamp. Refer to the Specifications, SENR3130 in
order to locate the proper torques. NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
5. Install the hose. Install the hose clamp. Refer to FULL mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the Specifications, SENR3130 in order to locate the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
the proper torques. dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating char-
acteristics and could result in the loss of power.

2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.


Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
130 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain

i03542996
NOTICE
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and
use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.
SMCS Code: 1000-008; 1348-554-SM;
Using the same pump for both types of samples may
7542-554-OC, SM
contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This
contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incor-
In addition to a good preventive maintenance
rect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both
program, Caterpillar recommends using SOS oil
dealers and customers.
analysis at regularly scheduled intervals in order
to monitor the condition of the engine and the
maintenance requirements of the engine. SOS oil If the engine is not equipped with a sampling valve,
analysis provides infrared analysis, which is required use the 1U-5718 Vacuum Pump. The pump is
for determining nitration and oxidation levels. designed to accept sampling bottles. Disposable
tubing must be attached to the pump for insertion
into the sump.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
For instructions, see Special Publication, PEgj0047,
How To Take A Good SOS Oil Sample. Consult
your Caterpillar dealer for complete information and
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal assistance in establishing an SOS program for your
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to engine.
contact the skin.
i02107152
Before you take the oil sample, complete the Label,
PEEP5031 for identification of the sample. In order Engine Oil and Filter - Change
to help obtain the most accurate analysis, provide
the following information: SMCS Code: 1318-510; 1348-044

Engine model
Service hours on the engine Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
The number of hours that have accumulated since contact the skin.
the last oil change

The amount of oil that has been added since the Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil
last oil change cools, suspended waste particles settle on the bottom
of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed
To ensure that the sample is representative of the with the draining cold oil. Drain the crankcase with
oil in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil the engine stopped. Drain the crankcase with the
sample. oil warm. This draining method allows the waste
particles that are suspended in the oil to be drained
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools properly.
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean. Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
Caterpillar recommends using the sampling valve the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
in order to obtain oil samples. The quality and the
consistency of the samples are better when the Drain the Engine Oil
sampling valve is used. The location of the sampling
valve allows oil that is flowing under pressure to be After the engine has been run at the normal operating
obtained during normal engine operation. temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine crankcase oil:
The 169-8373 Fluid Sampling Bottle is
recommended for use with the sampling valve. The If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the
fluid sampling bottle includes the parts that are drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain
needed for obtaining oil samples. Instructions are the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
also provided. knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.
SEBU7898-12 131
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change

If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,


remove the oil drain plug in order to allow the oil
to drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow
sump, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from both
ends of the oil pan.

After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should
be cleaned and installed.

Replace the Oil Filter


NOTICE
Caterpillar oil filters are built to Caterpillar speci-
fications. Use of an oil filter not recommended by g00103713
Caterpillar could result in severe engine damage to Illustration 74
the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of Typical filter mounting base and filter gasket
the larger waste particles from unfiltered oil entering
the engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters 3. Clean the sealing surface of the filter mounting
recommended by Caterpillar. base. Ensure that all of the old oil filter gasket is
removed.
1. Remove the oil filter with a 1U-8760 Chain 4. Apply clean engine oil to the new oil filter gasket.
Wrench.

2. Cut the oil filter open with a 175-7546 Oil Filter NOTICE
Cutter Gp. Break apart the pleats and inspect the Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
oil filter for metal debris. An excessive amount This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminat-
of metal debris in the oil filter may indicate early ed. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to
wear or a pending failure. engine components.

Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous 5. Install the oil filter. Tighten the oil filter until the
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in oil filter gasket contacts the base. Tighten the oil
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate filter by hand according to the instructions that are
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine. shown on the oil filter. Do not overtighten the oil
filter.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of
the engine. Parts that may be affected include Fill the Engine Crankcase
the following items: main bearings, rod bearings,
turbocharger bearings, and cylinder heads. 1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Refill Capacities and
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not Recommendations for more information.
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter. Consult your Caterpillar dealer in order NOTICE
to arrange for a further analysis if an excessive If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a re-
amount of debris is found in the oil filter. mote oil filter system, follow the OEM or filter manu-
facturer's recommendations. Under filling or overfilling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.

NOTICE
To prevent crankshaft bearing damage, crank the en-
gine with the fuel OFF. This will fill the oil filters before
starting the engine. Do not crank the engine for more
than 30 seconds.

2. Start the engine and run the engine at LOW


IDLE for two minutes. Perform this procedure in
order to ensure that the lubrication system has
oil and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil
filter for oil leaks.
132 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Engine Performance - Test

3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to Visual Inspection
the sump for a minimum of ten minutes.
Visually check the condition of all gauges, sensors
4. Remove the oil level gauge in order to check the and wiring. Look for wiring and components that
oil level. Maintain the oil level between the ADD are loose, broken, or damaged. Damaged wiring
and FULL marks on the oil level gauge. or components should be repaired or replaced
immediately.
i01042067

Engine Performance - Test


i01161856

Engine Speed/Timing Sensors


SMCS Code: 1000-081
- Check/Clean/Calibrate
Operate the engine for a minimum of two hours at a
minimum load of 60 percent. SMCS Code: 1912-040; 1912-070; 1912-524

Monitor the operation of the generator set.


Observe the gauges. Ensure that the gauges are
in the normal ranges.

Record the data. Maintain a record of the data for


the engine performance.

i00626013

Engine Protective Devices -


Check
g00618934
Illustration 75
SMCS Code: 7400-535
Left side view
Alarms and shutoffs must function properly. Alarms (1) Primary speed/timing sensor
provide timely warning to the operator. Shutoffs help (2) Secondary speed/timing sensor
to prevent damage to the engine. It is impossible
to determine if the engine protective devices are 1. Remove the speed/timing sensors from the front
in good working order during normal operation. housing. Check the condition of the plastic end
Malfunctions must be simulated in order to test the of the speed/timing sensors for wear and/or
engine protective devices. contaminants.

A calibration check of the engine protective devices 2. Clean the metal shavings and other debris from
will ensure that the alarms and shutoffs activate the face of the speed/timing sensors. Use the
at the setpoints. Ensure that the engine protective procedure in the Service Manual in order to
devices are functioning properly. calibrate the speed/timing sensors.

Refer to the Service Manual for more information on


NOTICE the speed/timing sensors.
During testing, abnormal operating conditions must be
simulated.
i00869413
The tests must be performed correctly in order to pre-
vent possible damage to the engine. Engine Valve Lash -
Inspect/Adjust
To prevent damage to the engine, only authorized
service personnel or your Caterpillar dealer should SMCS Code: 1102-025
perform the tests.
The initial valve lash adjustment on new engines,
rebuilt engines, or remanufactured engines is
recommended at the first scheduled oil change. The
initial adjustment is necessary due to initial wear of
the valve train components and seating of the valve
train components.
SEBU7898-12 133
Maintenance Section
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect

This maintenance is recommended by Caterpillar 1. Start the engine according to Operation and
as part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance Maintenance Manual, Engine Starting (Operation
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine Section) for the procedure.
life.
2. Operate the engine at low idle.
Adjustment of the Electronic Unit 3. Observe the top surface of each valve rotator. The
Injector valve rotators should turn slightly when the valves
close.
Adjust the electronic unit injector (preload) at the
same interval as the valve lash adjustment. The NOTICE
operation of Caterpillar engines with improper valve A valve rotator which does not operate properly will
adjustments and with improper adjustments of the accelerate valve face wear and valve seat wear and
electronic unit injector can reduce engine efficiency. shorten valve life. If a damaged rotator is not replaced,
This reduced efficiency could result in excessive fuel valve face guttering could result and cause pieces of
usage and/or shortened engine component life. the valve to fall into the cylinder. This can cause piston
and cylinder head damage.
NOTICE
Only qualified service personnel should perform this
If a valve fails to rotate, consult your Caterpillar
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your
dealer.
Caterpillar dealer for the complete valve lash adjust-
ment procedure.
i00805059
Operation of Caterpillar engines with improper valve
adjustments can reduce engine efficiency. This re- Ether Starting Aid Cylinder -
duced efficiency could result in excessive fuel usage
and/or shortened engine component life.
Replace
(If Equipped)
SMCS Code: 1456-510-CD

Ensure that the engine can not be started while


this maintenance is being performed. To help pre-
vent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.

Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow


additional time for the engine to cool before mea-
suring/adjusting valve lash clearance.

i01597115

Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect


g00104888
SMCS Code: 1109-040 Illustration 76
Typical example

1. Loosen the ether cylinder clamp. Unscrew and


When inspecting the valve rotators, protective remove the empty ether cylinder.
glasses or face shield and protective clothing
must be worn, to help prevent being burned by 2. Remove the used gasket. Install the new gasket
hot oil or spray. that is provided with each new ether cylinder.

3. Install the new ether cylinder. Hand tighten the


Engine valve rotators rotate the valves when the ether cylinder. Tighten the ether cylinder clamp
engine runs. This helps to prevent deposits from securely.
building up on the valves and the valve seats.

Perform the following steps after the engine valve


lash is set, but before the valve covers are installed:
134 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate

i02784507 Note: DO NOT remove the fitting in the fuel filter


base in order to release air from the fuel system
Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate during periodic service of the fuel filter. Periodic
removal of the fitting will result in increased wear of
SMCS Code: 1359-086-BD the threads in the fuel filter base. This can lead to fuel
leakage. However, the fitting in the fuel filter base
Some of the fan drives have grease fittings and some can be used to purge air from the fuel system if the
of the fan drives do not have grease fittings. If there is engine runs out of fuel.
no grease fitting, periodic lubrication is not required.
The fan drive requires grease only if the fan drive 1. Loosen the fuel filter air purge plug two full turns.
is equipped with a zerk. Unlock and operate the priming pump until fuel
appears at the fitting. This procedure will require
considerable strokes. Use a cloth or a container
to catch the excess fuel.

2. Tighten the fuel filter air purge plug. Open fuel


priming pump and operate the fuel priming pump
until a strong pressure is felt on the fuel priming
pump. Push the priming pump plunger inward.
Tighten the plunger by hand, and promptly
continue with the next step.

3. Crank the engine after pressurizing the system.

NOTICE
Illustration 77
g00746166 Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
Typical location of the grease fitting (if equipped) that is for the fan
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
drive bearing minutes before cranking the engine again.
The pulley is shown with the belt guards that have been removed.
4. If the engine will not start, allow the starting motor
Lubricate the grease fitting that is on the fan drive to cool for 2 minutes. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 in
bearing with High Speed Ball Bearing Grease or the order to start the engine. Further priming may be
equivalent. necessary to help purge the fuel lines of air, if:

Inspect the fan drive pulley assembly for wear or for The engine starts, but runs rough.
damage. If the shaft is loose, an inspection of the
internal components should be performed. Refer to The engine started, but continues to misfire or
the Systems Operation Testing and Adjusting Manual smoke.
for additional information.
5. Run the engine at low idle until the engine runs
i00838960
smoothly.

Fuel System - Prime i02049797

SMCS Code: 1258-548 Fuel System Primary Filter


(Water Separator) Element -
Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec-
trical components can cause a fire. To help pre- SMCS Code: 1260-510-FQ; 1263-510-FQ
vent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements. Water in the fuel can cause the engine to run rough.
Clean up fuel spills immediately. Water in the fuel may cause an electronic unit injector
to fail. If the fuel has been contaminated with water,
the element should be changed before the regularly
Priming the fuel system fills the fuel filters. Priming scheduled interval.
the fuel system also removes air from the fuel
system. This procedure is used primarily when the
engine runs out of fuel.
SEBU7898-12 135
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace

The primary filter/water separator also provides


filtration in order to help extend the life of the NOTICE
secondary fuel filter. The element should be changed In order to maximize fuel system life and prevent pre-
regularly. Install a vacuum gauge. Change the mature wear out from abrasive particles in the fuel,
element for the primary filter/water separator if the use Caterpillar fuel filters.
pressure is at 50 to 70 kPa (15 to 20 inches Hg).
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for proper part num-
Replace the Element bers.

9. Install the new fuel filter (2). Spin the fuel filter
onto the fuel filter base until the gasket contacts
the base. Use the rotation index marks on the
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec-
filters as a guide for proper tightening. Tighten the
trical components can cause a fire. To help pre-
filter for an additional 3/4 turn by hand. Do not
vent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
overtighten the filter.
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Do not fill the fuel filters with fuel before installing them.
The fuel would not be filtered and could be contami-
nated. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear
to fuel system parts.

10. Install the clean fuel filter bowl (1) on the new fuel
filter.

NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal
engine operation. Ensure that the vent plug is tight-
ened securely to help prevent air from entering the fu-
el system.
g00668636
Illustration 78
(1) Bowl 11. Open the fuel tank supply valve.
(2) Element
(3) Drain 12. Start the engine and check for leaks. Run the
engine for one minute. Stop the engine and check
1. Stop the engine. the engine for leaks again.
2. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Detection of leaks is very difficult especially if
the engine is running. The primary filter/water
3. Shut off the fuel tank supply valve to the engine. separator is under suction. A leak will allow air to
enter the fuel. The air in the fuel can cause low
4. If the primary fuel filter is equipped with a drain power due to aeration of the fuel. If air enters the
valve (3), open the drain valve in order to drain any fuel, check the components for overtightening or
fuel from the filter case. Close the drain valve (3). undertightening.

NOTICE
Use a suitable container to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.

5. Remove the fuel filter bowl (1) and wash the fuel
filter bowl with clean diesel fuel.

6. Remove the fuel filter (2).

7. Clean the gasket sealing surface of the fuel filter


base. Ensure that all of the old gasket is removed.

8. Apply clean diesel fuel to the new fuel filter gasket.


136 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain

i01254694

Fuel System Primary


Filter/Water Separator - Drain
SMCS Code: 1260-543; 1263-543

g00410343
Illustration 80
(1) Fuel priming pump
(2) Fuel filter
(3) Fuel block
(4) Fuel filter air purge plug

Illustration 79
g00668636 NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
(1) Bowl
(2) Element
clean the area around a fuel system component that
(3) Drain will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over any dis-
connected fuel system components.
Bowl (1) should be monitored daily for signs of water.
If water is present, drain the water from the bowl.
NOTICE
1. Open drain (3). The drain is a self-ventilated drain. Use a suitable container to catch any fuel that might
Catch the draining water in a suitable container. spill. Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.
Dispose of the water properly.
1. It may be necessary to relieve residual fuel
2. Close drain (3). pressure from the fuel system before removing
the fuel filter.
NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal Loosen the fuel filter air purge plug (4) in order to
engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is tight- purge any residual pressure.
ened securely to help prevent air from entering the fuel
system. NOTICE
Do not loosen fuel lines or fittings at the fuel manifold
or ECM. The engine components may be damaged.
i01250684

Fuel System Secondary Filter - 2. Remove the used fuel filter.


Replace 3. Clean the gasket sealing surface of the fuel filter
base. Ensure that all of the old gasket is removed.
SMCS Code: 1261-510-SE
4. Apply clean diesel fuel to the new fuel filter gasket.

NOTICE
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec- In order to maximize fuel system life and prevent
trical components can cause a fire. To help pre- premature wear out from abrasive particles in the
vent possible injury, turn the start switch off when fuel, a two micron absolute high efficiency fuel filter
changing fuel filters or water separator elements. is required for all Caterpillar Electronic Unit Injectors.
Clean up fuel spills immediately. Caterpillar High Efficiency Fuel Filters meet these
requirements. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for the
proper part numbers.
SEBU7898-12 137
Maintenance Section
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain

Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank


NOTICE in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
Do not fill the secondary fuel filter with fuel before in- the drain valve.
stalling. The fuel would not be filtered and could be
contaminated. Contaminated fuel will cause acceler- Note: Failure to properly close the drain can allow air
ated wear to fuel system parts. into the system, which could have detrimental results
to performance.
5. Install the new fuel filter. Spin the fuel filter onto Check the fuel daily. Drain the water and sediment
the fuel filter base until the gasket contacts the from the fuel tank after operating the engine or drain
base. Use the rotation index marks on the filters the water and sediment from the fuel tank after the
as a guide for proper tightening. Tighten the fuel tank has been filled. Allow five to ten minutes
filter for an additional 3/4 turn by hand. Do not before performing this procedure.
overtighten the filter.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in
6. Open the fuel tank supply valve and prime the fuel order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
system. condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
i03645042
overflow.

Fuel Tank Water and Sediment Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
- Drain supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
SMCS Code: 1273-543-M&S the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
Fuel Storage Tanks
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
storage tank during the following conditions:
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.
Weekly
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
Dealer Service Tool Catalog or refer to Special Pub- Oil change
lication, PECJ0003, Caterpillar Shop Supplies and
Tools Catalog for tools and supplies suitable to col- Refill of the tank
lect and contain fluids on Caterpillar products.
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
tank. A four micron(c) absolute filter for the breather
mandates.
vent on the fuel tank is also recommended. Refer
to Special Publication, SENR9620, Improving Fuel
Fuel Tank System Durablity.

Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
excessive wear to the fuel system. Condensation settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
occurs during the heating and cooling of fuel. The baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
condensation occurs as the fuel passes through the sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
fuel system and the fuel returns to the fuel tank. This storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
causes water to accumulate in fuel tanks. Draining When possible, water separators should be used.
the fuel tank regularly and obtaining fuel from reliable
sources can help to eliminate water in the fuel.

Drain the Water and the Sediment


Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
138 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Generator - Dry

i01936148 Self-Circulating Air Method


Generator - Dry Blow hot air into the air intake for the generator.
Disconnect the exciter field and run the engine. This
SMCS Code: 4450-569 will help circulate air. Operate the generator space
heaters.

Oven Method
Personal injury or death can result from improper
troubleshooting and repair procedures. Disconnect the AVR. Place the entire generator
inside a forced air drying oven for 24 hours at 110 C
The following troubleshooting and repair proce- (230 F).
dures should only be performed by qualified per-
sonnel familiar with this equipment.
NOTICE
Use a forced air type oven rather than a radiant type
Note: The use of space heaters and occasional oven.
cranking of the engine will help to avoid drying
the generator. Space heaters should be used Radiant type ovens can cause localized overheating.
continuously while the machine is stopped in order
for the space heaters to be effective.
Controlled Current Method
Refer to Safety Section, Generator Isolating for
Maintenance for information regarding the procedure Table 22
to safely isolate the generator.
Tools Needed
If the insulation resistance values are less than 1 Part Description Qty
megohm for the stator or the insulation resistance Number
values are less than 100,000 ohms for the other 8T-0900 Clamp on ammeter (0 - 1
windings, one of the following drying procedures 1200 amperes)
must be selected. This decision should be based on
the following factors: External 24 Volt DC Power 1
Source
the size of the unit Rheostat 1

the location of the unit


Heat can be used in order to dry the generator
the equipment that is available windings. This heat can be created by allowing a
controlled current to flow through the generator. No
the experience of personnel high voltages are generated during the following
procedure. Therefore, insulation breakdown will not
Measure insulation resistance at one hour intervals. occur.
Typically, the insulation resistance will slowly drop
while the temperature is rising. The insulation 1. Disconnect the AVR.
resistance will then start to increase at a slow rate
until the insulation resistance reaches a constant 2. Short circuit the three output power terminals with
level. connectors that are capable of supporting the
rated current. Try not to exceed 6 Amp per square
The following methods can be used for drying a millimeter.
generator:
3. Use a clamp-on ammeter in order to monitor the
Self-circulating air method current through the short circuit connections.

Oven method 4. Connect a 24 volt DC power source in series with


a rheostat of 100 ohms or 50 Watts to the field
Controlled current method terminals of the exciter. Make the connections with
the correct polarity.

5. Open all the openings on the generator in order to


allow air flow.
SEBU7898-12 139
Maintenance Section
Generator - Inspect

6. Operate the generator at the rated speed. Adjust If harmful dirt accumulations are present, a variety
the current in the exciter field with the rheostat. of cleaning techniques are available. The cleaning
Obtain the rated output current in the short circuit procedure that is used may be determined by one of
connections. the items on the following list:

i01461264
The extent of the cleaning procedure that is being
attempted
Generator - Inspect
The type of enclosure of the generator
SMCS Code: 4450-040
The voltage rating of the generator
The type of dirt that is being removed
Personal injury or death can result from improper
troubleshooting and repair procedures. Cleaning (Assembled Generators)
The following troubleshooting and repair proce- Cleaning may be required at the point of installation.
dures should only be performed by qualified per- At this point, complete disassembly of the generator
sonnel familiar with this equipment. may not be necessary or feasible. In this case,
a vacuum cleaner should be used to pick up the
following items: dry dirt, dust, and carbon. This will
Refer to Safety Section, Generator Isolating for prevent the spreading of these contaminants.
Maintenance for information regarding the procedure
to safely isolate the generator. A small nonconductive tube may need to be
connected to the vacuum cleaner. This will allow the
Proper maintenance of electrical equipment requires vacuum cleaner to clean the surfaces that are not
periodic visual examination of the generator and exposed. After most of the dust has been removed,
periodic visual examination of the windings. Proper a small brush may be attached to the vacuum hose
maintenance of electrical equipment also requires in order to loosen dirt that is more firmly attached to
appropriate electrical checks and appropriate thermal the surface.
checks. Insulation material should be examined for
cracks. The insulation material should be examined After the initial cleaning with a vacuum, compressed
for accumulations of dirt and dust. If there is an air may be used to remove the remaining dust and
insulation resistance value that is below normal, a dirt. Compressed air that is used for cleaning should
conductive path may be present. This conductive be free of moisture and free of oil. Air pressure
path may be made of one of the following materials: should be a maximum of 210 kPa (30 psi) in order to
prevent mechanical damage to the insulation. If the
Carbon above cleaning procedures are not effective, consult
a Caterpillar dealer.
Salt
Metal dust Cleaning (Disassembled
Generators)
Dirt that is saturated with moisture
An initial insulation resistance check should be
These contaminants will develop a conductive path made on the generator in order to confirm electrical
which may produce shorts. Cleaning is advisable if integrity. A minimum reading of one megohm would
heavy accumulations of dirt can be seen or if heavy be expected with severely contaminated generators.
accumulations of dust can be seen. If excess dirt is A zero megohm reading may indicate an insulation
the cause of a restriction in the ventilation, cleaning breakdown. An insulation breakdown requires more
is also advisable. Restricted ventilation will cause than cleaning. An insulation breakdown requires
excessive heating. repair.

NOTICE A high pressure wash is normally an effective way


To avoid the possibility of deterioration to the genera- to clean windings. This includes windings that have
tor windings, do not clean the generator unless there been exposed to flooding or windings that have been
is visual, electrical, or thermal evidence that dirt is contaminated by salt. A solution of hot water and
present. detergent is used for this method of cleaning.
140 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Generator Bearing - Inspect/Replace

A high pressure wash sprays a high velocity fluid Replace


stream of this solution over the generator that is
being cleaned. This detergent washing is followed by 1. All ball bearings should be cleaned. The cavity
multiple sprays of clean water. The clean water is in the bracket should be repacked with 2S-3230
used in order to remove the detergent or the clean Grease. Pack the ball bearings (one-third to
water is used in order to dilute the detergent. one-half of the volume of the cavity).

Allow the generator to dry at room temperature. 2. Use an induction heater to heat the ball bearings to
Check the insulation resistance. The insulation 107 C (224.6 F) for ten minutes in order to install
resistance should now be normal. If the insulation either of the following bearings: ball bearings
resistance is not normal, repeat the procedure. It that are new and ball bearings that have been
may be necessary to use solvents if the generator inspected. Mount the bearings on the shaft. To
is contaminated with oil or if the generator is reinstall the hub, heat the hub to 400 C (752.0 F)
contaminated with grease. for three hours. Mount the hub to the shaft.

Note: For more information on drying methods, refer 3. Ensure that the tube of the grease gun is filled
to Special Instructions, SEHS9124, Cleaning and with grease.
Drying of Electric Set Generators.
4. Remove the bracket drain plug and operate the
generator for one hour. This will allow the grease
i03099722
to expand. The expanding grease will force the
Generator Bearing - excess grease from the cavity. When the excess
grease is forced from the cavity, the internal
Inspect/Replace pressure will be reduced. The generator should
(SR4 Generator) continue to operate until the grease stops purging.

5. Stop the engine. Install the bracket drain plug.


SMCS Code: 4471-040; 4471-510
Wipe off the excess grease.
The following maintenance procedure for generator
6. For greasing intervals, follow the recommendations
bearings should be followed at every major engine
on the lubrication plate (if equipped) or refer to
overhaul:
Maintenance Schedule, Generator Bearing -
Lubricate. Whenever the bearings are greased,
Inspect repeat Step 1. DO NOT MIX GREASES.

1. Remove the bearing bracket. Inspect the following


items: bracket bore, bearing outer race, and i03547528

rolling elements. On standby power units, the


bearing must be inspected and the grease must
Generator Bearing - Lubricate
be replaced at three year intervals. The sleeve
SMCS Code: 4471-086
in the bearing bracket should be inspected for
out of roundness, excessive wear, and a bracket
step that is less than 0.0762 mm (0.0030 inch). If Lubricating Process (If Applicable)
there is no sleeve in the bearing bracket, inspect
the bore of the bearing bracket. The bearing Note: If the generator already has a visible grease
should be inspected for damage to the outer race, point, go to Step 4.
severe fretting, and smoothness of operation.
When possible, the bearing elements should be 1. Remove either the louver assembly or the rear
inspected. Some double shielded ball bearings plate from the rear of the generator housing.
prevent visual inspection of the elements of the
bearing. Other double shielded ball bearings 2. Remove the top grease pipe plug and remove the
have a retaining ring. This retaining ring can be lower grease pipe plug.
removed in order to allow access for a visual
inspection of the elements of the bearing. 3. Install a grease fitting in the grease pipe.

On two-bearing generators, the front bearing 4. Grease the bearings with the appropriate grease
can only be removed after the drive coupling from Table 23. Do not mix greases.
is removed. Refer to the Systems Operation
Testing and Adjusting Disassembly and Assembly,
Coupling - Remove for the generator for
instructions for removing the drive coupling.
SEBU7898-12 141
Maintenance Section
Generator Bearing - Lubricate

Table 23
Bearing Bearing Frame Temperature Grease Interval Weight Volume Shaft
Part Type Size Min/Max(1) Part Diameter
Number Number
108-1760 321 BC 680 29 C 2S-3230 Every 2000 51.2 g 59 mL (2 oz) 105.0 mm
Ball Bearing 225.0 mm (20.2 F) Bearing service (1.8 oz) (4.1 inch)
(8.9 inch) minimum Lubricant hours or 12
OD / months
80 C
105.0 mm (176 F)
(4.1 inch) ID maximum
108-1761 322 BC 690 / 29 C 2S-3230 Every 2000 51.2 g 59 mL (2 oz) 110.0 mm
Ball Bearing 240.0 mm 800 (20.2 F) Bearing service (1.8 oz) (4.3 inch)
(9.4 inch) / Lubricant hours or 12
OD 80 C months
(176 F)
110.0 mm
(4.3 inch) ID
139-0349 Roller 2900 / 40 C Mobilith Every 250 2.8 g NA 127.0 mm
Roller 2800 (40 F) SHC220 service (0.1 oz) (5.0 inch)
Bearing / hours
80 C
(176 F)
139-0350 Roller 2900 / 40 C Mobilith Every 250 2.8 g NA 127.0 mm
Roller 2800 (40 F) SHC220 service (0.1 oz) (5.0 inch)
Bearing / hours
80 C
(176 F)
154-3032 326 BC 820 / 29 C 2S-3230 Every 2000 51.2 g 59 mL (2 oz) 130.0 mm
Ball Bearing 280.0 mm 2600 / (20.2 F) Bearing service (1.8 oz) (5.1 inch)
(11.0 inch) 2700 / Lubricant hours or 12
OD 80 C months
(176 F)
130.0 mm
(5.1 inch) ID
241-4644 320 BC LC7 29 C UNIREX Every 4500 60 g (2.1 oz) NA 100.0 mm
Bearing 215.0 mm (20.2 F) N3 service (3.9 inch)
(8.5 inch) / hours or 12
OD 60 C months
(140 F)(2)
100.0 mm
(3.9 inch) ID
243-5220 315 BB LC6100 29 C UNIREX Non- Non- Non- 75.0 mm
Bearing 160.0 mm / (20.2 F) N3 regreasable regreasable regreasable (3.0 inch)
(6.3 inch) LC5000 / bearing(3) bearing bearing
OD 60 C
(140 F)(2)
75.0 mm
(3.0 inch)
ID
261-3545 307 BB LC2000 29 C UNIREX Non- Non- Non- 35.0 mm
Bearing 80.0 mm (20.2 F) N3 regreasable regreasable regreasable (1.4 inch)
(3.1 inch) / bearing(3) bearing bearing
OD 50 C
(122 F)(2)
35.0 mm
(1.4 inch)
ID
(continued)
142 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Generator Bearing - Lubricate

(Table 23, contd)


Bearing Bearing Frame Temperature Grease Interval Weight Volume Shaft
Part Type Size Min/Max(1) Part Diameter
Number Number
262-5921 307 BC LC2000 29 C UNIREX Non- Non- Non- 35.0 mm
Bearing 80.0 mm (20.2 F) N3 regreasable regreasable regreasable (1.4 inch)
(3.1 inch) / bearing(3) bearing bearing
OD 60 C
(140 F)(2)
35.0 mm
(1.4 inch)
ID
263-0161 309 BC LC3000 29 C UNIREX Non- Non- Non- 45.0 mm
Bearing 100.0 mm (20.2 F) N3 regreasable regreasable regreasable (1.8 inch)
(3.9 inch) / bearing(3) bearing bearing
OD 60 C
(140 F)(2)
45.0 mm
(1.8 inch)
5P-2448 315 BC 580 / 29 C 2S-3230 Every 2000 51.2 g 59 mL (2 oz) 75.0 mm
Ball Bearing 160.0 mm 590 (20.2 F) Bearing service (1.8 oz) (3.0 inch)
(6.3 inch) / Lubricant hours or 12
OD 80 C months
(176 F)
75.0 mm
(3.0 inch)
ID
6Y-3955 220 BC 450 29 C 2S-3230 Every 2000 51.2 g 59 mL (2 oz) 100.0 mm
Ball Bearing 180.0 mm (20.2 F) Bearing service (1.8 oz) (3.9 inch)
(7.1 inch) / Lubricant hours or 12
OD 80 C months
(176 F)
100.0 mm
(3.9 inch) ID
6Y-6488 318 BC 597 29 C 2S-3230 Every 2000 51.2 g 59 mL (2 oz) 90.0 mm
Ball Bearing 190.0 mm (20.2 F) Bearing service (1.8 oz) (3.5 inch)
(7.5 inch) / Lubricant hours or 12
OD 80 C months
(176 F)
90.0 mm
(3.5 inch)
311-0843 326 BC 1800 40 C EA6 Non- Non- Non- 130.0 mm
Ball Bearing 280.0 mm FR (40 F) regreasable regreasable regreasable (5.1 inch)
(11.0 inch) / bearing(1) bearing bearing
OD 80 C
(176 F)
130.0 mm
(5.1 inch) ID
311-0844 322 BC 1600 40 C EA6 Non- Non- Non- 110.0 mm
Ball Bearing 240.0 mm FR (40 F) regreasable regreasable regreasable (4.3 inch)
(9.4 inch) / bearing(1) bearing bearing
OD 80 C
(176 F)
110.0 mm
(4.3 inch) ID
(continued)
SEBU7898-12 143
Maintenance Section
Generator Bearing Temperature - Test/Record

(Table 23, contd)


Bearing Bearing Frame Temperature Grease Interval Weight Volume Shaft
Part Type Size Min/Max(1) Part Diameter
Number Number
253-9789 320 BC 1400 29 C UNIREX Non- Non- Non- 100.0 mm
Bearing 215.0 mm FR (20.2 F) N3 regreasable regreasable regreasable (3.9 inch)
(8.5 inch) / bearing(1) bearing bearing
OD 80 C
(176 F)
100.0 mm
(3.9 inch) ID
193-4070 018 BC 498/499 29 C 2S-3230 Every 2000 51.2 g 59 mL (2 oz) 90.0 mm
Ball Bearing 140.0 mm (20.2 F) Bearing service (1.8 oz) (3.5 inch)
(5.5 inch) / Lubricant hours or 12
OD 80 C months
(176 F)
90.0 mm
(3.5 inch)
ID
(1) This temperature is for a generator set that is equipped with a resistive temperature detector (RTD).
(2) Do not exceed 60 C (140 F) above the ambient temperature.
(3) This bearing can not be greased. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, Generator Bearing - Replace article for information
concerning the replacement of these bearings.
(2) Do not exceed 50 C (122 F) above the ambient temperature.

5. Wipe off the excess grease. Remove the top Resistive Temperature Detectors
grease fitting. Install the plug.
(RTDs)
6. Operate the generator for one hour. This will allow
Caterpillar Generators may be equipped with
the grease to expand. The expanding grease will
resistance temperature detectors for generator
force the excess grease from the cavity. When bearings. These detectors are 100 ohm resistance
the excess grease is forced from the cavity, the
temperature detectors. A resistance temperature
internal pressure will be reduced. The generator
detector may be monitored by the optional monitor for
should continue to operate until the grease stops the EMCP 3.2/3.3 resistance temperature detector. A
purging.
resistance temperature detector may be monitored by
equipment that is provided by the customer. Consult
7. Stop the engine. Install the plug in the bottom with your Caterpillar dealer about other methods of
grease pipe. Wipe off the excess grease.
measuring the bearing temperature.
8. Install the louver assembly or install the rear plate. The EMCP 3.2/3.3 may be configured to ALARM
or the EMCP 3.2/3.3 may be configured to
i03642839 SHUTDOWN. An alarm is activated if the
temperature of the bearing reaches 85 C (185 F).
Generator Bearing A shutdown occurs if the temperature of the bearing
Temperature - Test/Record reaches 95 C (203 F).

SMCS Code: 4471-081-TA Infrared Thermometers


The monitoring of bearing temperature may prevent Bearing temperatures can also be recorded with the
premature bearing failure. A generator set should use of an infrared thermometer. Refer to Special
never operate above the recommended set points. Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar Dealer Service
Keep records in order to monitor the changes in the Tools Catalog for a variety of infrared thermometers.
temperature of the bearing. Follow the instructions that come with your infrared
thermometer.
Note: Measure the bearing temperature after the
generator reaches normal operating temperature.
144 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Generator Lead - Check

i02517207 Note: Operating the electric set at low idle speed for
an extended time will cause some voltage regulators
Generator Lead - Check to shut off. The electric set must be completely shut
down and the electric set must be restarted. This
SMCS Code: 4450-535 will allow the voltage regulator to again produce an
output.
The generator set may have braided cables between
the generator and the breaker instead of wire cables.
Check for signs of wear along the braided cables. i01593517
Pay particular attention to the cables at the housing
for the breaker and the generator terminal box. Generator Set - Test
If the rubber mats or the insulation on the braided SMCS Code: 4450-081
cables show signs of wear at points of contact
with other surfaces, replace the mats or the cable
immediately. If your generator set does not have
rubber mats in place, contact your Caterpillar dealer. Personal injury or death can result from high volt-
age.
i01228480
When power generation equipment must be in op-
Generator Load - Check eration to make tests and/or adjustments, high
voltage and current are present.
SMCS Code: 4450-535-LA
Improper test equipment can fail and present a
During normal operation, monitor the power factor high voltage shock hazard to its user.
and monitor generator loading.
Make sure the testing equipment is designed for
When a generator is installed or when a generator and correctly operated for high voltage and cur-
is reconnected, ensure that the total current in any rent tests being made.
one phase does not exceed the nameplate rating.
Each phase should carry the same load. This allows When servicing or repairing electric power gener-
the generator to work at the rated capacity. If one ation equipment:
phase current exceeds the nameplate amperage,
an electrical imbalance will occur. An electrical Make sure the unit is off-line (disconnected
imbalance can result in an electrical overload and an from utility and/or other generators power
electrical imbalance can result in overheating . service), and either locked out or tagged DO
NOT OPERATE.
The power factor can be referred to as the efficiency
of the load. This can be expressed as the ratio of kVA Make sure the generator engine is stopped.
to actual kW. The power factor can be calculated by
dividing kW by kVA. Power factor is expressed as a Make sure all batteries are disconnected.
decimal. Power factor is used to mean the portion
of current that is supplied to a system that is doing Make sure all capacitors are discharged.
useful work. The portion of the current that is not
doing useful work is absorbed in maintaining the Table 24
magnetic field in motors. This current (reactive load)
Tools Needed
can be maintained without engine power.
Part Number Part Quantity
Electric sets normally have a low idle setting that
Digital
is higher than industrial engines. Low idle will be 6V-7070 1
Multimeter
approximately 66% of the full speed that is achieved
by 60 Hz units. This would be equal to 80% of the full 12 VDC battery 1
speed that is achieved by 50 Hz units. Potential
1
Transformer
Some electric sets are equipped with Woodward
governors and some electric sets are equipped
with Caterpillar electronic governors. These electric The generator set functional test is a simplified test
sets have no low idle stop. On electric sets with that can be performed in order to determine if the
mechanical governors and natural gas electric sets, generator is functional. The generator set functional
the low idle is set at the factory. Adjustment of the test should be performed on a generator set that is
low idle on these machines should only be done by under load.
a Caterpillar dealer.
SEBU7898-12 145
Maintenance Section
Generator Set Alignment - Check

The generator set functional test determines if the Special Instruction, REHS0177, Alignment of the
following statements happen: Close Coupled Two Bearing Generators

A phase voltage is being generated. Keep a record of the measurement of the alignment.
The record may be used to check the trend of the
The phase voltages are balanced. alignment. The record may be used to analyze the
trend of the alignment.
The phase voltages change relative to engine
speed. The genset must be aligned when the genset is
moved into a final position. The genset must be
The generator set functional test consists of the aligned if the genset is moved into a different position.
following steps:
i01228545
1. Stop the generator. Connect the potential
transformer's high voltage winding to the
generator terminals (T1) and (T2). Connect
Generator Set Vibration -
the voltmeter to the low voltage winding. If two Inspect
transformers are available, connect the high
voltage winding of the second transformer to the SMCS Code: 4450-040-VI
generator terminals (T1) and (T3). Connect the
secondary terminals that correspond to generator Check for vibration damage. Vibration may cause the
terminal (T2) of both transformers together. following problems:

2. Disconnect wires E+ and E- from the voltage loose fittings


regulator. Disconnect the generator from the load.
loose bolts
3. Connect a 12 VDC automotive battery to wires
E+ and E-. excessive noise
4. Measure the AC voltage across the low voltage cracked insulation
terminals of the transformer that correspond to the
following generator terminals: T1 and T2, T2 The following areas are susceptible to vibration
and T3, and T3 and T1. Record the voltages. damage:

stator output leads


i03100396

Generator Set Alignment - protective sleeving


Check insulation
(Generator Sets) exposed electrical connections
SMCS Code: 7002-024
transformers
The alignment between the engine and the driven
equipment must be properly maintained in order to fuses
minimize the following problems:
capacitors
Bearing problems lightning arrestors
Vibration of the engine crankshaft Check the generator set's vibration level by using a
broad spectrum analyzer.
Vibration of the driven equipment
Refer to the following information for more information i03643886
about the alignment of the generator set:
Generator Set Vibration -
Special Instruction, SEHS7654, Alignment -
General Instructions
Test/Record
SMCS Code: 4450-081-VI
Special Instruction, SEHS7259, Alignment of
Single Bearing Generators Check for vibration damage.
146 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace

Vibration may cause the following problems: Contact the Caterpillar Dealer Service Tools group
for information on ordering a vibration analyzer that
Coupling wear will meet your needs.

Loose fittings
i02121526

Fatigue of the metal components of the engine Hoses and Clamps -


Cracks in the cabinet which surrounds the Inspect/Replace
generator
SMCS Code: 7554-040; 7554-510
Cracks in welds
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
Excessive noise following conditions:

Cracked insulation Cracking


The following areas are susceptible to vibration Softness
damage:
Loose clamps
Coupling for the generator set
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
Generator bearings loose clamps.

Stator output leads NOTICE


Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not in-
Protective sleeving stall bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and
Insulation hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the rec-
Exposed electrical connections ommended torque.
Transformers
Check for the following conditions:
Fuses
End fittings that are damaged or leaking
Capacitors
Outer covering that is chafed or cut
Lightning arresters
Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
When a generator set is installed, a vibration plot
should be recorded in order to assist in diagnosing Outer covering that is ballooning locally
potential problems. This vibration plot should be
updated yearly. The vibration plot should also be Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
updated when the generator set is moved and
when the engine is overhauled. This will allow Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
the trend of the vibration to be monitored and
analyzed. A potential problem may be prevented by A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
monitoring the trend of the vibration. If the vibration of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
is approaching the limit of the specification of the torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
component, the problem may be more imminent. clamp.
Refer to Data Sheet, LEKQ4023, Linear Vibration
for the allowable limits of vibration. Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
heat set. Heat setting causes hose clamps to loosen.
Caterpillar also recommends recording the vibration This can result in leaks. A constant torque hose
of the bearing at the generator bearing bracket. clamp will help to prevent loose hose clamps.

If the vibration exceeds the EDS limits for vibration, Each installation application can be different. The
check the alignment. Refer to this Operation and differences depend on the following factors:
Maintenance Manual, Generator Set Alignment -
Check for the alignment procedure. Type of hose
SEBU7898-12 147
Maintenance Section
Instrument Panel - Inspect

Type of fitting material i01917577

Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose Instrument Panel - Inspect


Anticipated expansion and contraction of the SMCS Code: 7451-040
fittings
Inspect the instrument panel for good condition.
Perform the self test. All of the warning lamps should
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps illuminate. If a warning lamp does not illuminate,
replace the bulb immediately. If the alarm does
not sound, investigate the problem and correct the
problem.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap, Check the condition of all of the gauges. If a gauge
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system is broken, repair the gauge or replace the gauge
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system immediately.
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
sure. Frequently monitor the gauges during normal
operation.

1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool. Record the data in a log. Compare the new data to
the data that was previously recorded. Comparing
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in the new data to the recorded data will help to
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling establish the trends of engine performance. A gauge
system filler cap. reading that is abnormal may indicate a problem with
operation or a problem with the gauge.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
i01951994

3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a


level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
Insulation - Test
SMCS Code: 4453-081; 4454-081; 4457-081;
4. Remove the hose clamps. 4470-081
5. Disconnect the old hose.
Recommended Periodic Insulation
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose. Tests
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.

Note: Refer to the Specifications, SENR3130,


Torque Specifications in order to locate the proper The high voltage that is produced by an operating
torques. generator set can cause severe injury or death.
Before performing any maintenance or repairs,
8. Refill the cooling system. ensure that the generator will not start.

9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the Place the engine control switch in the OFF posi-
cooling system filler cap's gaskets. Replace tion. Attach DO NOT OPERATE tags to all start-
the cooling system filler cap if the gaskets are ing controls. Disconnect the batteries or disable
damaged. Install the cooling system filler cap. the starting system. Lock out all switchgear and
automatic transfer switches that are associated
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for with the generator.
leaks.
Table 25
Tools Needed
142-5055 Insulation Testing Gp
9U-6003 Insulation Testing Gp
148 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Insulation - Test

Periodically, use an insulation tester to check the 1. Take the generator out of service.
insulation resistance of the generator's main stator
winding. The frequency of this test is determined by 2. Visually inspect the generator for moisture. If
the generator's environment. Previous insulation moisture exists, do not perform this insulation
tester readings will also determine the frequency of test. Dry the unit first. Refer to Special Instruction,
this test. SEHS9124, Cleaning and Drying of Electric Set
Generators.
Test the main stator windings with an insulation tester
in the following situations: 3. Inspect the installation. Determine the equipment
that will be tested by the insulation tester.
The generator set is started for the first time.
4. Discharge the capacitance of the windings.
The generator set is removed from storage.
5. Isolate the stator windings of the generator by
The generator set is operating in a humid disconnecting all other leads and cables from the
environment. Test every three months. generator terminals. This includes connections
to the voltage regulator, the control panel, the
The generator set is not protected from the switchgear or other devices.
elements in an enclosed area. Test every three
months. 6. Connect the insulation tester's RED lead to
ground.
The generator set is installed in an enclosed area.
This area needs to be low in humidity and this area 7. Connect the insulation tester's BLACK lead to the
needs to have steady temperatures. Test every wye point or star point of the generator's windings.
twelve months (minimum).
8. For units that are 600 volts or less, set the voltage
The generator set has not been run under load to 500 Volts. For units that are more than 600
for three months. Test the generator set weekly. volts, set the voltage to 1000 Volts.
Use space heaters around the generator set if the
generator is exposed to a sea water environment or 9. Use the 30/60 Time Resistance Method:
if the humidity is above 75 percent. Also use space
heaters if a test result was below 3 megohms. a. Apply voltage.

Space heaters must be used whenever the generator b. Observe the readings at 30 seconds. Observe
set is not under load. Space heaters must also be the readings at 60 seconds.
used whenever salt is present or whenever high
humidity is present. Using a space heater in this c. Record the 60 second reading. This reading
fashion is the only way to maintain insulation tester must be corrected for temperature.
readings above one megohm. Use space heaters
only when the generator is not running. d. Record temperature.

For additional information, refer to Special Instruction, e. Record humidity.


SEHS9124, Cleaning and Drying of Electric Set
Generators. f. Remove voltage.

Recommended Procedure for A 10. Evaluate the readings. The actual value of the
resistance may vary greatly between generators.
Periodic Insulation Test For this reason, the insulation's condition must be
evaluated. Base this evaluation on the comparison
between the 60 second resistance readings and
the readings that were taken on previous dates.
Personal injury or death can result from electro- These two readings must be taken under similar
cution. conditions. If a 60 second resistance reading
has a 50 percent reduction from the previous
The megohmmeter is applying a high voltage to reading, the insulation may have absorbed too
the circuit. much moisture.

To avoid electrocution, do not touch the instru- Switch the insulation tester to the OFF position.
ment leads without first discharging them. When This will discharge the insulation tester's leads.
finished testing also discharge the generator Disconnect the insulation tester's leads.
windings.
SEBU7898-12 149
Maintenance Section
Insulation - Test

Note: The results from the insulation resistance


checks indicate when cleaning and/or repairing is
becoming critical. Generally, insulation resistance
will vary greatly with temperature. Therefore, always
test at the same temperature and humidity. Refer to
Illustration 81.

Serial Number (Engine)___________________________________

Serial Number (Generator)_______________________________


150 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Insulation - Test

g00633226
Illustration 81
SEBU7898-12 151
Maintenance Section
Jacket Water Heater - Check

i01917546 1. Remove magnetic pickup (1) from flywheel


housing (2). Check the condition of the end of the
Jacket Water Heater - Check magnetic pickup. Check for signs of wear and
(Standby Generator Sets (If contaminants.

Equipped)) 2. Clean the metal shavings and other debris from


the face of the magnet.
SMCS Code: 1383-535
3. Install the magnetic pickup and adjust the
Jacket water heaters help to improve startability in magnetic pickup. Refer to the Service Manual for
ambient temperatures that are below 21 C (70 F). the installation procedure.
All installations that require automatic starting should
have jacket water heaters.
i02651697
Check the operation of the jacket water heater. For
an ambient temperature of 0 C (32 F), the heater Overhaul (Major)
should maintain the jacket water coolant temperature
at approximately 32 C (90 F). SMCS Code: 7595-020-MJ

Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual in


i00906366 order to determine the maintenance interval for a
major overhaul.
Magnetic Pickups -
Clean/Inspect The need for a major overhaul is determined by
several factors.
SMCS Code: 1907-040; 7400-040; 7400-070
An increase of oil consumption
An increase of crankcase blowby
The total amount of fuel consumption
The service hours of the engine
The wear metal analysis of the lube oil
An increase in the levels of noise and vibration
An increase of wear metals in the lube oil indicates
that the bearings and the surfaces that wear may
need to be serviced. An increase in the levels of
Illustration 82
g00293335 noise and vibration indicates that rotating parts
Typical example
require service.
(1) Magnetic pickup
(2) Flywheel housing
Note: It is possible for oil analysis to indicate a
decrease of wear metals in the lube oil. The cylinder
liners may be worn so that polishing of the bore
occurs. Also, the increased use of lube oil will dilute
the wear metals.

Monitor the engine as the engine accumulates


service hours. Consult your Caterpillar dealer about
scheduling a major overhaul.

Note: The driven equipment may also require service


when the engine is overhauled. Refer to the literature
that is provided by the OEM of the driven equipment.

g00293337
Illustration 83
Typical magnetic pickup
152 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Overhaul (Major)

A major overhaul includes all of the work that is done Cylinder head assembly
for the top end overhaul and the general inspection.
A major overhaul includes additional parts and labor. Cylinder liners
Additional parts and labor are required in order to
completely rebuild the engine. Exhaust bellows
For the major overhaul, all of the bearings, Fuel transfer pump
seals, gaskets, and components that wear are
disassembled. The parts are cleaned and inspected. Oil pump
If necessary, the parts are replaced. The crankshaft
is measured for wear. The crankshaft may require Pistons
regrinding. Alternatively, the crankshaft may be
replaced with a Caterpillar replacement part. Piston pins
Your Caterpillar dealer can provide these services Prelube pump
and components. Your Caterpillar dealer can ensure
that the components are operating within the Spacer plate
appropriate specifications.
Turbochargers
If you elect to perform an overhaul without the
services of a Caterpillar dealer, be aware of the
following recommendations.
Inspection of Components
Inspect the following components according to
Replacement of Components the instructions that are in Caterpillar reusability
publications. Refer to Guidelines for Reusable
Replace the following components during the major Parts and Salvage Operations, SEBF8029, Index
overhaul. of Publications on Reusability or Salvage of Used
Parts.
Connecting rod bearings
Camshaft
Crankshaft seals
Camshaft bearings
Crankshaft vibration damper
Crankshaft
Electronic fuel injectors
Crankshaft thrust washers
Engine wiring harness
Driven equipment (alignment)
Main bearings
Engine control module
Piston rings
Front gear train
Inspection, Reconditioning or
Gear train bushings and bearings
Exchanging of Components
Rear gear train
Inspect the following components according to
the instructions that are in Caterpillar reusability Inspect the camshaft for damage to the journals and
publications. Refer to Guidelines for Reusable the lobes. Inspect the following components for signs
Parts and Salvage Operations, SEBF8029, Index of wear and/or for signs of fatigue:
of Publications on Reusability or Salvage of Used
Parts. camshaft bearings
Recondition the worn components or exchange the camshaft followers
components, if necessary. Your Caterpillar dealer can
provide these services and components. Inspect the crankshaft for any of the following
conditions:
Camshaft followers
deflection
Connecting rods
damage to the journals
SEBU7898-12 153
Maintenance Section
Overhaul (Major)

bearing material that has seized to the journals Obtain a Coolant Analysis
Check the journal taper and the profile of the For conventional heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze,
crankshaft journals. Check these components by check the concentration of supplemental coolant
interpreting the wear patterns on the following additive (SCA) regularly. The concentration of SCA
components: can be checked with an SOS coolant analysis (Level
I). A more detailed coolant analysis is recommended
rod bearing periodically.

main bearings For example, considerable deposits are found in the


water jacket areas on the external cooling system,
Note: If the crankshaft or the camshaft are removed but the concentrations of coolant additives were
for any reason, use the magnetic particle inspection carefully maintained. The coolant water probably
process to check for cracks. contained minerals which were deposited on the
engine over time.
Replace the crankshaft vibration damper if any of the
following conditions occur: A coolant analysis can be conducted in order to verify
the condition of the water that is being used in the
Engine failure due to a broken crankshaft cooling system. A full water analysis may be obtained
from the following sources:
Excessive wear of the front bearing for the
crankshaft Caterpillar dealer
Excessive wear of the gear train that is not caused Local water utility company
by a lack of lubrication
Agricultural agent
Inspect the gears of the gear train and inspect the
gear train bushings for the following conditions: Independent laboratory
Worn gear teeth Caterpillar recommends an SOS coolant analysis
(Level II). This is a comprehensive chemical
Unusual fit evaluation of the coolant. This analysis is also a
check of the overall condition of the inside of the
Unusual wear cooling system. The following services are provided:

In addition to the inspection of components, inspect Full Level I analysis


the alignment of the driven equipment. See the
Application and Installation Guide for the engine or Identification of the source of metal corrosion and
see the literature that is provided by the OEM of the of contaminants
driven equipment.
Identification of buildup of the impurities that cause
Cleaning of Components corrosion

Clean the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core. Identification of buildup of the impurities that cause
Then, pressure test both of these cores. For scaling
instructions on cleaning the cores, see this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Aftercooler Core - Determination of possible electrolysis within the
Clean/Test topic. engines' cooling system

Clean the oil suction screen. Also, remove side A report of the results of the analysis is provided.
covers in order to clean the oil sump. For instructions Maintenance recommendations are based on the
on removal and installation of components, see results.
the Service Manual, Disassembly and Assembly
module. For more information about SOS coolant analysis,
consult your Caterpillar dealer.
154 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Overhaul (Top End)

i02627788 Quality of the fuel


Overhaul (Top End) Quality of the filtration of the fuel
SMCS Code: 7595-020-TE The wear of the fuel injectors can result in elevated
levels of exhaust emissions and/or poor engine
The maintenance intervals that are listed in this performance. The misfire of a single cylinder is not
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Maintenance typically attributed to normal wear. This condition can
Interval Schedule are expressed in service hours. be repaired by replacing the faulty fuel injector.
A more accurate figure to use is fuel consumption.
Fuel consumption corresponds more accurately to The following list of circumstances indicate that the
the engine load. fuel injectors should be inspected more frequently:
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, Use of fuels that are not recommended in this
Overhaul Considerations in order to determine the Operation and Maintenance Manual, Refill
maintenance interval for a top end overhaul. Capacities and Recommendations
A top end overhaul involves the removal, the Extreme ambient temperatures that reduce the
inspection, and the rework of the cylinder head ability of the fuel to provide lubrication
components. Some additional components are
replaced and serviced. Frequent plugging of the fuel filters
Your Caterpillar dealer can provide these services Insufficient maintenance of the fuel tank or the
and components. Your Caterpillar dealer can ensure fuel storage tank that can allow excessive water,
that the components are operating within the sediment, etc.
appropriate specifications.
Insufficient maintenance of the fuel filters
Note: The driven equipment may also require service
when the engine is overhauled. Refer to the literature
that is provided by the OEM of the driven equipment. Oil Suction Screen
If you elect to perform an overhaul without the
services of a Caterpillar dealer, be aware of the
following recommendations. Hot oil and components can cause personal in-
jury.
Cylinder Head Assembly
Do not allow hot oil or components to contact
Inspect the cylinder head assembly according to skin.
the instructions that are in Caterpillar reusability
publications. Refer to Guidelines for Reusable Clean the oil suction screen after the oil has been
Parts and Salvage Operations, SEBF8029, Index drained.
of Publications on Reusability or Salvage of Used
Parts. Note: Approximately 1 L (1 qt) of oil will remain in the
housing after the sump has been completely drained.
Your Caterpillar dealer can provide these services This oil will pour out of the housing when cover (1) is
and components. Your Caterpillar dealer can ensure removed. Prepare to catch the oil in a pan. Clean up
that the components are operating within the any spilled oil with absorbent towels or pillows. DO
appropriate specifications. NOT use absorbent particles to clean up the oil.
The use of out-of-spec parts will cause unscheduled 1. Remove the screen assembly according to the
downtime and/or costly repairs. instructions in the Service Manual, Disassembly
and Assembly module. Discard the used O-ring
Fuel Injectors seals.

Replace the fuel injectors. Consult your Caterpillar 2. Wash the screen assembly in clean nonflammable
dealer about exchanging the fuel injectors. Your solvent. Allow the screen assembly to dry before
Caterpillar dealer can provide these services and installation.
components.

The wear of fuel injectors is affected by the following


considerations:
SEBU7898-12 155
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations

3. Remove side covers in order to gain access to Spacer plate


the sump. Clean the bottom of the sump with
absorbent towels or pillows. When the bottom of Software update
the sump is clean, install the side covers.
Turbocharger
4. Inspect the screen assembly for good condition.
Obtain a new screen assembly, if necessary. Inspection of Components
Install the screen assembly. Install new O-ring
seals.
Inspect the following components according to
the instructions that are in Caterpillar reusability
Replacement of Components publications. Refer to Guidelines for Reusable
Parts and Salvage Operations, SEBF8029, Index
Replace the following components during the top of Publications on Reusability or Salvage of Used
end overhaul: Parts.

Electronic unit injectors Aftercooler core

Inspection, Reconditioning or Camshaft


Exchanging of Components Driven equipment (alignment)
Inspect the following components according to Engine control module
the instructions that are in Caterpillar reusability
publications. Refer to Guidelines for Reusable Oil suction screen
Parts and Salvage Operations, SEBF8029, Index
of Publications on Reusability or Salvage of Used
Parts. i02018788

Recondition the worn components or exchange the


Overhaul Considerations
components, if necessary. Your Caterpillar dealer can
SMCS Code: 7595-043
provide these services and components.
Reduced hours of operation at full load will result in a
Camshaft followers lower average power demand. A decreased average
power demand should increase both the engine
Cylinder head assembly service life and the overhaul interval.
Scavenge oil pump The need for an overhaul is generally indicated by
increased fuel consumption and by reduced power.
Engine wiring harness
The following factors are important when a decision
Exhaust manifold seals is being made on the proper time for an engine
overhaul:
Exhaust manifold bellows
The need for preventive maintenance
Fuel pressure regulating valve
The quality of the fuel that is being used
Fuel priming pump
The operating conditions
Fuel transfer pump
The results of the SOS analysis
Inlet manifold gaskets
Inlet manifold seals Oil Consumption as an Overhaul
Indicator
Oil pump
Oil consumption, fuel consumption, and maintenance
Prelube pump information can be used to estimate the total
operating cost for your Caterpillar engine. Oil
Pushrods consumption can also be used to estimate the
required capacity of a makeup oil tank that is suitable
Rocker arms for the maintenance intervals.
156 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations

Oil consumption is in proportion to the percentage Overhaul Recommendation


of the rated engine load. As the percentage of the
engine load is increased, the amount of oil that is To minimize downtime, a scheduled engine overhaul
consumed per hour also increases. by your Caterpillar dealer is recommended. This will
provide you with the best cost/value relationship.
The oil consumption rate (brake specific oil
consumption) is measured in grams per kW/h (lb per Note: Overhaul programs vary according to the
bhp). The brake specific oil consumption (BSOC) engine application and according to the dealer that
depends on the engine load. Consult your Caterpillar performs the overhaul. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for assistance in determining the typical oil dealer for specific information about the available
consumption rate for your engine. overhaul programs and about overhaul services for
extending the engine life.
When an engine's oil consumption has risen to three
times the original oil consumption rate due to normal If an overhaul is performed without overhaul service
wear, an engine overhaul should be scheduled. from your Caterpillar dealer, be aware of the following
There may be a corresponding increase in blowby maintenance recommendations.
and a slight increase in fuel consumption.
Unit Fuel Injector
Overhaul Options
Clean the fuel injector body and replace the O-rings.
Before Failure Overhaul Replace the O-rings and the gasket on the injector
sleeve. Clean the area around the injector seating
A planned overhaul before failure may be the best in the injector sleeve. Refer to the Service Manual
value for the following reasons: for the complete procedure, or consult with your
Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
Costly unplanned downtime can be avoided.
Rebuild or Exchange
Many original parts can be reused according to the
standards for reusable parts. Cylinder Head Assembly, Connecting Rods,
Pistons, Cylinder Liners, Turbocharger, Cylinder
The engine service life can be extended without the Packs, Oil Pump, and Fuel Transfer Pump
risk of a major catastrophe due to engine failure.
These components should be inspected according to
The best cost/value relationship per hour of the instructions that are found in various Caterpillar
extended life can be attained. reusability publications. The Special Publication,
SEBF8029 lists the reusability publications that are
After Failure Overhaul needed for inspecting the engine parts.
If a major engine failure occurs and the engine If the parts comply with the established inspection
must be removed, many options are available. An specifications that are expressed in the reusable
overhaul should be performed if the engine block or parts guideline, the parts should be reused.
the crankshaft needs to be repaired.
Parts that are not within the established inspection
If the engine block is repairable and/or the crankshaft specifications should be dealt with in one of the
is repairable, the overhaul cost should be between 40 following manners:
percent and 50 percent of the cost of a new engine
with a similar exchange core. Salvaging
This lower cost can be attributed to three aspects: Repairing
Specially designed Caterpillar engine features Replacing
Caterpillar dealer exchange components Using out-of-spec parts can result in the following
problems:
Caterpillar Inc. remanufactured exchange
components Unscheduled downtime
Costly repairs
Damage to other engine parts
SEBU7898-12 157
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations

Reduced engine efficiency Inspect the following components for signs of wear or
for signs of scuffing:
Increased fuel consumption
Camshaft bearings
Reduced engine efficiency and increased fuel
consumption translates into higher operating costs. Camshaft followers
Therefore, Caterpillar Inc. recommends repairing
out-of-spec parts or replacing out-of-spec parts. Caterpillar Inc. recommends replacing the crankshaft
vibration damper.
Inspection and/or Replacement
Oil Cooler Core and Aftercooler Core
Piston Rings, Crankshaft Bearings, Valve
Rotators, and Crankshaft Seals During an overhaul, the removal of the oil cooler
core and the aftercooler core is recommended. The
The following components may not last until the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core should be
second overhaul. cleaned and pressure tested.

Thrust bearings NOTICE


Do not use caustic cleaners to clean the core.
Main bearings
Caustic cleaners can attack the internal metals of the
Rod bearings core and cause leakage.

Valve rotators
Note: Use this cleaning procedure to clean the oil
Crankshaft seals cooler core and the aftercooler core.

Caterpillar Inc. recommends the installation of new 1. Remove the oil cooler core and the aftercooler
parts at each overhaul period. core.

Inspect these parts while the engine is disassembled 2. Remove any debris from the oil cooler core and
for an overhaul. the aftercooler core. To remove debris from the oil
cooler core, turn the oil cooler core onto one end.
Inspect the crankshaft for any of the following To remove debris from the aftercooler core, turn
conditions: the aftercooler core upside-down.

Deflection 3. Flush the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core
internally with cleaner in order to loosen foreign
Damage to the journals substances. This will also help to remove oil from
the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core.
Bearing material that has seized to the journals
Note: The use of Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners is
Check the journal taper and the profile of the recommended. Table 26 lists the Hydrosolv Liquid
crankshaft journals. Check these components by Cleaners that are available from your Caterpillar
interpreting the wear patterns on the following dealer.
components:
Table 26

Rod bearing Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners(1)


Part
Main bearings Number
Description Size

Note: If the crankshaft is removed for any reason, 1U-5490 Hydrosolv 4165 19 L (5 US gallon)
use the magnetic particle inspection process to check 174-6854 Hydrosolv 100 19 L (5 US gallon)
for cracks in the crankshaft.
(1) Use a two to five percent concentration of the cleaner
at temperatures up to 93C (200F). Refer to Application
Inspect the camshaft for damage to the journals and Guide, NEHS0526 or consult your Caterpillar dealer for more
to the lobes. information.

Note: If the camshaft is removed for any reason, use


the magnetic particle inspection process to check for
cracks in the camshaft.
158 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Power Factor - Check

4. Use steam to clean the oil cooler core and the Complete SOS Coolant Analysis (Level 2)
aftercooler core. This removes any remaining
residue from the cleaner. Flush the fins of the oil Visual inspection of properties
cooler core and the aftercooler core. Remove any
other trapped debris. Identification of metal corrosion
5. Wash the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core Identification of contaminants
with hot, soapy water. Rinse the oil cooler core and
the aftercooler core thoroughly with clean water. Identification of built up impurities (corrosion and
scale)

SOS Coolant Analysis (Level 2) provides a report of


the results of both the analysis and the maintenance
Personal injury can result from air pressure. recommendations.
Personal injury can result without following prop- For more information about coolant analysis, consult
er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a pro- your Caterpillar dealer.
tective face shield and protective clothing.

Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less i01191656


than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Power Factor - Check
6. Dry the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core SMCS Code: 4450-535-PWR
with compressed air. Direct the air in the reverse
direction of the normal flow. The power factor of a system can be determined by
a power factor meter or by calculations. The power
7. Inspect the components in order to ensure factor can be calculated by dividing kW by kVA.
cleanliness. The oil cooler core and the aftercooler Power factor is expressed as a decimal.
core should be pressure tested. Repair the oil
cooler core and the aftercooler core, if necessary.
Install the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core. i02559063

For more information about cleaning the cores, Radiator - Clean


consult your Caterpillar dealer.
SMCS Code: 1353-070
Obtain Coolant Analysis Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
The concentration of supplemental coolant additive
(SCA) should be checked regularly with test kits Inspect the radiator for these items: damaged fins,
or with SOS Coolant Analysis (Level 1). Further corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
coolant analysis is recommended when the engine debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
is overhauled.

A coolant analysis can be conducted in order to verify


the condition of the water that is being used in the
cooling system. A full water analysis can be obtained Personal injury can result from air pressure.
by consulting your local water utility company or
an agricultural agent. Private laboratories are also Personal injury can result without following prop-
available for water analysis. er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a pro-
tective face shield and protective clothing.
Caterpillar Inc. recommends an SOS Coolant
Analysis (Level 2). The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be reduced to 205 kPa (30 psi) when the air
SOS Coolant Analysis (Level 2) nozzle is deadheaded.

An SOS Coolant Analysis (Level 2) is a


Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
comprehensive coolant analysis which completely
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
analyzes the coolant and the effects on the cooling
of the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
system. An SOS Coolant Analysis (Level 2) provides
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the
the following information:
air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.
This will remove debris that is between the tubes.
SEBU7898-12 159
Maintenance Section
Rotating Rectifier - Check

Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning. i01936391


The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized Rotating Rectifier - Test
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides. SMCS Code: 4465-081

Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and


grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the The high voltage that is produced by an operating
core with clean water. generator set can cause severe injury or death.
Before performing any maintenance or repairs,
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the ensure that the generator will not start.
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine. Place the engine control switch in the OFF posi-
Use a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect tion. Attach DO NOT OPERATE tags to all start-
the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if ing controls. Disconnect the batteries or disable
necessary. the starting system. Lock out all switchgear and
automatic transfer switches that are associated
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened with the generator.
with a comb. Inspect these items for good condition:
welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary. Use the following procedure in order to test the
rotating rectifier.
For more detailed information on cleaning and
inspection, refer to Special Publication, SEBD0518, 1. Stop the generator set. Disconnect the wires for
Know Your Cooling System. the AVR and isolate the wires for the AVR.

2. Make an assembly for separate excitation. The


i01880286 assembly can use a 12 volt battery or a variable
DC power supply as a power source. Refer to
Rotating Rectifier - Check Step 3 for an assembly that uses a 12 Volt battery.
Refer to Step 4 for an assembly that uses a
SMCS Code: 4465-535 variable DC power supply.

The high voltage that is produced by an operating


generator set can cause severe injury or death.
Before performing any maintenance or repairs,
ensure that the generator will not start.

Place the engine control switch in the OFF posi-


tion. Attach DO NOT OPERATE tags to all start-
ing controls. Disconnect the batteries or disable
the starting system. Lock out all switchgear and
automatic transfer switches that are associated
with the generator.
g01015807
Illustration 84
Check the exciter armature. Ensure that the rotating (A) Exciter Field
rectifier is tight. If a failure of a rectifier is suspected, (B) Diode (1 Amp)
refer to Maintenance Procedure, Rotating Rectifier - (C) Rheostat (50 Ohms 300 Watts)
Test.
3. Connect a 12 volt battery in series with a rheostat
(C) of 50 Ohms 300 Watts and a diode (B) on
both wires for the exciter field (5+ and 6-). Go to
step 5.
160 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Severe Service Application - Check

Maintenance intervals
Oil selection and maintenance
Coolant selection and maintenance
Environmental qualities
Installation
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult with
your Caterpillar dealer in order to determine if the
engine is operating within the defined parameters.

g01015808
Severe service operation can accelerate component
Illustration 85 wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
(D) AC supply may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
(E) Variable power supply order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
(F) Exciter field
(G) Diode bridge full service life.

4. Connect a variable power supply and a diode Due to individual applications, it is not possible to
bridge to both of the wires for the exciter field (5+) identify all of the factors which can contribute to
and (6-). severe service operation. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for the unique maintenance that is necessary
5. The assembly should have characteristics that are for the engine.
compatible with the power for the field excitation
of the generator. The operating environment, improper operating
procedures and improper maintenance procedures
6. Operate the generator set at rated speed. can be factors which contribute to severe service
conditions.
7. Gradually increase the current of the exciter field
by adjusting the rheostat or the variable power Environmental Factors
supply. Measure the output voltage and the
current at no load. Measure the output voltage Ambient temperatures The engine may be
and measure the current at no load. exposed to extended operation in extremely
cold environments or hot environments. Valve
8. The generator is operating properly when the components can be damaged by carbon buildup if
output voltage is at the rated value and the output the engine is frequently started and stopped in very
voltage is balanced within one percent for the cold temperatures. Extremely hot inlet air reduces
rated level of excitation. engine performance.

Air Quality The engine may be exposed to


i00151038
extended operation in an environment that is dirty
Severe Service Application - or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly.
Mud, dirt and dust can encase components.
Check Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can
contain corrosive chemicals.
SMCS Code: 1000-535
Buildup Compounds, elements, corrosive
Severe service is an application of an engine that chemicals and salt can damage some components.
exceeds current published standards for that engine.
Caterpillar maintains standards for the following Altitude Problems can arise when the engine is
engine parameters: operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
Performance (power range, speed range, and fuel should be made.
consumption)

Fuel quality Improper Operating Procedures


Altitude range Extended operation at low idle
Frequent hot shutdowns
SEBU7898-12 161
Maintenance Section
Space Heater - Check

Operating at excessive loads i03108463

Operating at excessive speeds Standby Generator


Set Maintenance
Operating outside the intended application
Recommendations
Improper Maintenance Procedures SMCS Code: 4450-041
Extending the maintenance intervals A standby generator set may not need to be used
very often. However, the generator set is usually
Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants and needed for operation in an emergency situation.
coolant/antifreeze Maintenance of the standby generator set is very
important for the following reasons:
i02985289
The generator set must always be in excellent
Space Heater - Check operating condition.

SMCS Code: 4450-535-HTR The generator set must be ready to work under
load at any time.
The space heater is attached to the rear bearing
bracket. The space heater is located in the Establishing a Preventive Maintenance Program will
generator's exciter end. provide these benefits:

Maximum availability of the standby generator set


Longer service life for the generator set
Minimum of expensive repairs
Your Caterpillar dealer can help you to establish an
effective Preventive Maintenance Program for your
generator set. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for
details.

Maintenance and Operation


Procedures
g00610396
Illustration 86
Space Heater Connection Diagram

An SR5 generator can operate in high humidity The high voltage that is produced by an operating
conditions without problems. The humidity can be as generator set can cause severe injury or death.
high as 100% non-condensing humidity. However, Before performing any maintenance or repairs,
problems can occur when the generator is idle and ensure that the generator will not start.
the surrounding air is warmer than the generator.
Moisture can form on the windings. Moisture will Place the engine control switch in the OFF posi-
result in poor performance or even damage to the tion. Attach DO NOT OPERATE tags to all start-
windings. Whenever the generator is not active, the ing controls. Disconnect the batteries or disable
optional space heaters should be operated. the starting system. Lock out all switchgear and
automatic transfer switches that are associated
An external source is required to operate the space with the generator.
heaters. Both of the sources must be a single phase.
This source can be either 115 vac or 230 vac. When
the external source is 50 hertz, 200 vac must be The recommended maintenance for the generator set
used. Refer to Illustration 86. is listed in this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Standby Generator
See your Caterpillar dealer for information on Sets) (Maintenance Section).
checking your Caterpillar generator.
162 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect

Maintenance and Repair i00651416

The maintenance that is recommended for Every Starting Motor - Inspect


Week can be performed by an authorized operator.
The maintenance that is recommended for the SMCS Code: 1451-040; 1453-040
subsequent maintenance intervals must be
performed by an authorized service technician or by Caterpillar Inc. recommends a scheduled inspection
your Caterpillar dealer. of the starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the
engine may not start in an emergency situation.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
maintenance and repairs under the following Check the starting motor for proper operation. Check
conditions: the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Service Manual for more
The engine is stopped. information on the checking procedure and for
specifications or consult your Caterpillar dealer for
The starting system is disabled. assistance.

The generator does not pose an electrical shock i01539769


hazard.
Turbocharger - Inspect
The generator is disconnected from the load.
SMCS Code: 1052-040; 1052
Operation
Periodic inspection and cleaning is recommended
To ensure proper operation, the generator set must be for the turbocharger compressor housing (inlet side).
exercised regularly. For instructions on operating the Any fumes from the crankcase are filtered through
generator set, see the Operation and Maintenance the air inlet system. Therefore, by-products from oil
Manual for the generator set control panel. and from combustion can collect in the turbocharger
compressor housing. Over time, this buildup can
For these operation procedures, follow the contribute to loss of engine power, increased black
instructions that are provided in this Operation and smoke and overall loss of engine efficiency.
Maintenance Manual, Operation Section: starting
the engine, engine operation, and stopping the If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,
engine. damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel
and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
Record Keeping
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
Maintain a record in order to document these items: head.
gauge readings, maintenance that is performed,
problems, and repairs. NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quan-
tities of oil to enter the air inlet and exhaust systems.
Space Heaters Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Moisture causes damage to generators and other
electrical equipment. Make every effort to keep the
Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under ex-
generator set as dry as possible.
tended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not oc-
Generators can operate without problems in humid
curred.
environments. However, problems can occur when
the generator is inactive. Moisture can condense on
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
the windings. This can result in poor performance.
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
Also, damage to the windings can occur.
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is repaired or
Use space heaters in order to help keep the windings
replaced.
dry. When the generator is not active, ensure that the
space heaters are operating. When the generator is
operating, turn OFF the space heaters. An inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. An inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
SEBU7898-12 163
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection

Note: Turbocharger components require precision 6. Clean the turbocharger housing with standard
clearances. The turbocharger cartridge must shop solvents and a soft bristle brush.
be balanced due to high rpm. Severe Service
Applications can accelerate component wear. 7. Fasten the air inlet piping and the exhaust outlet
Severe Service Applications require more frequent piping to the turbocharger housing.
inspections of the cartridge.
i01908686
Removal and Installation
Walk-Around Inspection
For options regarding the removal, installation, repair
and replacement, consult your Caterpillar dealer. SMCS Code: 1000-040
Refer to the Service Manual for this engine for the
procedure and specifications. Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
Cleaning and Inspecting for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
1. Remove the exhaust outlet piping and remove minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
the air inlet piping from the turbocharger. Visually checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
inspect the piping for the presence of oil. Clean
the interior of the pipes in order to prevent dirt For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
from entering during reassembly. inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
2. Turn the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
by hand. The assembly should turn freely. Inspect trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel for
contact with the turbocharger housing. There
should not be any visible signs of contact between
The guards must be in the proper place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
the turbine wheel or compressor wheel and the
turbocharger housing. If there is any indication of
contact between the rotating turbine wheel or the
Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
compressor wheel and the turbocharger housing, contamination.
the turbocharger must be reconditioned.

3. Check the compressor wheel for cleanliness. NOTICE


If only the blade side of the wheel is dirty, dirt For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
and/or moisture is passing through the air filtering fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
system. If oil is found only on the back side of the the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
wheel, there is a possibility of a failed turbocharger more often than recommended until the leak is found
oil seal. or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil NOTICE
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine or deck is
the inlet air (plugged air filters), which causes the a fire hazard. Remove this debris with steam cleaning
turbocharger to slobber. or high pressure water.
4. Use a dial indicator to check the end clearance
on the shaft. If the measured end play is greater Ensure that cooling lines are properly clamped.
than the Service Manual specifications, the Check for leaks. Check the condition of all pipes.
turbocharger should be repaired or replaced.
An end play measurement that is less than the Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
minimum Service Manual specifications could
indicate carbon buildup on the turbine wheel. The Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by coolant
turbocharger should be disassembled for cleaning in the cooling system. It is normal for a small amount
and for inspection if the measured end play is less of leakage to occur as the engine cools down and
than the minimum Service Manual specifications. the parts contract.

5. Inspect the bore of the turbine housing for


corrosion.
164 SEBU7898-12
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect

Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need Support Insulation. Support insulation is
to replace the water pump seal. For the removal of usually made from one of the following items:
water pump and the installation of water pump and/or a compressed lamination of fibrous materials,
seals, refer to the Service Manual for the engine or polyester, or felt pads that have been impregnated
consult your Caterpillar dealer. with various types of bonding agents.

Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front There are many different types of damage that can
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil occur in these areas. Several of the different types of
pan, the oil filters and the valve cover. damage are listed below:

Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose Thermal Aging Thermal aging can cause the
fuel line clamps. degradation of insulation or the deterioration of
insulation. An examination of the coils may reveal
Inspect the piping for the air inlet system and the that the insulation has expanded into the ventilation
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. ducts. This is the result of a loss of bond which
will cause the insulation material to separate. The
Inspect the alternator belt and the accessory drive insulation material could also separate from the
belts for cracks, breaks or other damage. conductors on the windings.

Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as Abrasion The surfaces of coils and the surfaces
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will of connectors may be damaged by abrasion. These
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced. surfaces may also be damaged by contamination
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on from other sources. An example of these sources
the new belt could cause the belt to break. would be chemicals or abrasive substances.

Drain the water and the sediment from fuel tanks Cracking Cracking of insulation may result from
on a daily basis in order to ensure that only clean mechanical stress. The structure that is used to brace
fuel enters the fuel system. the stator winding will become loose if the problem
is not corrected. Further mechanical damage or
Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for electrical damage may also result.
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires. Erosion Erosion can be caused when foreign
substances rub against the surfaces of the insulation.
Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and
for good condition.
i03543200

Inspect the engine-to-frame ground strap for a


good connection and for good condition.
Water Pump - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1361-040; 1361
Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting A failed water pump might cause severe engine
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level overheating problems that could result in the following
of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with conditions:
a maintenance free battery.
Cracks in the cylinder head
Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges which are cracked or replace any gauges
that can not be calibrated.
A piston seizure
Other potential damage to the engine
Inspect the Insulation
A failed water pump might cause severe engine
A visual inspection should be initially directed at overheating problems that could result in cracks in
the areas that are most prone to damage and the cylinder head, a piston seizure or other potential
deterioration. The most prone areas to damage and damage to the engine.
deterioration are listed below:

Ground Insulation. Ground insulation is insulation


that is intended to isolate components that are
carrying current from components that are not
carrying current.
SEBU7898-12 165
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect

Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. If leaking


of the water pump seals is observed, replace all of
the water pump seals. Refer to two articles in the
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, Water Pump
- Disassemble and Water Pump - Assemble for
the disassembly and assembly procedure. If it is
necessary to remove the water pump, refer to two
articles in the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
Water Pump - Remove and Water Pump - Install.

Inspect the water pump for wear, cracks, pin holes


and proper operation. Refer to the Parts Manual
for the correct part numbers for your engine or
consult your Caterpillar dealer if repair is needed or
replacement is needed.