power system

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power system

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variables are considered to be sinusoidal

functions

A sinusoidal function is

magnitude

angular phase

time or

frequency angle

amplitude

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 2

SINUSOIDAL VARIABLES

The argument of the sinusoidal function is

radians and so:

x

is expressed

in radians T 2

t

Xm

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 3

ANGULAR FREQUENCY

2 f

radians / cycle Hz

radians/s

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 4

ANGULAR FREQUENCY

The periodic sinusoidal function has a period of

T s, where

1

s/cycle T cycles/s

f

that is each cycle (or period) takes T s

We may express x t therefore as

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 5

AC SYSTEM

The current in the AC system is specified by

since for an arbitrary angle

or equivalently

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 6

AC SYSTEM

The voltage is also sinusoidal

v t Vm cos t + v

The power is

Recall that

1

cos cos cos cos

2

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 7

POWER EXPRESSION FOR NETWORK

the power p t

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 8

AC SYSTEM

Therefore

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 9

AC SYSTEM

where, we use the fact that the average value of

Therefore

1

pavg Vm I m cos

2

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 10

EFFECTIVE VALUE

of the variable

For current

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 11

EFFECTIVE VALUE

We next evaluate I

1

1 cos 2 t i

2

Im

I

2

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 12

EFFECTIVE VALUE

The r.m.s. value of a sinusoid equals its

amplitude divided by 2

The 240-V 60-Hz voltage at which electricity is

supplied to a dryer is understood to mean that

V = 240 V

and so

Vm 240 2 339.41V

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 13

AC SYSTEM

the input voltage as having and we

measure all other variables with respect to the

reference voltage

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 14

r.m.s. VALUE OF A SQUARE WAVE

We consider the square wave

x t

a

t0

t

T T

2 2

T

a t 0 n 1 T t t 0 2n 1

2

x t n 1, 2 , ...

T

0 t0 2n 1 t t0 nT

2

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 15

r.m.s. VALUE OF A SQUARE WAVE

We compute the r.m.s. value of x t by evalua-

ting the average value over a cycle

1

1

t0

T

2

1 t0 T

2

1 2

x t dt

2

X a dt

2

T t0 T t0

1

a2 T 2

T 2

a

2

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 16

IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS

i t

+

~ R

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 17

IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS

We analyze the behavior of an ideal resistor in a

circuit with a sinusoidal voltage source

v t 2 V cos t

Now,

v t V

i t 2 cos t

R R

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 18

IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS

value

V

I =

R

Since there is a 0 angle phase difference

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 19

IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS

average power and so we drop the avg sub-

script and write

2

V

P V I I 2R

R

and P represents the average power

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 20

EXAMPLE: CUISINART TOASTER

power when plugged into a 120-V socket at 60 Hz;

the appliance is modeled as a simple resistor

We compute from

V2

P

R

the value of the resistance

R 9.6

P 1, 500 1, 500

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 21

EXAMPLE: CUISINART TOASTER

The current is

V 120

I 12.5 A

R 9.6

Now, consider a voltage spike of 125 V and so the

dissipated power becomes

V2 125 125

P 1627.6 W

R 9.6

representing an increase of 127.6 W in the toaster

consumption a rather marked 8.5 % increase

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 22

IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

dv

i t C

dt

~ C

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 23

IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

sin cos cos cos

2 2 2

Thus

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 24

IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

2

waveforms

2

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 25

IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

Let

I CV

and so

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 26

IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

We summarize

V I

C for capacitors

pt v t i t 2 V cos t 2 I cos t

2

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 27

IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 28

CAPACITOR EXAMPLE

We consider the current through a 200 F

capacitor supplied by a 120-V 60-Hz source

The voltage is given by

v t 2 120 cos t

and the current is therefore

i t 2 I cos t

2

with

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 29

IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

di

v t L

dt

i t

+

~ v t 2 V cos t L

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 30

IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

and so t

1

i t v d

L0

For the sinusoidal voltage

v t 2 Vcos t

we have

t

1 2V

i t 2 V cos d sin t

L0 L

We use the identity

sin cos

2

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 31

IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

Thus

V

i t 2 cos t

L 2

the current through it are

same frequency sinusoids

there is a

radians shift between the two

2

waveforms

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 32

IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

2

Let

1

I V

L

and so

AC version of

We summarize:

Ohms Law for

V LI inductors

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 33

IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

pt v t i t 2 V cos t 2 I cos t

2

and this simplifies to

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 34

IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

Clearly

and so

power

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 35

POWER FACTOR

We generalize the expressions for resistors

capacitors and inductors for a sinusoidal

and a current

i t 2 I cos t

Now, we have shown that

for a resistor

for a capacitor

for an inductor

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 36

POWER FACTOR

but for a network with an arbitrary combination

of R, L and C components, is unknown

We also showed earlier that the average value of

power is

pavg V I cos (* )

for

v i

Power engineers define the quantity cos as the

power factor

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 37

POWER FACTOR

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 38

A p f EXAMPLE

A small industrial customer is supplied by a

values

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 39

EXAMPLE ON p f

R

P 1.5 MW

+

~ v t 2 V cos t

negligibly small

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 40

EXAMPLE ON p f

Since

P V I cos 1.5 MW

the r.m.s. value of the feeder current we compute

under p f 1

1.5 MW

I1

1

24 kV

2 MW

and also under p f 2 kA

kV

1.5 MW

I2

3

24 kV

2

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 41

EXAMPLE ON p f

2

3

2

I1

3

2

I 1R 2 2

3

2

I2 R I 1

2

2

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 42

THE POWER TRIANGLE

plane

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 43

imaginary power VAr THE POWER TRIANGLE

real power

P VI cos W 44

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

THE POWER TRIANGLE

S VI

S 2 P 2 Q2 apparent power

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 45

THE POWER TRIANGLE

at which work is done and is measured in W

The reactive power is incapable of doing work

and its average is always 0 for either a capa-

citive or an inductive element

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 46

THE POWER TRIANGLE

consumption but are impacted also by the Q

since the larger the Q the larger the line losses;

in some cases, charges are imposed on the

basis of S or take into account the p f

The presence of electric motors, which are

highly inductive loads, leads to increased losses

on transmission lines

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 47

EXAMPLE: POWER TRIANGLE

We consider a 250 V induction motor that

draws 20 A of current to generate 4.33 kW of real

power delivered to its shaft

We draw the power triangle using

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 48

EXAMPLE: POWER TRIANGLE

reactive power

Q 2.5kVAr

6

P 4.33kW active power

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 49

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

power is; the ideal is to get as near as possible

to the perfect p f of 1.0

Sometimes, it is desirable or necessary to use

capacitors to correct the p f to offset the VArs

of the inductive elements

A p f corrective action can lead to the increased

real power delivery to the loads

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 50

EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

i ( pf < 1 ) i ( pf = 1 )

with extra load: lagging

transformer pf

capacity

load: lagging pf correction

pf capacitor

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 51

EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

power demand

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 52

EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

p f 0.75 cos

cos 1 0.75 0.72 radians

P 600 0.75 450 kW

Q 600 0.66 397 kVAr

The forecasted situation

Pnew 450 1.2 540 kW

540

p f new 0.9

600

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 53

EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

capacitors

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 54

EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

reactive power

capacitor

215 kVAr

anticipated

without pf

Q = 476 kVAr

growth to

Q = 476 kVAr

correction

720kVA

Q = 397 kVAr

= 0.72 = 0.45

P = 450 kW Pnew = 540 kW

90 kW

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 55

EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

correcting capacitors

Q c V c I c V c C Vc

Qc

C

V c2

If we assume that the input voltage to the

capacitors is at 12 kV, then

215 kVAr

C 3.96 10 3 F

377 12 kV

2 2

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 56

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAPACITORS

FOR p f CORRECTION

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 57

THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

In the US, residential service is typically

household voltage

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 58

THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

potential

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 59

THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 60

THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 61

THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

Analytically

and therefore

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 62

RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 63

RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE

We consider the three loads served by a three-

2, 400 W at 120 V on phase B , p f 1.0

4, 800 W at 240 V , p f 1.0

We wish to compute the currents in the wires

P V I cos V I

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 64

RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 65

RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 66

THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

Todays systems use the three phase

generators to produce electricity and

transmission lines to transport it to various

parts of the network

The interconnection of network elements into a

network is done typically using either the

delta or wye Y configuration

We examine a Yconnected generator to a

load

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 67

THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 68

THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

The phase voltages are measured with respect

to the neutral

,

where the entities on the right represent the

phasor notation for the voltages

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 69

THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

and exactly radians from another (balanced

voltages)

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 70

THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

Consequently,

called line voltages; for example the line a to the

line b voltage is

and so

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 71

THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

Now, for a balanced network, the phase voltage

r.m.s. values are equal

Therefore

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 72

THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

So we obtain

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 73

THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

The relationship of importance for the r.m.s. value

of line-to-line voltage relative to that of the

phase voltage V p is

service type Vp

buildings 202 V 120 V

commercial 480 V 277 V

residential 416 V 240 V

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 74

THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

Each phase has apparent power

Therefore,

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 75

THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

where is the phase angle between the phase

current and the voltage and is identical for each

phase under balanced conditions

In fact, we can show that

of power constitutes a key advantage of sys-

tems in contrast to where is sinusoidal

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 76

THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

average power in pa , pb or pc

power

pa pb pc

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 77

EXAMPLE: NETWORK p f CORRECTION

We compute using

so that

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 78

EXAMPLE: NETWORK p f CORRECTION

We also evaluate

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 79

EXAMPLE: NETWORK p f CORRECTION

Also

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 80

THE DELTA CONNECTION

connection which has no neutral line

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 81

THE DELTA CONNECTION

two connection schemes is summarized by the

table

variable

r.m.s. current

r.m.s. voltage

power P3 3 V p I p cos

ECE 333 2006 - 2015 George Gross, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved. 82

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