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# SINUSOIDAL VARIABLES

## In AC circuits, the basic current and voltage

variables are considered to be sinusoidal
functions
A sinusoidal function is

magnitude
angular phase
time or
frequency angle
amplitude
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SINUSOIDAL VARIABLES
The argument of the sinusoidal function is
radians and so:
x
is expressed
in radians T 2

t
Xm

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ANGULAR FREQUENCY

## given in Hz or cycles per second with

2 f

radians / cycle Hz
radians/s
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ANGULAR FREQUENCY
The periodic sinusoidal function has a period of
T s, where
1
s/cycle T cycles/s
f
that is each cycle (or period) takes T s
We may express x t therefore as

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AC SYSTEM
The current in the AC system is specified by

## The use of the cosine function is rather arbitrary

since for an arbitrary angle

or equivalently

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AC SYSTEM
The voltage is also sinusoidal

v t Vm cos t + v

The power is

Recall that
1
cos cos cos cos
2
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POWER EXPRESSION FOR NETWORK

the power p t

## by the average value over any single period

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AC SYSTEM

Therefore

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AC SYSTEM
where, we use the fact that the average value of

## areas cancel out

Therefore

1
pavg Vm I m cos
2
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EFFECTIVE VALUE

## square root of the average of the squared value

of the variable

For current

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EFFECTIVE VALUE
We next evaluate I

1
1 cos 2 t i
2
Im
I
2
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EFFECTIVE VALUE

## The value I is referred to as the r.m.s. value

The r.m.s. value of a sinusoid equals its
amplitude divided by 2
The 240-V 60-Hz voltage at which electricity is
supplied to a dryer is understood to mean that
V = 240 V
and so
Vm 240 2 339.41V
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AC SYSTEM

## We henceforth adopt the convention of treating

the input voltage as having and we
measure all other variables with respect to the
reference voltage
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r.m.s. VALUE OF A SQUARE WAVE
We consider the square wave
x t
a

t0
t
T T
2 2
T
a t 0 n 1 T t t 0 2n 1
2
x t n 1, 2 , ...
T
0 t0 2n 1 t t0 nT
2
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r.m.s. VALUE OF A SQUARE WAVE
We compute the r.m.s. value of x t by evalua-
ting the average value over a cycle
1
1
t0
T
2
1 t0 T

2
1 2

x t dt
2
X a dt
2

T t0 T t0

1
a2 T 2

T 2
a

2
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IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS

i t
+

~ R

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IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS
We analyze the behavior of an ideal resistor in a
circuit with a sinusoidal voltage source

## or in the terms of the r.m.s. voltage V

v t 2 V cos t
Now,

v t V
i t 2 cos t
R R
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IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS

## is the current through the resistor with r.m.s.

value
V
I =
R
Since there is a 0 angle phase difference

## the two sinusoids are in phase with each other

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IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS

## In AC networks, power is always interpreted as

average power and so we drop the avg sub-
script and write
2
V
P V I I 2R
R
and P represents the average power
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EXAMPLE: CUISINART TOASTER

## The two-slot Cuisinart toaster uses 1,500 W of

power when plugged into a 120-V socket at 60 Hz;
the appliance is modeled as a simple resistor
We compute from
V2
P
R
the value of the resistance

## V2 120 120 14, 400

R 9.6
P 1, 500 1, 500
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EXAMPLE: CUISINART TOASTER

The current is
V 120
I 12.5 A
R 9.6
Now, consider a voltage spike of 125 V and so the
dissipated power becomes
V2 125 125
P 1627.6 W
R 9.6
representing an increase of 127.6 W in the toaster
consumption a rather marked 8.5 % increase
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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

## Recall the equation of motion for a capacitor

dv
i t C
dt

~ C

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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

## We use the identity

sin cos cos cos
2 2 2

Thus

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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

2

waveforms

## the current leads the voltage by radians

2
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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

Let

I CV

and so

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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

We summarize

V I
C for capacitors

## The power dissipated by the capacitor is

pt v t i t 2 V cos t 2 I cos t
2

## and this simplifies to

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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

## and so for a capacitor

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CAPACITOR EXAMPLE
We consider the current through a 200 F
capacitor supplied by a 120-V 60-Hz source
The voltage is given by
v t 2 120 cos t
and the current is therefore

i t 2 I cos t
2
with

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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

## Recall the equation of motion for an inductor

di
v t L
dt

i t
+

~ v t 2 V cos t L

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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

and so t
1
i t v d
L0
For the sinusoidal voltage
v t 2 Vcos t
we have
t
1 2V
i t 2 V cos d sin t
L0 L
We use the identity

sin cos
2
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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

Thus

V
i t 2 cos t
L 2

## Therefore, the voltage across the inductor and

the current through it are
same frequency sinusoids
there is a
radians shift between the two
2
waveforms
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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

## the current lags behind the voltage by

2
Let
1
I V
L
and so

AC version of
We summarize:
Ohms Law for

V LI inductors
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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

## The power dissipated by the inductor is

pt v t i t 2 V cos t 2 I cos t
2
and this simplifies to

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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

Clearly

and so

## Neither capacitors nor inductors consume real

power
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POWER FACTOR
We generalize the expressions for resistors
capacitors and inductors for a sinusoidal

and a current
i t 2 I cos t
Now, we have shown that
for a resistor

for a capacitor

for an inductor
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POWER FACTOR
but for a network with an arbitrary combination
of R, L and C components, is unknown
We also showed earlier that the average value of
power is
pavg V I cos (* )
for
v i
Power engineers define the quantity cos as the
power factor

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POWER FACTOR

## used by a particular component or system

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A p f EXAMPLE
A small industrial customer is supplied by a

## losses on the feeder line under two different p f

values

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EXAMPLE ON p f
R

P 1.5 MW
+
~ v t 2 V cos t

## Basic assumption: the voltage drop through R is

negligibly small
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EXAMPLE ON p f
Since
P V I cos 1.5 MW
the r.m.s. value of the feeder current we compute
under p f 1
1.5 MW
I1
1
24 kV
2 MW
and also under p f 2 kA
kV
1.5 MW
I2
3
24 kV
2
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EXAMPLE ON p f

2
3

2
I1
3
2
I 1R 2 2
3
2
I2 R I 1
2
2

## value p f 1 than the better value p f 2

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THE POWER TRIANGLE

plane

## The power triangle is drawn as follows

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imaginary power VAr THE POWER TRIANGLE

## apparent power VA Q VI sin

real power
P VI cos W 44
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THE POWER TRIANGLE

S VI

## Q S sin reactive power

S 2 P 2 Q2 apparent power

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THE POWER TRIANGLE

## The actual power consumed by a load is the rate

at which work is done and is measured in W
The reactive power is incapable of doing work
and its average is always 0 for either a capa-
citive or an inductive element
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THE POWER TRIANGLE

## Power suppliers, typically, charge for the P

consumption but are impacted also by the Q
since the larger the Q the larger the line losses;
in some cases, charges are imposed on the
basis of S or take into account the p f
The presence of electric motors, which are
highly inductive loads, leads to increased losses
on transmission lines
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EXAMPLE: POWER TRIANGLE
We consider a 250 V induction motor that
draws 20 A of current to generate 4.33 kW of real
power delivered to its shaft
We draw the power triangle using

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EXAMPLE: POWER TRIANGLE
reactive power

Q 2.5kVAr

6
P 4.33kW active power

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POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

## The smaller the p f , the worse the utilization of

power is; the ideal is to get as near as possible
to the perfect p f of 1.0
Sometimes, it is desirable or necessary to use
capacitors to correct the p f to offset the VArs
of the inductive elements
A p f corrective action can lead to the increased
real power delivery to the loads
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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

i ( pf < 1 ) i ( pf = 1 )

## fully loaded transformer

with extra load: lagging
transformer pf
capacity
load: lagging pf correction
pf capacitor
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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

power demand

## capacitors for p f correction

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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

## The existing situation is characterized by

p f 0.75 cos
cos 1 0.75 0.72 radians
P 600 0.75 450 kW
Q 600 0.66 397 kVAr
The forecasted situation
Pnew 450 1.2 540 kW
540
p f new 0.9
600
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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

capacitors

## Qc 476 261 215 kVAr

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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

reactive power
capacitor
215 kVAr
anticipated
without pf

Q = 476 kVAr
growth to

Q = 476 kVAr
correction
720kVA
Q = 397 kVAr

## Q new 261 kVAr

= 0.72 = 0.45
P = 450 kW Pnew = 540 kW
90 kW

## before correction with 215-kVAr correction

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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

## We can determine the capacitance of the p f

correcting capacitors
Q c V c I c V c C Vc
Qc
C
V c2
If we assume that the input voltage to the
capacitors is at 12 kV, then

215 kVAr
C 3.96 10 3 F
377 12 kV
2 2

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DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAPACITORS
FOR p f CORRECTION

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THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY
In the US, residential service is typically

## step-down transformer to the 120/240 V

household voltage

## conditioning, heavier duty appliances)

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THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

## the 120 V supply to obtain the 240 V

potential
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THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

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THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

## v1 v2 240 2 cos 377t

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THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

Analytically

and therefore

## v1 t v2 t 240 2 cos 377t

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RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE

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RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE
We consider the three loads served by a three-

## 1, 200 W at 120 V on phase A , p f 1.0

2, 400 W at 120 V on phase B , p f 1.0
4, 800 W at 240 V , p f 1.0
We wish to compute the currents in the wires

## We start with the relationship

P V I cos V I
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RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE

## For the 1,200 W load

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RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE

## neutral current vanishes

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
Todays systems use the three phase
generators to produce electricity and
transmission lines to transport it to various
parts of the network
The interconnection of network elements into a
network is done typically using either the
delta or wye Y configuration
We examine a Yconnected generator to a
load
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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
The phase voltages are measured with respect
to the neutral

,
where the entities on the right represent the
phasor notation for the voltages
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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

## Note that the voltages are equal in magnitude

and exactly radians from another (balanced
voltages)

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

Consequently,

## The voltage between two-phases are typically

called line voltages; for example the line a to the
line b voltage is

and so

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
Now, for a balanced network, the phase voltage
r.m.s. values are equal

Therefore

## We make use of the identity

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
So we obtain

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
The relationship of importance for the r.m.s. value
of line-to-line voltage relative to that of the
phase voltage V p is

## Examples of typical values

service type Vp
buildings 202 V 120 V
commercial 480 V 277 V
residential 416 V 240 V
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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
Each phase has apparent power

## and so the system has apparent power

Therefore,

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
where is the phase angle between the phase
current and the voltage and is identical for each
phase under balanced conditions
In fact, we can show that

## and is constant and such a smooth constant level

of power constitutes a key advantage of sys-
tems in contrast to where is sinusoidal
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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

## total power pa pb pc is constant

average power in pa , pb or pc
power

pa pb pc

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EXAMPLE: NETWORK p f CORRECTION

## and incurs losses of 4 kW

We compute using

so that

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EXAMPLE: NETWORK p f CORRECTION

We also evaluate

## Next consider a p f correction to 0.9 and so

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EXAMPLE: NETWORK p f CORRECTION

Also

## We also evaluate the losses under corrected pf

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THE DELTA CONNECTION

## The other way to connect elements in the

connection which has no neutral line

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THE DELTA CONNECTION

## The comparison of the key characteristics of the

two connection schemes is summarized by the
table

variable

r.m.s. current

r.m.s. voltage

power P3 3 V p I p cos
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