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CS908

(Autumn 2016)

Outline of Todays Session


IntroducJon to Research in CS
CS908 Research Methods
Plagiarism issues
Prof Nasir Rajpoot
Department of Computer Science
Department of Pathology, UHCW NHS Trust
Slide credits: Dr Yulia Timofeeva
Week 1b 7 Oct, 2016
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First, Typical Structure of a Research Paper Typical Structure of a Research Paper (contd)
SoluLon
Abstract Methodology used to solve the problem, why?
TheoreJcal derivaJon
Algorithm design
IntroducLon SoYware development
MoJvaJon, background of the research, the problem to be solved in this paper
EvaluaLon
Experiment design
Analysis of experimental results
Literature review / Related work Draw conclusions
The work related to the work in this paper
- Context of this research work Discussion/Conclusions
Re-iterate what have been achieved in this work
- The work to support the assumpJons made in this work
Discuss the future work which can be done following this work
ExisJng work to solve the similar problems
The dierence between this work and the exisJng work Bibliography
Appendices

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What is Plagiarism?
A common way that students commit plagiarism is by
Plagiarism is re-use of others ideas, words, material using phrases taken from a published source without
proper acknowledgment.
without appropriate acknowledge-ment of the
sources of that informaLon.

Proper acknowledgement has two requirements:
This includes, not just copying from published papers, an indicaJon of the source of the quotaJon
but from material in electronic form, such as Web an indicaJon of the extent of the quotaJon
pages, news arLcles etc.

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Case Study 1 Case Study 1


Original text Original text

The great eciency breakthroughs in soYware are to be found in the The great eciency breakthroughs in soYware are to be found in the
fundamental architecture of the system, not in the surface design of fundamental architecture of the system, not in the surface design of
the interface. the interface.

[1] B. Tognazzini, First Principles of InteracJon Design, 2003, [Online] [1] B. Tognazzini, First Principles of InteracJon Design, 2003, [Online]
hdp://www.asktog.com/basics/rstprinciples.html [Accessed 14th September 2006] hdp://www.asktog.com/basics/rstprinciples.html [Accessed 14th September 2006]

Your text Your text

The great eciency breakthroughs in soYware are to be found in the The great eciency breakthroughs in soYware are to be found in the
fundamental architecture of the system, not in the surface design of fundamental architecture of the system, not in the surface design of
the interface [1]. the interface [1].

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Case Study 1 (cont.)


QuotaLon
Simply placing the source for your quote into your reference list is
not sucient Use it for a group of words taken from a text or speech.

Doesnt meet the second requirement (an indicaJon of the extent
of the quotaJon) When you quote, place the words you are using in quotaLon
marks, and document the relevant source.
The reader cannot judge exactly what has been drawn from the
quoted source and what has not.

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Original text Original text



The great eciency breakthroughs in soYware are to be found in the The great eciency breakthroughs in soYware are to be found in the
fundamental architecture of the system, not in the surface design of fundamental architecture of the system, not in the surface design of
the interface. the interface.

[1] B. Tognazzini, First Principles of InteracJon Design, 2003, [Online] [1] B. Tognazzini, First Principles of InteracJon Design, 2003, [Online]
hdp://www.asktog.com/basics/rstprinciples.html [Accessed 14th September 2006] hdp://www.asktog.com/basics/rstprinciples.html [Accessed 14th September 2006]

Your text Your text

The great eciency breakthroughs in soYware are to be found in The great eciency breakthroughs in soYware are to be found in
the fundamental architecture of the system, not in the surface the fundamental architecture of the system, not in the surface
design of the interface [1]. design of the interface [1].

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General Guidelines for QuotaLons Case Study 2


Original text
Use direct quotaJons only when the author's wording is

necessary or parJcularly eecJve. The rise of industry, the growth of ciJes, and the expansion of the populaJon
Dont use excessive quotaJons in your paper were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history.
As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American
Avoid quoJng more than is needed
landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and
provided jobs for a rising Jde of immigrants.

A quotaJon should add weight to what you are trying to say,
Your text
not simply repeat a point you have already made.
As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the
country, they changed farm hands into factory workers, and provided jobs for the
Be sure to integrate all quotaJons into your own discussion. large wave of immigrants. Therefore, the increase of industry, the growth of ciJes,
Introduce direct quotaJons with your own words. and the explosion of the populaJon were three large factors of nineteenth
century America.

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Case Study 2
Why is it NOT acceptable?
Original text

The rise of industry, the growth of ciJes, and the expansion of the populaJon
were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. The writer has failed to cite a source for any of the ideas or facts.
As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American
landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and
provided jobs for a rising Jde of immigrants.

Your text

As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the
country, they changed farm hands into factory workers, and provided jobs for the
large wave of immigrants. Therefore, the increase of industry, the growth of ciJes,
and the explosion of the populaJon were three large factors of nineteenth
century America.

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Case Study 3 Case Study 3


Original text in reference [2]: Original text in reference [2]:

The rise of industry, the growth of ciJes, and the expansion of the populaJon The rise of industry, the growth of ciJes, and the expansion of the populaJon
were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history.
As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American
landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and
provided jobs for a rising Jde of immigrants. provided jobs for a rising Jde of immigrants.

Your text Your text

As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the
country, they changed farm hands into factory workers, and provided jobs for the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers, and provided jobs for the
large wave of immigrants. Therefore, the increase of industry, the growth of ciJes, large wave of immigrants. Therefore, the increase of industry, the growth of ciJes,
and the explosion of the populaJon were three large factors of nineteenth and the explosion of the populaJon were three large factors of nineteenth
century America [2]. century America [2].

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Why is it NOT acceptable? Paraphrase

Use someones ideas, but put them in your own words, and
Although the writer has cited a source for any of the ideas or acknowledge the source of the informaJon.
facts, the writer has only changed around a few words and
phrases, or changed the order of the original sentences.

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Case Study 4 Case Study 4


Original text in reference [2]: Original text in reference [2]:

The rise of industry, the growth of ciJes, and the expansion of the populaJon The rise of industry, the growth of ciJes, and the expansion of the populaJon
were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history.
As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American
landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and
provided jobs for a rising Jde of immigrants. provided jobs for a rising Jde of immigrants.

Your text Your text

Steam-powered producJon had shiYed labor from agriculture to manufacturing, Steam-powered producJon had shiYed labor from agriculture to manufacturing,
and as immigrants arrived in the US, they found work in these new factories. As a and as immigrants arrived in the US, they found work in these new factories. As a
result, populaJons grew, and large urban areas arose. This is how America result, populaJons grew, and large urban areas arose. This is how America
developed in the late nineteenth century. developed in the late nineteenth century.

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Case Study 5
Why is it NOT acceptable?
Original text in reference [2]:

The rise of industry, the growth of ciJes, and the expansion of the populaJon
were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history.
Although the writer has paraphrased the text, the As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American
writer has failed to cite the source of the landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and
informaLon. provided jobs for a rising Jde of immigrants.

Your text

Steam-powered producJon had shiYed labor from agriculture to manufacturing,
and as immigrants arrived in the US, they found work in these new factories. As a
result, populaJons grew, and large urban areas arose. This is how America
developed in the late nineteenth century [2].

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Case Study 5
Why is it acceptable?
Original text in reference [2]:

The rise of industry, the growth of ciJes, and the expansion of the populaJon
were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. Paragraph relays the informaLon in the original text using your
As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American own words.
landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and
provided jobs for a rising Jde of immigrants.
The source of the informaLon is cited.
Your text

Steam-powered producJon had shiYed labor from agriculture to manufacturing,
and as immigrants arrived in the US, they found work in these new factories. As a
result, populaJons grew, and large urban areas arose. This is how America
developed in the late nineteenth century [2].

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Case Study 6: Case Study 6:


Mixing Paraphrasing and QuotaLon Mixing Paraphrasing and QuotaLon
Original text in reference [2]: Original text in reference [2]:

The rise of industry, the growth of ciJes, and the expansion of the populaJon The rise of industry, the growth of ciJes, and the expansion of the populaJon
were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history.
As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American
landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and
provided jobs for a rising Jde of immigrants. provided jobs for a rising Jde of immigrants.

Your text Your text

As steam-powered producJon shiYed labor from agriculture to manufacturing, As steam-powered producJon shiYed labor from agriculture to manufacturing,
the demand for workers "transformed farm hands into industrial laborers," and the demand for workers "transformed farm hands into industrial laborers," and
created jobs for immigrants. In turn, growing populaJons increased the size of created jobs for immigrants. In turn, growing populaJons increased the size of
urban areas [2]. urban areas [2].

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Why is it acceptable? Another Example ...



Barlman and Trey (2001) wrote

The source of the informaLon described in the sentences is


cited.

It is indicated which part is taken directly from the source using


quotaLon marks.

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Another Example ... Why is it NOT acceptable?



Barlman and Trey (2001) wrote

It isnt made clear that the citaLon refers to the


whole block of text.

There is nothing to indicate that the wording is


unoriginal.

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One More Example ... One More Example...



Barlman and Trey (2001) wrote

Barlman and Trey (2001) wrote

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One More Example ... One More Example ...



Barlman and Trey (2001) wrote

Barlman and Trey (2001) wrote

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Figures, Tables and Data


Common Knowledge
If you are using gures and tables coming from sources other than
No need to cite the source when the informaJon is common yourself, you MUST cite the source in the gure capJon or table
knowledge, i.e. the facts that are common sense, can be found in Jtle.
numerous places, and are likely to be known by a lot of people.

For example:
For example,

A parallel applicaJon can be run on mulJple processors


simultaneously.

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Plagiarism Summary How to Avoid Plagiarism


Copy without reference

Copy with reference Put in quotaLons everything that comes directly from the
text in the source.
Change a few words or order without reference
Paraphrase, but be sure you are not just rearranging or
Change a few words or order with reference replacing a few words.

Use gures and tables without reference A good technique is:

Paraphrase without reference 1. Read the original text.
2. Close the text.
QuotaLon with reference, paraphrase with reference, use 3. Write out the idea in your own words.

gure, table or data with reference

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Assist Plagiarism = Plagiarism DetecLng Plagiarism


AssisJng plagiarism is considered as serious as conducJng All assignments are submided to a soYware called
plagiarism. TurniLn.

To protect yourself, do not lend any part of your soluJon TurniLn will compare your paper against published
to any student unJl aYer the assignment has been arJcles, web pages, and student papers, and generate a
marked and returned. report.

Keep all of your old notes and draYs unJl aYer the end of 14 billion web pages,
the course (so that if something does happen, you have Leading library databases and publicaJons
150 million student papers
proof that you did the work yourself).

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