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Cultura e Tradies Crenas e supersticioso

THE followers of Gorakhnath are known as Yogi , as Nath Yogis, Gorakhnathis,


Kanphatas . Os seguidores de Gorakhnath so conhecidos como Yogi, como Nath Yogis,
Gorakhnathis, Kanphatas. The fist of these names refers to their traditional practice of
the Hatha Yoga, the second to the name of their reputed founder, and the third to their
unique practice of having the cartilege of their ears split for the insertion of the ear-rings
In the Punjab, in the Himalayas, in Bombay and elsewhere they are often called Natha ,
which is a general term meaning ' master.' O punho destes nomes refere-se a sua prtica
tradicional do Hatha Yoga, a segunda com o nome de seu fundador de renome, eo
terceiro para a sua prtica nica de ter a cartilagem de suas orelhas de diviso para a
insero dos brincos Na Punjab, no Himalaia, em Bombaim e eles so freqentemente
chamados Natha em outro lugar, que um termo geral que significa 'mestre'. Women of
the sect are similarly called Nathni . As mulheres da seita so igualmente chamados
Nathni. In Western India they are generally known as Dharamnathi (or Dhoramnathi),
after a famous disciple of Gorakhnath, by that name. No oeste da ndia so geralmente
conhecidas como Dharamnathi (ou Dhoramnathi), depois de um famoso discpulo de
Gorakhnath, por esse nome. In other parts of India the names Kanakphata and Nath
Yogis are commonly used. Em outras partes da ndia, o Kanakphata nomes e Yogis
Nath so comumente usados.

It is said that the practice of splitting the ears originated with Gorakhnath The word
Yogi is a general descriptive term applied to many who do not belong to the Nath
Yogis. Diz-se que a prtica de dividir as orelhas originou com Gorakhnath A palavra
yoga um termo geral descritivo aplicado a muitos que no pertencem ao Yogis Nath. It
is also a general term for ascetics, particularly for those who are endeavoring, by
restraint and discipline of the body, to secure union with the Brahman from the
generalized point of view, the Nath Yogis constitute the principal group and the better
class of Yogis, although some of the less desirable characters of ascetics bearing the
name Yogi, may be found amongst them. Tambm um termo geral para ascetas,
particularmente para aqueles que esto se esforando, pela conteno e disciplina do
corpo, para garantir a unio com o Brahman do ponto de vista generalizado, os iogues
Nath constituem o grupo principal eo melhor da classe Yogis , embora alguns dos
personagens menos desejveis de ascetas com o nome Yogi, podem ser encontradas
entre eles. They forma distinct order of Yogis. Eles forma ordem distinta de Yogis.

Nath Yogis Yogis are found everywhere in India, being as widely scattered as any of the
ascetic orders. Nath Yogis Yogis so encontrados em toda a ndia, sendo to
amplamente dispersos como qualquer uma das ordens de asceta. They are met with
separately as mendicants and as hermits, and in groups, in the Northern Deccan, in the
Central Provinces, in Gujarat, in Maharastra, in the Panjab, in the provinces of the
Ganges basin and in Nepal. Eles esto satisfeitos com separadamente, como mendigos e
como eremitas, e em grupos, no Deccan do Norte, na Provncia Central, em Gujarat, em
Maharastra, na Panjab, nas provncias da bacia do Ganges e no Nepal.
Yogis go on piligrimages, visiting shrines and holy places all over India. Yogis ir
piligrimages, visitando santurios e lugares sagrados em todo o pas. In the rainy season
of 1924, there were very few Yogis at Gorakhpur, most of them being away visiting
various sacred places. Na estao chuvosa de 1924, havia muito poucos os iogues em
Gorakhpur, sendo a maioria delas fora visitando vrios locais sagrados. However, they
make their Ashram their headquarters. No entanto, eles fazem o seu Ashram sua sede.
Some do live alone, in the jungles, practising Yoga; but hermits of this kind are
exceedingly difficult to find. Alguns vivem sozinhos, nas selvas, praticar Yoga, mas
eremitas deste tipo so muito difceis de encontrar. The author was able to get track of
but two adepts, Baba Hira Nathji at Kali Mohini in Alwar, between Bhatinda and
Bandikui, and Bawa Tejnal, at Patanjali Asrama in Hardwar; and was unable to find
either. O autor foi capaz de obter o controle de apenas dois adeptos, Baba Hira Nathji na
Kali Mohini em Alwar, entre Bhatinda e Bandikui e Bawa Tejnal, no Ashram de
Patanjali Hardwar, e foi incapaz de encontrar qualquer um. Some of these are
considered to be real adepts. Alguns destes so considerados adeptos real.

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1. 1. Process of piercing ear Processo de perfurao da orelha

The distinctive marks of the sect of the Nath Yogis are the split-ears (kdn-pha.ta) and
the huge ear-rings. As marcas distintivas da seita dos Yogis Nath so os split-orelhas
(KDN-pha.ta) e os enormes brincos. In the final stage of their ceremony of initiation a
specially chosen guru , or teacher, splits the central hollows of both ears with a two
edged knife (or razor). Na fase final da sua cerimnia de iniciao de um guru,
especialmente escolhida, ou professor, divide as cavidades centrais de ambas as orelhas
com uma afiada faca de dois (ou lmina). The slits are plugged with sticks of nim-
wood; and, after the wounds have healed, large rings (mudra) are inserted. As fendas
so tapados com paus de madeira, nim e, depois que as feridas cicatrizaram, anis
grandes (mudras) esto inseridos. These are a Symbol of the yogi's faith. Estas so um
smbolo de f do iogue. Some explain that in splitting the ear a nadi (mystic channel ) in
e cartilege is cut,thus,assisting in the acquirement of yogic powers. Alguns explicam
que, na diviso da orelha de um nadi (canal mstico) na cartilagem e cortada, assim,
ajudar na aquisio das competncias de yoga. The yogi wearing the mudra become
immortal.The rings worn in Western India are about seven inches in circumference and
weigh two and a quarter ounces or more. O iogue vestindo o mudra se anis
immortal.The desgastado no oeste da ndia esto cerca de sete centmetros de
circunferncia e pesa dois e uma ona trimestre ou mais. Weight is dependent upon the
substance out of which the rings are made. O peso dependente da substncia da qual
os anis so feitos. In Kacch, where some of the wealthier Yogis wear mudras of gold,
the strain of their weight is carried by a string, which is passed over the head. Em
Kacch, onde alguns dos iogues mais ricos usam mudras de ouro, a presso de seu peso
carregado por uma corda, que passado sobre a cabea.
Rings are of two general shapes, flat and cylindrical; the former called darsan , the
latter kundal. Os anis so em geral de duas formas, planas e cilndricas, o chamado
darsan anterior, o kundal ltimo. The word 'kundal' simply means 'round.' "Kundal A
palavra significa simplesmente" volta ". Darsan is a term of extreme respect. Darsan
um termo de respeito extrema.

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2. 2. Rings Anis

Rings are made of various substances. Os anis so feitos de substncias diferentes. The
-rule seems to be that the initiate first wears rings of clay. A regra parece ser que o
iniciado primeira veste anis de barro. A legend relates how Gorakhnath cut holes, three
inches long, in Bliartri sears and inserted ear-rings of clay. Uma lenda relata como
Gorakhnath buracos, trs centmetros de comprimento, em Sears Bliartri e inserido
brincos de barro. Some Yogis continue to wear earthen rings.But,since these are easily
broken, others of more durable substances are usually substituted. Alguns Yogis
continuar a usar rings.But de barro, uma vez que estes so facilmente quebrados, outros
de substncias mais durveis so normalmente substitudos. The element of value also
enters into the use of more substantial rings. O elemento de valor tambm entra na
utilizao de anis mais substancial.

Rhinoceros horn is a favourite substance for ear-rings. chifre do rinoceronte uma


substncia favorito de brincos. It is riot easily broken. motim facilmente quebrado.
The practice goes back to an early period, for such rings are dug up, from time to time,
in the oldest burial places of the sect, for example, at Tilla and in old Almora. A prtica
remonta a um perodo inicial, para tais anis so desenterrados, de vez em quando, nos
lugares mais antigos do enterro da seita, por exemplo, a Tilla e Almora idade. Rings of
rhinoceros leather are not uncommon.' Anis de couro de rinoceronte, no so
incomuns. " Thin gold discs are sometimes seen. Discos de Ouro Fino so vistos s
vezes.

The wearing of the ear-rings is of great importance. O uso dos brincos de grande
importncia. If, by accident, one is broken, a model in cloth, or the sirigndd , must be
substituted before the Yogi may partake of food, or perform his religious duties. Se, por
acaso, um est quebrado, um modelo em tecido, ou o sirigndd, deve ser substitudo
antes que o Yogi pode participar de alimentos, ou executar os seus deveres religiosos.
Or, he must bathe and procure another before he eats with his fellows or engages in
conversation. Ou ele deve tomar banho e adquirir outra, antes que ele come com os seus
companheiros, ou se engaja na conversa. There is conflict o opinion concerning the
origin of the practice of wearing the rings. H conflito de opinio o sobre a origem da
prtica de usar os anis. As stated above, the institution of the custom' is attributed to
Gorakhnath. Como dito acima, a instituio do costume " atribuda a Gorakhnath.
However, diva is the great ascetic and he wears huge ear-rings. No entanto, a diva o
grande asceta e ele usa enormes brincos. Legend records that ear-rings (kundal) , made
from dirt off her body, were attached to the body which Siva had left behind when he
descended the lotus stalk in the form of an insect, by Sakti . registros Legend que
brincos (kundal), feito de terra fora de seu corpo, foram anexados ao corpo que Shiva
havia deixado para trs quando ele desceu do talo de ltus sob a forma de um inseto, por
Shakti. These ear-rings were later changed into mudras.Siva's ears were split at that
time. Estes brincos foram posteriormente alterados em orelhas mudras.Siva 's foram
divididas naquele momento. By this means the body of Siva became immortal. Por isso,
o corpo de Shiva tornou-se imortal. Some trace the practice to Macchendranath, the
guru of Gorakhnath. Alguns seguem a prtica Macchendranath, o guru do Gorakhnath.
The Aipanthis of Hardwar say that Macchendranath, when he began to preach the Yoga,
by order of Mahadeo, saw that Siva had his ears split and that he (Siva) wore the great
rings. O Aipanthis de Hardwar Macchendranath dizer que, quando comeou a pregar o
Yoga, por despacho de Mahadeo, vi que tinha Siva sua separao ouvidos e que ele
(Siva) usavam os anis grandes. Macchendra, thereupon, longed to have similar rings
himself. Macchendra, ento, ansiava por ter anis semelhantes a si mesmo. He began to
worship Siva and so pleased the god that his desire was granted. Ele comeou a adorar
Siva e agradou a Deus que seu desejo foi atendido. Macchendranath was then ordered to
split the ears of all who should become his disciples. Macchendranath ento foi
condenada a dividir os ouvidos de todos que deve tornar-se seus discpulos. Another
legend, which connects the practice with Macchendranath, states that when he was born
as a fish, he was discovered to have had rings in his ears. Outra lenda, que liga a prtica
com Macchendranath, afirma que quando ele nasceu como um peixe, ele foi descoberto
por ter tido anis em seus ouvidos. At Puri, they say that the order to split the ears came
from Macchendranath. Em Puri, dizem que a ordem para separar as orelhas veio
Macchendranath.

But the origin of the practice of splitting the ears is traced to others as well. Mas a
origem da prtica de dividir as orelhas est marcado para os outros tambm. It is said
that Bhartri asked his guru. Diz-se que Bhartri perguntou ao seu guru. Jalandharipa, for
a distinguishing mark So holes, three inches wide, were made in Bhartri's ears and rings
of clay were inserted. Jalandharipa, para uma marca distintiva Assim, buracos, trs
centmetros de largura, foram feitas nos ouvidos Bhartri e anis de argila foram
inseridos. Later, those rings were changed for others of wood, then of crystal-gilt and
finally of ivory.' Mais tarde, os anis foram alterados por outros de madeira, em
seguida, de talha dourada de cristal e, finalmente, de marfim ".

Legends and traditions which refer the custom to Gorakhnath are numerous. Lendas e
tradies que se referem o costume de Gorakhnath so numerosos. It is said that Siva
ordered Parvati to split Gorakhnath's ears' and that thus the practice arose. Diz-se que
Shiva Parvati ordenou a dividir orelhas Gorakhnath e que, portanto, a prtica surgiu.
Again, Karkai and Bhuskai received consent from their guru, Gorakhnath, to split each
other's ears. Novamente, Karkai Bhuskai e recebeu o consentimento de seu guru,
Gorakhnath, para dividir entre si as orelhas. The agreement was made at a place on the
road to Hing Laj, a shrine which every perfect Yogi must visit. O acordo foi feito em
um lugar na estrada para Hing Laj, um santurio que cada Yogi perfeito deve visitar.
Gorakhnath is said to have split Bhartri's ears. Gorakhnath disse ter dividido as orelhas
de Bhartri.

Women who wear the mudra are numerous. As mulheres que usam o mudra so
numerosos. They are chiefly widows who have become Yogis, and initiated wives of
Yogis. Eles so principalmente as vivas que se tornaram Yogis, e iniciou as esposas
dos Yogis. However, not all women whose husbands are Yogis, have' their ears split.
No entanto, nem todas as mulheres cujos maridos so yogues, tem "sua separao
ouvidos. Widows often take the vows, are initiated into the sect and then go on
pilgrimage. Vivas, muitas vezes tomar os votos, so iniciados na seita e depois ir em
peregrinao. Some of these are in charge of temples. Alguns deles so responsveis de
templos. Married women who are Yogis and who wear the mudra are not uncommon.
As mulheres casadas que esto iogues e que usam o mudra no so incomuns. But it is
not according to rule that wives of householders wear the ear-rings. Mas no de
acordo com a regra de que as esposas de chefes de famlia usam os brincos.

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3. 3. Aughar Aughar

Aughars are followers of Gorakhnath who have no undergone the final ceremony of
having their ears split It will be seen, further on, that while many Aughars contemplate
completing their initiation, there is a division of Nath Yogis who always remain
Aughars. Aughars so seguidores de Gorakhnath que no tm sido submetidos a
cerimnia final de ter os ouvidos dividir-se-, mais adiante, que, embora muitos
Aughars contemplar completar seu incio, h uma diviso da Nath Yogis que sempre
permanecem Aughars.

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4. 4. Singnad & Janeo Singnad & Janeo

Both Aughars and yogis of the sect wear a janeo, or sacred thread, which is made by
certain members of the order, who are taught the art. Ambos Aughars e iogues da seita
use uma janeo ou cordo sagrado, que feita por alguns membros da ordem, que so
ensinadas a arte. It is not made by all yogis nor by Brahmans .The thread spun from
black sheep's wool and consists of nine strands. No feito por todos os yogis nem por
brmanes. A discusso girou a partir da l de ovelha negra e consiste de nove vertentes.
It is worn around the neck. usado ao redor do pescoo.

To this thread is attached a ring, which may be flat or cylindrical, called pavitri . Para
este segmento est anexado um anel, que pode ser plana ou cilndrica, chamado pavitri.
It is made of deer's horn, rhinoceros horn, of bone, of brass or other metal. feito de
chifre de veado, corno de rinoceronte, de osso, de bronze ou outro metal. Brass rings
obtained from Nepal have on their rim three images, that of Pasupati (Siva) with the
trident on one side of it and the bull on the other. Anis de bronze obtido a partir de
Nepal em seu aro trs imagens, que de Pasupati (Siva), com o tridente de um lado dele
eo touro de outro. The ring represents Parvati. O anel representa Parvati.

To the ring are attached, by means of a white cotton cord, a whistle, singnad , and a
single rudrdksa berry. Para o anel esto ligados, por meio de um cordo de algodo
branco, um apito, singnad, e uma baga rudrdksa nico. The singnad is, as the name
implies, a whistle made of horn, either of black-buck horn, of stag horn, or of rhinoceros
horn. O singnad , como o nome indica, um apito feito de chifre, ou de chifre de cervo-
negro, de chifre de veado, ou de chifre de rinoceronte. As a matter of fact, it may be
made of wood or of jade. Por uma questo de fato, pode ser feita de madeira ou de jade.
It is about two inches long. cerca de dois centmetros de comprimento. That of black-
buck's horn is the most popular. Esse fanfarro do chifre-negro o mais popular. The
use of horn is explained in a legend about a king Bhartri (Bhartrhari). O uso da buzina
explicado em uma lenda sobre um rei Bhartri (Bhartrhari). Once his seventy queens
urged him to go hunting. Depois de rainhas seus setenta pediu-lhe para ir caar. While
he was away he ran across a herd of seventy hinds and one stag; but was unable to
overtake the stag. Enquanto esteve fora, deparou com um rebanho de gazelas e setenta e
um veado, mas foi incapaz de ultrapassar o veado. Finally, a hind asked the stag to
allow himself to be shot, and he agreed, on certain conditions, one of which was that his
horn should be used for the Yogi's whistle.' Finalmente, uma gazela perguntou o veado
para permitir-se ser fuzilado, e ele concordou, em certas condies, uma das quais foi a
de que a buzina deve ser usada para o apito do Yogi.

The singnad is blown before meals and before morning and evening worship. O singnad
est queimado antes das refeies e noite e culto matinal. It may blown before the
Yogi performs his offices of nature. Pode explodido antes o iogue executa seus
escritrios da natureza.

Some attach a tooth pick of silver to the thread. Alguns atribuem um palito de prata para
o segmento. This may have a protective use against evil influences. Isso pode ter um
uso de proteo contra as ms influncias.
Because the whistle is fastened to it, the thread is called singnad-Janeo . Porque o apito
preso a ele, o segmento chamado singnad-Janeo.

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5. 5. Langoti Langoti

Some Yogis wear around the loins, a special rope made of black sheep's wool to which
they fasten the loin cloth, langoti . Alguns Yogis desgaste em torno dos lombos, um
cabo especial feito de l de ovelha negra para que prenda a tanga, langoti. It is called
arband-langoti-nag . chamado arband-nag-langoti. As the last word in this name
signifies, they, except for the rope, go naked. Como a ltima palavra em que esse nome
significa, que, exceto para a corda, andar nu. This cord, which is an inch or more in
diameter, is made on a bobbin, and is finished with a loop on one end and a button on
the other. Esse cabo, que uma polegada ou mais de dimetro, feita sobre uma bobina,
e terminou com um lao em uma extremidade e um boto do outro. It is fastened in
front. Ele preso na frente. Most Yogis use a strip of cotton cloth instead of this rope of
wool. A maioria dos iogues usar uma tira de tecido de algodo, em vez de esta corda de
l.

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6. 6. Hal matanga(Thread) Hal Matanga (Thread)

A third 'thread' is worn by some Nath Yogis. Um terceiro 'discusso' usado por alguns
Yogis Nath. Special regulations go with its use. regulamentos especiais vo ao seu uso.
For example, while wearing this and the other paraphernalia that go with it, the Yogi
may neither sit nor stand still but must go out, as soon as he , may put it on, and beg.
Por exemplo, enquanto usava esse e outros apetrechos que vo com ele, o Yogi pode
nem sentar nem ficar parado, mas deve sair, assim como ele, pode coloc-lo, e implorar.
This cord is called hal matanga . Este cabo chamado Matanga hal. It is made of three
strands, each of eight threads, plaited with the twist to the right into a bobbin cords One
end is finished with five tails, and the other has a bell, like a large, brass sleigh-bell,
attached to it. composto por trs partes, cada uma das oito tpicos, entranados com a
toro para a direita em um cabos da bobina Uma final terminar com cinco caudas, eo
outro tem um sino, como uma, de bronze grande tren sino, ligado a ele . Sometimes
strips of red cloth are woven into the cord. s vezes, as tiras de pano vermelho so
tecidos na medula. The 'thread' is reckoned of various lengths, nine, eleven and one-half'
or twenty-three cubits; and is of about the diameter of a lead pencil, although it may be
considerably larger. A "discusso" contado de vrios comprimentos, nove, onze e
meia "ou 23 cvados, e sobre o dimetro de um lpis, embora possa ser
consideravelmente maior.
The cord may be worn as a sort of plaited net-jacket. O cabo pode ser usado como uma
espcie de camisa-de-rede tranada. In this case it is first doubled. Neste caso, a
primeira dobrada. The end, with bell attached, is hung down in front, the bell reaching
to the knees; the cord is then thrown over the left shoulder and turned back under the
right shoulder; then around the chest and under the left and over the right shoulder; it is
crossed under the long section in front and then wound round and round the body,
alternately under and over the front strands and plaited as it is wound about the chest. O
final, com guizo, est pendurado para baixo na frente, o sino chegar at os joelhos, o
cabo ento jogado sobre o ombro esquerdo e voltou-se sob o ombro direito e, depois,
volta do peito e sob a esquerda e sobre o ombro direito , que atravessada na seo
longa na frente e depois da ferida em volta do corpo, alternadamente sob e sobre os fios
entranados frente e como ele enrolado sobre o peito. After the cord is adjusted, two
Mala are put on, one over each shoulder and under the opposite one. Depois que o cabo
est ajustada, dois Mala so colocados, um sobre cada ombro e com o oposto. Smaller
Mala are put around the neck and on each forearm. Mala menores so colocados ao
redor do pescoo e em cada antebrao. 'Handkerchiefs' are fastened to the upper arms.
'Lenos' so presas ao brao. The Yogi then takes his bowl, his bag and his fire-tongs
and goes out to beg. O Yogi, ento, a sua bacia, sua bolsa e seu fogo-pinas e sai para
mendigar. The wearing of the cord is a matter of choice rather than of regulation. O uso
do cabo uma questo de escolha e no de regulao.

An occasional Nath Yogis wears the usual janeo , or sacred thread of the Hindu. Uma
ocasional Nath Yogis usa o janeo usual, ou cordo sagrado dos hindus. Yogis are met
with who do not wear the sacred thread, singnad-janeo. Yogis so atendidas com que
no usam o cordo sagrado, janeo-singnad. A Yogi who has attained to unusual spiritual
eminence may discard the use of the thread and the ear-rings, saying that he wears them
invisibly, or that he wears them underneath his skin. Um Yogi que tenha atingido a
eminncia espiritual incomum pode descartar o uso do fio e os brincos, dizendo que ele
usa-los de forma invisvel, ou que ele usa-los debaixo de sua pele. This is not an
uncommon claim in legends about holy men. Esta no uma afirmao incomum em
lendas sobre homens santos.

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7. 7. Rudraksha Mala Rudraksha Mala

Athough Nath Yogis Yogis wear no distinctive Mala, they do use some that are of
significance and of interest.One of these consisting of rudraksa berries is that commonly
worn by Saivites. Athough Nath Yogis Yogis no usam Mala distintivo, eles usam
alguns que so de importncia e de interest.One destes constitudo de bagas de rudraksa
que comumente usado por Saivites. It is hung around the neck and consists of thirty-
two, of sixty-four, of eighty-four, of one hundred and eight, or even of more berries.'
pendurado no pescoo e composto por trinta e dois, de sessenta e quatro, de oitenta e
quatro, dos cento e oito, ou mesmo de frutos mais '. A smaller one having eighteen or
twenty-eight berries,' is worn on the wrist, or elbow. Um menor de ter dezoito anos ou
28 bagas, usado no pulso ou cotovelo. This is called sumarani . Esta sumarani
chamado. The small rosary is often carried in the hand. O rosrio de pequeno porte
muitas vezes feita mo. Beads are used in worship and as a check on memory, while
repeating the names of God.This is evident from the technical terms for rosary, japa
mala , ,muttering chaplet' and sumarani ,'remembrancer. Os grnulos so usados na
adorao e como uma verificao na memria, ao repetir os nomes dos God.This
evidente, os termos tcnicos para Rosrio, japa mala, resmungando Tero e sumarani
'remembrancer. A Saivite has to recite the 1,008 names of his god. Um Sivaista tem de
recitar a 1.008 nomes do seu deus.

Rudraksa berries (of the tree elocarpus ganitrus ) are significant for the Yogi in many
ways. bagas Rudraksa (do ganitrus elocarpus rvore) so importantes para o iogue de
muitas maneiras. The word 'rudraksa' means 'eye of Rudra (Siva)' and may refer to the
third, now invisible, eye of that god, which will be opened for the destruction of the
worlds There is a mark on the seed that is said to resemble an eye. Siva) de Rudra ('A
palavra' rudraksa 'significa' olho e pode referir-se, agora invisvel, terceiro olho desse
deus, que ser aberto para a destruio dos mundos, h uma marca sobre a semente que
dito se assemelham a um olho. Or, the berries may refer to the tears, shed by Siva in
rage when he set out to destroy the three cities, Tripura; for those tears became rudraksa
berries. Ou, as bagas pode referir-se as lgrimas, derramado por Siva de raiva quando
ele partiu para destruir as trs cidades, Tripura, para aquelas lgrimas eram frutos
rudraksa. Again, some say that the string of 108 berries represents that many successive
appearances of Siva on the earth.' Novamente, alguns dizem que a seqncia de 108
bagas, que representa muitas aparies sucessivas de Shiva na terra. " The size of the
berries is of importance. O tamanho dos frutos de grande importncia.

Rudraksa berries are found with faces ranging from one to twenty-one in number, and
each kind has a special significance. Rudraksa bagas so encontrados com caras que vo
1-21 em nmero, e cada tipo tem um significado especial. The usual number of faces is
five, and some say that this berry is sacred to Hanuman, or to the Pandavas. O habitual
nmero de faces de cinco, e alguns dizem que este fruto sagrado Hanuman, ou para
os Pandavas. It also represents the five-faced Siva. Ele tambm representa a Siva cinco
faces.

The number of faces is often merely of symbolic importance; for example, that of three
faces represents the trident, or the triad; that of four, the four Vedas, or Brahma; that of
six, the six systems of philosophy; that of seven, the seven the worlds; that of eight, the
eight-armed Durga; that of nine, the nine Nathan; that of ten, the ten avtaras (of Visnu);
while that of eleven is sacred to Mahadeva and is counted as the 'very best' and is worn
by celibates only. O nmero de faces muitas vezes apenas de importncia simblica,
por exemplo, que das trs faces representa o tridente, ou a trade, ou quatro, os quatro
Vedas, ou Brahma, que de seis, os seis sistemas de filosofia, que de sete , os sete
mundos, ou de oito, a armada Durga oito, que dos nove, o Nathan nove, que de dez, o
avtaras dez (de Vishnu), enquanto que onze sagrado para Mahadeva e contado como
o ' muito melhor "e usado por apenas celibatrios. It is referred to as Saknand Puran
not spilling, as of semen]. referido como Saknand Puran no derramar, a partir de]
smen. The two-faced berry is worn only by a Yogi who is accompanied by his wife.' A
baga de duas caras usado apenas por um Yogi que est acompanhado por sua esposa. "
A much valued berry is that which is double, that is, two berries naturally joined. A
baga muito valorizado aquele que o dobro, ou seja, duas bagas naturalmente unidas.
If the total number of faces on the two be eleven, the double is called Gauri-Sankar, and
it is sacred to Parvati (Gauri) and Siva. Se o nmero total de faces dos dois ter onze
anos, o casal chamado Gauri Sankar, e sagrado para Parvati (Gauri) e Shiva. One-
faced berries are very seldom found. bagas de um enfrentados so raramente
encontrados. It is said that kings only possess them, and that one who finds such a berry
is set up for life in wealth, because it secures to the owner everything that he may wish.
Diz-se que s os reis possuem, e que aquele que encontra como uma baga est
preparado para a vida na riqueza, porque assegura ao proprietrio tudo o que ele pode
desejar. This rare type is often counterfeited. Este tipo raro frequentemente falsificada.

There is no rule as to the number of faces for the berry that the guru gives to his disciple
at the initiation; and the one received at that time may be changed, later on, for one of
another number of faces. No existe uma regra quanto ao nmero de faces para a baga
do que o guru d a seu discpulo no incio, e outra recebida naquele momento poder ser
alterado, posteriormente, por uma de outro nmero de faces.

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8. 8. Other Malas Malas Outros

Two Mala made of while' 'stone' beads (really nummulities) are greatly prized by Yogis.
Dois Mala feita de contas 'pedra' enquanto '(realmente nummulities) so muito
apreciados pelos Yogis. Both are obtained on the difficult pilgrimage to the Vamacara
Sakti Temple at Hing Laj. Ambas so obtidas na peregrinao difcil a Sakti Vamacara
Templo em Hing Laj. That made of the smaller 'stone' beads is called Hing Ldj ka
thumra; the other, made of larger beads, Asapuri . Isso fez de menor 'pedra' contas
chamada Hing LDJ ka thumra, o outro, feito de grnulos maiores, Asapuri. The former
is said to represent grains of millet (jawar) , the latter, grains of rice, or bajra . O
primeiro que se diz representar os gros de milheto (jawar), este ltimo, os gros de
arroz, ou bajra. The former is the more commonly worn, and is evidently the more
prized. O primeiro o mais comumente usado, e evidentemente o mais premiado. It
consists of 5001 or 1,000 beads. constituda por 5.001 ou 1.000 contas.
Necklaces made of beads of glass, of china, and of other materials are worn bye but,
apparently, with no special religious significance. Colares de contas de vidro, porcelana
e outros materiais so usados adeus, mas, aparentemente, sem significado religioso
especial.

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9. 9. Vibhuti (Ashes) Vibhuti (Cinzas)

All Yogis use ashes, but the practice is not limited to them, tor all ascetics observe the
custom, which is very old. Sabhasma,drja , 'sprinkled with ashes,' is a generic term for
SaiVite. Nath Yogis use ashes for the tripund (tripundra) or triple mark drawn across
the forehead, and on other parts of the body. Todas as cinzas utilizao Yogis, mas a
prtica no se limita a eles, tor todos os ascetas respeitar o costume, que muito antiga.,
Drja Sabhasma ", polvilhada com cinzas, ' um termo genrico para Saivita. Nath
cinzas para a utilizao Yogis tripund (tripundra) ou tripla marca desenhada na testa e
em outras partes do corpo. This mark is to represent the half-moon drawn three times.
Essa marca representar a meia-lua, empatou trs vezes. They also cover the body with
ashes, or with earth mixed with ashes. Eles tambm cobrir o corpo com cinzas ou com
terra misturada com cinzas. Those who go naked rub the whole body with ashes.
Aqueles que andam nus esfregar todo o corpo com cinzas. The hair is also sprinkled
with ashes. O cabelo tambm polvilhada com cinzas. It is said that the practice serves
to protect the user from vermin. Diz-se que a prtica serve para proteger o usurio
contra vermes. Earth is often used instead of ashes.' A Terra frequentemente usado em
vez de cinzas. "

Ashes may be taken from the dhuni , the Yogi's hearthfire. As cinzas podem ser
tomadas a partir da Dhuni, Yogi hearthfire o. Ashes of burned cow-dung are also used.
Cinzas de queimadas excremento de vaca tambm so utilizados. Siva, as the Yogi par
excellence, covers his bodywith ashes from the burning grounds. Shiva, como a
excelncia Yogi, cobre seu corpo contra as cinzas do recinto da queima.

Several reasons are given for the use of ashes.' H vrias razes para o uso das cinzas. "
They signify death to the world,' and, in this case, undoubtedly refer to the burning
grounds; or, they may indicate that the body must be reduced to ashes ultimately,' or
they may be a sign that the Yogi has abandoned the world. Elas significam a morte ao
mundo, e, neste caso, sem dvida, referem-se aos fundamentos queima, ou, eles podem
indicar que o corpo deve ser reduzido a cinzas, em ltima anlise ', ou eles podem ser
um sinal de que a iogue abandonou o mundo . Ashes protect from evil spirits as well.
Ashes proteger dos maus espritos tambm.
The common mark placed upon the forehead by the Yogi is the tripund, consisting of
three horizontal lines, or of a broad band, made by the hand, with ashes, with ashes and
clay, or with sandal-wood paste. A marca comum colocado testa do Yogi o tripund,
constitudo por trs linhas horizontais, ou de uma banda larga, por um lado, com as
cinzas, com cinzas e barro, ou com pasta de sndalo. Similar lines are drawn on other
parts of the body, for example, on the arms and chest. linhas similares so desenhados
em outras partes do corpo, por exemplo, nos braos e no peito. These are, strictly,
Saivite marks The tripund is sometimes said to represent the moon. Estes so, a rigor,
Saivita marcas A tripund vezes dito para representar a lua. Some Yogis put on the
forehead a mark consisting of a black, horizontal line with a black dot above it,
representing Bhairom; and below it a red circle representing Hanuman (Mahabir).
Alguns Yogis colocar na testa uma marca constituda por uma linha preta horizontal
com uma bolinha preta acima dela, o que representa Bhairom, e abaixo dela um crculo
vermelho que representa Hanuman (Mahabir). A few put a single spot of sandal-wood
paste on the forehead, when they are 'offering' the paste to Bhairom. Alguns colocar um
ponto nico de pasta de madeira de sndalo na testa, quando so oferecer o colar para
Bhairom. Still others put a black spot on the forehead when they are burning incense.
Outros, ainda, colocar uma mancha preta na testa quando esto queimando incenso.
Other forms of the tika are the double square of sandal-wood paste: a single spot of
ashes on the forehead; a yellow, rounded rectangle with a red dot in the centre; a
rounded rectangle of yellow with a single grain of rice in the middle, below a brush of
ashes; two circles one above the other, the upper of sandalwood paste, the other red; a
circle made of a mixture of sandal-wood paste and a red substance, for Bhairom: two
spots one above the other, the upper red, the lower black; two elongated enclosures one
above the other, in red, with a red dot below. Outras formas da tika so o duplo
quadrado de pasta de madeira de sndalo: um nico ponto de cinzas na testa, um
arredondado, retngulo amarelo com um ponto vermelho no centro, um retngulo
arredondado de amarelo com um nico gro de arroz na mdia, abaixo de uma escova
de cinzas; dois crculos sobrepostos, a parte superior da pasta de sndalo, a outra
vermelha; um crculo feito de uma mistura de pasta de madeira de sndalo e uma
substncia vermelha, por Bhairom: dois pontos um sobre o outro , o vermelho superior,
inferior em preto, dois compartimentos alongados um acima do outro, em vermelho,
com um ponto vermelho abaixo. In Benares it was explained that these marks have to
do with the is. tadeva, or chosen god, of the particular Yogi. Em Benares, foi explicado
que estas marcas tm a ver com o . Tadeva, ou escolhido por Deus, do Yogi particular.
The examples given by no means exhaust the varieties of tika employed. Os exemplos
dados por no esgotam as variedades de tika empregado.

At the time that a candidate is made a novice ( Aughar), his head, including his scalp-
lock (cutiya) , is shaved. No momento em que um candidato feito um novio
(Aughar), com a cabea, incluindo o couro cabeludo-lock (cutiya), raspada. Aside
from this, there seems to be no uniform practice with reference to the care of the hair.
Afora isso, no parece haver uma prtica uniforme, com referncia ao cuidado dos
cabelos. Apparently the hair on the head and face should all be shaved or none.'
Aparentemente, o cabelo na cabea e no rosto todos devem ser raspados ou nenhuma. "
If a Yogi has his moustache and his beard shaved and not his head, or the reverse, he
must pay a fine of one rupee and four annas. Se um Iogue tem o bigode ea barba
raspada e no a cabea, ou o contrrio, ele deve pagar uma multa de uma rpia e quatro
annas. Some allow their, hair to grow long' and it is left unkempt or matted. Alguns
permitem que os seus cabelos, a crescer muito "e deixado despenteado ou
emaranhado. Others shave their heads. Outros raspam suas cabeas. Some braid black
wool into their hair. Alguns trana de l preta em seus cabelos. The photographs show
in this volume is indicate a lack of uniformity in practice It claimed that those who have
their heads shaved wear clothes, while others go scantily clothed (nanga) , or wear no
clothes at all and are obliged to sit on the ground But this assertion goes not seems to
hold good in general. As fotografias mostram neste volume indicar uma falta de
uniformidade na prtica, alegando que aqueles que tm suas cabeas raspadas, roupas de
vestir, enquanto outros vo escassamente vestidas (Nanga), ou no usam roupas, e que
so obrigados a sentar no cho, mas esta afirmao no anda parece ter boa em geral.

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10. 10. Dress Code Dress Code

The `yellow' robe is the distinctive dress of the Yogi . O manto 'amarelo o vestido
distintivo da Yogi. In practice, the yellow robe is by no means commonly worn. Na
prtica, o manto amarelo no de forma comumente usado. Many dress in the ordinary
garb of the Hindu, some times coloured with ochre, but very often simply white. Muitos
se vestem com os trajes comuns dos hindus, por vezes colorida com ocre, mas muitas
vezes simplesmente branco. Thin cotton is used in the warm weather and slightly
heavier clothing in the cold weather. algodo fino usado no tempo quente e roupas um
pouco mais pesado no tempo frio. In the Panjab, in the cold season, heavy clothes of
wool are worn, made after the common patterns of the people.' No Panjab, na estao
fria, roupas pesadas de l so usados, feita depois que os padres comuns do povo. "
However, many Yogis go scantily clothed, wearing only a loin cloth. No entanto,
muitos iogues ir escassamente vestidos, vestindo apenas uma tanga. Some add to this a
scarf, or a jacket of the usual type. Alguns acrescentar a este um leno, ou um casaco do
tipo usual. A girdle of wool (arband) is sometimes the only clothyning. Um cinto de l
(arband) s vezes a nica clothyning. 0ccasionally one sees a long, loose robeorange
colour, often drawn in at the waist with a cord. 0ccasionally se v uma longa, cor
robeorange soltas, muitas vezes elaborado na altura da cintura com uma corda.

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11. 11. Pagre Pagre

The headdress varies greatly. O cocar muito varivel. Turbans (pagri) are common.
Turbantes (pagri) so comuns. These are either white or ochre-coloured, as a rule.
Trata-se de branco ou de cor ocre, como uma regra. This wear a simple white cap,
others a cap of patch-work. Este simples usar um bon branco, outro uma tampa de
remendos. This last is the characteristic headdress of the Satnathis . Esta ltima a
caracterstica do cocar Satnathis. while travelling. enquanto viaja. A conical cap of nine
sections, with earflaps, or a cap of black ribbons is worn. Uma tampa cnico de nove
sees, com earflaps, ou uma tampa de fitas pretas est desgastado. Still others wear no
head covering at all. Ainda outros no usam cobertura para a cabea de todo. The
Aughars of Kirana wear an ochre-coloured turban over which is twisted a net work of
black thread, covered with gold. O Aughars Kirana de usar um turbante de cor ocre
sobre o que torcido um trabalho lquido do segmento negro, coberto de ouro.

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12. 12. Personal Objects Objetos pessoais

Besides Mala and other articles of dress and ornaments as already described, Yogis
wear certain objects for personal adornment. Alm de Mala e outros artigos de vesturio
e adornos, como j descrito, Yogis desgaste de certos objetos de adorno pessoal.
Bracelets of brass, of precious metals and of rhinoceros leather may be mentioned; brass
bracelets obtained in Nepal, like the pavitri of brass already described, having on the
rim an image of Pasupati, with Nanda, the bull, on one side and the trident on the other;
and armlets of copper from Kedarnath and of iron from Badrinath. Pulseiras de bronze,
de metais preciosos e de couro de rinoceronte, pode ser mencionado; pulseiras de
bronze obtida no Nepal, como o pavitri de bronze j descritos, tendo na borda de uma
imagem de Pasupati, com Nanda, o touro, de um lado eo tridente por outro, e braceletes
de cobre a partir Kedarnath e do ferro de Badrinath. Some Yogis wear anklets. Kangnas
, or wristlets and armlets made of thread re worn, likewise charms and amulets of the
usual types. Alguns Yogis usar tornozeleiras. Kangnas ou pulseiras e braceletes feitos
de re discusso desgastado, tambm encantos e amuletos dos tipos de costume. Fingers
rings of various patterns and materials are common. Os dedos anis de vrios padres e
materiais so comuns.

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13. 13. Accessories Acessrios

Like most Indian ascetics Nath Yogis have a number of necessary accessories. Como a
maioria dos ascetas indianos Nath yogues tm uma srie de acessrios necessrios.
Among triese is the dhuni , or fire, consisting of a smouldering log of wood (or more
than one), sometimes in a hollow pit. Entre triese o Dhuni ou incndio, constitudo de
um tronco de madeira fumegante (ou mais), s vezes em um poo vazio. Whenever he
takes up his abode he lights his fire, provided there is not one already at the place.
Sempre que ele leva a sua morada, ele acende o fogo, desde que no haja uma j no
local. At all important shrines and Ashram such fires are found, some ohich have been
kept burning for long periods of time. Em todos os santurios importantes e incndios
Ashram forem encontrados, alguns ohich ter sido mantida acesa por longos perodos de
tempo.

Nath Yogis Yogis carry a begging bowl, a wallet, fire-tongs, aa staff, and use a crutch.
Nath Yogis Yogis realizar uma tigela, uma carteira, fogo tenaz, a equipe do AA, e usar
uma muleta. The begging bowl (khappar) may be of cocoanut shell. A tigela (khappar)
pode ser de casca de coco. The most' prized bowls of this kind are large size, -made of
dariya narial , the large variety of cocoanut found in the west. O 'mais valorizada taas
deste tipo so de grande porte, feita de narial Dariya, a grande variedade de coco
encontradas no oeste. These are blackened, and are without a handle. Estes so
escurecidos, e sem ala. Some use a bowl with a handle, but the regulation pattern is as
just described. Alguns usam uma tigela com um punho, mas o padro de regulao
como que acabamos de descrever. A bowl with a handle, made of gourd, is also used.
Uma tigela com um punho, feitas de cabaa, tambm utilizada. This is a common type
and is often called tomri. Este um tipo comum e freqentemente chamado de tomri.
A bowl of this shape, made of brass is often seen. Uma tigela desta forma, feita de lato
freqentemente encontrada.

The wallet, or bag, which is made of red cloth, is square in shape. A carteira ou bolsa,
que feita de pano vermelho, de formato quadrado. It is usually hung from the left
shoulder, and is used to carry utensils and the supplies collected while begging.
Costuma-se pendurada no ombro esquerdo, e utilizado para transportar utenslios e os
suprimentos coletados enquanto mendicncia. There is no prescribed length for the fire-
tongs (cimta) . No h tempo previsto para o fogo-pinas (cimta). All ascetics carry
them. Todos os ascetas carreg-los. Tongs may serve as a weapon, and perhaps,
incidentally as a protection against evil spirits. Tongs pode servir como uma arma, e
talvez, alis como proteo contra maus espritos. Occasionally the tongs take the place
of a musical instrument. Ocasionalmente, as pinas tomar o lugar de um instrumento
musical. Sometimes a pair of tweezers is attached to the tongs. s vezes, um par de
pinas est ligado pina. These are used to handle coals for the cilam , or pipe bowl.
Estes so utilizados para manipular as brasas para o cilam, ou bacia de tubulao. The
tweezers may be attached to the pipe bowl by a chain. As pinas podem ser associadas
bacia da tubulao por uma corrente.

The staff of the Nath Yogis is of bamboo, or of timur, a stick covered with knots, or a
trident of metal The-Crutch, acal , is made of a horizontal stick about sixteen inches
long, fastened to a short perpendicular support. O pessoal do Yogis Nath de bambu,
ou de Timur, um pau coberto de ns, ou um tridente de metal a muleta, a ACAL, feito
de uma vara horizontal aproximadamente dezesseis centmetros de comprimento, preso
a um apoio a curto perpendicular. It is used as a rest for the chin, or the arms, during
meditation and at certain other times. usado como um descanso para o queixo, ou os
braos, durante a meditao e, em certas outras vezes. Crutches are used to support the
body prepared for burial. As muletas so usadas para apoiar o corpo preparado para o
enterro.

The conch shell is used by Yogis in worship, being blown at the time of service' Yogis
in Benares and elsewhere carry a fan made of peacock feathers (han mocal) used to
keep off flies, and also in exorcism, to keep off evil spirits, and, to relieve children
suffering from the effects of the evil eye. A concha usado por iogues no culto, sendo
soprado no momento da 'Yogis servio em Benares e em outros lugares carregam um
leque feito de penas de pavo (mocal han) usado para manter as moscas, e tambm em
exorcismo, para afastar maus espritos e, para aliviar as crianas que sofrem dos efeitos
do mau olhado.

They often, especially Bhartri Yogis, play musical instruments, including the sarangi
and sing cyclic songs, or ballads, including those of Gopichand, - Bhartri, Puran Bhagat,
Raja Rasalu, Hir and Ranjha, Guga Pir,
Gorakhnath,Macchendranath,Dharamnath,Garibnath, Rani Pingla, Devi and Ganesa.
Eles muitas vezes, especialmente Bhartri Yogis, tocar instrumentos musicais, incluindo
o sarangi e cantar cclica, ou baladas, incluindo os de Gopichand - Bhartri, Puran
Bhagat, Raja Rasalu, Hir e Ranjha, Guga Pir, Gorakhnath, Macchendranath,
Dharamnath, Garibnath , Pingla Rani Devi, e Ganesha.

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14. 14. Caste Casta

Nathyogis are casteless. Nathyogis so casta. Within the order there are no caste
restrictions upon eating, drinking and smoking. Dentro da ordem no existem restries
sobre a casta de comer, beber e fumar. Theoretical equality does not, however, extend to
women, for Nathyogis do not allow their women folk to eat with them, although women
of all panths eat together. igualdade terica no significa, no entanto, estender s
mulheres, para Nathyogis no permitem que seus povos das mulheres para comer com
eles, embora as mulheres de todas as panths comer juntos.

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15. 15. Initiation Iniciao


Initiation is divided, roughly, into two stages. A iniciao dividida, a grosso modo, em
duas etapas. the first, a probationary period, followed by ceremonies leading to
preliminary discipleship; the second, during which the ceremony of splitting the ears,
which leads to full membership in the sect, is performed. o primeiro, um perodo de
estgio, seguido de cerimnias principais para o discipulado preliminar, a segunda,
durante o qual a cerimnia de dividir as orelhas, o que leva adeso plena da seita,
executada. An initiate in the first stage is called an Aughar; in the second stage he
becomes a full-fledged Yogi. Um iniciado na primeira fase chamada de Aughar; na
segunda fase ele se torna um Yogi completo. A candidate may be of almost any age.
Um candidato pode ser de qualquer idade. There are many boys, of varying ages, who
are fully initiated Kanphatas. H muitos meninos, de idades variadas, que so
completamente iniciado Kanphatas.

The months most auspicious for the ceremonies are Pus , DecemberJanuary; Magh ,
JanuaryFebruary; Phagun , FebruaryMarch; and Cait , MarchApril; and
initiations are almost entirely confined to these months. Os meses mais auspicioso para
as cerimnias so Pus, dezembro e janeiro; Magh, janeiro-fevereiro; Phagun, fevereiro
e maro, e Cait, maro-abril, e as iniciaes so quase totalmente confinada a estes
meses.

Initiation usually takes place at a Ashram, but it may be performed at a place of


pilgrimage, or at a temple of Bhairom. Iniciao geralmente ocorre em um Ashram, mas
pode ser realizado em um local de peregrinao, ou em um templo de Bhairom.

The candidate is first closely confined for a period ranging from forty days to from three
to six months; that is, for a period of testing satisfactory to the guru. O primeiro
candidato confinado por um perodo que varia de quarenta dias para de trs a seis
meses, ou seja, por um perodo de testes satisfatria para o guru. During this time the
candidate is tried as to his resolution and ability to carry through his undertaking.
Durante este tempo o candidato julgado como a sua resoluo e capacidade de realizar
a sua empresa. At the same time he is dissuaded from becoming a Yogi, the guru
pointing out to him the hardships that his initiation and his life as a Yogi would entail.
Ao mesmo tempo ele dissuadido de se tornar um Yogi, o guru apontando para ele as
dificuldades que a sua iniciao e sua vida como um Yogi implicaria.

When the guru is satisfied with the self-control and resolution shown by the candidate, a
fast of two or three days may be prescribed. Quando o guru est satisfeito com o auto-
controle e resoluo apresentado pelo candidato, um jejum de dois ou trs dias podem
ser prescritos. Then, on the day chosen for the initiation ceremony, the candidate bathes
and appears before his guru, bringing with him a rupee and a quarter, a cocoanut,
flowers, and sweets. Em seguida, no dia escolhido para a cerimnia de iniciao, o
candidato banha e aparece antes de seu guru, trazendo com ele uma rupia e quarto, um
coco, flores e doces. The latter are distributed amongst those present. Os ltimos so
distribudos entre os presentes. A two-edged knife, with which the ears are to be split in
the second stage of initiation, is presented to the candidate three times, and he is again
dissuaded from proceeding with the ceremony. Uma faca de dois gumes, com que os
ouvidos esto a ser dividido na segunda fase da iniciao, apresentado ao candidato
por trs vezes, e ele novamente dissuadido de prosseguir com a cerimnia.

The knife is driven into the ground, or is laid down before him and the candidate takes
the necessary vows over it, swearing not to engage in trade, not to take employment, not
to keep dangerous weapons, not to become angry when abused, not to marry, and to
protect his ears. A faca enterrada na terra, ou seja previsto antes dele e que o candidato
tome as promessas sobre ele, jurando no se envolver no comrcio, no ter emprego,
no para manter as armas perigosas, para no ficar com raiva quando se abusa, no se
casar, e para proteger seus ouvidos. Like all other ascetics he takes the vow of ahimsa
(non-injury). Como todos os outros ascetas ele leva o voto de ahimsa (no-agresso).
He then receives the mantras or initiatory verse, either from his guru, or from some
other Yogi. Ele ento recebe a mantras ou verso inicitica, ou de seu guru, ou de algum
outro Yogi. Ochre-coloured clothes are then presented to him, and he is accepted as a
disciple by his guru. roupas de cor ocre, so ento apresentados a ele, e ele aceito
como um discpulo de seu guru. A barber now shaves his head, including the scalp-lock
(cutiya) . Um barbeiro agora raspa a cabea, incluindo o couro cabeludo-lock (cutiya).
In some places, however, his guru cuts off the cutiya . Em alguns lugares, no entanto,
seu guru corta o cutiya.

If the Ganges river is nearby, the hair is consigned to it; if not, the guru keeps the hair in
his wallet until he and his disciple go to the river, when it is taken and offered to the
Ganges. Se o rio Ganges perto, o cabelo expedido para que se no for, o guru
mantm o cabelo em sua carteira at que ele e seu discpulo ir para o rio, quando
tomada e se ofereceu para o Ganges. Or, the hair may be thrown into a tank. Ou, o
cabelo pode ser jogado em um tanque. A feast is then given. A festa dada.

After the barber has finished his work and the candidate has bathed, he seats himself
before his guru, facing north, or east. Aps o barbeiro terminou seu trabalho e os
candidatos se banhou, ele senta-se diante do seu guru, voltada para o norte ou leste. His
teacher then puts around his neck the singnad-janeo , or sacred thread of the order. Seu
professor, ento, coloca em volta do pescoo do janeo-singnad ou cordo sagrado da
ordem. The candidate's body is then smeared with ashes. O corpo do candidato , ento,
manchada de cinza.

He is now the accepted disciple of his guru and begins to serve his religious guide. Ele
agora o discpulo aceite de seu guru e comea a servir o seu guia religioso. He may at
this time, or during the final stage of the initiation, receive from his guru a new name,
that of some saint, or of a plant, or of an animal. Ele pode, neste momento, ou durante a
fase final da iniciao, recebe de seu guru, um novo nome, que de algum santo, ou de
uma planta, ou de um animal.

Those who have undergone the first stage of initiation are usually termed Aughars.
Aqueles que sofreram a primeira fase de iniciao so denominados geralmente
Aughars. They wear, as a usual thing, the clothes of the ordinary Hindu. Eles usam,
como uma coisa normal, as roupas do hindu comum. Some Aughars wear their hair long
and unkempt. Alguns Aughars usam cabelos compridos e desgrenhados.

The Aughar serves his guru, attends his teaching, and performs certain duties about the
establishment where he lives. O Aughar serve seu guru, atende seus ensinamentos, e
executa funes determinadas sobre o estabelecimento onde ele mora. the novice is
made to repeat, twice daily, the presence of his guru tke words, omkar, updesh, adesh
and om through his singnad. o novato feita para repetir, duas vezes por dia, a presena
de seu guru tke palavras, omkar updesh adesh, e om atravs de sua singnad.

The Aughar is not accorded equal rights with the Yogi. O Aughar no reconhecida a
igualdade de direitos com o Yogi. This is illustrated by the fact that at feasts and when
gifts are distribted, the Aughar receives but half the portion of a Yogi. Isto ilustrado
pelo fato de que em festas e os presentes so distribted, o Aughar recebe, mas a metade
da parcela de um Iogue.

There is no stated period of service before which an Aughar may proceed with the final
stage of initiation which will constitute him a Yogi. No h prazo de servio antes que
um Aughar poder prosseguir com a fase final da iniciao, que fazem dele um Iogue.
At any time, when his guru is satisfied that he, is ready, the disciple may proceed with
the initiation., When his guru is satisfied that the candidate is prepared to complete his
initiation, the arrangements are made. A qualquer momento, quando seu guru est
convencida de que ele, est pronto, o discpulo pode proceder a iniciao. Quando seu
guru est convencida de que o candidato est preparado para completar o seu incio, os
arranjos so feitos. The chief tests of fitness are that the pupil has kept his vows, has
been faithful in his service to his guru and is steadfastly resolved to proceed. Os testes
de aptido principal que o aluno tem mantido seus votos, tem sido fiel em seu servio
ao seu guru e est firmemente decidido a prosseguir. First, the candidate bathes, is
shaved, puts ashes on his body, and ties a cloth of cotton about his loins. Primeiro, a
banha candidato, raspado, coloca as cinzas de seu corpo, e amarra um pano de algodo
sobre seus lombos. Some say that he covers the upper part of his body with a cotton
cloth dyed in ochre, but others say not. Alguns dizem que ele cobre a parte superior de
seu corpo com um pano de algodo tingido de ocre, mas outros no dizem. He then
presents himself, with two of his guru's disciples, before his teacher. Em seguida, ele se
apresenta, com dois dos discpulos de seu guru, antes de seu professor. The candidate is
made to sit facing north. O candidato feita para se sentar de frente para o norte. He
draws his knees up and clasps his hands under them. Ele chama os joelhos para cima e
junta as mos sob eles. Preparation for the splitting of the two ears is then made.
Preparao para a separao das duas orelhas feita. A specially skilled Yogi is called
to perform this service, for which he receives one and a quarter rupees. Um Yogi
especialmente qualificados chamado para realizar este servio, para o qual ele recebe
um e rpias trimestre.

The fee may be larger, two and a quarter or twenty-five and a quarter rupees. A taxa
pode ser maior, dois e um quarto ou 25 rpias e um trimestre. This guru is called Kan
Guru (ear-guru) or Cira Guru (the guru who splits the ears). Este guru chamado Kan
Guru (guru da orelha) ou Cira Guru (o guru que divide as orelhas). The two -edged
knife is brought, and in front of Bhairom, mantras, or sacred text pronounced over it. A
faca de dois gumes trazido, e na frente de Bhairom, mantras, ou um texto sagrado
pronunciado sobre ele. Slits, about three-quarters of an inch long, are then made in the
cartileges of both ears. Slits, cerca de trs quartos de uma polegada de comprimento, em
seguida, so feitas no cartileges de ambas as orelhas. The mantra, 'Siva Goraksa,' being
used. O mantra ", Siva Goraksa", a ser utilizado. Some claim that the effect of the
mantra is to make the operation painless and bloodless. Alguns afirmam que o efeito do
mantra fazer a operao sem dor e sem derramamento de sangue. Plugs of nim or of
bikua wood are then inserted in the wounds. Tomadas de nim ou de madeira bikua so
ento inseridas em feridas. The gashes are washed daily with pure water or with nim
water. Os talhos so lavados diariamente com gua pura ou com gua nim. Some say
that the plugs are removed daily when the wounds are dressed. Alguns dizem que os
tampes so removidos diariamente quando as feridas esto vestidas. The care of the
wounds continues for forty days. O cuidado de feridas continua durante quarenta dias. It
is said that the plugs fall out after nine days. Diz-se que as fichas caem, depois de nove
dias. In some instances the nim sticks are covered with the soft, downy feathers of the
peacock's quill and the wounds are kept wet. Em alguns casos, o nim varas esto
cobertas com os macios, penas mldio da pena do pavo e as feridas so mantidos
molhados.

According to one report the regular Yogi who slits the ears inserts the knife and then
asks the novice whether he be willing to renounce the world or not; and if he is
unwilling he withdraws the knife. If the novice says that he is willing to follow the
precepts of the sect and become an ascetic, the ear-slitter moves the knife up and down,
finishing the operation; pieces of a twig of nim-wood, soaked in oil, are inserted in the
wounds for three days, when ear-rings are inserted.

By the slitting of the ears the Aughar becomes a Yogi, and may add to his name the
word Natha, Lord. Often he takes a new name to which he adds the word, Natha.He
may receive as a name that of a plant or animal; eg Nimnatha Kanahnatha, Nagnatha .
Kanthadnathis use the word Kanthad, instead of Natha. When the wounds have healed,
the Yogi resumes his sacred thread, smears his body with ashes, and appears before his
guru. From now on, he will 'remember' his teacher twice daily and appear before him.
Ear-rings of clay, weighing about one-fourth of a pound, are now put on, the mantra,
Om suaham ,'being used. In some parts of India the rings are of lacquered
earthenware.After a period varying from fifteen to twenty, or forty days, or a year, rings
of some other substance may be substituted for those of clay.

The disciple is considered as the adopted son of his guru and inherits from him. After
initiation a Yogi may elect to become a militant Yogi, vowed to celibacy. In this case he
would be known as Naga, Nihang , or Kanphata . On the other hand, quite contrary to
supposed regulations, he may become a householder, or grhasta .

The initiate becomes a member of the sub-sect of his guru; consequently, in choosing
his guru, he chooses his sub-sect. He belongs, also, to the Ashram of which his teacher
is a member.

some women receive initiation. These are either married women, those who enter the
sect after the death of their hasbands.

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16. 16. Ashrams

Many of Nath Yogis reside in Ashram which are headed by Mahant, generally the
mahant choose & nominates his successor. Next in order after the mahant is the guru or
teacher in the order. He usually has a group of students about him who are receiving
instruction preparatory to initiation, or who are Nath yogis under instruction in Yoga.
Nathyogis and Aughars make up the rank and file of the order. As indicated above, a
candidate chooses his guru in the first instance- but the choice may be decided finally
by the mahant.

Life in the Ashram follows a fairly close, but not very exacting routine. There is the
early worship at the samddhs, and the later offerings as well; the time given to teaching
and to meditation; the midday worship at the various shrines and the evening worship.
Begging may form part of the day's work. There is plenty of time for conversation.
Visitors are constantly coming and going. Every Yogi returning from a pilgrimage has
much to report about all sorts of things. There is the business of administration. Each
Yogi has his own room, where he may enjoy some privacy, but much of the life of the
establishment is open to public view. Further details of activities may be noted in the
accounts of the various establishments.

Nath Yogis bury their dead, rarely, if ever, employing the services of Brahmans, the
rites being performed by fellow-Nathyogis.

Thy dying Yogi, especially if he be an adept in Yoga, sits cross-legged, as in


meditation.

After death the body is, prepared for burial. It is washed by-Nathyogis, rubbed with
ashes of cow-dung, or with ashes from the dhuni, sometimes with sugar also, and
dressed in new garments of everyday life. Or, the body may be covered with an ochre-
coloured shroud. A new sacred thread, with the nad, ring and rudraksa berry, and a new
rosary are hung around the neck. Some say that the ear-rings are removed and replaced
by earthen ones. A tika of sandalwood or of red lead is drawn on the forehead. Five
things ar put into the mouth gold silver a pearl, a charred wick from a lamp (cirag)
used worship of Devi, and incense (kesas khusbhu) . The body is then placed in a
posture of meditation (a sitting posture) on a seat, and is supported by one crutch, or by
three. Under the body sugar, and sometime earth, but-not salt, are placed. Flowers also
may be_ put on the seat. A potsherd is placed on the head, but for this a black silk cap
or a turban may be substituted.

The grave is a pit, dug deep, three and one half hands (hath) , and circular. In the south
wall a niche is cut for the reception of the body which is facing north. Under the seat
one rupee and four annas or five a one-fourth rupees and sugar are deposited. The
platform is made of 'wool, grass, etc.

At the right end in front of the body is placed a gourd full of Water; and at the left a rot
(a thick loaf of unleavened bread), a saucer of rice and milk, and another of water. No
lado direito na frente do corpo colocado uma cabaa cheia de gua, e esquerda uma
podrido (um po grossas de po sem fermento), um prato de arroz e leite, e outra de
gua. A loin cloth and a staff (kanak) are laid in front of the body. A tanga e uma equipe
(Kanak) so colocados em frente do corpo. The begging bowl is filled with milk and is
placed in the wallet which is hung from the right shoulder.Sugar and gold are put into
the grave. A tigela est cheia de leite e colocado na carteira, que pendurada a partir
do shoulder.Sugar direita e ouro so colocadas na sepultura. It is then filled in with
earth, and a mound is raised over it. Em seguida, preenchido com terra, e um monte
disparado sobre ela. Later, a masonry platform, or a tomb may be erected over the
grave, in which case it will be surmounted with the yoni-linga The paduka (caran) of
the deceased may be put on the samadh. Mais tarde, uma plataforma de alvenaria, ou
um tmulo pode ser erigida sobre o tmulo, caso em que ser superado com a linga-
yoni O Paduka (caran) do falecido podem ser colocados no samadh.

Some times his body would be placed in a chair shaped like a doli , it would be adorned
with flowers he would be carried to the grave in a procession lead by musicians.
Algumas vezes o seu corpo era colocado em uma cadeira em forma de doli, seria
adornado com flores que ele seria levado para a sepultura de uma procisso de msicos
de chumbo.

The grave is called samadh-or samadhi. O tmulo chamado samadh-samadhi ou. If the
Yogi was a poor man, or if he had been the disciple of a man without landed property,
his body might be placed on two poles and sunk in a river. Se o iogue era um homem
pobre, ou se tivesse sido o discpulo de um homem sem propriedade da terra, seu corpo
pode ser colocado em dois plos e afundou em um rio. This practice was acknowledged
at Benares, but Gorakhpur Nathyogis insisted that all are buried. Esta prtica foi
reconhecida em Benares, mas Gorakhpur Nathyogis insistiu que todos esto enterrados.

For ten or twelve days after the death offerings are made to the deceased. Bel leaves and
flowers are placed on the grave and upon it a lamp is kept burning. Por dez ou doze dias
depois da morte de oferendas so feitas para o falecido deixa Bel. E as flores so
colocadas sobre o tmulo e sobre ele uma lmpada mantida acesa. After the disposal
of the body, all the Nathyogis bathe with water supplied by the deceased's disciples, and
then sweets (laddu) are distributed. Aps a eliminao do corpo, todas as Nathyogis
tomar banho com gua fornecida pelo falecido discpulos, e, em seguida, doces (laddu)
so distribudos. A council of all the Nathyogis at the place where death occurred is
held, and in case the deceased had not chosen a successor, a guru, if this was his rank, is
chosen to take his place. Um conselho de todos os Nathyogis no local onde ocorreu a
morte mantida, e no caso de o falecido no tinha escolhido um sucessor, um guru, se
esta foi a sua classificao, escolhido para tomar o seu lugar. The clothes of the dead
are given to degraded Nathyogis or are divided among those present. As roupas dos
mortos so dadas a Nathyogis degradados ou so divididos entre os presentes. Food and
money also are distributed. Alimentos e dinheiro tambm so distribudos.

On the third day cakes (rot) cooked rice, milk and curma are offered on the grave and
then are consumed by the Worshippers. No terceiro dia, bolos (podrido) de arroz
cozido, leite e curma so oferecidos no tmulo e, em seguida, so consumidos pelos
adoradores. On the twelfth day turmeric powder is sprinkled. No dcimo segundo dia de
aafro em p aspergido. And worship of Bahram Deo and Mari Mai is performed on
a kettle drum (danka) . E a adorao de Bahram Deo e Mai Mari realizado em uma
chaleira de tambor (Danka). On the thirteenth day a conch shell is blown and the Krya
karna is completed and the spirit of the deceased departs. No dcimo terceiro dia uma
concha soprado eo karna Krya no for concludo eo esprito da partida do falecido.
After a year (barsi) , or a year and a half, the sraddha , or funeral rite is performed. The
Nathyogis keep vigil all night and in some places the ceremony known as bharad, the
beating of drums for Devi, is kept up. In the watch before dawn fish, or pakauri , or khir
, or palau or flesh is distributed. Six or seven thrones (gaddi) are erected; to the pir, to
Joginis, to Sakhya (or witness), to Bir, to Dhandari (cook of Guru Gorakhnath), to
Gorakhnath and to Neka or Ant (reported at Almora). Mantras are recited, clothes and
coins of gold, silver and copper are distributed, and a cow or some other gift is made to
the pir. Gifts are made also to Nathyogis. The silver goes to Sakhya, copper to Bir, the
cow to the pir, water to Gorakhnath. Formerly all classes attended this ceremony, now
severaly only Nathyogis.

Worship is continued at the samadhs indefinitely and is performed twice a day. In the
early morning, after bathing, the pujari offers Ganges water, sandalwood, rice, bel
leaves, flowers, sweets and incense at each samadh connected with the Ashram; or at
least some of these things are offered. The food is then thrown away. In the evening
milk and sweets are offered, a lamp is lighted and incense is burned. The poor before
consuming their food offer it at the samadhs. The buried Yogi is supposed to remain in
trance indefinitely.

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Copyright 2006 Amritnath Ashram.