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Production Engineering

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- Chapter 2 Reservoir System
- Flowing and Gas Lift Performance Gilbert 1954
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- 206 spring 2013.pdf
- Final Report
- Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Fluid Flow and Aerodynamic
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SKPP 3513

Department of Petroleum Engineering

Faculty of Petroleum & Renewable Engineering

Universiti Technologi Malaysia

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Objective

Calculate the static & flowing bottomhole pressure

Calculate the velocity, density & viscosity for multiphase

flow

Identify & calculate three components of pressure losses in

tubing & flowlines

Use pressure traverses curves

Construct the VLP curve using Method I & II

Construct the CP line

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

CONTENTS

Introduction

Vertical Lift Performance (VLP)

Basic Theory of Fluid Flow in Pipe

Gilbert Method

Determination of Pwf

Determination of THP

Selection of Optimum Tubing Size

Factors Affecting VLP

Choke Performance (CP)

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Introduction

completed well, it is necessary to recognize that there are

three distinct phases, which have to be studied separately

and then finally linked together before an overall picture of a

flowing wells behavior can be obtained.

These phases are:

Inflow performance: the flow of fluid from the formation into the

bottom of the well IPR.

Vertical lift performance (VLP): involves a study of pressure losses

in vertical pipes carrying two-phase mixture (gas and liquid). Also

known as tubing performance (TP).

Choke performance (CP): a study of pressure losses across the

choke in surface flow-line.

Figure 3-1 show the three phases of flowing well performance.

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 4

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Introduction

Figure 3-1: The three phases of flowing well performance. (a) Inflow

Mohd Fauzi Hamid

performance, (b) Vertical lift performance, (c) Choke performance. 5

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

pressure-rate relationship @ wellbore as fluid flow from

bottomhole to surface.

Directly affected by

Tubing size & depth

GLR

Water production

Separator pressure

Surface flow line size & length

Fluid properties (density, surface tension, viscosity)

Production problems (scaling, sand & paraffin)

Also known as: tubing performance, wellbore flow performance.

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 6

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

The question: Is Pwf Pt > Pwh (or THP)? If yes, the well will

flow.

where: Pt - pressure losses or differential pressure in tubing

Pwh- well head pressure or tubing head pressure (THP)

(tubing) which involve the energy or pressure equilibrium.

The result is the flowing pressure distribution along the

tubing which can be used for the production planning of the

well.

Basic requirement:

Dimensional analysis

Fluid properties: density, viscosity, compressibility, surface

tension.

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 7

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Other factors: Bo, Bg, Rs, etc

Basic information:

P brine @ SG = 1.07: 0.464 psi/ft

P 42 oAPI oil (SG = 0.815): 0.352 psi/ft

Density = mass/volume

SG oil: 141.5/(131.5+oAPI)

SGL = L/W (density of water, W = 62.4 lb/cuft)

Hydrostatic pressure, Ph = gh.

If in ppg and h in ft, Ph = 0.052h

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Density

mixture (m):

Slip density, s

No-slip density, n = m

Kinetic density, k

s = L H L + g (1 H L )

n L L + g g

= where :

L 2

g g2 = H L liquid hold up

k

= L

+ L =

no slip liquid hold up

HL 1 HL

=H g gas hold up

g =

no slip gas hold up

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 9

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

phenomenon

Slip:

Less dense (lighter) phase ability to flow at greater velocity

than denser (heavier) phase

Hold up:

Consequence of slip

Volume fraction of pipe occupied by denser phase is greater

than would be expected from (relative) in and outflow of

two phases, since its velocity slower than light phase

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Liquid: VSL = qL / Ap

Gas : VSG = qg / Ap

- q = phase volume flow rate

- Ap = pipe cross sectional area

In situ or actual velocity (VL & VG)

Liquid : VL = qL / AL = qL / HL Ap

Gas : VG = qG / AG = = qG / HG Ap

- AG = actual area of pipe occupied by gas

- AL = actual area of pipe occupied by liquid

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

L o Fo + w Fw

=

oil fraction water fraction

qo

Fo = Fw = 1 Fo

qo + qw

28.97 g P

For gas: 2.7 g P

=g =

ZRT ZT o R (o F + 460)

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 13

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Viscosity

Viscosity is a function of T, P, Rs, , composition.

Please refer to the reservoir fluid properties for

determination of viscosity.

Mixture viscosity of multi-phase flow, m:

m = L H L + g (1 H L )

Viscosity of oil and water mixture, liquid viscosity, L:

L o Fo + w Fw

=

where :

= H L liquid hold up

Fo = oil fraction

Fw = water fraction

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Hold-up Factor

Four types of hold-up factor involve when study on the two-

phase flow:

Liquid Hold-up, HL

No-slip liquid hold-up, L

Gas hold-up, Hg

No-slip gas hold-up, g

pipe.

If HL = 0: 100% gas flow

HL = 1: 100% liquid flow

Gas hold-up, Hg

H g = 1 - HL

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 15

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

of liquid in pipe with the volume of the pipe when the gas

and liquid move with the same velocity.

qL

L =

qL + q g

No-slip gas hold-up, g

qg

g =

1 L =

qL + q g

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

function of:

Gas & liquid flow rates

Tubing inclination

angle

Tubing diameter

Phase densities

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

(2)

mgZ 2 mv22

U 2 , PV

2 2, ,

gc 2 gc

(- q)

z2

mgZ1 mv12

U1 , PV

1 1, ,

gc 2 gc

(1)

z1

(+ W)

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Introduction

Based on Energy Equation which produce Energy Equilibrium:

U1 + + + PV

1 1 q +W =U2 + + + PV

2 2

2 gc gc 2 gc gc

where:

U = internal energy carried with the fluid

mv 2

= kinetic energy energy due to velocity

c

2 g

mgz

= potential energy

c

g

q = transferred heat (heat energy)

W = work done by or on the fluid

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 19

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

dP g f v 2 vdv... (2)

= sin + +

dZ g c 2 g c d g c dZ

where:

f = friction factor = f(NRe, )

NRe = Reynold number

= absolute pipe roughness

gc = 32.2lbm.ft/lbf.s2 NRe < 2100 : laminar flow

NRe = 2100 4000 : transition flow

m vm d NRe > 4000 : Turbulent flow

NRe =

m In petroleum :

Water-like viscosity : turbulent flow

Viscous oil : laminar flow

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 20

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

dP dP dP dP

= + + ... (3)

dZ dZ ele dZ f dZ acc

component due to

total pressure kinetic energy changes

gradient vdv

=

g g c dZ

= sin

gc

(component due f v2

=

to potential energy 2 gc d

changes or elevation component due

changes) to friction

problem in fluid flow in pipe.

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 21

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

dP g f v 2 vdv

= + + ... (4)

dZ g c 2 g c d g c dZ

For horizontal flow = 0o:

dP f v 2 vdv

= + ... (5)

dZ 2 g c d g c dZ

dP g f m m vm 2 m vm dvm (6)

= m sin + +

dZ g c 2 gc d g c dZ

subscript m refer to mixture

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 22

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

calculation for the pressure distribution in pipes. The only

differences are:

technique for determination of particular parameters.

assumption or approach used for solving equations (2) and (3).

Generally, there are three groups of methods:

Group that does not consider the slip and the shape of flow.

This includes:

Poettmann & Carpenter

Baxendall

Fancker & Brown

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Group that consider the slip but not the shape of flow. This

include:

Hagedorn & Brown

Group that consider the slip and the shape of flow. This

includes:

Ros

Duns & Ros

Okiszewski

Aziz & Govier

Beggs & Brill

Chierici, Civcci & Scrocchi

All the above methods are complex and difficult, especially for

multi-phase flow.

For practical purpose, empirical method established by Gilbert

(Gilbert Method) will be used.

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 24

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Gilbert Method

depth of tubing, ft

bottomhole flowing pressure (tubing intake pressure), psi

tubing head pressure, psi

production rate, BPD

gas-liquid ratio, Mcf/bbl

tubing size, in

He correlate the above data and as a first attempt he chose

wells with the same rate, GLR and tubing size, as shown in

Figure 3-3.

Each curve represent a different tubing head pressure.

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 25

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

0

Depth, ft

C

Figure 3-3: Flowing BHP as function of THP Figure 3-4: Pressure distribution curve:

and tubing length: constant GLR, vertical two-phase flow

production rate, and tubing size.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Gilbert then assumed that all the curves of varying THP could

be overlying as one curve with the THP converted to a depth

equivalent, as shown in Figure 3-4.

He then continue his correlation to produce a pressure

distribution chart (pressure traverse curve) for a specific

tubing size and production rate. An example of this chart

shown in Figure 3-5.

The pressure distribution charts can be used for:

Selection of the optimum tubing size

Prediction of a well life

Prediction when the well need artificial lift

Planning the artificial lift

Planning the stimulation

Determination of the required Pwf

Mohd Fauzi Hamid Calculating the optimum flow rate 27

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Mohd Fauzi Hamid for 2 7/8 in tubing at 50 BPD and 100BPD. 28

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Locate/choose the Pressure

distribution chart (PDC) that

corresponds to the given

nominal tubing size and oil A

THP equivalent depth

rate.

Find THP (given) on the x-axis

of the chart. Tubing depth

Draw a vertical line from THP

to the given GLR (point A)

Draw a horizontal line from B

point A to the y-axis. The

Tubing equivalent depth

intersection point is THP (Pwf equivalent depth)

equivalent depth (zero

datum).

Figure 3-6: Determination of Pwf

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 29

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

depth (Pwf equivalent depth)

(= THP equivalent depth +

tubing depth)

Draw a horizontal line to the A

THP equivalent depth

GLR (point B).

Draw a vertical line from

point B to the x-axis. The Tubing depth

intersection point is a

Bottomhole flowing

pressure, Pwf.

B

Tubing equivalent depth

(Pwf equivalent depth)

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 30

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Locate/choose the Pressure

distribution chart (PDC) that

corresponds to the given

nominal tubing size and oil D

rate. THP equivalent depth

the chart. Tubing depth

Draw a vertical line from THP

to given GLR (point C)

Draw a horizontal line from C

point C to the y-axis. The

Tubing equivalent depth

intersection point is tubing (Pwf equivalent depth)

equivalent depth (Pwf

equivalent depth).

Figure 3-7: Determination of THP

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 31

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

depth (zero datum)

(= tubing equivalent depth -

tubing depth)

Draw a horizontal line to the

D

GLR (point D). THP equivalent depth

Draw a vertical line from point

D to the x-axis. The

intersection point is a Tubing Tubing depth

head pressure, THP.

C

Tubing equivalent depth

(Pwf equivalent depth)

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 32

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-1

Find the flowing pressure at the foot of 13,000 ft of 2-in

tubing if the well is flowing 100 BPD at a GLR of 1.0 Mcf/bbl

with a THP of 200 psi.

Refer to suitable Pressure distribution chart (Figure 3-8);

THP equivalent depth = 2500 ft

Tubing equivalent depth = 2500 + 13000 = 15500 ft

Pwf = 1860 psi

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

THP Pwf

200 psi 1860 psi

THP equivalent

2500 ft

Pwf equivalent

15500 ft

Mohd Fauzi Hamid

in tubing at 100BPD. 35

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-2

What is the THP of a well, completed with 8000 ft of 2-in

tubing, that is flowing at 600 BPD and a GLR of 0.4 Mcf/bbl if

the pressure at the bottom of the tubing is 2250 psi?.

Tubing equivalent depth = 12,150 - 8000 = 4,150 ft

THP = 610 psi

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

THP Pwf

610 psi 2250 psi

THP equivalent

4150 ft

Pwf equivalent

12150 ft

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 2 3/8 in tubing at 600BPD. 37

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

There are 2 methods available: Method 1 and Method 2

Method 1

From Pwf, Ps and q, plot IPR curve.

Plot Pwf vs q for several size of tubing based on VLP on the

same graph.

assume q (assumption must be tally with chart).

from the chart : given THP THP equivalent depth

tubing equivalent depth (Pwf equivalent depth) Pwf.

Repeat all steps above for new assumed q.

Repeat all steps above for new tubing size.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

tubing size selected):

(2) (3)

(1) (4)

THP equivalent Pwf equivalent

q (BPD) Pwf (psi)

depth (ft) depth (ft)

q1 - - Pwf1

q2 - - Pwf2

q3 - - Pwf3

q4 - - Pwf4

assume according pressure pressure

(2) + tubing depth

to chart distribution chart distribution chart

optimum q for each particular tubing size.

Optimum tubing size is represented by the highest optimum q.

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 39

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Pwf (psi)

Pwf vs q

A IPR

B

C

Figure 3-10: Determination of Optimum Tubing Size (Method 1)

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 40

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Method 2

Plot IPR curve.

Assume q and determine Pwf from IPR curve (or from PI

formula).

By using a suitable pressure distribution chart, determine Pwf

equivalent depth (tubing equivalent depth) (Pwf from 2nd step).

Determine THP equivalent depth.

(= Pwf equivalent depth tubing depth), and then THP.

Repeat the above steps for new tubing size.

From required THP, draw a horizontal line to the right, until

intercept with the THP vs q curves. Intersection points will give

the optimum q for that THP and tubing size.

The highest optimum q correspond to the optimum tubing size.

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 41

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

tubing size selected):

(4)

(3)

(1) (2) THP (5)

Pwf equivalent

q (BPD) Pwf (psi) equivalent THP (psi)

depth (ft)

depth (ft)

q1 - - - THP1

q2 - - - THP2

q3 - - - THP3

q4 - - - THP4

assume pressure pressure

IPR or PI (3) - tubing

according to distribution distribution

formula depth

chart chart chart

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

P (psi)

IPR

Pwf

A

B

C THP vs q

THP

q

0 qopt-C qopt-A qopt-B q (BPD)

Figure 3-11: Determination of Optimum Tubing Size (Method 2)

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 43

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-3

A well producing from a pay zone between 5000 and 5052 ft

is completed with 2-in tubing hung at 5000 ft. The well has a

static BHP of 2000 psi and a PI of 0.3 bb/day.psi and produces

with a GOR of 300 cuft/bbl and a water cut of 10%. At what

rate will the well flow with a THP of 100 psi?

Assume a straight line IPR.

qw gas

= 0.1,

= and 300

q qo

gas 300qo 300(q qw ) q

=

GLR= = = 300(1 w )

q q q q

= 300(1 0.1) = 270 cuft / bbl

q

=

PI = =

qmax 0.3* 2000 600 bbl / d

Ps Pwf

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 44

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Method 1

Involves calculation of Pwf at various values of q, and THP of

100 psi.

(2) (3)

(1) (4)

THP equivalent Pwf equivalent

q (BPD) Pwf (psi)

depth (ft) depth (ft)

50 500 5500 1275

100 700 5700 1150

200 800 5800 1050

400 800 5800 975

600 800 5800 910

assume according to pressure distribution pressure distribution

(2) + 5000

chart chart chart

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Method 1

2500

Example 3-3

P(psi)

qw = 30 bbl/d (10% WC)

1500 qo = 270 bbl/d

Pwf= 1000 psi

1000

Method 2

500 q = 280 bbl/d

qw = 28 bbl/d (10% WC)

0 qo = 252 bbl/d

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

q(BPD) THP= 100 psi

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Method 2

Involves calculation of THP at various values of q, using the

value of Pwf from IPR.

(4)

(3)

(1) (2) THP (5)

Pwf equivalent

q (BPD) Pwf (psi) equivalent THP (psi)

depth (ft)

depth (ft)

50 1833 7300 2300 450

100 1667 7500 2500 400

200 1333 6700 1700 250

400 667 4200 - -

600 0 - - -

IPR or PI

according to distribution (3) 5000 distribution

formula

chart chart chart

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Exercise

A well is to becompleted for which the following data has

been derived:

Productivity index = 18 bbl/day/psi

Reservoir pressure @ 8200 ft = 5500 psi

7 tubing (of 6.366 ID) is available

rate will the well flow, assuming zero water cut.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

q

=PI =

q max 18= =

x 5500 99, 000 BPD (at Pwf 0)

Ps Pwf

=

q 0 at Pwf= P=

s 5,500 psia

THP Equi. Depth Pwf Equi. Depth

q (bbl/day) Pwf (psig)

(ft) (ft)

5000 5450 13650 2770

10000 5800 14000 3110

20000 4950 13100 3000

30000 3800 12000 3290

q = 36000 bbl/day

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

VLP Method-2

Pwf Equi. THP Equi.

q (bbl/day) Pwf (psig) Depth (ft) THP (psig)

Depth (ft)

5000

10000

20000

30000

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Plot IPR curve.

Plot Pwf vs q for several size of tubing based on VLP on the

same graph (same procedure as Method 1)

assume q (assumption must be tally with chart).

from the chart : given THP THP equivalent depth

tubing equivalent depth Pwf.

Repeat all steps above for new assumed q.

Repeat all steps above for new tubing size.

(use the same table as Method 1)

IPR, the well is not producing (not flowing).

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 51

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Pwf (psi)

A Producing

B Not Producing

B Pwf vs q

A IPR

0 q (BPD)

Figure 3-12: Determination of Producing Well

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 52

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Plot IPR curve.

Plot Pwf vs q (VLP) use same method as previously

discussed.

Plot a few future IPR curve

A future IPR curve which not intercept with Pwf vs q curve

shows the dead well.

A future IPR curve which touching the Pwf vs q curve shows

the life of the well.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Pwf (psi)

The well will dead

at IPR no (3)

(1) Pwf vs q

(2)

IPR

(4) (3)

0 q (BPD)

Figure 3-13: Determination of Well Life

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 54

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

GLR and THP

Plot Pwf vs q (VLP) use same method as previously

discussed.

Intersection point between these plots will give the Pwf and q

for that specific tubing size, GLR and THP.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Pwf (psi)

IPR

Pwf vs q

Pwf

0 q q (BPD)

Figure 3-14: Determination of Pwf and q at Specific Tubing,

GLR and THP

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 56

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Other Correlation

type

1952 Poettmann & Semi-empirical 2, 2.5, 3 inch Oil, Practical solution for 2, 2.5, 3

Carpenter & field data water, in. with GLR < 1500 scf/bbl

gas and q > 420 BPD

1962 Winker & Smith Practical 1 3.5 inch Oil, Curve for Poettmann &

water, Carpenter

gas

1960 US Industries Practical 1 4.5 inch Oil, Curve for Poettmann &

water, Carpenter

gas

1954 Gilbert Field data for 2, 2.5, 3 inch Oil, Vertical multiphase flow

practical use water, traverses curve

gas

1961 Ros Lab. exp & field All All Good correlation for all

data ranges of flow

1961 Duns & Ros Lab. exp & field All All Good correlation for all

data ranges of flow & easier to

understand

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Other Correlation

196 Hagedorn & Brown Field exp. 1 4 inch Oil, water, Generalized correlation

5 gas to handle all ranges of

multiphase flow

196 Okiszewski Review all correlation All Oil, water, General correlation to

7 gas predict pressure losses

for all ranges of flow by

utilized Ros, Griffith &

Wallis works

197 Aziz & Govier Laboratory & field All All Testing lab data with

2 data field data

197 Beggs & Brill Laboratory 1, 1.5 inch Air, water Generalized correlation

3 to handle all ranges of

multiple phase flow &

for any pipe angle

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

limit production rates for regulations

protect surface equipment from slugging

avoid sand problems due to high drawdown

control flow rate to avoid water or gas coning

Produce reservoir at most efficient rates.

Placing a choke at the wellhead means fixing the wellhead

pressure and, thus, the Pwf and production rate.

The choke therefore plays an important role in:

well control

reservoir depletion management

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Positive (fixed) chokes the orifice size is specified before

installation.

Adjustable chokes the orifice size can be adjusted after

installation to suit the well and operational requirement.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

potential energy (i.e pressure losses) over a very short

distance.

The design of a choke takes

advantage of the flow regime

resulting from a sudden

disturbance in continuous flow

through a circular conduit.

Figure 3-21: Flow Regime in a Fixed

Choke

Figure 3-21 gives a schematic of the normal flow character of

fluid through a fixed choke.

It describes the combined effect of a sudden flow restriction,

a small-bore flow tube, and an abrupt enlargement.

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 61

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

As the fluid approaches the orifice, it leaves the pipe wall and

contracts to form a high-velocity jet.

The jet converges to a

minimum called the throat or

vena contracta, and then it

expands toward the wall of

the choke bore.

After leaving the choke, the

stream of fluid expands and Figure 3-21: Flow Regime in a Fixed

returns to a flow geometry Choke

similar to what it was before

entering the choke.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

following:

friction throughout the choke

and near-choke areas

turbulence (associated with

the eddy current) near the

entrance and exit of the

choke

slow eddy motions between Figure 3-21: Flow Regime in a Fixed

the contracted jet and the Choke

pipe walls

Abrupt expansion at the exit to the choke.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

A * GLR B

THP = C

* q ..... (1)

S

where:

THP = tubing head pressure, psi (except Ros psia)

GLR = gas-liquid ratio, Mcf/bbl

S = choke size, 1/64 inch

q = flow rate, BPD

A, B, & C = empirical constants related to fluid properties

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Researcher A B C

Gilbert 435 0.546 1.89

Baxendel 419 0.546 1.83

Achong 342 0.650 1.88

Ausens 427 0.680 1.97

ROS 550 0.500 2.00

The value of the constant will depend upon:

the choke characteristics and dimensions

the gas and liquid properties

the flowing temperature at the choke

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Correlation by Gilbert:

THP = 1.89

*q

S

Gilbert also presented the information as a nomograph

(Choke Performance Chart Figure 3.22).

The nomograph is split into two portions. The left hand side

relates the production rate & GLR, and the right hand side

utilized a 10/64 in choke for reference and this is related to

choke size and THP.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 67

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of THP

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-4

Calculate the choke size required to flow a well at 200

bbl/day with a GLR of 1.0 Mcf/bbl and a tubing head pressure

of 400 psi.

435(GLR)0.546

THP = 1.89

*q

S

(1/1.89) (1/1.89)

435(GLR )

0.546

435(1) 0.546

S = * q 400 * 200

THP

= 17.25

= 17 / 64 in.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-5

Given data:

oAPI = 40

THP = 400 psi

Choke size = 14/64 inch

GLR= 1000 cuft/bbl

Down stream pressure = 100 psi

Find the flow rate in BPD

435(GLR)0.546

THP = 1.89

*q

S

THP * S 1.89 400(14)1.89

=q =

435* 0.546 = 0.546

134.82 BPD

GLR 435(1)

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-6

A well is producing through a -in choke at 100 bbl/day with

a THP of 150 psi. What is the GLR as calculated from

nomograph and from Eqn. (2)? What would be the calculated

GLR if, all other things being equal, the choke size were 17/64

in.?

435(GLR )0.546

THP = 1.89

*q

S

(1/ 0.546) (1/ 0.546)

THP * S 150(16)

1.89 1.89

GLR16 = = 0.455Mcf / bbl

435* q 435(100)

(1/ 0.546)

150(17)

1.89

GLR17 = 0.562 Mcf / bbl

435(100)

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 73

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

(Without VLP)

1. Plot IPR curve.

2. Assume several values of q, find relationship between THP

vs q (Eqn 2 or nomograph) for each of choke size.

3. Plot choke performance lines on the same graph as IPR.

4. Intersection point between the two plots (step 1 and 3) give

the optimum flow rate for choke size.

5. Choose the highest optimum q as optimum choke size.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Pwf (psi)

S3 (highest q)

IPR

S1

S2 CP

S3

0 q1 q2 q3 q (BPD)

Figure 3-23: Determination of Optimum Choke Size (Open Flow)

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 75

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

(With VLP)

1. Plot IPR curve.

2. Plot VLP (THP vs q) curve (Method 2) on the same graph

3. Assume several values of q, find relationship between THP

vs q (Eqn 2 or nomograph) for each of choke size.

4. Plot choke performance lines on the same graph as IPR &

VLP.

5. Intersection point between the VLP and CP (step 2 and 4)

give the optimum flow rate for choke size.

6. Choose the highest optimum q as optimum choke size.

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Pwf (psi)

S3 (highest q)

IPR

S1

S2 CP

VLP

S3

0 q1 q2 q3 q (BPD)

Figure 3-24: Determination of Optimum Choke Size (Restricted Flow)

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 77

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Pwf (psi)

IPR B (highest q)

CP

A

B

VLP S

C

0 q1 q2 q3 q (BPD)

Figure 3-25: Determination of Optimum Tubing Size

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 78

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-7

completed with 2-in tubing hung at 5000 ft. The well has a

static BHP of 2000 psi and a PI of 0.3 bb/day.psi and produces

with a GOR of 300 cuft/bbl and a water cut of 10%.

What size of choke is required in the flow line to hold aTHP of

100 psi? What would be the production rate on a -in. choke?

Assume a straight line IPR.

qw gas

= 0.1,

= and 300

q qo

gas 300qo 300(q qw ) q

=

GLR= = = 300(1 w )

q q q q

= 300(1 0.1) = 270 cuft / bbl = 0.27 Mcf / bbl

q

=

PI = =

qmax 0.3* 2000 600 bbl / d

Ps Pwf

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 79

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

435(GLR)0.546

THP = 1.89

*q

S

(1/1.89) (1/1.89)

435(GLR )

0.546

435(0.27) 0.546

S = * q *300

THP 100

= 30

= 30 / 64 in.

To determine the q on a -in choke, note that THP and q are

unknowns. Substituting 0.27 for GLR and 16 for S in Eqn. 2

give the result:

Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

2500

Example 3-7

P(psi)

THP = 1.128q is a

2000 straight line that

pass through an

origin.

1500

IPR

1000

500

TPR CP

0

q = 210 BPD

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

q(BPD)

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