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Production Engineering

CHAPTER 3: FLOW THROUGH TUBING

Petroleum Production Engineering


SKPP 3513

FLOW THROUGH TUBING & FLOWLINES

Mohd Fauzi Hamid


Department of Petroleum Engineering
Faculty of Petroleum & Renewable Engineering
Universiti Technologi Malaysia
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Objective

Students will able to:


Calculate the static & flowing bottomhole pressure
Calculate the velocity, density & viscosity for multiphase
flow
Identify & calculate three components of pressure losses in
tubing & flowlines
Use pressure traverses curves
Construct the VLP curve using Method I & II
Construct the CP line

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

CONTENTS

Introduction
Vertical Lift Performance (VLP)
Basic Theory of Fluid Flow in Pipe
Gilbert Method
Determination of Pwf
Determination of THP
Selection of Optimum Tubing Size
Factors Affecting VLP
Choke Performance (CP)

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Introduction

In order to analyze the performance of a conventionally


completed well, it is necessary to recognize that there are
three distinct phases, which have to be studied separately
and then finally linked together before an overall picture of a
flowing wells behavior can be obtained.
These phases are:
Inflow performance: the flow of fluid from the formation into the
bottom of the well IPR.
Vertical lift performance (VLP): involves a study of pressure losses
in vertical pipes carrying two-phase mixture (gas and liquid). Also
known as tubing performance (TP).
Choke performance (CP): a study of pressure losses across the
choke in surface flow-line.
Figure 3-1 show the three phases of flowing well performance.
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Introduction

Figure 3-1: The three phases of flowing well performance. (a) Inflow
Mohd Fauzi Hamid
performance, (b) Vertical lift performance, (c) Choke performance. 5
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Vertical Lift Performance (VLP)

Flow characteristics @ tubing (pressure losses) or relates to


pressure-rate relationship @ wellbore as fluid flow from
bottomhole to surface.
Directly affected by
Tubing size & depth
GLR
Water production
Separator pressure
Surface flow line size & length
Fluid properties (density, surface tension, viscosity)
Production problems (scaling, sand & paraffin)
Also known as: tubing performance, wellbore flow performance.
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

The question: Is Pwf Pt > Pwh (or THP)? If yes, the well will
flow.
where: Pt - pressure losses or differential pressure in tubing
Pwh- well head pressure or tubing head pressure (THP)

Need a knowledge about the fluid flow through vertical pipe


(tubing) which involve the energy or pressure equilibrium.
The result is the flowing pressure distribution along the
tubing which can be used for the production planning of the
well.
Basic requirement:
Dimensional analysis
Fluid properties: density, viscosity, compressibility, surface
tension.
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 7
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Gas properties: density, viscosity, compressibility, gas law


Other factors: Bo, Bg, Rs, etc

Basic information:

P pure water: 0.433 psi/ft


P brine @ SG = 1.07: 0.464 psi/ft
P 42 oAPI oil (SG = 0.815): 0.352 psi/ft
Density = mass/volume
SG oil: 141.5/(131.5+oAPI)
SGL = L/W (density of water, W = 62.4 lb/cuft)
Hydrostatic pressure, Ph = gh.
If in ppg and h in ft, Ph = 0.052h

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Density

Mixture Density: Three types of density of liquid and gas


mixture (m):

Slip density, s
No-slip density, n = m
Kinetic density, k

s = L H L + g (1 H L )
n L L + g g
= where :
L 2
g g2 = H L liquid hold up
k
= L
+ L =
no slip liquid hold up
HL 1 HL
=H g gas hold up
g =
no slip gas hold up
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

When there is great density difference slip & hold-up


phenomenon
Slip:
Less dense (lighter) phase ability to flow at greater velocity
than denser (heavier) phase
Hold up:
Consequence of slip
Volume fraction of pipe occupied by denser phase is greater
than would be expected from (relative) in and outflow of
two phases, since its velocity slower than light phase

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Superficial phase velocities (VSL & VSG)


Liquid: VSL = qL / Ap
Gas : VSG = qg / Ap
- q = phase volume flow rate
- Ap = pipe cross sectional area
In situ or actual velocity (VL & VG)
Liquid : VL = qL / AL = qL / HL Ap
Gas : VG = qG / AG = = qG / HG Ap
- AG = actual area of pipe occupied by gas
- AL = actual area of pipe occupied by liquid

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

For oil and water flow: Liquid density, L

L o Fo + w Fw
=
oil fraction water fraction

qo
Fo = Fw = 1 Fo
qo + qw

28.97 g P
For gas: 2.7 g P
=g =
ZRT ZT o R (o F + 460)

gas compressibility factor gas constant = 10.73 lb.ft/mol.oR


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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Viscosity
Viscosity is a function of T, P, Rs, , composition.
Please refer to the reservoir fluid properties for
determination of viscosity.
Mixture viscosity of multi-phase flow, m:
m = L H L + g (1 H L )
Viscosity of oil and water mixture, liquid viscosity, L:
L o Fo + w Fw
=
where :
= H L liquid hold up
Fo = oil fraction
Fw = water fraction

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Hold-up Factor
Four types of hold-up factor involve when study on the two-
phase flow:
Liquid Hold-up, HL
No-slip liquid hold-up, L
Gas hold-up, Hg
No-slip gas hold-up, g

Liquid hold-up, HL = volume of liquid in pipe/volume of the


pipe.
If HL = 0: 100% gas flow
HL = 1: 100% liquid flow
Gas hold-up, Hg
H g = 1 - HL
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

No-slip liquid hold-up, L = comparison between the volume


of liquid in pipe with the volume of the pipe when the gas
and liquid move with the same velocity.
qL
L =
qL + q g
No-slip gas hold-up, g
qg
g =
1 L =
qL + q g

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Flow pattern @ tubing


function of:
Gas & liquid flow rates
Tubing inclination
angle
Tubing diameter
Phase densities

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Basic Theory of Fluid Flow in Pipe

(2)
mgZ 2 mv22
U 2 , PV
2 2, ,
gc 2 gc

(- q)

z2
mgZ1 mv12
U1 , PV
1 1, ,
gc 2 gc
(1)
z1
(+ W)

Figure 3-2: Flow System in Vertical Pipe

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Introduction
Based on Energy Equation which produce Energy Equilibrium:

mv12 mgz1 mv22 mgz2 (1)


U1 + + + PV
1 1 q +W =U2 + + + PV
2 2
2 gc gc 2 gc gc
where:
U = internal energy carried with the fluid
mv 2
= kinetic energy energy due to velocity
c
2 g

mgz
= potential energy
c
g

PV = pressure volume (also called energy of pressure)


q = transferred heat (heat energy)
W = work done by or on the fluid
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Solving Equation (1) by thermodynamic:

dP g f v 2 vdv... (2)
= sin + +
dZ g c 2 g c d g c dZ

where:
f = friction factor = f(NRe, )
NRe = Reynold number
= absolute pipe roughness
gc = 32.2lbm.ft/lbf.s2 NRe < 2100 : laminar flow
NRe = 2100 4000 : transition flow
m vm d NRe > 4000 : Turbulent flow
NRe =
m In petroleum :
Water-like viscosity : turbulent flow
Viscous oil : laminar flow
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Equation (2) can be rewrite in general form:


dP dP dP dP
= + + ... (3)
dZ dZ ele dZ f dZ acc
component due to
total pressure kinetic energy changes
gradient vdv
=
g g c dZ
= sin
gc
(component due f v2
=
to potential energy 2 gc d
changes or elevation component due
changes) to friction

Equation (3) above is a basic equation for the solution of the


problem in fluid flow in pipe.
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

For vertical flow = 90o, equation (2) become:

dP g f v 2 vdv
= + + ... (4)
dZ g c 2 g c d g c dZ
For horizontal flow = 0o:
dP f v 2 vdv
= + ... (5)
dZ 2 g c d g c dZ

For multi-phase flow:

dP g f m m vm 2 m vm dvm (6)
= m sin + +
dZ g c 2 gc d g c dZ
subscript m refer to mixture
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 22
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

All analytical methods using equation (3) as a basic


calculation for the pressure distribution in pipes. The only
differences are:
technique for determination of particular parameters.
assumption or approach used for solving equations (2) and (3).
Generally, there are three groups of methods:
Group that does not consider the slip and the shape of flow.
This includes:
Poettmann & Carpenter
Baxendall
Fancker & Brown

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Group that consider the slip but not the shape of flow. This
include:
Hagedorn & Brown
Group that consider the slip and the shape of flow. This
includes:
Ros
Duns & Ros
Okiszewski
Aziz & Govier
Beggs & Brill
Chierici, Civcci & Scrocchi
All the above methods are complex and difficult, especially for
multi-phase flow.
For practical purpose, empirical method established by Gilbert
(Gilbert Method) will be used.
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Gilbert Method

Gilbert accumulated a large amount of flowing well data, e.g:


depth of tubing, ft
bottomhole flowing pressure (tubing intake pressure), psi
tubing head pressure, psi
production rate, BPD
gas-liquid ratio, Mcf/bbl
tubing size, in
He correlate the above data and as a first attempt he chose
wells with the same rate, GLR and tubing size, as shown in
Figure 3-3.
Each curve represent a different tubing head pressure.
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

0 Bottomhole flowing pressure, psig


0

Depth, ft
C

Figure 3-3: Flowing BHP as function of THP Figure 3-4: Pressure distribution curve:
and tubing length: constant GLR, vertical two-phase flow
production rate, and tubing size.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Gilbert then assumed that all the curves of varying THP could
be overlying as one curve with the THP converted to a depth
equivalent, as shown in Figure 3-4.
He then continue his correlation to produce a pressure
distribution chart (pressure traverse curve) for a specific
tubing size and production rate. An example of this chart
shown in Figure 3-5.
The pressure distribution charts can be used for:
Selection of the optimum tubing size
Prediction of a well life
Prediction when the well need artificial lift
Planning the artificial lift
Planning the stimulation
Determination of the required Pwf

Mohd Fauzi Hamid Calculating the optimum flow rate 27
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Figure 3-5 (a) & (b): Pressure distribution chart


Mohd Fauzi Hamid for 2 7/8 in tubing at 50 BPD and 100BPD. 28
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of Pwf of a Well THP Pwf

The step are as follows:


Locate/choose the Pressure
distribution chart (PDC) that
corresponds to the given
nominal tubing size and oil A
THP equivalent depth
rate.
Find THP (given) on the x-axis
of the chart. Tubing depth
Draw a vertical line from THP
to the given GLR (point A)
Draw a horizontal line from B
point A to the y-axis. The
Tubing equivalent depth
intersection point is THP (Pwf equivalent depth)
equivalent depth (zero
datum).
Figure 3-6: Determination of Pwf
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 29
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of Pwf of a Well THP Pwf

Determine tubing equivalent


depth (Pwf equivalent depth)
(= THP equivalent depth +
tubing depth)
Draw a horizontal line to the A
THP equivalent depth
GLR (point B).
Draw a vertical line from
point B to the x-axis. The Tubing depth
intersection point is a
Bottomhole flowing
pressure, Pwf.
B
Tubing equivalent depth
(Pwf equivalent depth)

Figure 3-6: Determination of Pwf


Mohd Fauzi Hamid 30
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of THP of a Well THP Pwf

The steps are as follow:


Locate/choose the Pressure
distribution chart (PDC) that
corresponds to the given
nominal tubing size and oil D
rate. THP equivalent depth

Find Pwf (given) on the x-axis of


the chart. Tubing depth
Draw a vertical line from THP
to given GLR (point C)
Draw a horizontal line from C
point C to the y-axis. The
Tubing equivalent depth
intersection point is tubing (Pwf equivalent depth)
equivalent depth (Pwf
equivalent depth).
Figure 3-7: Determination of THP
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 31
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of THP of a Well THP Pwf

Determine THP equivalent


depth (zero datum)
(= tubing equivalent depth -
tubing depth)
Draw a horizontal line to the
D
GLR (point D). THP equivalent depth
Draw a vertical line from point
D to the x-axis. The
intersection point is a Tubing Tubing depth
head pressure, THP.

C
Tubing equivalent depth
(Pwf equivalent depth)

Figure 3-7: Determination of THP


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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-1
Find the flowing pressure at the foot of 13,000 ft of 2-in
tubing if the well is flowing 100 BPD at a GLR of 1.0 Mcf/bbl
with a THP of 200 psi.
Refer to suitable Pressure distribution chart (Figure 3-8);
THP equivalent depth = 2500 ft
Tubing equivalent depth = 2500 + 13000 = 15500 ft
Pwf = 1860 psi

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

THP Pwf
200 psi 1860 psi

THP equivalent
2500 ft

Pwf equivalent
15500 ft

Figure 3-8: Pressure distribution chart for 2 3/8


Mohd Fauzi Hamid
in tubing at 100BPD. 35
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-2
What is the THP of a well, completed with 8000 ft of 2-in
tubing, that is flowing at 600 BPD and a GLR of 0.4 Mcf/bbl if
the pressure at the bottom of the tubing is 2250 psi?.

Refer to suitable Pressure distribution chart (Figure 3-9);

Pwf equivalent depth = 12,150 ft


Tubing equivalent depth = 12,150 - 8000 = 4,150 ft
THP = 610 psi

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 36


Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines
THP Pwf
610 psi 2250 psi

THP equivalent
4150 ft

Pwf equivalent
12150 ft

Figure 3-9: Pressure distribution chart for


Mohd Fauzi Hamid 2 3/8 in tubing at 600BPD. 37
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Selection of Optimum Tubing Size


There are 2 methods available: Method 1 and Method 2

Method 1
From Pwf, Ps and q, plot IPR curve.
Plot Pwf vs q for several size of tubing based on VLP on the
same graph.

select tubing diameter (available tubing size).


assume q (assumption must be tally with chart).
from the chart : given THP THP equivalent depth
tubing equivalent depth (Pwf equivalent depth) Pwf.
Repeat all steps above for new assumed q.
Repeat all steps above for new tubing size.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

All the steps can be summarize in form of table (for each


tubing size selected):
(2) (3)
(1) (4)
THP equivalent Pwf equivalent
q (BPD) Pwf (psi)
depth (ft) depth (ft)
q1 - - Pwf1
q2 - - Pwf2
q3 - - Pwf3
q4 - - Pwf4
assume according pressure pressure
(2) + tubing depth
to chart distribution chart distribution chart

Intersection point between IPR and VLP corresponds to the


optimum q for each particular tubing size.
Optimum tubing size is represented by the highest optimum q.
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 39
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Pwf (psi)

Pwf vs q

A IPR
B
C

0 qopt-A qopt-B qopt-C q (BPD)


Figure 3-10: Determination of Optimum Tubing Size (Method 1)
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 40
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Method 2
Plot IPR curve.
Assume q and determine Pwf from IPR curve (or from PI
formula).
By using a suitable pressure distribution chart, determine Pwf
equivalent depth (tubing equivalent depth) (Pwf from 2nd step).
Determine THP equivalent depth.
(= Pwf equivalent depth tubing depth), and then THP.
Repeat the above steps for new tubing size.
From required THP, draw a horizontal line to the right, until
intercept with the THP vs q curves. Intersection points will give
the optimum q for that THP and tubing size.
The highest optimum q correspond to the optimum tubing size.
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 41
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

All the steps can be summarize in form of table (for each


tubing size selected):

(4)
(3)
(1) (2) THP (5)
Pwf equivalent
q (BPD) Pwf (psi) equivalent THP (psi)
depth (ft)
depth (ft)
q1 - - - THP1
q2 - - - THP2
q3 - - - THP3
q4 - - - THP4
assume pressure pressure
IPR or PI (3) - tubing
according to distribution distribution
formula depth
chart chart chart

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

P (psi)

IPR
Pwf
A
B
C THP vs q

THP
q
0 qopt-C qopt-A qopt-B q (BPD)
Figure 3-11: Determination of Optimum Tubing Size (Method 2)
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 43
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-3
A well producing from a pay zone between 5000 and 5052 ft
is completed with 2-in tubing hung at 5000 ft. The well has a
static BHP of 2000 psi and a PI of 0.3 bb/day.psi and produces
with a GOR of 300 cuft/bbl and a water cut of 10%. At what
rate will the well flow with a THP of 100 psi?
Assume a straight line IPR.
qw gas
= 0.1,
= and 300
q qo
gas 300qo 300(q qw ) q
=
GLR= = = 300(1 w )
q q q q
= 300(1 0.1) = 270 cuft / bbl
q
=
PI = =
qmax 0.3* 2000 600 bbl / d
Ps Pwf
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 44
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Method 1
Involves calculation of Pwf at various values of q, and THP of
100 psi.
(2) (3)
(1) (4)
THP equivalent Pwf equivalent
q (BPD) Pwf (psi)
depth (ft) depth (ft)
50 500 5500 1275
100 700 5700 1150
200 800 5800 1050
400 800 5800 975
600 800 5800 910
assume according to pressure distribution pressure distribution
(2) + 5000
chart chart chart

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Method 1
2500
Example 3-3
P(psi)

2000 q = 300 bbl/d


qw = 30 bbl/d (10% WC)
1500 qo = 270 bbl/d
Pwf= 1000 psi
1000

Method 2
500 q = 280 bbl/d
qw = 28 bbl/d (10% WC)
0 qo = 252 bbl/d
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
q(BPD) THP= 100 psi

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Method 2
Involves calculation of THP at various values of q, using the
value of Pwf from IPR.
(4)
(3)
(1) (2) THP (5)
Pwf equivalent
q (BPD) Pwf (psi) equivalent THP (psi)
depth (ft)
depth (ft)
50 1833 7300 2300 450
100 1667 7500 2500 400
200 1333 6700 1700 250
400 667 4200 - -
600 0 - - -

assume pressure pressure


IPR or PI
according to distribution (3) 5000 distribution
formula
chart chart chart

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Exercise
A well is to becompleted for which the following data has
been derived:

Gas liquid ratio = 1.0 Mcf/bbl


Productivity index = 18 bbl/day/psi
Reservoir pressure @ 8200 ft = 5500 psi
7 tubing (of 6.366 ID) is available

A THP requirement of 750 psi is required for the well. At what


rate will the well flow, assuming zero water cut.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

q
=PI =
q max 18= =
x 5500 99, 000 BPD (at Pwf 0)
Ps Pwf
=
q 0 at Pwf= P=
s 5,500 psia

At THP = 750 psig (VLP Method-1)


THP Equi. Depth Pwf Equi. Depth
q (bbl/day) Pwf (psig)
(ft) (ft)
5000 5450 13650 2770
10000 5800 14000 3110
20000 4950 13100 3000
30000 3800 12000 3290

The well will flow at rate,


q = 36000 bbl/day

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

VLP Method-2
Pwf Equi. THP Equi.
q (bbl/day) Pwf (psig) Depth (ft) THP (psig)
Depth (ft)
5000
10000
20000
30000

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 50


Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of Producing Well


Plot IPR curve.
Plot Pwf vs q for several size of tubing based on VLP on the
same graph (same procedure as Method 1)

select tubing diameter (available tubing size).


assume q (assumption must be tally with chart).
from the chart : given THP THP equivalent depth
tubing equivalent depth Pwf.
Repeat all steps above for new assumed q.
Repeat all steps above for new tubing size.
(use the same table as Method 1)

If the Pwf vs q curve is located outside and not intercept to the


IPR, the well is not producing (not flowing).
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 51
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Pwf (psi)
A Producing
B Not Producing

B Pwf vs q

A IPR

0 q (BPD)
Figure 3-12: Determination of Producing Well
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 52
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of Well Life


Plot IPR curve.
Plot Pwf vs q (VLP) use same method as previously
discussed.
Plot a few future IPR curve
A future IPR curve which not intercept with Pwf vs q curve
shows the dead well.
A future IPR curve which touching the Pwf vs q curve shows
the life of the well.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Pwf (psi)
The well will dead
at IPR no (3)

(1) Pwf vs q

(2)
IPR
(4) (3)

0 q (BPD)
Figure 3-13: Determination of Well Life
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 54
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of Pwf & q at Specific Tubing Size,


GLR and THP

Plot IPR curve


Plot Pwf vs q (VLP) use same method as previously
discussed.
Intersection point between these plots will give the Pwf and q
for that specific tubing size, GLR and THP.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Pwf (psi)

IPR

Pwf vs q
Pwf

0 q q (BPD)
Figure 3-14: Determination of Pwf and q at Specific Tubing,
GLR and THP
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 56
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Other Correlation

Year Researcher Type of work Pipe size Fluid Comments


type
1952 Poettmann & Semi-empirical 2, 2.5, 3 inch Oil, Practical solution for 2, 2.5, 3
Carpenter & field data water, in. with GLR < 1500 scf/bbl
gas and q > 420 BPD

1962 Winker & Smith Practical 1 3.5 inch Oil, Curve for Poettmann &
water, Carpenter
gas
1960 US Industries Practical 1 4.5 inch Oil, Curve for Poettmann &
water, Carpenter
gas
1954 Gilbert Field data for 2, 2.5, 3 inch Oil, Vertical multiphase flow
practical use water, traverses curve
gas
1961 Ros Lab. exp & field All All Good correlation for all
data ranges of flow

1961 Duns & Ros Lab. exp & field All All Good correlation for all
data ranges of flow & easier to
understand

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Other Correlation

Year Researcher Type of work Pipe size Fluid type Comments

196 Hagedorn & Brown Field exp. 1 4 inch Oil, water, Generalized correlation
5 gas to handle all ranges of
multiphase flow

196 Okiszewski Review all correlation All Oil, water, General correlation to
7 gas predict pressure losses
for all ranges of flow by
utilized Ros, Griffith &
Wallis works

197 Aziz & Govier Laboratory & field All All Testing lab data with
2 data field data

197 Beggs & Brill Laboratory 1, 1.5 inch Air, water Generalized correlation
3 to handle all ranges of
multiple phase flow &
for any pipe angle

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Choke Performance (CP)

Wellhead chokes or surface chokes are used to:


limit production rates for regulations
protect surface equipment from slugging
avoid sand problems due to high drawdown
control flow rate to avoid water or gas coning
Produce reservoir at most efficient rates.
Placing a choke at the wellhead means fixing the wellhead
pressure and, thus, the Pwf and production rate.
The choke therefore plays an important role in:
well control
reservoir depletion management

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 59


Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Two types of surface chokes are used:


Positive (fixed) chokes the orifice size is specified before
installation.
Adjustable chokes the orifice size can be adjusted after
installation to suit the well and operational requirement.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Choke Flow Characterization

The main function of a choke is to dissipate large amounts of


potential energy (i.e pressure losses) over a very short
distance.
The design of a choke takes
advantage of the flow regime
resulting from a sudden
disturbance in continuous flow
through a circular conduit.
Figure 3-21: Flow Regime in a Fixed
Choke
Figure 3-21 gives a schematic of the normal flow character of
fluid through a fixed choke.
It describes the combined effect of a sudden flow restriction,
a small-bore flow tube, and an abrupt enlargement.
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

As the fluid approaches the orifice, it leaves the pipe wall and
contracts to form a high-velocity jet.
The jet converges to a
minimum called the throat or
vena contracta, and then it
expands toward the wall of
the choke bore.
After leaving the choke, the
stream of fluid expands and Figure 3-21: Flow Regime in a Fixed
returns to a flow geometry Choke
similar to what it was before
entering the choke.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Total irreversible pressure losses are summarized in the


following:
friction throughout the choke
and near-choke areas
turbulence (associated with
the eddy current) near the
entrance and exit of the
choke
slow eddy motions between Figure 3-21: Flow Regime in a Fixed
the contracted jet and the Choke
pipe walls
Abrupt expansion at the exit to the choke.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Choke Flow Correlation

The general correlation for the choke performance:


A * GLR B
THP = C
* q ..... (1)
S
where:
THP = tubing head pressure, psi (except Ros psia)
GLR = gas-liquid ratio, Mcf/bbl
S = choke size, 1/64 inch
q = flow rate, BPD
A, B, & C = empirical constants related to fluid properties

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

The value of A, B, and C are:


Researcher A B C
Gilbert 435 0.546 1.89
Baxendel 419 0.546 1.83
Achong 342 0.650 1.88
Ausens 427 0.680 1.97
ROS 550 0.500 2.00
The value of the constant will depend upon:
the choke characteristics and dimensions
the gas and liquid properties
the flowing temperature at the choke

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Correlation by Gilbert:

435(GLR)0.546 ..... (2)


THP = 1.89
*q
S
Gilbert also presented the information as a nomograph
(Choke Performance Chart Figure 3.22).
The nomograph is split into two portions. The left hand side
relates the production rate & GLR, and the right hand side
utilized a 10/64 in choke for reference and this is related to
choke size and THP.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Figure 3-22: Choke Performance Chart


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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of Flow Rate

Required data: THP, S, and GLR

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of THP

Required data: q, GLR and S

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of Choke Size (S)

Required data: q, GLR and THP

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-4
Calculate the choke size required to flow a well at 200
bbl/day with a GLR of 1.0 Mcf/bbl and a tubing head pressure
of 400 psi.

435(GLR)0.546
THP = 1.89
*q
S
(1/1.89) (1/1.89)
435(GLR )
0.546
435(1) 0.546

S = * q 400 * 200
THP
= 17.25
= 17 / 64 in.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-5
Given data:
oAPI = 40
THP = 400 psi
Choke size = 14/64 inch
GLR= 1000 cuft/bbl
Down stream pressure = 100 psi
Find the flow rate in BPD

435(GLR)0.546
THP = 1.89
*q
S
THP * S 1.89 400(14)1.89
=q =
435* 0.546 = 0.546
134.82 BPD
GLR 435(1)

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-6
A well is producing through a -in choke at 100 bbl/day with
a THP of 150 psi. What is the GLR as calculated from
nomograph and from Eqn. (2)? What would be the calculated
GLR if, all other things being equal, the choke size were 17/64
in.?

435(GLR )0.546
THP = 1.89
*q
S
(1/ 0.546) (1/ 0.546)
THP * S 150(16)
1.89 1.89
GLR16 = = 0.455Mcf / bbl
435* q 435(100)
(1/ 0.546)
150(17)
1.89
GLR17 = 0.562 Mcf / bbl
435(100)
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of Optimum Choke Size


(Without VLP)
1. Plot IPR curve.
2. Assume several values of q, find relationship between THP
vs q (Eqn 2 or nomograph) for each of choke size.
3. Plot choke performance lines on the same graph as IPR.
4. Intersection point between the two plots (step 1 and 3) give
the optimum flow rate for choke size.
5. Choose the highest optimum q as optimum choke size.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Optimum choke size is


Pwf (psi)

S3 (highest q)
IPR

S1
S2 CP

S3

0 q1 q2 q3 q (BPD)
Figure 3-23: Determination of Optimum Choke Size (Open Flow)
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of Optimum Choke Size


(With VLP)
1. Plot IPR curve.
2. Plot VLP (THP vs q) curve (Method 2) on the same graph
3. Assume several values of q, find relationship between THP
vs q (Eqn 2 or nomograph) for each of choke size.
4. Plot choke performance lines on the same graph as IPR &
VLP.
5. Intersection point between the VLP and CP (step 2 and 4)
give the optimum flow rate for choke size.
6. Choose the highest optimum q as optimum choke size.

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Optimum choke size is


Pwf (psi)
S3 (highest q)
IPR

S1
S2 CP
VLP
S3

0 q1 q2 q3 q (BPD)
Figure 3-24: Determination of Optimum Choke Size (Restricted Flow)
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Determination of Optimum Tubing Size


Pwf (psi)

Optimum tubing size is


IPR B (highest q)

CP
A
B
VLP S
C

0 q1 q2 q3 q (BPD)
Figure 3-25: Determination of Optimum Tubing Size
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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Example 3-7

A well producing from a pay zone between 5000 and 5052 ft is


completed with 2-in tubing hung at 5000 ft. The well has a
static BHP of 2000 psi and a PI of 0.3 bb/day.psi and produces
with a GOR of 300 cuft/bbl and a water cut of 10%.
What size of choke is required in the flow line to hold aTHP of
100 psi? What would be the production rate on a -in. choke?
Assume a straight line IPR.
qw gas
= 0.1,
= and 300
q qo
gas 300qo 300(q qw ) q
=
GLR= = = 300(1 w )
q q q q
= 300(1 0.1) = 270 cuft / bbl = 0.27 Mcf / bbl
q
=
PI = =
qmax 0.3* 2000 600 bbl / d
Ps Pwf
Mohd Fauzi Hamid 79
Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

Based on Method 1: q = 300 bbl/day

435(GLR)0.546
THP = 1.89
*q
S
(1/1.89) (1/1.89)
435(GLR )
0.546
435(0.27) 0.546

S = * q *300
THP 100
= 30
= 30 / 64 in.
To determine the q on a -in choke, note that THP and q are
unknowns. Substituting 0.27 for GLR and 16 for S in Eqn. 2
give the result:

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Production Engineering Chapter 3: Flow Through Tubing & Flowlines

2500
Example 3-7
P(psi)
THP = 1.128q is a
2000 straight line that
pass through an
origin.
1500
IPR
1000

500
TPR CP

0
q = 210 BPD
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
q(BPD)

Mohd Fauzi Hamid 81