Você está na página 1de 6

Name: Jivan Raghoo

Date: 12/10/11

Title: Static Equilibrium

Aim: To investigate how the force required to maintain equilibrium of a suspended mass

depends on the angle between the line of action of the force and the horizontal.

Materials & Apparatus:

Retort stand (2)

G-clamp (2)

Newton meter

String

Masses

Protractor
Name: Jivan Raghoo
Diagram:

Figure 1 showing the setup of apparatus

Theory:

If an object is at equilibrium, then the forces are balanced. The net force is zero and the

acceleration is 0 ms-2. Having an acceleration of 0 ms-2, however, does not mean the

object is at rest. An object at equilibrium is either at rest and staying at rest, or in motion

and continuing in motion with the same speed and direction. If an object is at rest and is

in a state of equilibrium, then we would say that the object is at static equilibrium. Static

means stationary or at rest. In the equation,

mg
F = sin + k

F is the force, m is the mass of the load, k is a constant and g is the acceleration due to

gravity.
Name: Jivan Raghoo
Method:

1. The apparatus was set up as shown in the diagram.

2. When the mass is first hooked on the loop, the retort stands are adjusted to allow

the section AB of the string to be horizontal.

3. The angle was measured using a protractor and the value was recorded.

4. The force F which was found from the reading on the newton-meter was recorded.

5. The height of one of the bosses above the bench and the separation of the stands

were changed to give new values of and F.

6. Step 5 was repeated until six sets of readings for and F were exacted. All

readings were recorded.

7. A graph of F against 1/sin was plotted and a best straight line was drawn through

the points.

Variables:

Manipulated:

1. Height of one of the bosses

2. Separation of the stands

Responding:

1. Force F

2. Angle

Constant: Mass of load


Name: Jivan Raghoo
Results:

Table 1 showing measurements taken after changes were made to apparatus setup.

F/N /degrees 1/sin

5.20 98.5 1.01

5.70 115.0 1.10

6.50 129.0 1.29

7.30 136.0 1.44

8.50 143.0 1.66

9.45 148.0 1.89

Treatment of results:

Value of = 142

Value of F = 8.6 N


Percentage uncertainty in the value of = 100

0.5
= 100
142

= 0.35%

2 1
Gradient of line =
2 1
Name: Jivan Raghoo
9.45.5
=
1.881.06

= 4.76

y-intercept = 5.22

Taking point (1.98, 9.5),

mg
F=
sin

1
F = mg
sin

gradient = mg

gradient
=g
m

4.76
=g
0.5

g = 9.52 ms-2

error associated with g,

0.5
= 9.52
142

= 3.35 x 10-2 ms-2


Name: Jivan Raghoo
Precautions:

1. It was ensured that the newton-meter was kept along the line of action F and that

it did not go off scale.

2. The two retort stands were clamped tightly to the table to ensure they didnt bend

or wobble.

Sources of error:

1. AB wasnt kept perfectly horizontal.

Conclusion: Gravity was found to be 9.52 3.35 x 10-2 ms-2.