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Learn more about PLAGIARISM

https://plagiarism.arts.cornell.edu/tutorial/exercises.cfm

How to Recognize Plagiarism


Practice: 1 of 10

Please read the original source material carefully and then select the entry, either (A) or (B), that
you think has not been plagiarized.

Original Source Material: A nave mental model in Source: Merrinboer, J. J. van.


the context of computer programming is that a (1997).Training complex cognitive
computer is an intelligent system, and that giving skills.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational
directions to a computer is like giving directions to a Technology Publications.
human being.

(A) One kind of mental model for the (B) One kind of mental model for the
computer is the nave model. A nave mental computer is the nave model. According to van
model in the context of computer programming Merrinboer (1997), "A nave mental model in
is that a computer is an intelligent system. This the context of computer programming is that a
model is nave because giving directions to a computer is an intelligent system, and that
computer is like giving directions to a human giving directions to a computer is like giving
being. directions to a human being" (p. 145).

Reference: Reference:

Merrinboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex Merrinboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex
cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Educational Technology Publications. Educational Technology Publications.

How to Recognize Plagiarism


Practice: 2 of 10

Please read the original source material carefully and then select the entry, either (A) or (B), that
you think has not been plagiarized.
Original Source Material: In the traditional behavioral Source: Driscoll, M. P.
paradigm, feedback is the consequence of a response, (2000).Psychology of learning for
typically reinforcement for an appropriate behavior. instruction(2nd ed.). Needham Heights,
MA: Allyn & Bacon.

(A) Feedback is not conceived identically (B) Feedback is not conceived identically
among the various schools of thought in among the various schools of thought in
instruction. "In the traditional behavioral instruction. In the traditional behavioral
paradigm, feedback is the consequence of a paradigm, feedback is the consequence of a
response, typically reinforcement for an response. That response is typically
appropriate behavior" (Driscoll, 2000, p. 65). reinforcement for an appropriate behavior.

Reference:

Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for


instruction (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA:
Allyn & Bacon.

How to Recognize Plagiarism


Practice: 3 of 10

Please read the original source material carefully and then select the entry, either (A) or (B), that
you think has not been plagiarized.

Original Source Material: Instructional design theory Source: Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What
requires at least two components: methods for is instructional design theory and how is
facilitating human learning and development (which it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth
are also called methods of instruction), and indications (Ed.),Instructional-design theories and
as to when and when not to use these methods (which models volume II: A new paradigm of
I call situations). Although the term "context" has a instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ:
similar meaning in lay language and is often used in Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
education, not all aspects of the context influence
which methods should be used. Therefore, I use the
term "situation" to refer to those aspects of the context
that do influence selection of methods.
(A) Two components must be present in an (B) Two components must be present in an
instructional design theory. The first component instructional design theory. The first component
is methods for facilitating human learning and (methods) describes how human learning will
development. The second is those aspects of be supported, and the second component
the context that do influence selection of (situation) describes when certain methods
methods, or the situation. ought to be used (Reigeluth, 1999).

Reference: Reference:

Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional


design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. design theory and how is it changing? In C. M.
Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories
and models volume II: A new paradigm of and models volume II: A new paradigm of
instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates. Erlbaum Associates.

How to Recognize Plagiarism


Practice: 4 of 10

Please read the original source material carefully and then select the entry, either (A) or (B), that
you think has not been plagiarized.

Original Source Material: If one were going to be Source: Webb, E., Campbell, D.,
limited to a single method, then certainly the verbal Schwartz, R. & Sechrest, L.
report from a respondent would be the choice. With (1966).Unobtrusive measures: Nonreactive
no other device can an investigator swing his research in the social sciences. Chicago,
attention into so many different areas of substantive IL: Rand McNally.
content, often simultaneously, and also gather
intelligence on the extent to which his findings are
hampered by population restrictions.

(A) In gathering verbal reports from (B) The advantages claimed for verbal
subjects the investigator can swing his attention reports as a form of data gathering are that "an
into many different areas of substantive investigator [can] swing his attention into so
content, and gather intelligence on the extent to many different areas of substantive content,
which his findings are hampered by population often simultaneously, and also gather
restrictions. intelligence on the extent to which his findings
are hampered by population restrictions"
Reference: (Webb, Campbell, Schwartz & Sechrest, 1966,
pp. 172-173).
Webb, E., Campbell, D., Schwartz, R. &
Sechrest, L. (1966). Unobtrusive measures: Reference:
Nonreactive research in the social
sciences.Chicago, IL: Rand McNally. Webb, E., Campbell, D., Schwartz, R. &
Sechrest, L. (1966). Unobtrusive measures:
Nonreactive research in the social
sciences.Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.

Practice: 5 of 10

Please read the original source material carefully and then select the entry, either (A) or (B), that
you think has not been plagiarized.

Original Source Material: LCD [Learner-Centered Source: Reeves, W. (1999). Learner-


Design] thus extends existing design by (a) facing centered design: A cognitive view of
comprehensive cognitive complexity as a central managing complexity in product,
concern, (b) extending design to the system's information, and environmental
information content, and (c) visualizing all users design.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
(students, workers, consumers young and old) as Publications.
distributed learners seeking understanding.

(A) In explaining how he proposes to (B) Learner-centered design expands


extend the current view of design, Reeves current design by acknowledging total cognitive
(1999) adds three primary components to complexity as a core concern, expanding design
design, including fundamental emphasis on to the information content of the system, and
human cognition, designing content equally with seeing all users as distributed learners who
interface, and considering everyone who will seek understanding.
use the design to be a learner.
Reference:
Reference:
Reeves, W. (1999). Learner-centered design: A
Reeves, W. (1999). Learner-centered design: A cognitive view of managing complexity in
cognitive view of managing complexity in product, information, and environmental
product, information, and environmental design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Practice: 6 of 10

Please read the original source material carefully and then select the entry, either (A) or (B), that
you think has not been plagiarized.

Original Source Material: At this stage the reading Source: Dillon, A. (1994). Designing
strategy adopted by the reader depends on the usable electronic text: Ergonomic
particulars of the task. The tendency to 'get on with it' aspects of human information
seems firmly established in users of manuals and the usage.London: Taylor & Francis.
present sample reported moving freely from manual to
system in order to achieve their goal. Only three readers
manifested any tendency to read around an area or fully
read a section before moving on and even these
admitted that they would be tempted to skim, and tend
to get bored if they felt that they were not resolving their
problems and only read complete sections if all else
failed.

(A) Dillon (1994) summarizes research he (B) The readers of technical documentation
conducted to demonstrate that the readers of manuals do not read those manuals in linear
technical documentation manuals do not read order. They are impatient to be about their
those manuals in linear order. They are work, jump from the text to the task and back,
impatient to be about their work, jump from the and only stop to read in-depth if they have no
text to the task and back, and only stop to read other choice.
in-depth if they have no other choice.
Reference:
Reference:
Dillon, A. (1994). Designing usable electronic
Dillon, A. (1994). Designing usable electronic text: Ergonomic aspects of human information
text: Ergonomic aspects of human information usage. London: Taylor & Francis.
usage. London: Taylor & Francis.
Practice: 7 of 10

Please read the original source material carefully and then select the entry, either (A) or (B), that
you think has not been plagiarized.

Original Source Material: Interactive multimedia Source: Schwier, R., & Misanchuk, E.
instruction brings mediated instruction from more than (1993). Interactive multimedia
one source to bear on an instructional problem which the instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
learner experiences as integrated (although sometimes Educational Technology Publications.
complex) medium. We can think of it in terms of many
single inputs, with one multi-channel output. The
instruction may contain motion images from a video disc,
computer animation, text screens, and sound from a
compact disk, for example, but the instruction is a
tapestry woven from these sources. The learner
experiences the tapestry, not the individual threads.

(A) Designers had realized by the mid- (B) Designers had realized by the mid-
1990s that the various forms of media, 1990s that the various forms of media,
previously viewed as separate, were put previously viewed as separate, were put
together in multimedia instruction to form an together in multimedia instruction to form an
integrated experience for learners. integrated experience for learners (Schwier &
Misanchuk, 1993).

Reference:

Schwier, R., & Misanchuk, E. (1993).Interactive


multimedia instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Educational Technology Publications.

Discuss the conventions of an academic paper with regards to plagiarism.