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# ChE Thermodynamics

## Dimensions and Units

1. Calorie is equal to 1000 calories (thermochemical calories). How many 8-inch high
steps must a 180-lb man climb to expand 400 cal from the piece of cake?
a. 100 steps
b. 10 000 steps
c. 1 000 steps
d. 100 000 steps

Given:

## Acceleration of gravity, g = 9.81 m/s2

Required:

No. of steps, x = ?

Calculation:

Assume that the energy used to climb steps is the same as the energy required to lift
a mass against the force of gravity, namely Potential Energy, PE = mgh, where m is the mass
of the object lifted in kg, g is the gravitational constant, and h is the height the object is lifted
in meters.

= 1674320 = 81.647 9.81 = 2090.4
2
If 1 step = 8 in = 0.2032 m
2090.4
. , = = = 10 287.4 10 000
1 0.2032

For numbers 2 to 5:

A gas is confined in a 0.47 m diameter cylinder by a piston, on which rests a weight. The
mass of the piston and weight together is 150 kg. The local gravity acceleration is 9.813 m/s 2,
the atmospheric pressure is 101.57 kPa.

2. What is the force in Newton exerted on the gas by the atmosphere, the piston and the
weight, assuming no friction between the piston and cylinder?
a. 1.91 x 104 N
b. 1.56 x 104 N
c. 2.03 x 104 N
d. 2.28 x 104 N
3. What is the pressure of the gas in kPa
a. 105 kPa
b. 128 kPa
c. 110 kPa
d. 117 kPa
4. If the gas in the cylinder is heated, it expands, pushing the piston and the weight
upward. If the piston and the weight are raised 0.83 m, what is the work done by the
gas in kJ?
a. -16 kJ
b. 16 kJ
c. -11 kJ
d. 11 kJ
5. What is the change in potential energy of the piston and weight?
a. 1.8 kJ
b. 1.5 kJ
c. 1.9 kJ
d. 1.2 kJ

Given:

## Patm = 101.57 kPa

Required:

Force in N, F = ?

Pressure in kPa, P = ?

## Work done in kJ, W = ?

Potential energy, PE = ?

Calculation:

## FTOTAL = FP+W + Fatm

(150 ) (9.813 2 )
+ = = = 1471.95

1
2
= = (101.57 )(0.1735 2 ) = 17, 621.83

1.91 104
= = = = 110.03
(0.1735 2 )

## Solve for the change in potential energy:

+ (150 )(9.813 2 )
= = 0.83 = 1221.72 = 1.22

1 2

For numbers 6 to 9:

Calculate the work (J) done by a sample 0.10 mol Ne gas that expands isothermally from 0.6
L to 1.2 L at 0oC according to the following conditions:

## 6. Against a constant external pressure of 0.9 atm.

a. 7
b. 55
c. 151
d. 157
7. Against a variable pressure which varies with volume according to the expression PV n
= k, and with given data:

## P x 103 (atm) 194 134 100 70

V (L) 0.60 0.80 1.0 1.2

a. 7
b. 55
c. 151
d. 157
8. Reversibly assuming gas is ideal
a. 7
b. 55
c. 151
d. 157
9. Reversibly assuming gas obeys van der Waals equation of state (a = 0.86 Pam6mol2
and b = 3.18 x 10-5 m3mol)
a. 7
b. 55
c. 151
d. 157
Given:

## n = 0.10 mol i. PEXT = 0.9 atm

ii. PVn
V1 = 0.6 L = 0.6 x 10-3 m3
iii. Ideal gas
V2 = 1.2 L = 1.2 x 10-3 m3 iv. Van der waals

Required:

Work (J) = ?

Calculation:

## Solving work against constant external pressure:

2
= =
0 1

8.314
= (0.9 )(1.2 0.6) [ ] = 54.71

0.08205

## Solving work against variable pressure:

= 1 1 = 2 2 = + = + =

= + = + [ 103 ] = 103

## ln 1.0 ln 100 X 10-3

ln 1.2 ln 70 X 10-3

1.2 1.2
8.314
= = 0.0952 = 0.0712 [ ] = 7.2146
1.44 1.44
0.6 0.6 0.08205

## Solve work assumingly gas is ideal:

2

= = = =
1

1.2
= (0.1 ) (8.314 ) (273.15) = 157.41
0.6
Solve work assumingly gas obeys van der Waals equation:

2 2
( + ) ( ) = = ( ) 2
2

2 1 1 1
= = 2 = 2 ( )
2 2 1

3
0.6 103 3 0.1 (3.18 105 )

= (0.1 ) (8.314 ) (273.15) [ ]
3
1.2 103 3 0.1 (3.18 105 )

6
1 1
(0.1)2 (0.86 )[ ]( )
2 1.2 103 3 0.6 103 3 3

= 150.85

## First Law of Thermodynamics

10. Energy is added to water as work but is extracted from the water as heat was
performed by
a. Van ness
b. Fitzer
c. Joule
d. Smith
11. These properties depend on the current state of the system and not on how the system
reaches that state.
a. Path functions
b. State functions
c. Excess property
d. All of these

Explanation:

* State function is a property whose value does not depend on the path taken to reach that
specific function or value. Example of state function are entropy, volume, temperature,
pressure and Internal Energy, U.

* Path functions are functions that depend on the path taken to reach that specific value.
Examples of path functions are heat and work.

## 12. Which of the following statement is correct?

a. The standard heat of formation of an element is negative.
b. Since H = U + PV and can never be equal to U.
c. Q and W are state functions.
d. Q + W is a state function.

Explanation:

Heat (Q), and Work (W) are path function. Internal energy (U) is a state function. Where:
U = Q + W.

## 13. Which of the following does not belong to the group?

a. Entropy
b. Work
c. Enthalpy
d. Internal Energy

Explanation:

## 14. The heat content of the system is called

a. Enthalpy
b. Temperature
c. Entropy
d. Heat Capacity
15. Enthalpy is defined as
a. H = U - PV
b. H U = PV
c. H = U TS
d. H = U + TS
16. The amount of heat absorbed when CO 2 gas reacts with a solid CaO to form solid
CaCO3 is measured in a bomb calorimeter at constant volume. The data obtained give
a direct measure of
a. U
b. VP
c. H
d. CP
17. For a constant pressure reversible process, the enthalpy (H) change of the system is
a. Cv dT
b. Cp dT
c. Cp dT
d. Cv dT
18. Cv is given by
a. (U/T)V
b. (U/P)V
c. (U/V)T
d. (U/T)P
19. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit weight of a substance
one degree temperature is called
a. Specific heat
b. Heat capacity
c. Sensible heat
d. a or b

Explanation:

* Heat capacity is the ratio of the amount of heat energy transferred to an object to the
resulting increase in its temperature.

## 20. Which law is the basis for the manufacture of thermometers?

a. Boyles Law
b. Raoults Law
c. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
d. Carnots Principle

## For numbers 21 to 23:

A container with an air tight piston is at a pressure of 100 psia and at a temperature of 70 oF.
The piston moves up when 100 BTU of heat is transferred at constant pressure and the volume
changes form 0.5 ft3 to 2.0 ft3. Assuming perfect gaw behavior, calculate the following:

## 21. The change in internal energy

a. 84 BTU
b. 72 BTU
c. 60 BTU
d. 55 BTU
22. The final temperature in oF
a. 1660
b. 1440
c. 1220
d. 1330
23. The heat capacity of the process, Cp in BTU/R
a. 0.0537
b. 0.0416
c. 0.0629
d. 0.0381

Given: Required:

V1 = 0.5 ft3

V2 = 2.0 ft3

Calculation:

## Solving for Internal Energy, U:

3
144 2 1
= + = 100 + [100 2
(2 0.5) ] ( 2
) = 100 27.76 = 72.24
778

## Solving for Final Temperature, T2 = ?

2 1 2 3 0.5 3
= = 2 = 2120 = 1660
2 1 2 530

## At Constant Pressure: Q = H = CPT

100
= = = 0.0629
(2120 530)

24. One pound of a gas in a piston cylinder arrangement undergoes expansion from 500
psia to 50 psia. The initial volume of the gas is 3 ft3 per lb. The variation of P and V is
such that PV1.44 is a constant. Calculate the change in internal energy if the work
performed is equal to the amount of heat transferred to the surrounding.
a. 0 BTU
b. 669 BTU
c. -669 BTU
d. -776 BTU

Given:

m = 1 lb PV1.44

## P1 = 500 psia P1V11.44 = P2V21.44

P2 = 50 psia Q=W

V1 = 3 ft3

Required:

Internal Energy, U = ?

Calculation:

2 2 1 1
= + = 2 = (500 )(3 3 ) 1.44 = (50 )(2 ) 1.44
1
2 = 15.54 3

## 50 (15.54 3 ) 500 (3 ft3) 3 144 2 1

= 2 [ ]( ) = 669.10
1.4 1 2 2 778

## For numbers 25 to 27:

25. For a certain gas R = 25.8 ftlbf/lbR and k = 1.09. What are the values of C p in
BTU/lbR?
a. 0.2
b. 0.4
c. 0.5
d. 0.6

Given: Required:

## R = 25.8 ftlbf/lbR Heat Capacity, CP = ?

k = 1.09

Calculation:
1
= + = + ; = = 1+ =1 =
1
1
= 25.8 = 0.03316
778

0.03316
= = = 0.36846
1 1.09 1

= = 1.09 (0.36846 ) = 0.4016

26. What mass of this gas would occupy of 15 cu. ft at 75 psia and 80oF?
a. 11.6
b. 17.1
c. 13.6
d. 19.2

Given: Required:

## V = 15 ft3 mass of the gas = ?

P = 75 psia

T = 80oF

Calculation:

= = =

2
(75 2 ) (15 3 ) (144 2 )

= = 11.63

25.8 (80 + 460)

27. If 30 BTU are added to this gas at constant volume, what is the resulting pressure?
a. 70 psia
b. 76 psia
c. 72 psia
d. 78 psia

Given: Required:

Q = 30 BTU Pressure, P = ?

At constant volume: Q = U

Calculation:

## CVT =U ; CV(T2 T1) =U

30 = 0.36846 ( 540) (11.63 ) ; 2 = 547
2
2 1 2 75
= = 2 = 75.97
2 1 547 540

## For numbers 28 to 30:

A gas initiallyat 15 psia and 2 ft3 undergoes a process to 90 psia and 0.6 ft3, during which the
enthalpy increases by 15.5 BTU; CV = 2.44 BTU/lbR. Determine

28. U
a. 12.2 BTU
b. 11.1 BTU
c. 13.3 BTU
d. 10.0 BTU
29. Cp in BTU/lbR.
a. 3.42
b. 5.56
c. 4.01
d. 2.98
30. R in BTU/lbR.
a. 0.54
b. 0.61
c. 0.98
d. 0.12

Given:

## P2 = 90 psia CV = 2.44 BTU/lbR

Required:

U, CP, R = ?

Calculation:

Solve for H:

= + 2 2 1 1

15.5 = + [(90 1036.8 3 ) (15 2 3456 3 )]
2
1 1
15.5 = + (41 472 ) = + 4.442
12 778

= 11.058

## Solve for CP:

= = 1.40 (2.44 )

= 3.416

Solve for R:

Since, R= CP CV

= (3.416 2.44 )

= 0.976

31. Water at 200oF is pumped from a storage tank at the rate of 50 gpm. The motor for
the pump supplies work at the rate of 2 hp. The water goes through a heat exchanger,
giving up heat at the rate of 40 000 BTU/min, and is delivered to a second storage
tank at an elevation 50 ft above the first tank. What is the temperature of the water
delivered to the second tank?
a. 125oF
b. 116 oF
c. 101 oF
d. 132 oF

Given:

## Pump Work, W = 2 hp Q = - 40 000 BTU/min

T1 = 200oF Z = 50 ft

## Volumetric flowrate, = 50 gpm

Required:

T2 = ?

Calculation:

Q + W = KE + PE + H ; KE = 0
42.2
= 2 = 84.8

50 (32.2 2 ) 1

= = = 0.0643
778
32.2
2

401.68
40, 000 + 84.8 = [(0.0643 + ) ] = 99.43

= (2 1 ) ; = 1

1 3
= = 50 60 3 = 401. 68
7.481

99.43 = 1 ( 200) 2 = 100.52
2
32. A group of 50 persons attended a secret meeting in a room which is 12 m by 10 m
long and a ceiling of 3 m. The room is completely sealed off and insulated. Each person
gives off 150 kcal per hour of heat and occupies a volume of 0.2 m3. The room has an
initial pressure of 101.3 kPa and temperature of 16 oC. Calculate the room temperature
after 10 minutes in oC.
a. 25
b. 33
c. 36
d. 29

Given:

Required:

T2 = ?

Calculation:

## Vair = 360 m3 0.2 m3 (50 persons) = 350 m3

1
= 150 10 50 = 1250
/ 60

At constant volume: Q = U

(101.3 )(350 3 )
= (2 1 ) = = = 14.75
3
(8.314 ) (289.15)

5
1250 = (1.987 ) (2 289.15)(14.75 ) 2 = 306. 21 = 33.06
2
33. An air compressor receives 5 000 kW of power. The air enters with an enthalpy of 290
kJ/kg and leaves at with an enthalpy of 714 kJ/kg. The velocity at the entrance is low,
while the velocity is 90 m/s at the discharge. Assume that the process is adiabatic and
the potential energy is negligible. Compute the mass flow rate of the air.
a. 15 kg/s
b. 28 kg/s
c. 12 kg/s
d. 20 kg/s

Given:

W = 5 000 kW v1 = 0

## H2 = 714 kJ/kg Q=0

Required:
Mass flow rate, m = ?

Calculation:

Q + W = KE + PE + H ; PE = 0; Q = 0 W = KE + H

2
22 12 (902 0) 2 1
= = = 4.05
2 2(1) 1000

5 000 = [4.05 + (714 290) ] = 11.68

34. Air flows steadily at a rate of 0.5 kg/s through an air compressor, entering at 7 m/s
speed, 100 kPa pressure and 0.95 m3/kg specific volume, and leaving at 5m/s, 700
kPa, and 0.19 m3/kg. The internal energy of the air leaving is 90 kJ/kg greater than of
the air entering. Cooling water in the compressor jackets absorbs heat from the air at
a rate of 58 kW. Compute the work in kW.
a. 211 kW
b. 112 kW
c. 122 kW
d. 212 kW

Given:

## v1 = 7 m/s Specific volume, V2 = 0.19 m3/kg

v2 = 5 m/s U = 90 kJ/kg

## P1 = 100 kPa Q = -58 kW

P2 = 700 kPa

Required:

Work = ?

Calculation:

Q + W = KE + PE + U + PV ; PE = 0

2
22 12 (52 7) 2
= = 1 = 0.012
2 2(1) 1000

3 3
= 2 2 1 1 = [700 (0.19 ) 100 (0.95 ) ] = 38

58 + = [0.012 + 38 + 90 ] 0.5 = 121. 99

## For numbers 35-36:

Steam flows at steady state through a converging insulated nozzle. Steams flows at steady
state through a converging insulated nozzle, 25 cm long and with an inlet diameter of 5 cm.
at the nozzle entrance, the temperature are 325 oC and 700 kPa, and the velocity is 30 m/s.
At the nozzle exit, the steam temperature and pressure are 240 oC and 350 kPa.

## 35. What is the velocity of the steam at the nozzle exit?

a. 578 m/s
b. 325 m/s
c. 756 m/s
d. 149 m/s
36. What is the exit diameter?
a. 1.33 cm
b. 1.49 cm
c. 1.60 cm
d. 1.25 cm

Given:

D1 = 5 cm P2 = 350 kPa

T1 = 325 oC v1 = 30 m/s

T2 = 240 oC L = 25 cm

P1 = 700 kPa

Required:

v2, D2 = ?

Calculation:

## Using steam table: H1 = 3 111.82 kJ/kg; H2 = 2 945.81 kJ/kg

Q + W = KE + PE + H ; Q = 0; W = 0; PE = 0

= = (2945.81 3111.82) = 166.01

2
22 12 (2 2 30) 2 1
= 166.01 = 2 = 577
2 1000
2(1 )
2
Solving for D2:

1 12 1 2 22 2
1 = 2 1 1 = 2 2 =
1 2

30 52 2 700 577 2 2 2 350
= 2 = 1.49
(325 + 273.15) (240 + 273.15)

## For numbers 37 to 38:

Air flows steadily and adiabatically through a horizontal straight pipe. The air enters the pipe
at an absolute pressure of 100 psia, a temperature of 100 oF, and a linear velocity of 10 ft/s.
The air leaves at 2 psia.
37. What is the temperature of the leaving air?
a. 60 oF
b. 70 oF
c. 80 oF
d. 50 oF
38. What is the velocity of the leaving air?
a. 482 fps
b. 161 fps
c. 345 fps
d. 229 fps

Given:

## P2 = 2 psia v1 = 100 ft/s

Required:

T2, v2 = ?

Calculation:

Q + W = KE + PE + H ; Q = 0; W = 0; PE = 0

22 12
= = (2 1 )
2

2
(2 2 10) 2 2 100
= 2 1 =
778 50 103.2
2(32.2 )
2

7 1
= (1.986 ) (2 560 ) = 0.24 ( 2 560)
2 29
Using continuity equation:
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2
1 = 2 1 1 = 2 2 = ; 1 = 2 =
1 2 1 2
1 1 2 100 2 ,
2 = = 10 2 = 0.8929 2
2 1 2 560

Substitute:

(0.8929 2 )2 100
= 0.24 ( 2 560) 2 = 540 = 80
50 103.2

2 = 0.8929 540 = 482. 17

Volumetric Properties of Pure Fluids

## 39. In an adiabatic process

a. Heat transfer is zero
b. Temperature change is zero
c. Work done is path function
d. Enthalpy remains constant
40. Isobaric process means a constant
a. Temperature process
b. Volume process
c. Pressure process
d. Entropy process
41. For an isothermal process the internal energy of a gas
a. Increases
b. Decreases
c. Remains unchanged
d. Data insufficient cant be predicted
42. Equation which relates pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas is called
a. Equation of state
b. Gibbs Duhem equation
c. Ideal gas equation
d. All of these
43. The equation, PV = nRT is best obeyed by gases at
a. Low pressure and high temperature
b. High pressure and low temperature
c. Low pressure and low temperature
d. High pressure and high temperature
44. Compressibility factor of a gas is
a. Not a function of pressure
b. Not a function of its nature
c. Not a function of its temperature
d. Unity, if it follows PV = nRT
45. Cp Cv = R is valid for
a. Ideal gases
b. All gases
c. Gasses at very high temperature
d. Gasses at very low temperature
46. For ideal gas possessing only transitional energy, the following relationships are valid
except
a. Cp = 2.5 R
b. Cv = 1.5 R
c. Cp = Cv R
d. Cp / Cv = 1.67
47. From PVn = C, when n = 0, the process is
a. Isochoric
b. Isothermal
c. Polytropic
d. Isobaric
48. From PVn = C, the process is isochoric if n equals
a. 0
b.
c. 1
d.
49. Adiabatic process is also called
a. Throttling
b. Isentropic
c. Isomeric
d. None of these
50. The net work accomplished by an engine undergoing adiabatic expansion is equal to
a. U
b. -U
c. Q
d. -Q
51. A process in which enthalpy is constant, work = 0 and which is adiabatic.
a. Reversible
b. Isentropic
c. Irreversible
d. Throttling
52. For monoatomic gases, CP/CV equals
a. 1.0
b. 1.4
c. 1.3
d. 1.6

Explanation:

cp/cv = 5/3 = 1.6 this for monoatomic particle. cp/cv = 7/5 = 1.4 this for diatomic particle.

53. A piston cylinder containing 0.25 kg of helium of 278 K receives heat at constant
temperature until the pressure is one-half its initial value. Calculate the work in kJ.
a. -120 kJ
b. -153 kJ
c. -100 kJ
d. -130 kJ

Given: Required:

m = 0.25 kg He Work = ?

T = 278 K

At constant temperature, P2 = P1

Calculation:

1
2 0.25
= ln = 8.314 278 ln 2 = 100.13
1 1
4

54. Determine the theoretical horsepower required for the isothermal compression of 800
ft3/min of air from 14.7 to 120 psia.
a. 103 hp
b. 108 hp
c. 110 hp
d. 115 hp
Given:

## V1 = 800 ft3/min P2 = 20 psia

P1 = 14.7 psia

Required:

Theoretical horsepower, W = ?

Calculation:

2 3 20 144 2 1 1
1 1 = 1 = 1 1 ln = 14. 7 2 800 ln [ ]
1 14. 7 2 60 550

= 107. 75

55. A process consists of two steps: (1) One mole of air at T = 800 K and P = 4 bar is
cooled at constant volume to T = 350 K. (2) The air is then heated at constant pressure
until its temperature reaches 800 K. If this two-step process is replaced by a single
isothermal expansion of air from 800 K and 4 bar to some final pressure P, what is the
value of P that makes the work of the two process the same? Assume mechanical
reversibility and treat air as an ideal gaw with CP = (7/2)R and CV = (5/2)R.
a. 2.28 bar
b. 3.01 bar
c. 2.52 bar
d. 1.86 bar

Given: Required:

T1 = 800 K Pressure, P =?

P1 = 4 bar

T2 = 350 K

Calculation:

PV = RT P2V = RT

## Put in (Equation 1):

W = RT W = R(T3 T2)

Since: T3 = T1

Therefore:

= 1 (Equation 3)
1

## Equate (Equation 2) to (Equation 3):

(1 2 ) = 1 (1 2 ) = 1 (350 800) = 800 = 2.279
1 1 4

56. One mole of an ideal gas undergoes the following sequence of mechanically reversible
process in a closed system: from an initial state of 70 oC and 1 bar, it is compressed
adiabatically to 150oC, it is then cooled from 150 to 70oC at constant pressure and
finally, it is expanded isothermally to its original state. Calculate W for the entire
process. Take CV = 3R/2 and CP = 5R/2.
a. -168 J
b. 0J
c. 168 J
d. 237 J

Given:

## n = 1mol At constant pressure:

T1 = 70 oC T3 = 70 oC

## P1 = 1 bar At isothermal expansion:

At adiabatic compression: T1 = 70 oC

T2 = 150 oC P1 = 1 bar

CV = 3R/2 ; CP = 5R/2.

Required:

## Work for the entire process = ?

Calculation:

At process 1 2; Q = 0
3
12 = = (2 1 ) = 8.314 (150 70) = 997.68
2

At process 2 3;

23 = (3 2 ) = 8.314 (70 150) = 665.12

At process 3 1;
Since process 1 2; Q = 0
1 1.671
2 2 150 + 273.15 2 1.67
= ( ) = ( ) 2 = 1.69
1 1 70 + 273.15 1
1 1
31 = ln = 8.314 (70 + 273.15) ln = 1497.02
3 1.69

1231 = (997.68 + 665.12 1497.02 ) = 165.78

57. If the processes are carried out reversibly but so as to accomplish exactly the same
changes of state the same changes P, T, U and H then different values of Q and W.
Calculate W if each step is carried out with an efficiency of 80 %.
a. 168 J
b. 883 J
c. 1996 J
d. 0 J

Given: Required:

n = 0.8 Work = ?

Solution:

## If W is positive: Wirr = Wrev/n; If w is negative: Wirr = Wrev X n

997. 68
12 = = 1247. 1
8
665.12
23 = = 831.4
8

31 = 1497 .02(0.8) = 1197.67

1231 = 880.88

## For numbers 58 to 60:

For liquid acetone at 20 oC and 1 bar, = 1.487 x 10-3 oC-1, = 62 x 10-6 bar and V = 1.287
cm3/g.

## 58. The value of (P/T)V at 20oC and 1 bar is

a. 24 bar/oC
b. 28 bar/oC
c. 26 bar/oC
d. 30 bar/oC
59. The pressure generated by heating at constant V from 20oC and 1 bar to 30oC is
a. 241
b. 243
c. 242
d. 245
60. What is the change in volume for a change from 20oC and 1 bar to 0oC and 10 bar?
a. -0.038 cm3/g
b. 0.038 cm3/g
c. -0.083 cm3/g
d. 0.083 cm3/g

Given:

T = 20oC
P = 1 bar

= 62 x 10-6 bar

V = 1.287 cm3/g.

Required:

Solution:

## At (P/T)V, V is constant and dV = 0. Use equation 3.4 of Van ness:

dT dP = 0

1.487 103 1
( ) = = = 23.98 1
62 106

Solve for P:

= = 23.98 1 (30 20) = 239.8

Solve for P2:

2 = 1 + = (1 + 239.8) = 240.8

## Using equation 3.5 of Van ness:

2
ln = (1.487 103 )(20) (62 106 )(9) = 0. 0303
1

2 3
= 0.9792 ; 2 = 0.9702 1.287 = 1.249
1

3
= 2 1 = 1.249 1.287 = 0.038

## Five kilograms of carbon tetrachloride undergo a mechanically reversible, isobaric change of

state at 1 bar during which the temperature changes from 0 oC to 20oC. The properties for
liquid carbon tetrachloride at 1 bar and 0 oC may be assumed independent of temperature:
= 1.2 x 10-3/K, CP = 0.84 kJ/kgK and = 1590 kg/m3. Determine the following:

61. V
a. 8 x 10-5 m3
b. 2 x 10-5 m3
c. 6 x 10-5 m3
d. 5 x 10-5 m3
62. W
a. -5 J
b. -2 J
c. -8 J
d. -4 J
63. Q
a. 76 kJ
b. 52 kJ
c. 65 kJ
d. 84 kJ
64. U
a. 67.82 kJ
b. 83.99 kJ
c. 90.01 kJ
d. 55.64 kJ

Given:

## Temperature1=T1= 0oC = 273.15 K = 1590 kg/m3.

T2 = 20oC = 293.15 K

Required:

V; Q; W; U = ?

Solution:

Since:

1 1 1 3
= = 1 =
1 1 1590

1 1
= = ( ) =

## Integrating on both sides:

2 2
2
= || 21 = ||21 (2 1 ) = (2 1 ) (2 1 ) =
1 1 1

Putting values

## 1.2 103 2 1590 3

(293.15 273.15) = 2 = 6.442 104
3

Then,

1 3 3
= 2 1 = (0.0006442 ) = 1.527 105
1590

## For Total volume,

3
= = 1.527 105 5 = 7.635 105 3

## For a reversible process:

100 000
2
= = = 1 ( ) 7.635 105 3 = 7.635
1

## For a reversible process at constant pressure:

= = = 5 0.84 (293.15 273.15) = 84

## Second Law of Thermodynamics

65. A central power plant, rated at 800 000 kW, generates steam at 585 K and discards
heat to a river at 295 K. If the thermal efficiency of the plant is 70 % of the maximum
possible value, how much heat is discarded to the river at rated power?
a. 1.5 MW
b. 3.0 MW
c. 2.3 MW
d. 4.9 MW

Given:

W = 800 MW TC = 295 K

## TH = 585 K n = 0.7 max

Required:

QC = ?

Calculation:

295
= 0.7 [1 ] = 0.7 [1 ] = 0.347
585
|| 800
= 0.347 = | | = 1. 505
|| + | | 800 + | |

## For numbers 66 to 67:

A nuclear power plant operates 750 MW; the reactor temperature is 315 oC and a river with
water temperature of 20oC is available.

66. What is the minimum rate at which heat must be discarded to the river?
a. 680 MW
b. 330 MW
c. 420 MW
d. 745 MW
67. If the actual thermal efficiency of the plant is 60 % of the maximum, what is the
temperature rise in oC of the river if it has a flow of 165 m3/s?
a. 4.0
b. 2.5
c. 3.6
d. 1.1

Given:

## TH = 315 oC flowrate, V = 165 m3/s

TC = 20 oC

Required:

QC ; nplant = ?

Calculation:

20 + 273.5
= 1 = 0.5016
315 + 273.15
|| 750
= 0.5016 = | | = 745.22
|| + | | 750 + | |

## = 0.60 = 0.60 0.5016 = 0.3010

|| 750
= 0.3010 = | | = 1741.68
|| + | | 750 + | |

1741.68 103
= = = 2.53
3
165 1000 3 4.18

## For numbers 68 to 70:

A heat engine operating at a Carnot cycle between 1540 oF and 40oF rejects 250 BTU/lb of
working fluid to the sink.

## 68. What is the work produced by the heat engine?

a. 190 BTU/lb
b. 350 BTU/lb
c. 560 BTU/lb
d. 750 BTU/lb
69. What is the Carnot efficiency?
a. 40 %
b. 75 %
c. 92 %
d. 66 %
70. What is the maximum entropy change for any process in the cycle?
a. 0.125 BTU/lbR
b. 0.500 BTU/lbR
c. 0.375 BTU/lbR
d. 0.224 BTU/lbR

Given:

Required:

Calculation:

71. An inventor claims to have a cyclic engine which exchanges heat with reservoirs at
25oC and 250oC, and which produces 0.45kJ of work for each kJ of heat extracted from
the hot reservoir. Is the claim believable?
a. Yes
b. No

Given:

TH = 250 oC W = 0.45 kJ

TC = 25 oC QH = 1 kJ

Required:

Calculation:

0.45
= = 0.45
1
25 + 273.15
= 1 = 0.43
250 + 273. 15
72. An inventor has devised a complicated non-flow process in which 1 mol of air is the
working fluid. The net effects of the process are claimed to be:
A change in state of the air from 250oC and 3 bar to 80oC and 1 bar.
The production of 1 800 J of work.
The transfer of an undisclosed amount of heat to a heat reservoir at 30 oC.

Determine whether the claimed performance of the process is consistent with the second
law. Assume that air is an ideal gas for which CP = (7/2)R.

a. Yes
b. No

Given:

T1 = 250 oC Treservoir = 30 oC

T2 = 80 oC P1 = 3 bar
P2 = 1 bar W = 1800 J

Cp = (7/2)R

Required:

Calculation:

2 2 7 80 + 273.15 1
= ln ln = 8.314 (1) ln 8.314 (1) ln
1 1 2 250 + 273.15 3

= 2.30

||
= + = = (2 1 )

2 5
= ln = 8.314 (1)(80 250) = 3533.45
1 2
|3533.45 1800 |
= = 5.72
30 + 275.15
= 2.30 + 7.72 = + 3.42

## For numbers 73 to 75:

A 40-kg steel casting (CP = 0.5 kJ/kgK) at a temperature of 4 500oC is quenched in 150 kg
of oil (CP = 2.5 kJ/kgK) at 250oC. If there are no heat losses, what is the change in entropy
of

## 73. The casting

a. -16.33 kJ/K
b. +16.33 kJ/K
c. -26.13 kJ/K
d. +26.13 kJ/K
74. The oil
a. -16.33 kJ/K
b. +16.33 kJ/K
c. -26.13 kJ/K
d. +26.13 kJ/K
75. Both considered together
a. 9.8 kJ/K
b. -9.8 kJ/K
c. 0 kJ/K
d. 43 kJ/K

Given:

massSC = 40 kg

massoil = 150 kg

## CpSC = 0.5 kJ/kgK

Cpoil = 2.5 kJ/kgK

TSC = 450 oC

Toil = 25 oC

Required:

S = ?

Calculation:

2
= + = ln
1

40 (0.5 ) (450 2 ) = 150 (2.5 ) (2 25) ; 2 = 46.25

46.52 + 273.15
= 0.5 ln 40 = 16.33
450 + 273.15
46.52 + 273.15
= 2.5 ln 150 = 26.13
450 + 273.15

= 26.13 16.33 = 9.8

Heat Effects

76. What is the difference between the heat of combustion of methane at constant
pressure and at constant volume at 27oC when liquid water forms?
a. -1 192.2 cal
b. 1 257.44 cal
c. -2 314.5 cal
d. 3 567.9 cal
77. At 90oC, the vapor pressure of acetic acid is 293 mmHg and its vapor pressure at
100oC is 417 mmHg. Calculate the normal boiling point of acetic acid.
a. 271.4 K
b. 298.2 K
c. 391.5 K
d. None of these
78. The heat of fusion of ice is 79.7 cal/g at 0 oC. The densities of ice and water at the
same temperature are, respectively, 0.9168 g/cc. Calculate the melting point of ice at
325 atm pressure.
79. The vapor pressure of ethanol is 135.3 mm at 40 oC and 542.5 mm at 70oC. Calculate
the molar heat of vaporization and the vapor pressure of ethanol at 50 oC.

## (c) With specific volume of 0.10 m3/kg at 1 MPa

Determine whether water is compressed liquid, superheated vapor, saturated liquid,
saturated vapor, or a mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapor, in each case. If
the state is determined to be a mixture, determine the quality.

81. A pressure vessel contains liquid water and water vapor in equilibrium at 350 oF. The
total mass of liquid and vapor is 3 lb. if the volume of the vapor is 50 times the volume
of the liquid, what is the total enthalpy of the contents of the vessel?

82. A steam turbine with rated capacity of 56 400 W operates with steam at inlet conditions
at a pressure of 10kPa. Assuming a turbine efficiency of 0.75, determine the mass rate
of flow of the steam.
a. 45 kg/s
b. 28 kg/s
c. 37 kg/s
d. 59 kg/s

Cycles

83. Calculate the heat supplied, the turbine work, and the pump work per kg of steam in
Rankine cycle which steam leaves the boiler at 4 MPa, 400 oC, and the condenser
operates at a pressure of 10 kPa. Also compute the cycle efficiency. Assume the
processes in the turbine and pump to be reversible and adiabatic.

Given:

P2 = 4 MPa

T2 = 400oC

P1 = 10 kPa

Required:

Heat supplied, Q = ?

Cycle efficiency, n = ?

Solution:

Assume all of the processes to be steady-state, steady flow and consider a control
surface around each of the components under analysis. (See the figure above)

At the pump: Since the pump is adiabatic, use the first law:

WP = H2 H1 ---- (Equation 1)

## Assuming a reversible pump, use the second law:

S2 S1

To obtain the enthalpy change in a reversible adiabatic process in a liquid, use the general
property relation:
Tds = dh VdP

Since ds = 0

H = VP

Or WP = H2 H1 = V1 (P2 P1)

sol

## For numbers 84 to 86:

An Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 9.5. The air is at 100 kPa, 17 oC, and 600 cm3 prior
to the compression stroke. Temperature at the end of isentropic expansion is 800 K. Using
constant specific heat, calculate the following:

## 84. Highest temperature in the cycle

a. 1763 K
b. 1654 K
c. 1969 K
d. 1892 K
85. Thermal Efficiency
a. 59.4 %
b. 47.1 %
c. 62.8 %
d. 36.7 %
86. Mean effective pressure
a. 609 kPa
b. 718 kPa
c. 547 kPa
d. 425 kPa

Given:

## Before the compression stroke:

P1 = 100 kPa

T1 = 17oC = 290.15 K

After

T4 = 800 K

## Properties of Air at room temperature:

CP = 1.005 kJ/kgK

CV = 0.718 kJ/kgK

## Specific heat ratio, k = CP/ CV = 1.4

R = 0.287 kJ/kgK

Required:

Highest Temperature, T = ?

Calculation:

## Using the ideal gas laws, to find the mass:

1 1 100 (6 104 )3
= = = 7.205 104
1
0.287 290.15

Since: V4 = V1 = Vmax

The highest temperature and pressure in the system was at state 3. Since process 34 is
isentropic, we can use the isentropic ratio between:

3 4 1 3
=( ) = 1 3 = 4 1 3 = 800 9.51.41 3 = 1968.7
4 3 4

## The thermal efficiency for an Otto cycle is given by:

(4 1 ) 1 1
= 1 = 1 1 = 1 = 0.5936 59.36 %
(3 2 ) 9.51.41

## The mean effective pressure is defined as:

=

To solve for Qin: the heat transfer occurs between states 2 and 3. Using the First Law:

## To find for T2, use the isentropic ratio between 1 and 2:

2 1 1 2
=( ) = 1 2 = 1 1 3 = 290.15 9.51.41 2 = 714.0
1 2 1

= (7.205 104 ) 0.718 (1968.7 714.0) = 0.649

## = 0.649 0.5936 = 0.3852

6 104
= 3 = = = 0.6316 104 3
9.5
0.3852
= = 717.53
(6 0.6316) 104 3