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Long Questions:

Q1: What is the 4 basic levels of research?

1. Description

Concerned with the collection and reporting of data related to what is, or was, the case.

2. Classification

Is still descriptive. Eases the reporting process and highlights similarities and clustering
through grouping and classifying.

3. Explanation

Attempt to make sense of observations by explaining the relationships observed and

attributing causality based on an appropriate theory.

4. Prediction

Going beyond the understanding and explaining of the prior stage.

Q2: what are the roles of supervisor?

The role of the supervisor

Ways that a supervisor can be assigned to a candidate
1. Traditional model
Candidates will enroll with a specific supervisor attached to them.
Candidates will have at least an outline or research proposal in hand.
The supervisor will have been given some say on the suitability of both candidate and
2. Alternate arrangements
The acceptance of candidates into a structured program without a supervisor being
attached or a detailed research idea having already been developed.

Facilitates the assignment of the most suitable supervisor to the candidate.

Candidate may develop a proposal for which there is not suitable supervision available
Q3: what are the advantages of research work turn into publication?

Direct rewards from research include:

1. Self-actualization.
2. Increased appointment and promotion opportunities.
3. Improved tenure likelihood.
4. Enhancement of teaching through the research connection.
5. Possible remission from teaching/administration to conduct research.
6. The opportunity to win research grants.
7. Increased availability of consultancy assignments.
8. Overseas travel to present papers at prestigious conferences.
9. Availability to provide postgraduate research supervision.
10. Attraction of resources through national university funding mechanisms.
Short Questions:
Q1: what are the advantages of pilot testing?
Pilot testing
Extensive pilot testing of the survey instrument is essential.
1. Demonstrates that the survey instrument is capable of generating the required responses
from the target audience.
2. To improve the reliability and validity of individual questions, the entire questionnaire
should be evaluated at the pilot state.
Q2: what are the resources of archival survey?
1. Primary
Original research results published for the first time.
2. Secondary
Information that has been disclosed by third parties.
3. Tertiary
Data which has been aggregated, categorized and/or reworked in databases

Q3: what are the guideline for good experimental research?


Q4: when can we publish research work?

Q5: what are forms of survey?
can be conducted in many forms
1. Mail
2. Telephone
3. Email
4. Internet
5. Face-to-face
Q6: define archival research?
Sources used to generate research based on historical documents.
o Can be based on texts, journal articles, corporate annual reports, company disclosures, etc.
Researchers must develop the skills needed to locate and use sources effectively.
Q7: what are the sources of theory?
Sources of theory
1. Theory
2. Hypotheses
3. Concepts
4. Constructs
5. Variables
6. Reliability