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Gupta Empire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Gupta Empire (Sanskrit: गु� राजवंश,

Gupta Rājavaṃśa) was an Ancient Indian गु � राजवं श
empire which existed approximately Gupta Rājavaṃśa
from 320 to 550 CE and covered much Gupta Empire
of the Indian Subcontinent . Founded
by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was ← AD 320–AD
[2] →
the model of a classical civilization . 600s

The peace and prosperity created under
leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit Capital Pataliputra
of scientific and artistic endeavors . Language(s) Sanskrit
This period is called the Golden Age of
[4] Religion Hinduism
India and was marked by extensive
achievements in science, technology,
engineering, art, dialectic, literature, Government Monarchy
logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion Maharajadhiraj
and philosophy that crystallized the - 240s-280s Sri-Gupta
elements of what is generally known as - 319-335 Chandragupta I
Hindu culture . Chandragupta I, - 540-550 Vishnugupta
Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II
were the most notable rulers of the Historical era Antiquity
[6] - Established AD 320
Gupta dynasty.
- Disestablished AD 600s
The high points of this cultural
creativity are magnificent
architectures, sculptures and History of South Asia
paintings . The Gupta period History of India
produced scholars such as Stone Age before 3300 BCE
Kalidasa, Aryabhata, - Mehrgarh Culture 7000–3300 BCE
Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma, Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE
Vatsyayana and Prashastapada - Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE
who made great advancements in
[8][9] Iron Age 1200–180 BCE
many academic fields .
Vedic Civilization 1500–500 BCE
Science and political
administration reached new Maha Janapadas • 700–300 BCE
heights during the Gupta era
. Magadha Empire • 684–424 BCE
Strong trade ties also made the Nanda Empire • 424-321 BCE
region an important cultural
center and set the region up as a

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base that would influence nearby Chera Empire • 300 BCE–1200 CE

kingdoms and regions in Burma,
Chola Empire • 300 BCE–1279 CE
Sri Lanka, Malay Archipelago and
[11] Pandyan Empire • 300 BCE–1345 CE
Maurya Empire • 321–184 BCE
The earliest available Puranas are Pallava Empire • 250 BCE–800 CE
also thought to have been written Sunga Empire • 185-73 BCE
around this period. The empire
Kanva Empire • 75-26 BCE
came to an end with the attack of
the Huna from Central Asia. After Kharavela Empire • 209–170 BCE
the collapse of the Gupta Empire Kuninda Kingdom • 200s BCE–300s CE
in the 6th century, India was Indo-Scythian Kingdom • 200 BC–400 CE
again ruled by numerous regional Satavahana Empire • 230 BCE–220 CE
kingdoms. A minor line of the Indo-Greek Kingdom • 180 BCE–10 CE
Gupta clan continued to rule
Magadha after the disintegration Middle Kingdoms 1 CE–1279 CE
of the empire. These Guptas were Indo-Parthian Kingdom • 21–130s CE
ultimately ousted by the Vardhana Western Satrap Empire • 35–405 CE
king Harsha, who established an Kushan Empire • 60–240 CE
empire in the first half of the 7th
Indo-Sassanid Kingdom • 230–360 CE
Vakataka Empire • 250–500 CE
Kalabhras Kingdom • 250–600 CE
Gupta Empire • 280–550 CE
Contents Kadamba Empire • 345–525 CE
Western Ganga Kingdom • 350–1000 CE
1 Origin of the Guptas
Kamarupa Kingdom • 350–1100 CE
2 Srigupta and
Ghatotkacha Vishnukundina Empire • 420-624 CE
3 Chandra Gupta I Huna Kingdom • 475-576 CE
4 Samudragupta Rai Kingdom • 489–632 CE
5 Succession of Chalukya Empire • 543–753 CE
Samudragupta Harsha Empire • 590-647 CE
6 Ramagupta Shahi Kingdom • 565-670 CE
7 Chandragupta II
Eastern Chalukya Kingdom • 624-1075 CE
7.1 Chandra Gupta
II's campaigns against Gurjara Pratihara Empire • 650–1036 CE
Foreign Tribes Pala Empire • 750–1174 CE
Rashtrakuta Empire • 753–982 CE
8 Kumaragupta I
9 Umpagupta Paramara Kingdom • 800–1327 CE
10 Huna invasions and the Yadava Empire • 850–1334 CE
end of empire Solanki Kingdom • 942–1244 CE
11 Military organization Western Chalukya Empire • 973–1189 CE
12 Gupta administration

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13 Legacy of the Gupta Hoysala Empire • 1040–1346 CE

Empire Sena Empire • 1070–1230 CE
14 Gupta dynasty rulers Eastern Ganga Empire • 1078–1434 CE
15 See also Kakatiya Kingdom • 1083–1323 CE
16 Notes
Kalachuri Empire • 1130–1184 CE
17 References
Islamic Rulers 1206–1707 CE
18 Further reading
19 External links - Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526 CE
- Deccan Sultanates 1490–1596 CE
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1646 CE
Mughal Empire 1526–1803 CE
Origin of the Guptas Maratha Empire 1674–1818 CE
Durrani Empire 1747–1823 CE
Main article: Origin of the
Sikh Confederacy 1733–1805 CE
Gupta dynasty
Sikh Empire 1799–1849 CE
A.S. Altekar, regarded the caste of Regional Kingdoms 1100–1800 CE
the Guptas as Vaishya on the basis Cochin Kingdom 1102–1949 CE
of the ancient Indian texts on law, Travancore Kingdom 1102–1949 CE
which prescribe the name-ending
Ahom Kingdom 1228–1826 CE
with Gupta for a member of the
Vaishya caste, but this injunction Chitradurga Kingdom 1300–1779 CE
was more often disregarded than Garhwal Kingdom 1358–1803 CE
followed. A modern historian, K.P. Mysore Kingdom 1399–1947 CE
Jayaswal suggested that the Keladi Kingdom 1499–1763 CE
Guptas were Jats. His argument Thondaiman Kingdom 1650–1948 CE
was based on the Pune and
Madurai Kingdom 1559–1736 CE
Riddhapura copper plate grants of
Prabahvatigupta, the Vakataka Thanjavur Kingdom 1572–1918 CE
regent and the daughter of Marava Kingdom 1600–1750 CE
Chandragupta II. In these two Company rule in India 1757–1858 CE
inscriptions, she states that she British India 1858–1947 CE
belonged to the Dharana gotra Partition of India 1947 CE
and as it was not her husband's History of Sri Lanka
gotra, it is the gotra of the
Guptas. His view was endorsed by Kingdoms of Sri Lanka
another modern historian, Kingdom of Tambapanni 543–505 BCE
Dasharatha Sharma, who added Kingdom of Upatissa Nuwara 505–377 BCE
that the Jats of the Dharana gotra Kingdom of Anuradhapura 377–1017 CE
still exist in the present-day Kingdom of Ruhuna 200– CE
Rajasthan Another modern Polonnaruwa Kingdom 300–1310 CE
historian, H.C. Raychaudhuri, also
Kingdom of Dambadeniya 1220–1272 CE
accepted that the Guptas
belonged to the Dharana gotra. Kingdom of Yapahuwa 1272–1293 CE
He also believed that they were

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possibly related to Queen Dharini, Kingdom of Kurunegala 1293–1341 CE

the chief consort of
[13][14] Kingdom of Gampola 1341–1347 CE
Agnimitra But the basis of
Kingdom of Raigama 1347–1415 CE
this argument, the earlier
accepted reading of the Kingdom of Kotte 1412–1597 CE
Riddhapura copper plate Kingdom of Sitawaka 1521–1594 CE
inscription may be incorrect and Kingdom of Kandy 1461–1581 CE
the correct reading possibly Portuguese Ceylon 1505–1658 CE
indicates that the family of
Dutch Ceylon 1656–1796 CE
Prabhavatigupta's mother,
Kuberanaga belonged to this British Ceylon 1815–1948 CE
Dharana gotra. Recently, a Nation histories
historian, Ashvini Agarwal, on the Afghanistan • Bangladesh • Bhutan • India
basis of the matrimonial alliances Maldives • Nepal • Pakistan
of the Guptas with the orthodox Regional histories
Brahman dynasties, assumed that Assam • Bihar • Balochistan • Bengal
they belong to the Brahman Himachal Pradesh • Uttar Pradesh
caste. . However, recent Pakistani Regions • Punjab • NWFP
excavations in Nepal and Deccan Orissa • Sindh • South India • Tibet
has revealed that Gupta suffix was Specialised histories
common among Abhira kings, and Coinage • Dynasties • Economy
Historian D. R. Regmi, links Indology • Language • Literature • Maritime
Imperial Guptas with Abhira- Military • Science and Technology • Timeline
Guptas of Nepal.

Fa Xian was the first of the Chinese pilgrims who visited India during the reign
of Chandra Gupta II. He started his journey from China in 399 CE and reached
India in 405 CE. During his stay in India up to 411 CE, he went on a pilgrimage
to Mathura, Kanauj, Kapilavastu, Kushinagar, Vaishali, Pataliputra, Kashi and
Rajgriha and made careful observations about the empire's conditions. Fa Xian
was pleased with the mildness of administration. The Penal Code was mild and
offences were punished by fines only. From his accounts, the Gupta Empire was
a prosperous period.

The Chinese traveler Yijing (see also Xuanzang) provides more knowledge of the
Gupta kingdom in Magadha. He came to north India in 672 CE and heard of
Maharaja Sri-Gupta, who built a temple for Chinese pilgrims near Mi-li-kia-si-
kia-po-no (Mrigasikhavana) who lost their lives in epic battle. According to
Yijing, this temple was "about 40 yojanas to the east of Nalanda, following the
course of the Ganga".

Srigupta and Ghatotkacha

The most likely time for the reign of Sri Gupta is c. 240-280 CE. A number of

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modern historians, which include Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay and K.P.Jayaswal

think he and his son were possibly feudatories of the Kushans. His son and
successor Ghatotkacha ruled probably from c. 280-319 CE. In contrast to their
successor, Chandragupta I, who is mentioned as Maharajadhiraja , he and his
son Ghatotkacha are referred to in inscriptions as Maharaja. At the
beginning of the 5th century the Guptas established and ruled a few small Hindu
kingdoms in Magadha and around modern-day Bihar.

Chandra Gupta I
Main article: Chandragupta I

Ghatotkacha (c. 280–319 CE), had a son named Chandra Gupta. (Not to be
confused with Chandragupta Maurya (340-293 BCE), founder of the Mauryan
Empire.) In a breakthrough deal, Chandra Gupta was married to Kumaradevi, a
Lichchhavi princess—the main power in Magadha. With a dowry of the kingdom
of Magadha (capital Pataliputra) and an alliance with the Lichchhavis, Chandra
Gupta set about expanding his power, conquering much of Magadha, Prayaga
and Saketa. He established a realm stretching from the Ganga River (Ganges
River) to Prayaga (modern-day Allahabad) by 321 CE. He assumed the imperial
title of Maharajadhiraja.

Main article: Samudragupta

Samudragupta, Parakramanka succeeded his father in 335 CE, and ruled for
about 45 years, till his death in 380 CE. He took the kingdoms of Ahichchhatra
and Padmavati early in his reign. He then attacked the Malwas, the Yaudheyas,
the Arjunayanas, the Maduras and the Abhiras, all of which were tribes in the
area. By his death in 380, he had incorporated over twenty kingdoms into his
realm and his rule extended from the Himalayas to the river Narmada and from
the Brahmaputra to the Yamuna. He gave himself the titles King of Kings and
World Monarch. Historian Vincent Smith described him as the "Indian
Napoleon" . He performed Ashwamedha yajna (horse sacrifice) to underline
the importance of his conquest. The stone replica of the sacrificial horse, then
prepared, is in the Lucknow Museum. The Samudragupta Prashasti inscribed on
the Ashokan Pillar, now in Akbar’s Fort at Allahabad, is an authentic record of
his exploits and his sway over most of the continent.

Samudragupta was not only a talented military leader but also a great patron of
art and literature. The important scholars present in his court were Harishena,
Vasubandhu and Asanga. He was a poet and musician himself. He was a firm
believer in Hinduism and is known to have worshipped Lord Vishnu. He was

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considerate of other religions and allowed Sri Lanka's Buddhist king

Sirimeghvanna to build a monastery at Bodh Gaya. That monastery was called by
Xuanzang as the Mahabodhi Sangharama. He provided a gold railing around
the Bodhi Tree.

Succession of Samudragupta
According to A.S. Altekar, a king named Ramagupta intervened between
Samudragupta and Chandragupta II. His theory is based on a tradition that,
Samudragupta's eldest son Ramagupta, who succeeded him, was a weak ruler.
After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of the Sakas, he agreed to
surrender his wife Dhruvadevi or Dhurvasvamini to the Saka Chief (who, Altekar
believes is Rudrasena II). But, Rama Gupta’s younger brother Chandra Gupta II,
protested against this dishonour and went to the Saka camp disguised as the
queen and assassinated the Saka Chief. After this he killed his brother Rama
Gupta, married Dhruvadevi and ascended to the throne. But this theory is not
supported by any contemporary epigraphic evidence. The earliest version of this
narrative is found in the Harshacharita of Bana. The later versions are found in a
number of texts, which include the extracts of the Devichandragupta, a
historical drama of Vishakhadatta found in the Natyadarpana of Ramachandra
and Gunachandra and also in the Shringaraprakasha of Bhoja I. The version
of this narrative given by Bana in his Harshacharita differs significantly from all
the later versions, even the narrative known to the author of the Kavyamimamsa
(c.900). The Harshacharita only mentions that Chandragupta II, disguised as a
female, destroyed a Saka king, who coveted the wife of another, in the very city
of the enemy. It does not mention anything about Ramagupta.

Main article: Ramagupta

Although, the narrative of the Devichandragupta is not supported by any

contemporary epigraphical evidence, the historicity of Ramagupta is proved by
his Durjanpur inscriptions on three Jaina images, where he is mentioned as the
Maharajadhiraja. A large number of his copper coins also have been found from
the Eran-Vidisha region and classified in five distinct types, which include the
Garuda,[21] Garudadhvaja, lion and border legend types. The Brahmi legends on
these coins are written in the early Gupta style.

Chandragupta II
Main article: Chandragupta II

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According to the Gupta records, amongst his many

sons,Samudragupta nominated prince Chandra Gupta II,
born of queen Dattadevi, as his successor.

Chandra Gupta II, Vikramaditya (the Sun of Power), ruled

from 380 until 413. Chandra Gupta II also married to a
Kadamba princess of Kuntala region and a princess of
Naga lineage ( Nāgakulotpannnā), Kuberanaga. His
daughter Prabhavatigupta from this Naga queen was
married to Rudrasena II, the Vakataka ruler of Deccan.
His son Kumaragupta I was married to Kadamba princess of karnatka region .
Emperor Chandra Gupta II expanded his realm westwards, defeating the Saka
Western Kshatrapas of Malwa, Gujarat and Saurashtra in a campaign lasting
until 409, but with his main opponent Rudrasimha III defeated by 395, and
crushing the Bengal (Vanga) chiefdoms. This extended his control from coast-
to-coast, estabilshed a second capital at Ujjain and was the high point of the

Despite the creation of the empire through war, the reign is remembered for its
very influential style of Hindu art, literature, culture and science, especially
during the reign of Chandra Gupta II. Some excellent works of Hindu art such as
the panels at the Dashavatara Temple in Deogarh serve to illustrate the
magnificence of Gupta art. Above all it was the synthesis of elements that gave
Gupta art its distinctive flavour. During this period, the Guptas were supportive
of thriving Buddhist and Jain cultures as well, and for this reason there is also a
long history of non-Hindu Gupta period art. In particular, Gupta period Buddhist
art was to be influential in most of East and Southeast Asia. Much of advances
was recorded by the Chinese scholar and traveller Faxian (Fa-hien) in his diary
and published afterwards.

The court of Chandragupta was made even more illustrious by the fact that it
was graced by the Navaratna (Nine Jewels), a group of nine who excelled in the
literary arts. Amongst these men was the immortal Kalidasa whose works
dwarfed the works of many other literary geniuses, not only in his own age but in
the ages to come. Kalidasa was particularly known for his fine exploitation of the
shringara (erotic) element in his verse.

Chandra Gupta II's campaigns against Foreign Tribes

4th century AD Sanskrit poet Kalidasa, credits Chandragupta Vikramaditya

with having conquered about twenty one kingdoms, both in and outside
India. After finishing his campaign in the East and West India, Vikramaditya
(Chandra Gupta II) proceeded northwards, subjugated the Parasikas
(Persians), then the Hunas and the Kambojas tribes located in the west and
east Oxus valleys respectively. Thereafter, the glorious king proceeds across

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the Himalaya and reduced the Kinnaras, Kiratas etc. and lands into India
proper .

The Brihatkathamanjari of the Kashmiri writer Kshmendra states, king

Vikramaditya (Chandra Gupta II) had "unburdened the sacred earth of the
Barbarians like the Sakas, Mlecchas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Tusharas, Parasikas,
Hunas, etc. by annihilating these sinful Mlecchas completely" [25][26][27].

Kumaragupta I
Main article: Kumaragupta I

Chandragupta II was succeeded by his

second son Kumaragupta I, born of
Mahadevi Dhruvasvamini. Kumaragupta
I assumed the title, Mahendraditya.
He ruled until 455. Towards the end of
his reign a tribe in the Narmada valley,
the Pushyamitras, rose in power to
threaten the empire. Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara
Gupta I AD (414-455) (Coin of his
Umpagupta Western territories, design derived
from the Western Satraps).
Main article: Skandagupta Obv: Bust of king with crescents. [28]
Rev: Garuda standing facing with
Skandagupta, son and successor of spread wings. Brahmi legend:
Kumaragupta I is generally considered Parama-bhagavata rajadhiraja Sri
to be the last of the great rulers. He Kumaragupta Mahendraditya.
assumed the titles of Vikramaditya and
Kramaditya.[30] He defeated the Pushyamitra threat, but then was faced with
invading Hephthalites or "White Huns", known in India as the Huna, from the
northwest. He repulsed a Huna attack c. 455, But the expense of the wars
drained the empire's resources and contributed to its decline. Skandagupta died
in 467 and was succeeded by his agnate brother Purugupta.

Huna invasions and the end of empire

Skandagupta was followed by weak rulers Purugupta (467-473), Kumaragupta II
(473-476), Budhagupta (476-495?), Narasimhagupta, Kumaragupta III,
Vishnugupta, Vainyagupta and Bhanugupta. In the 480's the Hephthalite King
Oprah broke through the Gupta defenses in the northwest, and much of the
empire was overrun by the Huna by 500. The empire disintegrated under the
attacks of Toramana and his successor Mihirakula. The Hunas conquered several

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provinces of the empire, including Malwa, Gujarat and Thanesar and broke away
under the rule of local dynasties. It appears from inscriptions that the Guptas,
although their power was much diminished, continued to resist the Hunas.
Narasimhagupta formed an alliance with the independent kingdoms to drive the
Huna from most of northern India by the 530's. The succession of the sixth-
century Guptas is not entirely clear, but the tail end recognized ruler of the
dynasty's main line was king Vishnugupta, reigning from 540 to 550.

Military organization
The Imperial Guptas could have achieved their successes through force of arms
with an efficient martial system. Historically, the best accounts of this comes not
from the Hindus themselves but from Chinese and Western observers. However,
a contemporary Indian document, regarded as a military classic of the time, the
Siva-Dhanur-veda, offers some insight into the military system of the Guptas. The
Guptas seem to have relied heavily on infantry archers, and the bow was one of
the dominant weapons of their army. The Hindu version of the longbow was
composed of metal, or more typically bamboo, and fired a long bamboo cane
arrow with a metal head. Unlike the composite bows of Western and Central
Asian foes, bows of this design would be less prone to warping in the damp and
moist conditions often prevalent to the region. The Indian longbow was
reputedly a powerful weapon capable of great range and penetration and
provided an effective counter to invading horse archers. Iron shafts were used
against armored elephants and hippos, and fire arrows were also part of the
bowmen's arsenal. India historically has had a prominent reputation for its steel
weapons. One of these was the steel bow. Due to its high tensility, the steel bow
was capable of long range and penetration of exceptionally thick armor. These
were less common weapons than the bamboo design and found in the hands of
noblemen rather than in the ranks. Archers were frequently protected by
infantry equipped with shields, javelins, and longswords.

The Guptas also had knowledge of siegecraft, catapults, and other sophisticated
war machines.

The Guptas apparently showed little predilection for using horse archers,
despite the fact these warriors were a main component in the ranks of their
Scythian, Parthian, and Hepthalite ( Huna) enemies. However, the Gupta armies
were probably better disciplined. Able commanders like Samudragupta and
Chandragupta II would have likely understood the need for combined armed
tactics and proper logistical organization. Gupta military success likely stemmed
from the concerted use of elephants, armored cavalry, and foot archers in
tandem against both Hindu kingdoms and foreign armies invading from the
Northwest. The Guptas also maintained a navy, allowing them to control regional

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The collapse of the Gupta Empire in the face of the Huna onslaught was due not
directly to the inherent defects of the Gupta army, which after all had initially
defeated these people under Skandagupta. More likely, internal dissolution
sapped the ability of the Guptas to resist foreign invasion, as was simultaneously
occurring in Western Europe and China.

Gupta administration
A study of the epigraphical records of the Gupta empire shows that there was a
hierarchy of administrative divisions from top to bottom. The empire was called
by various names such as Rajya, Rashtra, Desha, Mandala, Prithvi and Avani. It
was divided in to 26 provinces, which were styled as Bhukti, Pradesha and
Bhoga. Provinces were also divided into Vishayas and put under the control of
the Vishayapatis. A Vishayapati administered the Vishaya with the help of the
Adhikarana (council of representatives), which comprised four representatives:
Nagarasreshesthi, Sarthavaha, Prathamakulika and Prathama Kayastha. A part of
the Vishaya was called Vithi.

Legacy of the Gupta Empire

Scholars of this period include Aryabhata, who is believed to be the first to come
up with the concept of zero, postulated the theory that the Earth moves round
the Sun, and studied solar and lunar eclipses. Kalidasa, who was a great
playwright, who wrote plays such as Shakuntala, which is said to have inspired
Goethe, and marked the highest point of Sanskrit literature is also said to have
belonged to this period.

The flow of invasions from the Huns from central Asia aided in accelerating the
demise of the glorious Gupta dynasty rule in India, although the effects of its fall
was far less devastating than that of the Han or Roman at the same time.
According to historian's work,

The Gupta Empire is considered by many scholars to be the

“ "classical age" of Hindu and Buddhist art and literature. The Rulers
of the Gupta Empire were strong supporters of developments in the
arts, architecture, science, and literature. The Gupta Empire
circulated a large number of gold coins, called dinars, and
supported the Universities of Nalanda and Vikramasila.

Chess is said to have originated in this period,[33] where its early form in the 6th
century was known as caturaṅga, which translates as "four divisions [of the
military]" – infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariotry - represented by the pieces
that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, bishop, and rook, respectively.
Doctors also invented several medical instruments, and even performed

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operations. The Indian numerals which were the first positional base 10 numeral
systems in the world originated from Gupta India. The ancient Gupta text Kama
Sutra is widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in
Sanskrit literature written by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana. Aryabhata, a noted
mathematician-astronomer of the Gupta period proposed that the earth is not
flat, but is instead round and rotates about its own axis. He also discovered that
the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. Instead of the prevailing
cosmogony in which eclipses were caused by pseudo-planetary nodes Rahu and
Ketu, he explained eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and falling on Earth.
These and the other scientific discoveries made by Indians during this period
about gravity and the planets of the solar system spread throughout the world
through trade.

Gupta dynasty rulers

The main branch of the Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire in India, from
around 320 to 550. This dynasty was founded by Srigupta. The rulers are:

Chandragupta I
Chandragupta II
Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta II
Narasimhagupta Baladitya
Kumaragupta III

Succeeded by
Preceded by Magadha dynasties
possibly Pala
Kanva dynasty AD 240-550

See also
Indian numerals

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Middle kingdoms of India

Northern Southern Northwestern
Empires Dynasties Kingdoms

6th century Magadha Gandhara

BCE Shishunaga
5th century dynasty (Persian rule)
BCE Nanda empire (Greek conquests)
4th century Kalinga
BCE Maurya Satavahana
Empire empire
3rd century Pandyan Indo-Greeks
Sunga Empire
BCE Cholas
2nd century Chera
1st century Kingdom
Kushan Empire
1st century Kalabhras
CE Kadamba
Western Pallava Indo-Sassanids
2nd century Satraps
Kidarite Kingdom
3rd century Chalukya
4th century
5th century
6th century (Islamic conquests)
Empire Rashtrakuta
7th century
8th century Shahi
9th century
10th Harsha Western (Islamic Empire)
century Gurjara Chalukyas
11th Pratihara Hoysala
century Empire

Pala Empire
Sena dynasty

1. ^ "Gupta Dynasty - MSN Encarta" (http://www.webcitation.org/5kwqOxl5F) .

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Archived from the original (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761571624

/gupta_dynasty.html) on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwqOxl5F .
2. ^ http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch28gup.htm
3. ^ http://historymedren.about.com/library/text/bltxtindia7.htm
4. ^ http://www.nupam.com/Sgupta1.html
5. ^ http://www.wsu.edu:8001/~dee/ANCINDIA/GUPTA.HTM
6. ^ http://www.indianchild.com/gupta_empire.htm
7. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249590/Gupta-dynasty
8. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1960) Ancient India, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, p.540
9. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/285248/1960/The-Gupta-empire-
10. ^ http://www.historybits.com/gupta.htm
11. ^ http://www.pbs.org/thestoryofindia/gallery/photos/8.html
12. ^ a b Agarwal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas , Delhi:Motilal
Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0592-5, pp.82-4
13. ^ Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of
Calcutta, p.467ff
14. ^ a b Mahajan, V.D. (1960) Ancient India, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0887-6,
15. ^ Inscriptions of ancient Nepal, Volume 1 By D. R. Regmi, Page no.74
16. ^ a b Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University
of Calcutta, pp.488,488ff
17. ^ Agarwal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas , Delhi:Motilal
Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0592-5, pp.84-7
18. ^ Smith, Vincent A. (1999). The Early History of India: From 600 B.C. to the
Muhammadan Conquest (http://books.google.co.in/books?id=8XXGhAL1WKcC&
cd=2#v=onepage&q&f=false) . Atlantic. pp. 289. ISBN 81-7156-618-9.
cd=2#v=onepage&q&f=false .
19. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1960) Ancient India, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, p.487
20. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1960) Ancient India, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, p.491
21. ^ Agarwal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas
ved=0CAkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=&f=false) . Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
pp. 153–9. ISBN 81-208-0592-5. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=hRjC5IaJ2zcC&

13 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM

Gupta Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire

ved=0CAkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=&f=false .
22. ^ Bajpai, K.D. (2004). Indian Numismatic Studies (http://books.google.co.in
q=Bajpai%20Gupta%20coins%20from%20excavations&f=false) . New Delhi:
Abhinav Publications. pp. 120–1. ISBN 8170170354. http://books.google.co.in
q=Bajpai%20Gupta%20coins%20from%20excavations&f=false .
23. ^ Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of
Calcutta, p.489
24. ^ Raghu Vamsa v 4.60-75
25. ^ ata shrivikramadityo helya nirjitakhilah Mlechchana Kamboja. Yavanan neechan
Hunan Sabarbran Tushara. Parsikaanshcha tayakatacharan vishrankhalan hatya
bhrubhangamatreyanah bhuvo bharamavarayate (Brahata Katha, 10/1/285-86,
26. ^ Kathasritsagara 18.1.76-78
27. ^ Cf: "In the story contained in Kathasarit-sagara, king Vikarmaditya is said to have
destroyed all the barbarous tribes such as the Kambojas, Yavanas, Hunas, Tokharas and
the Persians "(See: Ref: Reappraising the Gupta History, 1992, p 169, B. C. Chhabra, Sri
Ram; Cf also: Vikrama Volume, 1948, p xxv, Vikramāditya Śakāri; cf: Anatomii͡a i
fiziologii͡a selʹskokhozi͡a ĭstvennykh zhivotnykh, 1946, p 264, Arthur John Arberry,
Louis Renou, B. K. Hindse, A. V. Leontovich, National Council of Teachers of English
Committee on Recreational Reading - Sanskrit language.
28. ^ "Evidence of the smexy conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is
to be see n in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the
Western Satraps... they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters,
while on the reverse, they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya wit
crescent and star." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. The
Andhras etc...", p.cli
29. ^ Agarwal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas , Delhi:Motilal
Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0592-5, pp.191-200
30. ^ Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of
Calcutta, p.510
31. ^ Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of
Calcutta, p.516
32. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1960) Ancient India, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0887-6,
33. ^ Murray, H.J.R. (1913). A History of Chess . Benjamin Press (originally published by
Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-936317-01-9. OCLC 13472872
(http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13472872) .

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Gupta Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire

Majumdar, R.C. (1977). Ancient India, New Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN

Further reading
Andrea Berens Karls & Mounir A. Farah. World History The Human

External links
Frontline Article on Gupta Period Art (http://www.flonnet.com/fl2422/stories
Regents Prep:Global History:Golden Ages:Gupta Empire
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire"
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