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Estudos de Psicologia   

Identidade e subjetividade numa era de incerteza


Ariane Patrícia Ewald
Jorge Coelho Soares
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Resumo
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jetividade e identidade. Os autores procuram romper as fronteiras tradicionais entre os diversos saberes, que
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Palavras-chave: identidade; subjetividade; cultura; hipermodernidade

Abstract
Identity and subjectivity in uncertainty age. The purpose of this article is to pursue the path of construction
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and introduced as globalized, the authors put the focus on the means of the construction of new identities
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tension and resistance.
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pensamentos e às impressões dos outros homens, é capaz tanto *XHUUDDSULPHLUDVHULDQHFHVViULDSDUDDFDEDUFRPWRGDVDV
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26 A.P.Ewald & J.C.Soares

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(VVD FRQFHSomR DSUHVHQWDYD R VXMHLWR FRPR GRWDGR GH XPD a uma comunidade.
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acabava por se constituir como a sua identidade. É o momento GHVFUHYHUPDVFRPSUHHQGHURVIHQ{PHQRVFXOWXUDLVFDUDFWHUtVWL-
GD ³H[SHULrQFLD GD VXEMHWLYLGDGH SULYDWL]DGD´ D¿UPD /XtV FRVGHXPDVRFLHGDGH´3DUDWDQWREXVFDYDXPDFRUUHODomRHQWUH
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a idéia de “sermos sujeitos capazes de decisões, sentimentos e YLYLGDFRPRVFRPSRUWDPHQWRVFROHWLYRVRXLQGLYLGXDLV´ 'X-
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KXPDQRHQTXDQWRDSULPHLUDVHJXHRVSULQFtSLRVGDQHFHVVLGDGH imagem poderia corresponder a um tecido em que ambas as fon-
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HVFROKDGHDFRUGRFRPYDORUHVH¿QV$VFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVFHQWUDLV LQWHUQDHH[WHUQD$LVVRSDVVDPRVDFKDPDUnós-mesmos.
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 PDSHLDPFRPFODUH]DHVVHQRYRFHQiULRFRQFHLWXDOVREUH QRVHVWXGRVGHSVLFRORJLD6HULDRSRUWXQRFKDPDUDDWHQomRSDUD
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WR´"´GH.DQWDSRQWDGHLPHGLDWRVXDFUHQoDQDUD]mRHQD as tensões de uma anunciada diversidade cultural, agudizada
SRVVLELOLGDGHGHPXGDQoD3DUDHOHR(VFODUHFLPHQWR³é a saída QRV~OWLPRVDQRVHPGHFRUUrQFLDGDLPLJUDomRMXVWL¿FDGDSRU
do homem de sua menoridade, da qual ele próprio é culpado. LQ~PHURVIDWRUHVHQWUHRVTXDLVXPDFUHVFHQWHQHFHVVLGDGHGH
A menoridade é a incapacidade de fazer uso de seu entendi- PmRGHREUDQmRHVSHFLDOL]DGDTXHWHUPLQRXSRUIHUPHQWDUR
PHQWRVHPDGLUHomRGHRXWURLQGLYtGXR  eWmRF{PRGRVHU crescimento das bidonvilles multiculturais3. Os organizadores,
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É nesse momento que a idéia de cultura adquire novo signi- reuniram no livro La construction sociale de la personne, uma
¿FDGRQXPSULPHLURPRPHQWRDSDODYUDFXOWXUDGRODWLPcolere GLVFXVVmRDPSODPDVQHPSRULVVRPHQRVSURIXQGDGRVSULQ-
±FXOWLYDFXLGDUSURVSHUDUVLJQL¿FDYDDOpPGRFXLGDGRFRPD cipais temas da atualidade que instigam os pesquisadores em
QDWXUH]DWDPEpPRFXLGDGRFRPDHGXFDomRGDVFULDQoDVTXHGH- psicologia social: multiculturalismo, identidade social, identi-
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tudo o que realiza2&RPRDSDUWLUGRVpFXOR;9,,,RVUHVXOWDGRV QmRGH³¿PGHIURQWHLUDV´±FRPRUHIRUoD2UWL] S 
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em escolhas racionais assentada em valores, a cultura torna-se QmR VmR IRUWHV RX VX¿FLHQWHPHQWH SURIXQGDV R VHU KXPDQR
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PHQWHSRGHUtDPRVGL]HUTXH³DFXOWXUDFRPSUHHQGHDVRPDH culturas.
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FRQMXQWRGRVKRPHQVTXHYLYHPQHVVDVRFLHGDGH´ (PLOH3LQ comunidades atua em qualquer sociedade como marco de refe-
DSXG9LUWRQS 
UrQFLDSDUDRVPDLVYDULDGRVWLSRVGHSHVVRDV&RPSDUWLOKDQGRGH
(VVDVQRo}HVOHYDPDOJXQVDXWRUHVDUHSHQVDURVHUKXPDQR
modelos globalizados, disseminados pelas mais variadas formas
de maneira menos individualista, menos “centrada”. É o que faz
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*HRUJH+HUEHUW0HDGTXHH[S}HXPDFRQFHSomRVREUHRVXMHLWR
LGHQWLGDGHVTXHGHL[DPGHHVWDUYLQFXODGRVDXPOXJDUHDXP
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des que outrora funcionavam como marcos totais, se fragmentam
HQWUHDSHVVRDHRDPELHQWH 'HXWVFK .UDXVVS 
HPYiULRVSHGDoRVTXHFLUFXODPSHORPXQGRHVmRDSURSULDGRV
Ao analisar a pessoa0HDGDYLVDTXHHODQmRHVWiSUHVHQWHQR
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nascimento, pois é algo que contém em si desenvolvimento, isto
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pDSHVVRDD¿UPDHOH³VXUJHQRSURFHVVRGDH[SHULrQFLDHGDV
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atividades sociais”. Em outras palavras, “o ser humano se desen-
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uma certa homogeneização cultural, sinalizando para um senso
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comum planetário0DVFRPRQRVOHPEUD2UWL]  
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Identidade e subjetividade 27

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FRPRVHHQWUHDVFDWHJRULDVGHSHQVDPHQWRHRPXQGRH[LVWLVVH 'LVFXWLUJOREDOL]DomRHDRPHVPRWHPSRGLIHUHQoDSDUHFH
XPD WUDQVSDUrQFLD XPD FRLQFLGrQFLD GH LQWHQo}HV 2 VHQVR SDUDGR[DO0DVOHPEUDQGRDGLVFXVVmRIHLWDSRU3LHUXFFL  
FRPXPpSRXFRUHÀH[LYRHDFUHGLWDTXHDDSDUrQFLDGDUHDOLGDGH que fala em produtividade social da diferença S KRXYH
pDVXDSUySULDYHUGDGH S  XPWHPSRHPTXHGHEDWtDPRVDTXHVWmRSHUJXQWDQGRVHVRPRV
todos iguais ou somos todos diferentes. O que este autor demarca
(VWD YLVmR KRPRJHLQL]DQWH H XQLIRUPL]DQWH GR SURFHVVR
pTXHQRV~OWLPRVDQRVFRQWLQXDPRVDQRVSHUJXQWDUVREUH
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GH IDWR IRUDP H[SRVWDV 6LP VRPRV GLIHUHQWHV WHPRV GHXVHV
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diferentes, estilos diferentes, gostos diferentes, gastronomia
XP YDVWR H LQWHQVR FDPSR GH FRQÀLWRV HQWUH JUXSRV VRFLDLV GLIHUHQWH 6RPRV SRUWDGRUHV SRUWDQWR GH SHUWHQoDV FXOWXUDLV
(VWDGRVHLQWHUHVVHVKHJHP{QLFRVSRUXPODGRHJUXSRVRFLDLV GLIHUHQWHVD¿UPDHOH(H[DWDPHQWHLPEXtGRVGHVWDQHFHVVLGDGH
Estados e interesses subalternos, por outro; e mesmo no interior GH GHPDUFDomR GD GLIHUHQoD DFDEDPRV H[LJLQGRTXHUHQGR R
GRFDPSRKHJHP{QLFRKiGLYLV}HVPDLVRXPHQRVVLJQL¿FDWLYDV direito à diferença, “o direito de sermos pessoal e coletivamente
No entanto, por sobre todas as suas divisões internas, o campo GLIHUHQWHVXQVGRRXWURV´ S 3DVVDPRVDYLYHUDQHFHVVLGDGH
KHJHP{QLFRDWXDQDEDVHGHXPFRQVHQVRHQWUHRVVHXVPDLV GHGHPDUFDUDGLIHUHQoDSURYRFDQGRDVVLPQRYDVGLIHUHQoDVFR-
LQÀXHQWHV PHPEURV e HVVH FRQVHQVR TXH QmR Vy FRQIHUH j letivas e individuais gerando a possibilidade de um abismo cada
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DGHTXDGDV S  senhor de si – corpo e mente –, o desenraizamento cultural deste
'H¿QLPRV JOREDOL]DomR FRPR FRQMXQWRV GH UHODo}HV VRFLDLV homem passou a ser um desdobramento natural neste processo. A
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globalizado±TXDQGRXPGHWHUPLQDGRIHQ{PHQRORFDOVHWRUQD WXUDOHDGHGHPDUFDomRGDGLIHUHQoDSHUPHLDPQRVVDVSUiWLFDV
JOREDOL]DGR HJIDVWIRRGHVWDGXQLGHQVH Rglobalismo locali- FRWLGLDQDVHQRVVDFRQVWUXomRLGHQWLWiULD
zado±pRLPSDFWRORFDO³SURGX]LGRSHODVSUiWLFDVHLPSHUDWLYRV $RYDVFXOKDURVDXWRVGDVGHYDVVDVGDVLQFRQ¿GrQFLDV&DU-
transnacionais que decorrem dos localismos globalizados”. As ORV*XLOKHUPH0RWD VG SRUH[HPSORGHVFUHYHRDQGDPHQWR
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GDVSUiWLFDVVRFLDLVHFXOWXUDVWUDQVQDFLRQDLVHGL]HPUHVSHLWR pSRFD GRV PRYLPHQWRV GH LQFRQ¿GrQFLDV TXH RFRUUHUDP QR
j ³JOREDOL]DomR GD UHVLVWrQFLD DRV ORFDOLVPRV JOREDOL]DGRV H %UDVLOHQWUHHGDQGRDHQWHQGHUTXHRVPRYLPHQWRV
aos globalismos localizados: o cosmopolitismo±VmRSUiWLFDV DFRQWHFLGRVDTXLQR%UDVLOQmRIRUDPVLPSOHVPHQWHUHÀH[RVGDV
HGLVFXUVRVGHUHVLVWrQFLDTXHSRGHPVHULQGLFDGRVDWUDYpVGDV UHYROXo}HVHXURSpLDV$WRPDGDGHFRQVFLrQFLDjTXDO0RWDVH
suas atividades como redes de solidariedade transnacional, UHIHUHUHWUDWDDSHUPDQHQWHQHFHVVLGDGHGHHQ[HUJDUquem somos
DUWLFXODomR HQWUH RUJDQL]Do}HV RSHUiULDV GH GLIHUHQWHV SDtVHV nósSDUDSRGHUDSDUWLUGDtWUDQVIRUPDUDVLWXDomRQDTXDOQRV
UHGHVLQWHUQDFLRQDLVGHDVVLVWrQFLDMXUtGLFDHWFRpatrimônio YHPRVODQoDGRV3DUDHOHRVDXWRVGDVGHYDVVDVGDVLQFRQ¿GrQ-
comum da humanidade: diz respeito às lutas transnacionais pela FLDVPRVWUDPDWRPDGDGHFRQVFLrQFLDGRVEUDVLOHLURVHPUHODomR
SURWHomRHGHVPHUFDGRUL]DomRGRVUHFXUVRVTXHVHFDUDFWHUL]DP DDOJXQVFRPSRQHQWHVEiVLFRVGR$QWLJR5HJLPH(XURSHXRX
por lutas ambientais, biodiversidade, etc. seja, o colonialismo, o absolutismo e o mercantilismo. Tinha-se
O que observamos depois do “11 de setembro”, e que FRQVFLrQFLDD¿UPDHOHHGHDFRUGRFRPRVWHUPRVXWLOL]DGRV
SDUHFH TXH VHPSUH VH DFHQWXD HP ³VLWXDo}HVOLPLWH´ FRPR D SHORVLQFRQ¿GHQWHVQRVDXWRVHPUHODomRj(XURSD³GHTXHD
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WDQHDPHQWHVXDVGLIHUHQoDVLQWHUQDVHVHIHFKDPHPWRUQRGH R5HLHUDµFRPRTXDOTXHUGHQyV¶´³GHTXHµLVVRGD5HOLJLmRp
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PDLV QRUWHDPHULFDQRV RV iUDEHV PDLV iUDEHV$V GLIHUHQoDV VLVWHPD  QmR GHYLD VH FRQFHGHU UHJUHVVR´ (VWDU FRQVFLHQWH
LQWHUQDV GD FRPXQLGDGH VH GLOXHP H DV H[WHUQDV VH DFHQWXDP GHVWDVTXHVW}HVHUDSHUFHEHUXPSRQWRGHUHODomRFUXFLDOHQWUH
HSDVVDPRVDROKDUDYLGDSDVVDGDHIXWXUDFRPRVyFXORVGR RFRORQL]DGRUHRFRORQL]DGRTXH-HDQ3DXO6DUWUHHPVHXWH[WR
SUHVHQWHGHVLJQDQGRDSDUWLUGDtQRYDVGLUHo}HVGHFRPSRUWD- ³&RORQLDOLVPHHWQpRFRORQLDOLVPH´ Situations9 HQXQ-
mentos, atitudes, relacionamentos sociais e valores. Dessa forma, FLRXGDVHJXLQWHIRUPDSDUDRFRORQL]DGRUQmRKiFRORQL]DGR
a idéia de identidade cultural pode ser pensada como uma forma ERPRXUXLPKiVLPSOHVPHQWHFRORQL]DGRV S . Isto pro-
28 A.P.Ewald & J.C.Soares

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VHUHVWDEHOHFHQGRXPDSRQWXDomRLPDJLQiULDHQWUHRJUDXGH TXDQGRDLJXDOGDGHQRVGHVFDUDFWHUL]D´ S 
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DOFDQoDGR6HJXQGR5RODQG&RUELVLHU   faz sentido falar em desenvolvimento sem falar em contexto de
desenvolvimento %RRWK LVWRpTXHWRGDYLGDKXPDQDVH
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FRO{QLDHPXPWHPSRVHP¿PSRLVQHPSRUKLSyWHVHDGPLWH
concretizamos a tarefa de ser-nós-mesmos +i XP SURFHVVR
que um dia o colonizado possa sacudir o jugo a que se acha
GLDOpWLFRHPFXUVRTXHpLQHTXtYRFRQDFRQVWUXomRGDLGHQWLGDGH
VXEPHWLGR S 
pessoal.
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O curso do desenvolvimento da personalidade é determinado,
SyVFRORQLDOLGDGHHDVOHPEUDQoDVGDVUHODo}HV³QHRFRORQLDLV´
HPJUDQGHSDUWHSHORPRGRFRPRXPLQGLYtGXRpWUDWDGRHPVXD
QHVVD³QRYD´RUGHPPXQGLDO+RPL%KDEKD  PRVWUDTXH
FXOWXUDHDVH[SHFWDWLYDVGRVDJHQWHVVRFLDOL]DQWHVVREUHSDSpLV
este movimento do “novo” internacionalismo é um “processo
apropriados à idade. Estes fatores determinam a amplitude de
GH GHVORFDPHQWR H GLVMXQomR TXH QmR WRWDOL]D D H[SHULrQFLD
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FRQ¿JXUDPVXDYLVmRGRPXQGR %RRWKS 
D SDUWLU GD SHUVSHFWLYD GH PLQRULDV GHVWLWXtGDV´ S   3DUD
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SURGX]LGDVSHORLQÀX[RGHPLJUDQWHVHUHIXJLDGRVGRSyVJXHUUD PRVFRPDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVItVLFDVKXPDQDVPDVSRUTXHVRPRV
7DLVQDUUDWLYDVFRQVWLWXtGDVDSDUWLUGDH[SORUDomRHRGHVHQ- amplamente dimensionados por uma cultura, por um horizonte
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com ela, resistentes a suas opressivas tecnologias assimilacio-
nistas; porém, elas também põem em campo o hibridismo cul- $ FXOWXUD IRUQHFH R YtQFXOR HQWUH R TXH RV KRPHQV VmR LQ-
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e nossa “comunidade de destino” – aquela que elegemos como
por suas habilidades inatas, como fazia o iluminismo, nem
sendo nosso lugar de pertencimento, e à qual estamos integrados
apenas por seu comportamento real, como o faz grande parte
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este mesmo grupo. À medida que uma idéia se dissemina pela
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coragem de ter que nadar contra a corrente, solitariamente.
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Passamos a acreditar na modernidade hipermodernizante
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Referências
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DVRUGHQV&UHLRTXHQRVHQJDQDPRVSRLVFRPRD¿UPDRSRHWD $XJp0  Não-lugares. Introdução a uma antropologia da supermoder-
HFUtWLFR&KDUOHV%DXGHODLUHRVHUKXPDQRSDUHFHWHUSHUGLGR³D nidade&DPSLQDV633DSLUXV
QRomRGDVGLIHUHQoDVTXHFDUDFWHUL]DPRVIHQ{PHQRVGRPXQGR %DXGHODLUH&  ([SRVLomR8QLYHUVDO  ,QPoesia e Prosa5LRGH
-DQHLUR1RYD$JXLODU
ItVLFRHGRPXQGRPRUDO´ S 
%HDXYRLV-/'RLVH: 'XERLV1  La construction sociale de la
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personne6DLQW0DUWLQG¶+qUHV ,VqUH 38*
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%KDEKD+.  O Local da Cultura%HOR+RUL]RQWH(GLWRUDGD8)0*
UHFtSURFR HQWUH LGHQWLGDGHV H HQWUH FXOWXUDV GLVWLQWDV D¿UPD %RRWK 7   Psicologia do crescimento em sociedade 5LR GH -DQHLUR
%RDYHQWXUDGH6RXVD6DQWRV S 0HVPRTXHLVWROHYH Zahar.
DLGHQWLGDGHVGXDLVLGHQWLGDGHVKtEULGDVLQWHULGHQWLGDGHHWUDQ- &DVWRULDGLV&  3DUDVLHVXEMHWLYLGDGH,Q$3HQD9HJD (3GR1DVFL-
sidentidade, todas, segundo este autor, “devem orientar-se pela PHQWR 2UJV O pensar complexo. Edgar Morin e a crise da modernidade
VHJXLQWHSDXWDWUDQVLGHQWLWiULDHWUDQVFXOWXUDOWHPRVRGLUHLWRGH SS 5LRGH-DQHLUR*DUDPRQG
Identidade e subjetividade 29

&ODLQ 2   ,GHQWLWp FXOWXUHOOH  ,Q Encyclopédie Philosophique Uni- d’hyperconsommation. Paris: Gallimard.
verselle. Les Notions Philosophiques YSS 3DULV3UHVVHV 0HDG*+  Espiritu, persona y sociedad%XHQRV$LUHV3DLGyV
8QLYHUVLWDLUHVGH)UDQFH 0HPPL$  Retrato do colonizado precedido pelo retrato do colonizador.
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'HXWVFK 0  .UDXVV 5 0   Teorías en psicología social %XHQRV Ensaio; Minotauro.
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'XFKDF5  Sociologia e Psicologia/LVERD%HUWUDQG 0RWD&* VG Atitudes de inovação no Brasil, 1789-1801. %HOR+RUL]RQWH
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leira. 5RXDQHW63  'LOHPDVGDPRUDOLOXPLQLVWD,Q$1RYDHV 2UJ Ética.
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Notions Philosophiques YSS 3DULV3UHVVHV8QLYHUVLWDLUHV 6DGHU (   &XOWXUD LGHQWLGDGH RX PHUFDGRULD" Jornal do Brasil, 9 de
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30 A.P.Ewald & J.C.Soares

Notas
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