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Principle :
- Stop the vehicle within smallest possible distance, by
converting the kinetic energy of vehicle into heat energy.

Braking Requirements :
- The brakes must be strong enough to stop vehicle within a
minimum distance in an emergency. Should also be consistent
with safety.
- Must have good antifade properties.

Braking force, F = R , where, Normal reaction, R=Weight of

vehicle, W
Wheel skidding -> When braking force is more than the force
of adhesion between wheel and road.
1. Purpose : Primary and Secondary brakes
2. Location : At Transmission and At wheels
3. Construction : Drum brakes and Disc Brakes
4. Method of actuation : Mechanical brakes, Hydraulic
brakes, Electric brakes, Vacuum brakes, Air brakes
and By-wire brakes.
5. Extra braking effort : Servo brakes or Power-
assisted brakes & Power brakes or power-operated
-Brake drum is attached concentric
to the axle hub.
-The 2 brake shoes are anchored
on the back plate.
-Brake linings are mounted on the
brake shoes.
-Force F is applied by means of
some brake actuating mechanism
-Adjustor for adjusting length and
to compensate for wear of lining.
Some types :
Two leading shoe type
Two trailing shoe type
Fixed expander type
Floating expander type

Floating Anchor type

- Two shoes are linked together
by a floating anchor.
-Consists of a cast iron disc bolted
to wheel hub and a stationary
housing called caliper.

-Caliper is connected to some

stationary part of vehicle like axle

-Hydraulically actuated pistons

move the friction pads into
contact with the disc, applying
equal and opposite forces.

-On releasing brakes, Rubber

sealing rings are provided to
retract pistons and friction pads
away from disc.
Calipers :

Swinging caliper type Sliding caliper type

Caliper is hinged about a fulcrum pin Fluid pressure is sent to 2 pistons


Cam operated Toggle lever operated

Two leading shoe brake

- Force through upper bell crank lever and vertical strut

- Adjuster provides a reaction

Mechanical brake linkage
Girling Mechanical Brake

Expander unit

Adjuster unit
Master cylinder
Linkage for hydraulic brake operation
Bleeding of hydraulic brakes
Other types of Brakes
- Electric Brakes : Commonly used in trailers
- Current from battery is used to energize an electromagnet
within brake drum, which in turn actuates the mechanism
(usually cam) to expand brake shoes.
- Servo brake systems :
- Any mechanism which adds to drivers effort in applying the
brakes is called a servo mechanism.
- E.g - Mechanical servo mechanism -
Power of engine or battery power is used to enhance the
braking effort.
Main four types
1. Vacuum brakes : Vacuum from the inlet manifold
2. Air brakes : Compressed air
3. Brakes with hydraulic booster : Pressure from power
steering system to increase pressure on master cylinder
- Uses a Hydromax booster and mini master cylinder
4. Brakes with Electro-Hydraulic booster : Additional
electric motor to pressure the hydraulic system
* Even if engine fails, power brakes will function so long
as battery power is available.
VACUUM BRAKES (Vacuum servo brakes)
Suction from engine inlet
manifold is utilized.
2 types :
- Both sides of piston
exposed to atm when brakes
are in released position,
Vacuum is applied on 1 side
- Both sides subjected to
vacuum when brakes in
released position, For brake
application one side is
exposed to atm Suspended
Vacuum System
Suspended Vacuum System

Similar to hydraulic brakes,

compressed air is used.
Compressed air from
compressor passes to
reservoir and then brake
valve to diaphragm units in
the wheels.
Control of break valve is with
driver who can control the
intensity of braking
Secondary brakes Hand brake -In some cars with 4 wheel
disc brakes, a separate
drum brake is integrated to
-In all disc brake cars, hand
brake actuates a separate
Set of break pads in rear

ABS Anti lock braking system

- Prevents locking of wheels during braking
- Releasing and reapplying brakes in succession
Pressure modulation
- Sensors at wheels ECU Modulates hydraulic
Other - EBA, RBS, ..