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Road to the American Revolution

Exploring the Causes Leading to Revolution


SUGAR ACT CURRENCY ACT QUARTERING ACT STAMP ACT


TOWNSHEND ACTS INTOLERABLE ACTS BOSTON MASSACRE BOSTON TEA PARTY

TASK:
Your team will be assigned one of the above topics.
MEMBER ROLES: Researcher, Scribe, Artist, Presenter
Use a QR Code reader to access the information.
Research the following:
Definition
Summary
Causes of the event
Reactions to event
Effects of the Event
Create a poster that illustrates all researched points
Present poster to the class
Be a good audience member for all groups-you will have questions to answer based on
each presentation.
Information obtained from: www.landofthebrave.info
Road to the American Revolution

SUGAR ACT
The Sugar Act of 1764 was a British Law, passed by the Parliament of Great Britain designed to
Definition raise revenue ($$) from the American colonists in the 13 Colonies.

The Act set a tax on sugar and molasses imported into the colonies which impacted the
Summary manufacturing of rum in New England. The British actually reduce the tax on sugar from six pence
to three pence, but ensured that the troops would collect the taxes.

The Navigation Act of 1733, also known as the Molasses Act, levied heavy taxes on sugar from the
West Indies to the American colonies in an attempt to force colonists to purchase the more costly
sugar from Britain. The Molasses Act of 1733, was never fully enforced because of the British
policy of Salutary Neglect, which basically allowed British officials to turn a 'blind eye' to trade
violations. In 1764, the British started to enforce the collection of taxes.

It was also a way for England to increase revenue through lucrative (profitable) trade. Molasses
and sugar to make rum.

Causes of
the Event

The Sugar Act was one of many imposed on the American Colonists. These taxes continued to
cause a divide between Great Britain and the colonies.
Reactions Colonists-upset that taxes and laws were made without representation in Parliament-taxation
to Event without representation
England-had the right to tax as the colonies were British territories.

Economic impact to colonists as well as constitutional impact-taxation without representation.


Effects of The enforcement of the Sugar Act was one of a series of events that led to dissention and
the Event rebellion in the colonies. The Sugar and the Stamp acts led to anger, resentment, dissention, and
ultimately revolution in Colonial America.


Information obtained from: www.landofthebrave.info
Road to the American Revolution

CURRENCY ACT

The Currency Act of 1764 was a British Law, passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on
Definition September 1, 1764, that was designed to control the colonial currency system.The act prohibited
the issue of any new 'Bills of Credit' and the re-issue of existing currency by the American
colonists in the 13 Colonies.

The Currency Act of 1751 was limited to only the New England colonies. The Act of 1764 was
Summary implemented to regulate colonial currency in all of the colonies.

The Currency Act of 1764 therefore prohibited the issue of any new 'Bills of Credit' and the
re-issue of existing currency by the American colonists.
Control the printing and use of colonial paper money (Bills of Credit)
Causes of Appease British merchants who did not trust colonial paper money due to its depreciation
the Event in value. British merchants in England wanted to be paid in British currency and not
colony currency
Reduce the national debt

Colonists-the imbalance of trade from mercantilism (Mercantilism is based on the concept of


increasing profits by controlling trade).
Reactions
to Event The result of this caused the colonies to suffer a chronic shortage of funds. The industrial areas in
the North and agricultural areas in the South united against the Currency Act.
The colonies suffered a constant shortage of 'hard currency' (silver and gold) with which to
conduct trade. There were no gold or silver mines in the American colonies. Silver and gold coins
(hard currency) could only be obtained through trade as regulated by Great Britain. British Acts
Effects of effectively stopped trade between the colonies with French, Dutch, and Spanish in the West
the Event Indies.

The Currency Act threatened to destabilize the entire colonial economy of New England, the
Middle Colonies and the Southern colonies.







Information obtained from: www.landofthebrave.info
Road to the American Revolution

QUARTERING ACT
The Quartering Acts were two British Laws, passed by the Parliament of Great Britain 1765 and
Definition 1774, that were designed to force local colonial governments to provide provisions and housing
to British soldiers stationed in the 13 Colonies of America.
The 1765 Quartering Act made provisions for British troops to be given food and shelter at the
Summary expense of the American colonists. The 1774 Quartering Act was one of the series of Intolerable
Acts passed as a reprisal to the Boston Tea Party.

The French Indian War (aka the Seven Years War 1754-1763)) was between France and Britain for
possession of North America. During this time it is estimated that over 25,000 troops were sent
from Britain to America. The majority of colonies had supplied quartering for British troops during
the war, but the issue was disputed in peacetime. Lieutenant General Thomas Gage reported the
quartering problems he had encountered to the British Parliament. His experiences with
Causes of uncooperative colonists was one of the issues that led to the Quartering Act of 1765.
the Event
By the end of the French and Indian War January 1763, the debt had escalated to almost 130
million pounds. The cost of bringing the British army back to Britain could be avoided if the
soldiers remained in the colonies - so the forces stayed in America as a standing army, through
the provisions of the Quartering Act.

The colonies disputed the legality of the Quartering Act of 1765 as it appeared to violate the 1689
English Bill of Rights which forbade the raising or keeping a standing army without the consent of
parliament.

No standing army had been kept in the colonies before the French and Indian War, so the
colonies questioned why a standing army was needed after the French had been defeated.
Reactions Colonial debts were high and the colonists stated that they could not afford to maintain British
to Event troops.

The colonists resented the presence of the British and feared the use of troops against
themselves. Their opposition to the 1765 Quartering Act and the British presence was fully
understandable and the colonists were right to distrust the motivations of the British as their new
laws, taxes and policies came into effect.

Opposition by the Colonies, led by patriots such as Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams resulted in
Effects of the establishment of a secret organization called the Sons of Liberty in July 1765 and the cry of
the Event "No taxation without representation" rang loudly in the colonies.




Information obtained from: www.landofthebrave.info
Road to the American Revolution

STAMP ACT
It was designed to raise revenue from the American Colonies by a duty (tax) in the form of a
stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents.
Definition The Stamp Act was first direct tax to be levied on the American colonies. It was the first serious
attempt to assert governmental authority over the 13 colonies.

The Stamp Act required various items such as licenses, documents, diplomas and nearly every
paper item to be printed on stamped or embossed paper in the American colonies. This meant
Summary that the American colonists were obliged to pay a fee on almost every piece of paper used for
legal documents. The colonists were obliged to pay extra for things that were used on a daily
basis, such as newspapers. Basically anything printed on paper, except books, was taxed.

The defeat of France had removed the political threat posed by the French, and the British, under
Lord Grenville, were sufficiently confident to tighten their control over the American colonies. His
policy was to raise revenue by taxing the American colonists, rather than taxing the British.
Causes of
the Event The Stamp Act Stamps were not like the stamps that we put on envelopes. Some documents were
printed on stamped or embossed paper. The stamped or embossed papers had a tax on them and
had to be bought from a government stamped paper office. Other documents were indented with

a hand pressed stamp or had a foil seal.

The Stamp Act of 1765 was seen as detrimental to Colonial America and sewed the seeds of
dissension and rebellion in the colonies. The colonists outrage and violent reaction to the Stamp
Act came as a great surprise to the British government.
Reactions
to Event The British believed they had a right to enforce their trade policies and taxes as the Mother
Country. And the colonists had become accustomed, to a limited degree, to the British regulation
of trade and taxes
The colonists started protesting against the Stamp Act and the situation turned into a crisis. There
were meetings, demonstrations, boycotts, circulars and petitions. Some Colonists began
protesting against the Stamp Act of 1765 by burning Stamp Act papers. Others refused to pay the
Effects of Stamp Taxes.
the Event
The strength and violence of the opposition to the Stamp Act surprised the colonists as much as
the British government. If the crisis escalated further it would become impossible to maintain
order and the very idea of using troops against their own people was unthinkable.



Information obtained from: www.landofthebrave.info
Road to the American Revolution

TOWNSHEND ACTS
The Townshend Acts of 1767 were a series of laws which set new import taxes on British goods
including paint, paper, lead, glass and tea and used revenues to maintain British troops in America
Definition and to pay the salaries of some Royal officials who were appointed to work in the American
colonies.
The Townshend Acts was one of a series of taxes that divided Great Britain and its colonies in
America. They were a tax on imports (bring (goods or services) into a country from abroad for
Summary sale). The Townshend Acts of 1767 regulated colonial trade by taxing items needed by the
colonies.

The Townshend Acts made common items like lead, glass, paint, paper, and tea more expensive.
Causes of None of these items were produced locally and had to be imported into North America.
the Event
The colonists responded by refusing to buy the products.
1. The colonists felt the issue regarding the taxation of goods was the same as the previous taxes,
leading, once again, to the cry of "No Taxation without representation!"

2. Patriots encouraged the consumption of smuggled tea as a political protest of the Townshend
taxes
Reactions
to Event 3. The colonist disagreed with an Act that removed the authority of the assemblies to pay the
salaries of British officials. The power of the purse gave the assemblies the ability to effectively
check royal power by withholding, or threatening to withhold, payments.

The British merchants petitioned Parliament to repeal the taxes imposed by the Townshend Acts.
Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts on April 12, 1770, except the tax on tea.
Heavier presence of British troops in Boston to protect the customs officers (would
eventually lead to the Boston Massacre)
No colonist should to be sent to England for trial
Only the colonists had the right to tax the colonists
Effects of The colonists had the right to petition either by themselves or with the people of other
the Event colonies
The agreement by the colonies not to use no British goods upon which duties had been
paid soon effected British trade. British merchants found their trade growing smaller and
smaller.

Information obtained from: www.landofthebrave.info


Road to the American Revolution

INTOLERABLE ACTS
Four of the Intolerable Acts were specifically aimed at punishing the Massachusetts colonists for
the actions taken in the incident known as the Boston Tea Party. The fifth of the Intolerable Acts
Definition series was related to Quebec was seen as an additional threat to the liberty and expansion of the
colonies.
The first of the Intolerable Acts closed the port of Boston so tightly that the colonists could not
bring hay from Charlestown to give to their starving horses

The second of the Intolerable Acts put an end to the constitution of Massachusetts - only one
town meeting was permitted a year in Massachusetts, unless approved by the governor. Town
officials would no longer be elected, they were to be be appointed by the royal governor. The
executive council would no longer be elected, but appointed by the King. The Massachusetts
Government Act revoked the colony's 1691 charter

Summary The third of the Intolerable Acts gave the power for all trials in the colony to be sent to Great
Britain and heard under a British judge

The fourth of the punishing Intolerable Acts compelled the colonists to feed and shelter the
soldiers employed to punish them

A fifth act is also included in the Intolerable Acts of 1774 and relates to Quebec and Ohio. This
'Intolerable Act' was also passed in 1774 and, although it was not directed at punishing the colony
of Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party, it was seen as a new model for an authoritarian British
colonial administration and another threat to the independence of the colonies

King George III, the British government led by Lord North, and the majority of the British people
Causes of were furious when they found that the Boston colonists had made "tea with salt water." The
the Event British Parliament immediately went to work passing the Intolerable Acts to punish the colonists
and stamp their authority on the American colonies.
The First Continental Congress was convened in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774, to coordinate
Reactions a colonial response to the Intolerable Acts. The Continental Congress was where elected
to Event representatives of colonists assembled in revolt against British rule.

Great Britain had hoped that the harsh actions taken in the Intolerable Acts would isolate the
New England radicals in Massachusetts and panic the other colonies into conceding the authority
of Parliament. They were completely incorrect in their assumptions, their Intolerable Acts had
Effects of agitated the colonists.
the Event The communication network in the colonies operated by the Committees of Correspondence had
been established to warn each other about British actions and future plans, such as the
Intolerable Acts, that were detrimental to colonial America. The colonies were able to take a
united stand against the British government and the provisions of the Intolerable Acts.
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Road to the American Revolution

BOSTON MASSACRE
British soldiers, who were quartered in the city, fired into a rioting mob killing five American
Definition civilians in the Boston Massacre.

British troops had been sent to Boston in 1768 to maintain order, protect the customs
officers and to enforce the Townshend Acts.

The Boston Massacre arose from the resentment of Boston colonists towards the British
Summary which had been fuelled by protest activities of the Sons of Liberty patriots.

The term 'Boston Massacre' was coined by the patriot Samuel Adams and used in
propaganda campaigns against the British

The Boston Massacre - Tensions in Boston


The situation in Boston was extremely tense. The British troops, Redcoats had been stationed in
Boston for over eighteen months. The British soldiers had arrived in Boston on September 28,
1768 and were quartered in various public places throughout the city. Their very presence was a
constant reminder of Britain attempting to dominate the American colonies.
Causes of
the Event



The royal governor, Thomas Hutchinson pleaded for calm in Boston. After talking to people who
had been at the scene of the Boston Massacre he knew that he had to take action. Hutchinson
Reactions decided that there was sufficient evidence of 'probable cause' to refer the Boston Massacre to a
grand jury. He arranged for the sheriff to issue arrest warrants for the arrest of the soldiers
to Event involved in the Boston Massacre. The redcoats were found and placed in jail and tried.

The effects of the Boston Massacre were far reaching and led to the creation of the Committee of
Effects of Correspondence. The Sons of Liberty and patriots such as Samuel Adams and Paul Revere used
the Event the Boston Massacre as a calculated piece of political propaganda, designed to rouse antagonism

in all of the colonies toward the Crown.


Information obtained from: www.landofthebrave.info
Road to the American Revolution

BOSTON TEA PARTY


Definition The Boston Tea Party was a direct protest by colonists in Boston against the Tea Tax that had
been imposed by the British government. Boston patriots, dressed as Mohawk Indians, raided
three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped 342 containers of tea into the harbor. The
Summary Boston Tea Party arose from the resentment of Boston colonists towards the British which had
been fuelled by protest activities by patriots in the Sons of Liberty organization.
The serious start of the conflict between Britain and America came at the end of the the French
and Indian War (Seven years War). The war had left the British with a massive war debt and the
Causes of British looked for ways of imposing new taxes in the colonies. The British ended their policy of
the Event Salutary Neglect in the colonies - which meant they would strictly enforce laws and taxes in
Colonial America.
The reaction to the Boston Tea Party were diverse as these quotes will indicate. Samuel Adams
defended the actions of the Boston Tea Party patriots stating that it:

was not the act of a lawless mob, but a principled protest and the only remaining option
the people had to defend their Constitutional rights.

Another Boston Tea Party Quote was made by King George III stated that:
Reactions
to Event The die is now cast. The colonies must either submit or triumph.

There were many Americans who were not in favor of the unlawful actions taken in Boston by
destroying private property. Benjamin Franklin stated that the destroyed tea must be repaid.
Robert Murray, a New York financier and merchant together with three other merchants
approached Lord North the British Prime Minister offering to pay for the losses incurred during
the Boston Tea Party, but the offer was turned down.
Ministers decided to punish the town of Boston as a whole
The British Parliament ordered the Royal Navy to blockade Boston Harbor
British army regiments were sent to enforce the closure of the harbor
The blockade prevented supplies from entering the Harbor and prevented Massachusetts
merchants from selling their goods
Effects of
the Event These measures that followed the Boston Tea Party were implemented under the 1774 Coercive
Acts (aka Intolerable Acts) which consisted of the Boston Port Act, the Massachusetts
Government Act, the Administration of Justice Act, the Quartering Act and the Quebec
Act.American colonists responded with protests and coordinated resistance by convening the
First Continental Congress in September and October of 1774 to petition Britain to repeal the
Intolerable Acts.

Information obtained from: www.landofthebrave.info
Road to the American Revolution


RUBRIC

TOTAL PTS
TOPIC DESCRIPTION
PTS EARNED

Definition
Team identifies the meaning of the event. What is
it? This definition must be in students own words 3
and not copied from the site.

Summary
Team summarizes the main points of the Act or
Event. This summary must be in students own 3
words and not copied from the site.

Causes of the
Team describes what actions led up to the Act or
Event. This must be in students own words and 3
Event not copied from the site.

Reaction
Team describes the importance of the Act or Event.
The team also describes the reaction by colonists

to/Significance and/or British as a result of the Act or Event. This 3
of the Event must b e in students own words and not copied
from the site.

Effect of the
Tea describes the result of the Act or Event. What
impact did it have on Colonial American and the

Event start of the American Revolution? This must be in 3
students own words and not copied from the site.

Visual The poster visual is clear and visually appealing. 3


Presentation
The presentation was clear, concise, articulate and
conveyed all required elements. 3

Questions
Team could effectively answer questions from the
audience. 3

TOTAL

3=meets the expectation (95%); 2=progressing toward the expectation (80%);

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Road to the American Revolution

1=does not meet the expectation (65%); (0) Not included/Not done (50%)

Information obtained from: www.landofthebrave.info