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December 22, 2012





Economic conditions
End of the Cold War 1989 (Germanys reunification) Konrad H. Jarausch, The Return of
History The Unification of German Historiographies and the Search for Master Narratives,
WZB Lecture, Berlin 03/25/2004
Immigration policy

Cultural mood: there is a crisis of collective identities which is due to a number of

circumstances and conditions: (1) individualization process in developed societies,
characterized by "reflexive modernization"(process whereby categories such as social
origin have become less relevant in the explanation of collective identities, milieus, and
social movements) (2) disappearance of the central social conflicts that divided societies
into antagonistic strata, e.g. classes (3) the end of socialism as an alternative model
for modernization, with accompanying claims of "end of ideology" or the "end of history."
Michael Corsten, "The Time of Generations," Time & Society, vol. 8 (2): 249-272, 249

Ian Buruma, The Wages of Guilt. Memories of War in Germany and Japan, New York: Farrar
Straus Giroux, 1994 [distrust of the Wessies for the Ossies (28)]

Reinhard Bendix, "Intellectual Emigration from Hitler's Germany," Society, vol. 27, No. 3
(March-April, 1990): 51-58 [RB remarks difference between the older and the younger
generation. He analyses German-Jewish background and the Bildung emphasis.

Richard Dove, He was a German, a Biography of Ernst Toller, London: Libris, 1990.

Nicoletta Bersier Ladavac, "Hans Kelsen (1881-1973) Biographical Note & Bibliography",
European Journal of International Law (Internet) 1990

Stanley A. Blumberg & Louis G. Panos, Edward Teller. Giant of the Golden Age of Physics,
NY: Scribner's, 1990.

H.Stuart Hughes, Gentleman Rebel, N.Y.: Ticknor & Fields, 1990

Peter Kurth, American Cassandra. The Life of Dorothy Thompson, Boston: Little Brown, 1990

Kim H. Kowalke, ed., The New Orpheus. Essays on Kurt Weill, Yale U.P., 1990

Golo Mann, Reminiscences and Reflections: a youth in Germany, N.Y.: Norton, 1990

GM was born in 1909 which puts

him within the Weimar generation. He has many clear reminiscences of the war years and
also of his fathers infatuation with Germanys WWI stand (Reflections of a non-political
man). His main formative years run from 1922 to 1926 (13-17). On pg. 126, he says that he
shudder to think of the ignorance of the wider world under which we Germans labored in
those days without that ignorance the entire wretched adventure of the Third Reich, with
all its dire consequences, would have been unthinkable. On Brecht (138), Arendt (188),
and on Korsch (139). GM says on page 222 that [M]y generation had grown up in the
parliamentary republic and took its future existence for granted. German mood before and
after 1914 (224). On Leopold Schwarzschild (1890-1950) see pg 240. Description of

political events in Germany previous to the Hitlers takeover. Very detailed description
of Germanys political events of January, February, and March 1933.

Mike Davis, City of Quartz, Vintage, N.Y., 1990

Victor Semerjian, Artists in Exile: The Great Flight of Culture, Dissertation, University
of British Columbia, Sept 1990.


German Historical Institute, An Interrupted Past, ed. by H. Lehmann (refugee historians

after 1933) (papers presented in 1988) 1991. Barkin on pg. 150 says that "the literature
on the intellectual migration from Central Europe to the United States is already a
formidable one." He makes reference to a limited number of

Wolfgang Benz, Das Exil der kleinen Leute (ordinary people), 1991

Andre Previn, No Minor Chords. My Days in Hollywood, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1991.

Barry Katz, (The Accumulation of Thought: Transformations of the Refugee Scholar in

America,( 63 The Journal of Modern History (Dec. 1991): 4, 740-752. Contains a general
analysis of the literature on the intellectual migration from 1939 to 1989. It makes
reference to the New School symposium of April 1937, and it reviews the memoirs of five
migrs, to wit: Felix Gilbert, Lucy Dawidowicz, Reinhard Bendix, Adolf Sturmthal, and Leo

Victor Weisskopf, The Joy of Insight, Harper Collins, 1991

Steven Weiland, Intellectual Craftsmen: Ways and Works in American Scholarship, 1935-1990,
New Brunswick, New Jersey 1991. [Ch.3; Erik H. Erikson on America: Childhood and Society
and National Identity, pg. 41].

Heinrich August Winkler, "A Pioneer in the Historical Sciences: Hans Rosenberg 1904-1988,"
Central European History, March 1991, vol. 24, issue 1, pg. 1.

Eugene D. Genovese, "Hans Rosenberg at Brooklyn College: A Communist Student's

Recollections of the Classroom as War Zone," Central European History, March 1991, vol.
24, issue 1, pg. 51.

Morton Rothstein, "Drunk on Ideas: Hans Rosenberg as a Teacher at Brooklyn College,"

Central European History, March 1991, vol. 24, issue 1, pg. 54.

Shulamit Volkow, "Hans Rosenberg as a Teacher: A Few Personal Notes," Central European
History, March 1991, vol. 24, issue 1, pg. 58.

Lisa Fittko, Escape through the Pyrenees, Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern UP, 1991 [1985,
German ed.].

Norman E. Cantor, Inventing the Middle Ages, The Lives, Works, and Ideas of the Great
Medievalists of the Twentyth Century, N.Y.: Morrow 1991.

Ch. 3: The Nazi Twins [( & Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz (1895-1963) died in Princeton,
N.J.], 79
Ch. 5: The Formalists [Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968) (], 161
Ch. 10: Outriders [( Carl Erdmann (1898-1945) & Theodor Ernst Mommsen (1905-1958)],

Michael Ermarth, ed., Kurt Wolff, A Portrait in Essays & Letters, Chicago: U. of Chicago
P., 1991

Ruth Gruber, Ahead of Time. My Early Years as a Foreign Correspondent, NY: Winwood Press,

Hartmut Lehmann and James J. Sheehan, An Interrupted Past. German-Speaking Refugee

Historians in the United States after 1933, GHI, Cambridge UP, 1991

Ernst Schulin, (German and American Historiography in the Nineteenth and Twentieth
Centuries (8)

Wolfgang J. Mommsen, (German Historiography during the Weimear Republica and the
migr Historians (32)

Felix Gilbert, (The Historical Seminar of the University of Berlin in The

Twenties( (67)

Michael H. Kater, (Refugee Historinas in America: Preemigration Germany to

1939( (73)

Karen J. Greenberg, ((Uphill Work(: The German Refugee Historians and American
Institutions of Higher Learning( (94)

Sibylle Quack, (Everyday Life and Emigration: The Role of Women( (102)

Fritz Fellner, (The Special Case of Austrian Refugee (109)

Catherine Epstein, (Schicksalsgeschichte: Refugee Historians in the United States


Barry M. Katz, (German Historians in the Office of Strategic Services (136)

Carl E. Schorske, (The Refugee Scholar as Intellectual Educator: A Student's

Recollections (140)

Kenneth D. Barkin, (German migr Historians in America: The Fifties, Sixties, and
Seventies (147)

Otto P. Pflanze, (The Americanization of Hajo Holborn( (149)

Hann Schissler, (Explaining History: Hans Rosenberg (180)

Robert E. Lerner, (Ernest Kantorowic and Theodor E. Momemsen (188)

Winfried Schulze, (Refugee Historians and the German Historical Profession between
1950 and 1970 (206)

James J. Sheehan, Conclusion (226)

Rolf A. Weil, Through These Portals. From Immigrant to University President, A Roosevelt
University Book: Rolf A. Weil, 1991.

Colin W. Nettelbeck, Forever French. Exile in the United States -1939-1945 -, New York:
Berg, 1991.

Werner E. Mosse, Julius Carleach, ed., Second Chance: Two Centuries of German-Speaking
Jews in the United Kingdom, Tubingen: Mohr, 1991

[Most of the essays in this book concerned the emigration to Britain as the title clearly
states, however there are two essays concerning the migration to the United States, and
they are the article by Herbert Strauss on acculturation, and the one by Alfons Sollner on
political scientists in transit to America].


Hilton Kramer, "Art & Politics in the Vichy Period", The New Criterion, vol. 10, No. 7
(March 1992)

William Lanouette with Bela Silard, Genius in the Shadows. A Biography of Leo Szilard. The
Man Behind the Bomb, New York: Scribner's 1992.

John M. Dunaway, ed., Exiles and Fugitives. The Letters of Jacques and Raissa Maritain,
Allen Tate, and Caroline Gordon, Baron Rouge: Louisiana U.P., 1992

William M. Calder, III, "The Refugee Classical Scholars in the USA: An Evaluation of their
Contribution," Illinois Classical Studies, vol. 17.1 (Spring 1992): 153-173. Calder(s
style is precise and concise. It reminds me of Norman Cantor(s style. Opinionated and not
afraid of finding fault where he sees it. He develops an analysis of the four stages of
German influence in American Classical Studies.

Peter Wyden, Stella, N.Y.: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Herbert A. Strauss, ed., Jewish Immigrants of the Nazi Period in the USA, Volume 4/2,
Restrictions on Emigration and Deportation to Eastern Europe, ed. By Norbert Kampe, N.Y.:
K.G. Saur, 1992

Cornelius Schnauber, Hollywood Haven. Homes and Haunts of the European migrs and Exiles
in Los Angeles, Riverside: Ariadne Press, 1992.

Siegfried Mews, "Exile Literature and Literary Exile: A review Essay," South Atlantic
Review, vol. 57, No. 1 (Jan 1992) 103-109.

"Research interest in exile literature -or, in a more encompassing sense, exile studies-
was slow in developing. The first edition of the major reference work Deutsche
Exilliteratur 1933-1945, edited by Wilhelm Sternfeld and Eva Tiedemann, met with
unenthusiastic response. But the change in the political and intellectual climate of the
Federal Republic that occurred in the mid- and late 1960s as a result of the student
movement heightened public awareness of the necessity for exile studies -an academic
discipline that soon into an endeavor both interdisciplinary and international."

Miriam Lewin, "The Impact of Kurt Lewin's Life on the Place of Social Issues in His Work,"
Journal of Social Issues, vol. 48, No. 2, 1992, pg. 15-29.

The entire vol. 48, No. 2 issue of this journal commemorates the 100th anniversary of the
birth of Kurt Lewin (1890-1947). He belonged to the war generation. The article written by
his daughter Miriam reveals how important were childhood influences in relation to his
professional work in group dynamics (personal ingredient factor).

Hans Wagener, "Winning the Jackpot: German Exile Writers who made it big," Pacific Coast
Philology, vol. 27, No. 1/2 (Sept. 1992):3-9.

Norman Macrae, John von Neumann, New York: Pantheon, 1992.

Elizabeth T Crawford et al. ed., Denationalizing Science. The Contexts of International

Scientific Practice. Sociology of Sciences, Yearbook 1992, MA: Kluger Academic Publishers,
1992. (at pg. 133, Paul Hoch & Jennifer Platt, Migration and the Denationalization of
Science [on the migration of theoretical physicists and the Vienna Circles unified

Peter U. Hohendahl, The Displaced Intellectual? Adornos American Years Revisited, New
German Critique # 56 (1992) pp. 76-100.
Bernhard Grossfeld & Peter Winship, The Law Professor Refugee, 18 Syracuse Journal of
International Law and Commerce 3, 1992


Olivier Bernier, Fireworks at Dusk. Paris in the Thirties, Boston: Little Brown, 1993

Lisa Fittko, Solidarity & Treason. Resistance and Exile, 1933-1940, Evanston, Illinois:
Northwestern UP, 1993.

LF describes her youth in Berlin resisting the Hitler takeover, her escape to
Chzechkoslovakia, her life as a refugee in Prague, their move to Basel, their move to
Amsterdam and Paris

Emilio Segre, A Mind Always in Motion: the autobiography of Emilio Segre, Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1993.

John G. Gunnell, The Descent of Political Theory: the genealogy of an American Vocation,
University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Grabrielle Simon Edgcomb, From Swastika to Jim Crow: Refugee Scholars at Black Colleges,
Malabar: FL: Krieger, 1993

Displaced German Scholars: a guide to academics m peril in Nazi Germany during the 1930s.
Preface by Nathan Kravetz, San Bernardino, CA: The Borgo Press, 1993.

Joan Hart, Erwin Panofsky and Karl Mannheim: A Dialogue on Interpretation, Critical
Inquiry 19 (Spring 1993): 534-566

Claus-Dieter Krohn, Intellectuals in Exile. Refugee Scholars and the New School for Social
Research, Amherst: U. of Mass. P. (1993)

Ernest G. Heppner, Shanghai Refuge. A Memoir of the WWII Jewish Ghetto, Lincoln: U. of
Nebraska P., 1993

Catherine Epstein, A Past Renewed. A Catalog of German-Speaking Refugee Historians in the

United States after 1933, German Historical Institute, Cambridge UP, 1993 (2002).

Norman Lebrecht, "The Damned," Opera News, August 1993, pg. 16/18.

Paul Horgan, "Luncheon for Somerset Maugham," American Scholar, Winter 93, vol. 62, issue
1, pg. 98-102.

Irving Louis Horowitz, The Decomposition of Sociology, N.Y.: Oxford University Press,

(pg. 75, An intellectual migration took place that changed the landscape of American
Sociology no less than that of American society itself. Indeed, the new intellectual
migration mirrored, and gave voice to, the twentieth-century migration. The coming to
American shores of Theodore Able, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Theodor Adorno, Franz Neumann, Marie
Jahoda, to name just a few, changed the emphasis in sociology from civilizational issues
to psychological issues from big questions to middle range questions and from a sense
of America as a homogeneous Protestant culture to one of America as an immigrant
experience. But in this intellectual transformation, the inner life of sociology itself
was organizationally changed. It was an imperfect transformation, one involving a level of
politicization unknown to sociologys founding fathers. It is not only that the names of
Marx, Weber, and Durkheim replaced those of Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer, but also
that the sense of America as a consensual experience gave way to a sense of America as a
series of conflicting definitions. My purpose in this chapter is not to discuss the
sociological migration of persons and ideas from Europe to the United States. It was
less the Depresion of 1929 than the European immigration between 1933 and 1939 that had
the most profound impact on the parameters of sociological discouse and membership.

Cosmopolitan rather than proletarian values prevailed. The German-Jewish immigration gave
a stamp of approval to Jewish participation in the field and opened major centers of the
discipline to them. These exiled scholars brought contextually rooted concerns to bear on
big issues. The successful end of World War II-with the liquidation of the Nazi and
fascist scourges and educational grants being given to former soldiers-openes wide the
doors to higher researches and removed the last remaining obstacles to Jews entering
university life. Their movement into sociology, and into the other social sciences in
equal measure, tore apart conventional niceties. Building upon the work of earlier
generationa, these Jewish scholars formed new links between local social problems and
global sociological theorizing. Significant new, specialized journals reflected these
links-journals dedicated to social problems, covering the sociology of everything from
educatin to law, and even containing the beginnings of serious self-reflection on the
Jewish condition.)

[This analisis by Horowitz shows that the effect of the IM on the disciplines had
different effects. Here Horowitz explains the case of Sociology which seems to be very
peculiar. Reading other new materials on the historical profession, it should be
considered the specific positions of Rothfels and Ritter, and the new scholarship on the
complicity of the German historians with the Nazi policy on the East (Ostforchung)].

Atina Grossmann, German Women Doctors from Berlin to New York: Maternity and Modernity in
Weimar and in Exile, Feminist Studies 19 (1993):65-88.

Marcus Lutter, Ernst C. Stiefel, & Michael H. Hoeflich, ed., The influence of the German
Emigration on the development of the law in the United States and in Germany (Der Einflu
deutscher Emigranten auf die Rechtsentwicklung in den USA und in Deutschland), Tubingen:
Mohr, 1993. [This book brings articles in German and in English and refers to the refugee
jurists and lawyers who found refuge in America].

Donna E. Artz, Otto Kirchheimer: Critic of the Administration of Justice, pgs. 33-
OK was a radical neo-Marxist critic of the administration of justice.
Erich Hula would place OK in the first rank of the profession of political
He was a political scientist and an outsider to the law.
Herbert Bernstein, Friedrich Kesslers American Contract Scholarship and its
political subtext, pgs.
Vera Bolgar, Albert A. Ehrenzweig Kurt H. Mandelmann Stefan A. Riesenfeld,
David S. Clark, The Influence of Ernst Rabel on American Law, pgs. 107-126.
W. Cole Durham, Edgar Bodenheimer, pgs.
William B. Fisch, Adolf Homburger (1905-78), pgs.
Admitted to the N.Y. bar in 1944; with an LL.B. degree from Buffalo in 1941,
then spent a period as law clerk. He had a doctorate in law from the Univ. of Vienna in
1929. He was in private practice in Buffalo in real estate from 1946 to 1963.
David J. Gerber, Heinrich Kronstein and the Development of United States Antitrust
Law, pgs. 155-168.

Reinhard Bendix, Unsettled Affinities, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers,
From the beginning Bendix tells us about what is has to endure in Berlin at ages 17
and 22 by the way of religious persecution. After half a century his impressions have not
diminished. He mentions Heimann and Lowe as being younger contemporaries of his own father
who had been born in 1877. RB pertains to the generation of their children who finished
secondary education in Germany but did their university work in the US. The great majority
of the intellectuals among German-Jewish refugees were either agnostics or had reduced
their Jewish heritage to a bare minimum. Arendt was an exception to this rule. Quoting
from the classics was a generational phenomenon which German-Jews cultivated with a
special intensity.


Reception of Schindlers List in Germany.

Richard Taruskin, "The Golden Age of Kitsch. The Seductions and Betrayals of Weimar
Opera," New Republic, vol. 210, issue 12, pg. 28 (03/21/1994).

John Fuegi, Brecht & Co., 1994

Richard Wolin, Walter Benjamin: An Aesthetic of Redemption, University Press of

California, 1994.

Stanford M. Lyman, A Haven for Homeless Intellects: The New School and its Exile
Faculties, International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, vol. 7, No. 3, pg.
493, 1994.

Ugo Mattei, Review of The Reception of Continental Ideas in the Common Law World, 1820-
1920 by Mathias Reimann, and Der Einfluss deutscher Emigranten auf die Rechtsentwicklung
in den USA und in Deutschland by Marcus Lutter, Ernst C. Stiefel, and Michael H. Hoeflich;
The American Journal of Comparative Law, vol. 42, No. 1, (Winter, 1994), pp. 195-218.

Katrin Sieg, Exiles, Eccentrics, Activists. Women in Contemporary German Theater, Ann
Arbor: U. of Michigan Press, 1994.

Wilfred M. McClay, The Masterless. Self & Society in Modern America, Chapell Hill: Univ.
of North Carolina Press, 1994. See Chapters 6 & 7.

Lynn H. Nicholas, The Rape of Europe, N.Y.: Random House, 1994

At pgs. 148-151, Nicholas described Peggy Guggenheim(s activities and help given to
Varian Fry in Marseille in 1940

Richard D. Critchfield, When Lucifer Cometh. The Autobiographical Discourse of Writers and
Intellectuals Exiled During the Third Reich, N.Y.: Peter Lang, 1994

Wilfred M. McClay, "Historical Research on the Refugee Intellectuals: Problems and

Prospects," International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, vol. 7, No. 3,
513/524, 1994.

Karl Lowith, My Life in Germany before and after 1933, Urbana, U. of Ill P. (1986 in 1995
German) 1994

Amos Vogel, "'You have to survive even if it kills you'- old Jewish proverb- films by
exiled Austrian filmmakers featured at the Vienna International Film Festival" Film
Comment, March-April 1994.

Jennifer E. Michaels, Franz Werfel and the Critics, Columbia, S.C.: Camden House, 1994.

Fred Dallmayr, "Leo Strauss Peregrinus," Social Research, Winter 1994, vol. 61, issue 4,
p. 877, 30p.

This political scientist indicates at the beginning of the article that "ever since the
colonial period, waves upon waves of talented people from foreign shores have enriched and
nourished, as well as unsettled and disturbed, the complex fabric of the American life. As
history records, the reception accorded to these talents has varied over time, ranging
from attempts at instant assimilation to episodes of ostracism, "know-nothing-ism," and
harsh vituperation. In our own century, the influx of emigre scholars reached unparalleled
levels, chiefly due to the rise of fascism and Nazism in Europe. ... apart from sporadic
instances of xenophobia, America as host country was remarkably willing to welcome new
ideas or perspectives in all fields of learning -ideas which politically ranged from the
conservative Right to the radical Left (including Marxism)."

Kevin Crochetiere, "The Legacy of Max Wertheimer and Gestalt Psychology," Sixtieth

Anniversary, 1934-1994: The Legacy of our Past, Social Research, 12/22/1994.

Paul Oskar Kristeller and Margaret L. King, "Iter Kristellerianum: The European Journey
(1905-1939)," Renaissance Quarterly, 47 (1994): 907-29.

This article is mainly Kristeller's autobiography up to the time when he came to the
U.S. and began teaching at Columbia. He first emigrated to Italy and when he was laid off
by Mussolini(s decree against the Jews (1938) the Italian government through Gentile's
prodding granted an indeminity to Kristeller. At arrival in 1938, his English was judged
by himself as a bit halting, especially to lecture at Yale. In 1939, he published his
first article in the journal Church History. To receive his American visa the Naples
American Consul insisted he take a literacy test. He talks about his friendship with
Heidegger, and also the trio he formed playing chamber music with Hans G. Gadamer and Karl
Loewith. Criticism of Jaspers and his wife.

Hartmut Lehmann and James Van Horn Melton, ed., Paths of Continuity: Central European
Historiography from the 1930s to the 1950s, U.K.: Cambridge UP, 1994.

Introduction by James Van Horn Melton

German Historiography from the 1930s to the 1950s by Winfried Schulze
Friedrich Meinecke (1862-1954) by Jonathan B. Knudsen
Change and Continuity in German Historiography from 1933 into the Early 1950s: Gerhard
Ritter (1888-1967) by Klaus Schwabe
Hans Rothfels (1891-1976) by Klemens von Klemperer
Franz Schnabel (1887-1966) by Lothar Gall
Heinrich Ritter von Srbik (1878-1951) by Fritz Fellner
Historical Social Science and Political Myth: Hans Freyer (1887-1969) and the Genealogy
of Social History in West Germany by Jerry Z. Muller
Some Observations on the Work of Hermann Aubin (1885-1969) by Marc Raeff
From Folk History to Structural History: Otto Brunner (1898-1982) and the Radical-
Conservative Roots of German Social History by James Van Horn Melton
Werner Conze (1910-1986): The Measure of History and the Historian's Measures by Irmline
Continuity, Innovation, and Self-Reflection in Late Historicism: Theodor Schieder (1908-
1984) by Jrn Rsen
Supplementary Material

Stephen Eric Bronner, Of Critical Theory and Its Theorists, Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell
Ch. 10: Fromm in America, pg. 209.

Other chapters on different members of the IM.

Reinhard Bendix, Unsettled Affinities, New Brunswick, N.J., Transaction, 1993.


Germanophone Central Europe only began to seriously work through the Nazi
experience with the fifty-year memorial of the end of the Second World War. When I
was a student in Berlin thirty-five years ago the Holocaust was the great hidden
unmentionable. Today, by contrast, the Final Solution is the conscious subtext of
all public discourse in Germany. Now Germans recognize the problem as a very
personal and familial one. When they confront Nazism they know that they are
speaking of their fathers, mothers, and siblings, their uncles and aunts, cousins
and nephews, and parts of themselves. [Oct. 1995]. From Peter Loewenberg, Decoding
the Past: the psycho-historical approach, Brunswick, N.J. Transaction Publishers,
1996 (2002).

(Peter Loewenberg was born in 1933 and he is a second-generation migr historian)

Paul Jackson, "Maestros of the Storm. How European Conductors Found Refuge at the Met,"
Opera News, July 1995, 36.

Patrizia Guida-Laforgia, Invisible Women Writers in Exile in the U.S.A., N.Y.: Peter Lang,

Includes the short biographies of Lili Korber (1897-1982 [1941]), Gina Kaus (1893-1985
[1938]), Margarete Kollisch (1893- [1940]), Elisabeth Freundlich (1906- [1940]),
Mascha Kaleko (1907-1986 [1938]), Hilde Marx ( -1986 [1938]) , and Vicki Baum (1888-
1960 [1932]). All of them women writers who emigrated to America.

Carol Brightman, ed., Between Friends. The Correspondence of Hannah Arendt and Mary
McCarthy 1949-1975, NY: Harcourt 1995.

Helmut Pfanner, Experiences with German Language. Exile-Literature in the U.S.A., Isi
Bongo, 1995.

Constance Reid, book review of Karen Hunger Parshall and David E. Rowe, The Emergence of
the American Mathematical Research Community, 1876-1900: J.J. Sylvester, Felix
Klein, and E.H. Moore, History of Mathematics, vol. 8, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence,
R.I., and London Math. Soc., London, 1994, at Bulletin of the American Mathematical
Society, vol. 32, No. 3, July 1995, pgs. 349-354.

Edward Muir, "The Italian Renassaince in America," American Historical Review, Oct. 1995,
1095-1118 (at 1108 discussion on the influence of the Central European Emigres).

Edward Timms and Ritchie Robertson, ed., Austrian Exodus. The Creative Achievements of
Refugees from National Socialism, Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1995.

John H. Langbein, "The Influence of Comparative Procedure in the United States, The
American Journal of Comparative Law, vol. 43, No. 4 (Autumm, 1995): 545-554.

Gerhard Sonnert, Gender Differences in Science Careers: the Project Access Study, New
Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers UP, 1995.

Sibylle Quack, ed., Between Sorrow and Strength. Women Refugees of the Nazi Period, New
York: Cambridge UP, 1995.

Rob Burns, ed., German Cultural Studies, Bath, U.K.: Oxford UP, 1995

Kim H. Kowalke, "Kurt Weill, Modernism, and Popular Culture: Offentlichkeit als Stil,"
Modernism/Modernity 2.1 (1995) 27-69.

John Rockwell, "The Artist's Dilemma," Opera News, September 1995, 22/24
[On Paul Hindemith, his Mathis der Maler, and the Nazi regime.]

Alfred Bader, Adventures of a Chemist Collector, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1995.


Lawrence Weschler, "My Grandfather's Last Tale", Atlantic Monthly, vol. 278, No. 6, pgs.
86-106, 1996

Cornelius Schnauber, German-speaking Artists in Hollywodd, Bonn: Inter Nations, 1996.

Tracey Rowland, "Two German Emigres," Australia & World Affairs, Summer 1996, issue 27.

Jacques Maritain, Reflections on America, The Jacques Maritain Center, 1996

Ted V. McAllister, Revolt Against Modernity: Leo Strauss, Eric Voegelin, and the Search
for a Postliberal Order, Lawrence: Univ P of Kansas, 1996.

Walter Sorell, "Discipline without a Profit", Austria Culture, vol. 6, No. 1, 96 (on Karl
Frucht), 1996

Robert Heilman, "Eric Voegelin: Reminiscences," Southern Review, Winter 1996, vol. 32,
issue 1, pg. 147.

Interview with Stefan Heym (7-19-96) Episode 9: The Wall, 1996

Kerry J. Cox, "Paradise Lost: German/Jewish Exiles and Literature in Brazil", Jewish
Studies 699, 1216-96, 1996

Jessica Duchen, Erich Wolfgang Korngold, London: Phaidon, 1996

EWK belonged to the war generation because having been born in 1897, he was
17 on 1914. Military service was compulsory in the German army between 17 and 45. In the
Austrian military the age of conscription seemed to have been 18. EWK enlisted in 1915 but
it was given a B medical classification and therefore he was not apt for the front. He was
assigned to a regiment as musical director. According to Duchen, EWK had a pre-war cast of
mind. See, music critic Karl Schumanns comments on EWKs sorry state in 1955 (216/217).
Given his precocity, his formative years might have taken place in pre-war Vienna.

Pierre Sauvage, Americans who cared. At Yom Hashoah, Temple Israel of Hollywood, 4--19-96

Nina Sutton, Bettelheim, a Life and a Legacy, N.Y.: HarperCollins (French ed. 95), 1996

Alfons Sollner & Mitchell G. Asch, ed., Forced Migration and Scientific Change, German
Historical Institute, Cambridge U.P., 1996

Guy Stern, "German-Speaking Exiles of the Nazi Period on the British and American Stage,"
European Legacy, 1996, 1 (3): 1200-1206.

John MacKay, translator, "Chaplin Times Two" by Theodor W. Adorno, The Yale Journal of
Criticism, 9.1 (1996): 57-61.

Ruth E. Wolman, Crossing Over. An Oral History of Refugees from Hitler(s Reich, N.Y.:
Twayne, 1996.

This is an studiy fo the Gruppe, a circle of Jewish couples who settled in L.A. after
emigrating from Germany and Austria to escape Nazi rule. The book is subtitled (An Oral
History of Refugees from Hitler(s Reich(. There is a photograph in front of the table of
contents page depicting a long and thick line of Jewish visa-seekers wainting for exit
visas at a police station in Vienna, Austria in March 1938. The interviewees( stories show
that they are a group of non-public figures, middle-class, professional and merchant
people who belong to the migr second tier group. Very interesting and revealing stories
which corroborate the general picture we have about the Jewish German-Austrian situation
in the 1930s. On page 43, Otto Wolman says that the members of the Gruppe were (newcomers
in need of finding our place in society, people that were most like us( , other immigrants
from Central Europe, (people who spoke German, were familiar with soccer and not baseball,
didn(t have much money, were modest in there requirements, had the urge to get ahead, and
belonged to a similar age category.( (Group of immigrants who had new children at the same
time in a new country and had new jobs.( (Shared experiences caused a strong connection
between us which has lasted throughout the years.( (I was distressed about that happened
there [persecution of the jews in Europe] and indescribably happy and lucky to have
escaped.( Feelings about beint Austrian after the emigration: I didn(t feel anymore like
an Austrian or German. That was a thing of the past. I hated the memory of it except I
knew that I had wonderful experiences there apart from the generally negative way of life.
( Feelings toward Germany and Austria during the years. I was glad to get out of there,
didn(t hate my past, we had to leave (like a fire in the house). On page 61, Gerty Frankel
says that in 1940 New York, (to find work was not easy for refugees. People were getting
sick and tired of refugees. ( ON page 62, she relates that her boyfriend Fritz was an

architect and that he liked the idea of moving from N.Y. to California because he did not
like N.Y. and also because (at that time in N.Y. there were buildings of strictly
traditional architecture. Fritz was trained in the Bauhaus tradition. According to that we
had found out the only place were buildings were a little less traditional was in
California.( On page 68, Gerty Frankel says as to the Holocaust rescue efforts that (it is
very difficult to play the blame game now, it is all hindsight.( The experiences of the
different members of the group are dissimilar and paradigmatic of all the variations.
Often wife(s experience and outlook differs from her husband(s. They were mainly middle
class or even lower high class. Most of them were professionals or had done university
study. They indirectly described generally the political, social and economic situation in
the West coast during the 1930s and 40s. Many of the stories corroborate details from
other books.

Donna F. Ryan, The Holocaust and the Jews of Marseille, Urbana: U. of Illinois P., 1996

John Willett, Arts & Politics in the Weimar Period The New Sobriety 1917-1933, N.Y.: Da
Capo Press, 1996 (1978). In chapter 2, pages 10 to 16 there is an analysis of the
(civilization( or (cultural epoch( which devel0ped more fully during the Weimar Republic

Lys Symnonette and Kim H. Kowalke, Speak Low (when you speak love): the letters of Kurt
Weill and Lotte Lenya, Berkeley: U. of California P., 1996. [It has a biographical
glossary of Weill and Lenya's acquaintances, many of them, themselves emigres.]

Jan-Christopher Horak, "German Exile Cinema, 1933-1950," Film History, vol. 8, No. 4,
1996, pgs. 373-389.

Alfred Kazin, A Lifetime Burning in Every Moment, N.Y.: Harper Collins, 1996

It contains a vivid description of Hanna Arendt (105-111).

Varian Fry, Surrender on Demand, Boulder: Johnson Books (1945),

Ronald N. Giere & Alan W. Richardson, ed., Origins of Logical Empiricism, University of
Minnesota Press, 1996.

Seth Lerer, Literary History and the Challenge of Philology: the Legacy of Erich Auerbach,
Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996.

Ute Deichmann, Biologists Under Hitler, Harvard College, 1996 (German edition in 1992).


Peter Graf Kielmansegg, Horst Mewes and Elisabeth Glaser-Schmidt, ed. Hannah Arendt and
Leo Strauss: German migrs and American Political Thought after World War II, U.K.:
Cambridge UP, 1997

Wilfred M. McClay, "The Party of Limits," Reviews in American History, 25.1 (1997): 95-

Mark Swed, The Nearly Forgotten migr Composers, LA Times, 02/16/1997.

Michael Luick-Thrams, "Creating 'New Americans': WWII-Era European Refugees" Formation of

American Identities, Dissertation at Humboldt University, Berlin, 1997

Richard H. Pells, Not Like Us. How Europeans Have Loved, Hated, and Transformed American
Culture Since World War II, N.Y.: Basic Books, 1997

American Foundations and European Refugees, 22-31

Nico Israel, "Damage Control: Adorno, Los Angeles, and the Dislocation of Culture," The
Yale Journal of Criticism, 10.1 (1997): 85-113.

Analysis of Adorno (1903-1969)(s Minima Moralia with comments on his vision of exile and
criticisms of American culture. He wrote Minima Moralia (Reflections from Damaged Life) in
1944-47 while living in Los Angeles. Adorno(s German arrogance, (full-of( comments, and
other hypocritical observations are typical of his frustrated views on everything.

Gregory Bruce Smith, "Who was Leo Strauss?", The American Scholar, 1-1-97.

Anthony Heilbut, postscript to his Exiled in Paradise. German Refugee Artists and
Intellectuals in America from the 1930s to the present, Berkeley, Univ. of California
Press, 1997 (previous edition 1983).

Heilbut writes 14 years after his original work and says that the perspective added by
those years has altered several reputations specially the followers of Marx and Freud
after the fall of communism. Another factor is the fascination with biography typical of
an era that values individuals over social movements which has worked in detriment of some
refugees reputations. Heilbut emphasizes the attention devoted to the issues that sent
the migrs into exile. One is the culpability of the Swiss, another the Germans
government restitution of property. Also the international complicity in the destruction
of the Jews. The guilt of the perpetrators of the Holocaust. Heilbut praised Thomas Manns
stand on this issue. 1989 had a desvastating effect on left-wing migrs, Marcuse, Arendt.
Popularity of Strauss among right wing American intellectuals. Other right wing migrs
were Teller, Grunwald, Kissinger, etc.

The 1980s were boom years for Frankfurt School studies. Adorno remained the prophet of
cultural resistance. Benjamin and Arendt have remained very popular in academic circles.
Arendts affair with Heidegger was exposed and Brecht lost his talent as punishment for
his Stalinism. Other damaging revelations appeared about Bettlheim. By the late 1990s
Freud, like Marx was on the ropes. Fuegi accusantions agains Brecht.


In the end the artists perspective proved to be the most lasting. A Weimar cult now
flourishes in surprising forms. During the 1930s, American notions of physical beauty were
altered by the migrs. During the 1980s, the emigres contribution to American
architecture, the modernist and Bauhaus style, was rejected in favor of a postmodern
eclecticism. For a while, thanks largely to Tom Wolfe, the received wisdom was that
modernist architecture was sterile. However, later on, the cult of minimalism helped
return the migrs to favor, as did a rediscovery of their generations social purpose.
Schoenbergs fame survives resistance to his theories of twelve-tone music. Movies
remained the migr artists greatest achievement. migrs contributions to gay

The generation who came as youths or was born here had to maintained the tradition, now
that the famous died out, a formidable accomplished group.

Stephen J. Whitfield, "Hannah Arendt (1906-1975)", in Paula Hymnan and Deborah Dash Moore
eds., Jewish Women in America, NY: 1997

Stephanie Barron & Sabine Eckmenn, ed., Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Exile & Emigres:
The Flight of European Artists from Hitler, 1997

Date of the exhibit: 2-23-97 to 5-11-97 (then to Montreal and Berlin)

Graham W.J. Beal, Foreword, 8

Stephanie Barron, European Artists in Exile: A Reading between the Lines, 11

Sabine Eckman, Considering (and reconsidering) Art and Exile, 30

Keith Holz, Scenes from Exile in Western Europe: The Politics of Individual and
Collective Endeavor among German Artists, 43

Barbara Copeland Buenger & Keith Holz, Antifacism or Autonomous Art? 57

Elizabeth Kessin Berman, Moral Triage or Cultural Salvage? The Agendas of Varian Fry and
the Emergency Rescue Committee, 99

Matthew Affron, Constructing a New Jewish Identity, 113

Romy Golan, On the Passage of a Few Persons through a Rather Brief Period of Time, 128
Sabine Eckmann, Surrealism in Exile: Responses to the European Destruction of
Humanism, 147

Matthew Affron, New York(s Impact on Modernity, 183

Deborah Irmas, Experiencing the New World, 195

Peter Hahn, Bauhaus and Exile: Bauhaus Architects and Designers between the Old World
and the New, 211

Franz Schulze, The Bauhaus Architects and the Rise of Modernism in the United States,

Kathleen James, Changing the Agenda: From German Bauhaus Modernism to U.S.
Internationalism, 235

Sheri Bernstein, Purism and Pragmatism, 253

Vivian Endicott Barnett, Banned German Art: Reception and Institutional Support of
Modern German Art in the United States, 1933-45, 273

Sabine Eckmann, The Loss of Homeland and Cultural Identity, 285

Karen Michels, Transfer and Transformation: The German Period in American Art
History, 304

Kevin Parker, Art History and Exile: Richard Krautheimer and Erwin Panofsky, 317

Martin Jay, The German Migration: Is there a Figure in the Carpet? 326

Lawrence Weschler, Paradise: The Southern California Idyll of Hitler(s Cultural Exiles,

Stephan Lackner, Reflections on Exile in France and the United States, 363

Hans Magnus Enzensberger, The Great Migration, 374

Chronology (386)

Checklist of the Exhibition (401)

Selected Bibliography (408)

Acknowledgments (418)

Lenders to the Exhibition (422)

Index (424)
Robin Cembalest, Myths of a Great Artistic Migration: Following the Flight of Chagall,
Dali, Ernst et al., Forward, New York, N.Y., 02/21/1997, vol. C, Iss.31120, pag. 9.

Siegfried Beer, "Target: Central Europe. American Intelligence Efforts Regarding Nazi and
Early Postwar Austria", Karl-Franzens Universitat, Graz, Austria, Working Papers, 91-1,

Hilton Kramer, The Age of the Emigres, New Criterion, Ap. 97.

Guy Stern, The Burning of the Books in Nazi Germany, 1933: The American Response, Simon
Wissenthal Center, 1997

Exhibitions in Wuppertal (Exile in Shanghai), Frankfurt (Exile in Lisbon), Bremerhaven

(Landshoff and der Querido-Verlag), were held, 1997

Anthony Heilbut, Exiled in Paradise, Berkeley: Univ. Of CA Press, 1997 (New Postscript).

Karen J. Greenberg, "The Search for the Silver Lining: The American Academic Establishment
and the 'Aryanization of German Scholarship'", Simon Wisenthal Center, Annual 2, 1997

Eric D. Kohler, Relicensing Central European Refugee Physicians in the U.S., 1933 (1997)

Gerald Gunter Hauck, Reluctant Immigrants: Klaus and Erika Mann in American Exile, 1936-
1945, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Dissertation, DAI, 59, No. 01A, (1997): 0219.

Elaine Hochman, Bauhaus Crucible of Modernism, NY: Fromm International, 1997

William D. Rubinstein, The Myth of Rescue. Whi the Democracies coudl not have sabed more
Jews from the Nazis, London: Routledge, 1997

Henry Grunwald, One Man's America. A Journalist's Search for the Heart of his Country,
N.Y.: Doubleday, 1997.

Gerda Lerner, Why History Matters. Life and Thought, N.Y.: Oxford UP, 1997.

Michael H. Kater, "The Twisted Muse. Musicians and their Music in the Third Reich, N.Y.:
Oxford UP, 1997.

Norman F. Cantor with Mindy Cantor, The American Century. Varieties of Culture in Modern
Times, New York: Harper, 1997 (pgs. 153-155)

Kim H. Kowalke, "For those we love: Hindemith, Whitman, and 'An American Requiem'" Journal
of the American Musicological Society, vol. 50, issue 1 (Spring, 1997): 133-174.

Hauck, Gerald Gunter, "Reluctant immigrants: Klaus and Erika Mann in American exile, 1936-1945," The University of
Texas at Austin, 1997, 353 pages; AAT 9822606

It originated as a term paper in an intellectual history seminar. The dissertation

supervisor was Robert M. Crunden who passed away in 1999. The exiles were ignored in the
40s and 60s and only rediscovered in the late 60s (pgs. 4 and 5). "German and exile
scholarship has never been greatly concerned with the impact of emigres on their host
countries. This is particularly true for the writers, who did not tend to remain in exile
permanently. This study will therefore shift the focus to Klaus Mann's American experience
and analyze his activities from an American perspective" (pg. 9).

Donald Lyons, Nabokov in America, New Criterion, Dec 1997, vol. 16, Issue 4.

Donald E. Osterbrock, Yerkes Observatory, 1892-1950: the Birth, near Death, and
Resurrection of a Scientific Research Institution, Chicago, The University of Chicago
Press, 1997.
Lawrence Weschler, From Hitler to Hollywood, Los Angeles Magazine, March 1997, pg. 120
(Google Book)


Susan Strasser, et al., Getting and Spending. European and American Consumer Societies in
the Twentieth Century, Washington D.C.: German Historical Institute, Cambridge UP, 1998.

Janet Bergstrom, Emigres or Exiles? The French Directors Return from Hollywood,
Geoffrey Nowell-Smith and Steven Ricci, ed. Hollywood and Europe. Economics, Culture,
Nationa Identity: 1945-95, London: BFI Publishing, 1998. Chapter 6, pg. 86.

Martin Kern, The Emigration of German Sinologists 1933-1945: Notes on the History and
Historiography of Chinese Studies, The Journal of the American Oriental Society,

Daniel Horowitz, The Emigre as Celebrant of American Consumer Culture. George Katone and
Ernst Dichter,( pag. 149-166.

Ronal H. Stone & Matthew Lon Weaver, ed., Against the Third Reich: Paul Tillichs Wartime
Addresses to Nazi Germany, Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1998.

Geoffrey L. Price, "War and the Crisis of Europe: Early Speeches of Voegelin in the U.S.,
1939-1942", Voegelin-Research News, vol. 4, No. 3, Aug. 98

Leonard Lehrman, "German Exiles in Paradise: Scandinavia and Hollywood", Aufbau, 64: 25,
12-4-98, p. 13, 1998

Jim Woelfel, Living and Thinking On the Boundary: Paul Tillich in America, Newsletter
of the Max Kade Center for German American Studies, Nov 1998, pg. 6-10.

Richard Schowen, American Science and European Emigration, Newsletter of the Max Kade
Center for German American Studies, Nov. 1998, pg. 11-16.

Hildegard Muller, "German Librarians in Exile in Turkey, 1933-1945," Libraries and

Culture, vol. 33, No. 3, Summer 1998, 294-305.
Eric Bentley, "The Wall and the U.S.S.R. are gone. What Happens to Brecht's Long disputed
Reputation now?", American Theatre, May/Jun 1998

Mark M. Anderson, ed., Hitler's Exiles, N.Y.: New Press, 1998

David L.R. Kosalka, "A Historiography Of the Crisis of Weimar's Modernist Culture," Dec
1998 (Internet)

Aristide R. Zolberg, "The Ecole Libre at the New School, 1941-1946," Social Research,
Winter 98, vol. 65, Issue 4, 1998.

Deborah Vietor Englander, ed., The Legacy of Exile, Oxford: Blackwell, 1998

Guy Stern, "The Americanization of Gunther",

Saverio Giovacchini, "The Land of Milk and Honey: Anti-Nazi Refugees in Hollywood,"
Historical Journal of Film, Radio & Television, Aug 1998

Peter Gay, My German Question, Yale UP, 1998

David L.R. Kosalka, A Historiography of the Crisis of Weimar(s Modernist Culture,

Internet, 1998

Gene D. Phillips, Exiles in Hollywood: major European film director in America, NJ:
Associated University Presses, 1998

Aristide Zolberg & Agnes Callamard, The Ecole Libre at the New School, 1941-1946, Social
Research 65, No. 4 (Winter 1998).

Dagmar C.G. Lorenz, "Jewish Women Authors and the Exile Experience: Claire Goll, Veza
Canetti, Else Lasker-Schuler, Nelly Sachs, Cordelia Edvardson," German Life and Letters
51:2, April 1998.

This essay examines some of the problems that affected the literary production of
Jewish women writers in exile by exploring the works of several writers in order to
identify the major concerns, interests and directions expressed in their texts.
Indicates that (the study of exile literature was considered controversial when it
was established in the early 1960s, women(s writings was further marginalised within this
marginalised field.( Women authors were denied recognition, and, when the American Guild
for German Cultural Freedom announced a literary competion for the best unpublished work
by a German writer in exile (23 April 1937) several prominent women writers submitted
their entries under male pseudonyms; Hanna Arendt as Peter Schlemihl.

Michael Lind, "Where have you gone, Louis Sullivan?: Will America recover from its fifty-
year bout of Europhilia? (European influences on American Art and Architecture), Harper's
Feb 1998.

Nicoletta Bersier Ladavac, "Hans Kelsen (1881-1973) Biographical Note and Bibliography,"
European Journal of International Law, v. 9 (1998) No. 2, pg. 391

Clemens Jabloner, "Kelsen and his Circle: The Viennese Years," European Journal of
International Law, v. 9 (1998) No. 2, pg. 368

George Grosz, An Autobiography, Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1998.

Carter Wiseman, Shaping a Nation, New York: Norton, 1998 (Chapter 4: Modernismo and the
Abstract Ascendancy, pgs. 149-182) This chapter discusses the International Style's origin
and influence on American Architecture through the 1960s.

Jack Beatty, The World According to Peter Drucker, N.Y.: The Free Press, 1998.

Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze, Mathematics in Hitlers Germany: Importance, Results and Open

Problems of a Historical Question, Gaceta de Matematicos, No. 75, 1998.

Anthony Molho and Gordon S. Wood, ed., Imagined Histories: American Historians Interpret
the Past, Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1998.
[Anthony Molho, The Italian Renaissance, Made in the USA, Chapter 13, pg. 263, 270]

Vivian Grosswald Curran,Cultural Immersion, Difference and Categories in U.S. Comparative

Law, 46 The American Journal of Comparative Law 43 (1998).


Miriam Davenport Ebel, "An Unsentimental Education. A Memoir by MDE (1915-1999), 1999

Adi Wimmer, "The 'Lesser Traumatized': Exile Narratives of Austrian Jews," Center for
Austrian Studies, Working Paper 99-2, November 1999.

Reinhold Brinkmann & Christoph Wolff, ed., Driven into Paradise. The Musical Migration
from Nazi Germany to the United States, U. of Chicago P., 1999

Christoph Wolff, Preface (vi)

Reinhold Brinkmann, Reading a Letter (3)

Peter Gay, We miss our Jews: The Musical Migration from Nazi Germany (21)

Milton Babbitt, My Vienna Triage at Washington Square Revisited and Dilated (33)

Bruno Nettl, Displaced Musics and Immigrant Musicologists: Ethno musicological and
Biographical Perspectives (54)

Lydia Goehr, Music and Musicians in Exile: The Romantic Legacy of a Double Life (66)

David Josephson, The Exile of European Music: Documentation of Upheaval and

Immigration in the New York Times (92)

Hermann Danuser, Composers in Exile: The Question of

Musical Identity (155)

Claudia Maurer Zenck, Challenges and Opportunities of

Acculturation: Schoenberg, Krenek and
Stravinsky in Exile (172)

Kim H. Kowalke, Reading Whitman/Responding to America:

Hindemith, Weill, and Others (194)

Bryan Gilliam, A Viennese Opera Composer in Hollywood:

Korngold(s Double Exile in America (223)

Alexander L. Ringer, Stangers in Strangers( Land: Werfel,

Weill, and The Eternal Road (243)

Stephen Hinton, Hindemith and Weill: Cases of (Inner( and

(Other( Direction 261)

Anne C. Shreffler, Wolpe and Black Mountain College (279)

Pamela M. Potter, From Jewish Exile in Germany to German

Scholar in America: Alfred Einstein(s Emigration (298)

Walter Levin, Immigrant Musicians and the American Chamber

Music Scene, 1930-1950 (322)

Appendix: Musicologists who emigrated from Germany, Austria,

and Central Europe, Ca. 1930-1945 (341)

Karl-Heinz Fuessl, "Cross-Cultural Developments in Education: The Comparative Experiences

of Fritz C. Neumann in Europe and the United States", Historical Studies in
Education/Revue d'historie de 1'education, 11-2 (Fall/automne 1999).

Andy Marino, A Quiet American. The Secret War of Varian Fry, NY: St. Martin P., 1999

Editors of Time-Life Books, Immigrants The New Americans, Richmond, Va: Time-Life, 1999

Chapter: The Era of the Refugee. Europes Turnmoil Reshapes America, pg. 60-85.
During the same period (1933-1945) the immigration door opened for a select few
immigrants. They were not the humble arrivals of the past, but men and women of genius,
most of them Jews, who were fleeing Nazism. Among these refugees were some two dozen Nobel
laureates. Time-Life dedicates 11 pages to tell the story of the intellectual migration.
The bibliography cites no book dedicated specifically to the migration. It is remarkable
however that the article mentions and depicts photographs of I.B. Singer and H. Arendt,
who belonged to the Weimar generation and became famous much later. One of the subtitles
describes the migration as a vast transfer of intellectual riches.

Werner D. Aron & Gert Aron, The Halo of the Jungle, PA: Private ed., 1999

Christof Mauch, The Shadow War Against Hitler, N.Y.: Columbia University Press, 1999

On pgs. 45/48 it mentions the question of whether the german refugees could be drafted in
the war against Nazi Germany.

Stacy Schiff, Vera (Mrs. Vladimir Nabokov), N.Y.: Random House, 1999

Jessica C. E. Gienow-Hecht, "Art is Democracy and Democracy is Art: Culture, Propaganda,

and the Neue Zeitung in Germany, 1944-1947," Diplomatic History, vol. 23, No. 1 (Winter
1999): 21-43.

Analysis of the case study of Neue Zeitung and the crucial leadership provided by the
German emigres: Hans Habe, Hans Wallenberg, Stefan Heym, Ernst Cramer, Karl Lowenstein,
Erich Kastner, Enno Hobbing, Bernard Lewis, Hildegard Brucher, Peter Bonisch, Egon Bahr,
Peter Wyden, and others. Good discussion on the concepts of Kultur, Bildung, and German
cultural arrogance.

Jim Martin, Wilhelm Reich and the Cold War, Fort Bragg: Flatland Books, 1999

Gerd Gemunden, "Brecht in Hollywood: Hangmen Also Die and the Anti-Nazi Film", The Drama
Review, 43:4 (1999) 65-76.

Hilton Kramer, "Jackson Pollock & the New York School", the New Criterion, vol 17, No. 6,
Feb. 99.

Ute Deichmann, "The Expulsion of Jewish Chemists & Biochemists from Academia in Nazi
Germany", Perspectives on Science, 7.1 (1999) 1-86.

Max Frankel, The Times of my Life and my Life with the Times, NY: Random House, 1999

Gerd Gemunden, "Brecht in Hollywood Hangmen Also Die and the Anti-Nazi Film," The Drama
Review 43, 4 (Winter 1999):65-76.

Time-Life Books, ed., Immigrants: the New Americans, VA: Time-Life, 1999. This book has a
chapter entitled (The Era of the Refugee. Europe(s Turnmoil Reshapes America,( pgs. 60/71,
it tells briefly the story of the intellectual migration and displays unusual photographs.
On pg. 70 depicts a picture of Isaac Bashevis Singer as a member of this group. This
reference is important because almost no source includes this writer as a member of the
writer refugee group. The reasons for this unusual treatment of his work are, perhaps, the
fact that even though he moved to the States in 1935, it did not become well known until
much later. Additionally, the fact that he was Polish and wrote in yidish further
distanced him from the main group of assimilated German Jews. The book cover depicts H.
Arendt side by side with the anonimous immigrants of the beginning of the century. She
would not have liked such company.

Norman Podhoretz, Ex-Friends, N.Y.: The Free Press, 1999

It dedicates chapter four to (Hanna Arendt's Jewish Problem-and Mine.) And touches
on the following refugee's themes: (1) mastering of English, (2) clanishness, (3) leftist
tendencies, (4)

Herbert A. Strauss, In the Eye of the Storm. Growing Up Jewish in Germany, 1918-1943. A
memoir. New York: Fordham Univ. P., 1999.

Strauss autobiography depicts Berlins Jewish life from 1933 to 1943, and
elaborates on Leo Baecks role, the underground life in Berlin, the people who helped
the Jews, the escape to Switzerland, and Jewish studies in Berlin up to 1942.

Helge Kragh, Quantum Generations. A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century, New
Jersey: Princeton UP, 1999.

Chapter 16: Physics and the New Dictatorship. In Chapter 17, "Intellectual Migrations"
(pg. 249-256).

Amy Lawrence, "Trapped in a Tomb of Their Own Making: Max Ophuls' The Reckless Moment and
Douglas Sirk's There's Always Tomorrow," Film Criticism (Winter-Spring 1999): 150.

David F. Good & Ruth Wodak, ed., From World War to Waldheim. Culture and Politics in
Austria and the United States, New York: Berghahn Books, 1999.

Michael Bentley, Modern Historiography: and introduction, New York: Routledge, 1999
[See Ch. 12, Repression and Exile, pg. 116].


Evan Burr Bukey, Hitler's Austria. Popular Sentiment in the Nazi Era, 1938-1945, Chapel
Hill: U. of North Carolina P., 2000

Gunther Kuhne, The Impact of German Jewish Jurists on German Law Until 1933 and their
immigration thereafter to the U.S., Israel, and other countries, 15 Tel Aviv U.Stud.L. 67

Riccardo Steiner, It is a New Kind of Diaspora Exploration in the sociopolitical and

Cultural Context of Psychoanalysis, London: Karnac Books, 2000.

Jeffrey Mehlman, Emigre New York. French Intellectuals in Wartime Manhattan, 1940-1944,
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2000

Craig Seligman, In her Relentless Pursuit of the Truth Shes Left a Few Bodies in her
Wake, but isnt that Part of a Journalists Job?, Salon.com, Feb. 29, 2000. (about the
journalist Janet Malcolm, born in Prague in 1934 and U.S. resident since 1939.

History of the "Aufbau" (_ HYPERLINK "http://www.aufbau2000.com" __www.aufbau2000.com_),


Alan Pauls, Retrato de una Vida Daada (Adorno), La Nacionline (www), 2000

David Laskin, Partisans, NY: Simon & Schuster (background & also E. Hardwick and Hannah
Arendt), 2000

Michael Minden, "Fritz Lang's Metropolis and the United States," German Life and Letters
53:3 July 2000, 340.

Alexander Stephan, Communazis. FBI Surveillance of German Emigre Writers, Yale U.P., 2000

Lynda J. King, "Menschen im Hotel/Grand Hotel: Seventy Years of a Popular Culture

Classic," Journal of American and Comparative Cultures, 2000, pg. 17-23.

Susan Busselli, Exile Blues, The Washington Monthly, November 2000, 54-55 [A review of

Charles Trueheart, "Smuggler of the Lost Souls", Washington Post Foreign Service, 5-16-00,

Lotte Kohler, ed. Within Four Walls, The Correspondence Between Hannah Arendt and Heinrich
Blucher, 1936-1968, NY: Harcourt (1996) 2000

Antony Beaumont, Zemlinsky, Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2000

Piers Brendon, The Dark Valley. A Panorama of the 1930s, NY: Knopf 2000
Barbara Zeisl Schoenberg, The Reception of Austrian Composers in Los Angeles, Internet,
Eric Zeisl Home Page, 2000.

George L. Mosse, Confronting History, A Memoir, Madison: U of Wisconsin P., 2000 (with a
Foreword by Walter Laqueur). Mosse (1918-1999) says that he really never experienced the
personal and mental depravations of exile; on the contrary, exile energized him and
challenged him as nothing had ever done before. He said that he was a youth without
direction, without much of a purpose in life. He became interested in history while in
England and later in America. In 1965, Mosse and Laqueur founded the Journal of
Contemporary History. Mosse says that he wrote his autobiography because (an encounter
with (my) own history might be instructive to myself as well as to other, illuminating a
very personal corner of recent times(; ( (his) life contains discontinuities and
experiences which were brought about by the course of history, and when what was
experienced as a personal challenge, in reality mirrored ecents which swept over Europe(.
The story of his family (encompasses the now-vanished lifestyle of the German Jewish
wealthy and established middle class, a sudden exile, a rude political awakening, and an
immersion in the life (and even to some extent in the politics- of the American Middle
West.( On the Stefan Zweig remark that before WWI he never saw his father run, Mosse
comments that (I did see my father run now and then, but rarely. It was considered
undignified.( He says that his (life reflects the often cataclysmic events of our time,
but it is still a personal life: these events are filtered through my own perceptions and
experiences.( He knows that his experience of exile was not truly typical. He belives that
empathy is the chief quality that a historian needs to cultivate. Empathy means putting
contemporary prejudice aside while looking at the past without fear or favor. He says that
he was never able to shake the refugee mentality and remained, in part of his mind, an
eternal emigrant, still traveling. He stills considers himself a European and a permanent
outsider. In order to empathize the historian has to be the eternal traveler, the
spectator, rather than being committed to a set worldview. His, he says, is not eh usual
story of immigration and settlement, nor does it project the usual perception of exile.
His childhood home reflected the (German middle-class ideal of Bildung: the acquisition of
self-worth through continuous self-development in which education, culture, and the visual
arts played an important part. (The decades before the First World War were an age in
which, through the application of personal ingenuity and risk-taking, German fortunes were
made and vast businesses founded (the Age of the Founders, as it is often called, after
those who managed to establish economic empres which left their mark on coming
generations.( (my father made it a point never to talk about himself, and he told me often
enough that one must never talk about oneself, other people, or matters of health.( I was
conscious of being a German Jewish Refugee. (No group of exiles in modern times has been
as eager to communicate their experiences as the refugees from Hitler(s Germany. Through
autobiographies, published diaries, and novels they have sought to make sense of what
seemed to them senseless, to justify themselves and their failure to prevent the German
catastrophe. ( Those men and women who wrote down their experiences and feelings as they
left their homes, their native languages, and their professions behind had as a rule
already made their mark during the Weimar Republic, I know of only a few autobiographical
writings by those who were still children or adolescents at the time. Going into exile is
obviously experienced differently by those, let us say, fifteen years of age (as I was in
1933), than by those twenty, thirty, or even just ten years older. I never felt the need
to justify my exile as did those grown-up intellectuals ( exile has become stereotyped,
for most accounts emphasize loss and deprivation ( I never experienced the personal and
mental deprivations of exile; on the contrary, exile energized me and challenged me as
nothing had ever challenged me before.( (My memory of such unhappiness might have been
more vivid had I been older, but at sixteen adjustment was swift and successful, and I,
for one, never looked back wishing that I had not been forced to leave the old country.
Here the difference between generations stands out in sharp relief. ( My sister, on the
other hand, beginning medical school in Switzerland, carried over the social and political
ideals she had gained from volunteer work in a Berlin working-class district and the left-
wing atifascist struggle.( (However we might characterize and classify emigration, such
personal detail is very much a part of the experience, Emigration (being a refugee- is in
the last analysis always a personal as well as a collective experience, the former
depending upon the degree of a person(s political and social and cultural consciousness as
well as financial resources. Here all previous experiences reach a crisis point. ( This
was an overwhelmingly middle-class emigration, educated and articulate.( During Weimar one
could not escape such confrontations with the legacy of war.(

Wolf Lepenies, Exile and Emigration. The Survival of (German Culture(, Paper No. 7, School
of Social Science, Institute for Advance Study, Princeton, N.J., March 2000

(While the Allies fought Hitler, German thought conquered the West.( In `949, Leo
Strauss develped this theme. He promoted a (Culture of Feelings( as a reaction against
utilitarian thought, Cartesianism, and rationalism. [Were the Germans here to debunk the
classical tradition?] Lepenies( article analyzes in detail the theme of the primacy in
German thought of culture over politics (Nietzsche(s distinction between Kultur and

Eric R. Kandel (1929- ), Autobiography, 2000 Nobel Prize in Phisiology and Medicine, The
Nobel Foundation, Internet, 2000 (2003). He is a neurobiologist.

Hans Maier, "Eric Voegelin and German Political Science," The Review of Politics, Fall
2000, vol. 62, issue 4, pg. 707.

F. M. Scherer, The Emigration of German-Speaking Economists after 1933, Journal of

Economic Literature, vol. 38, No. 3 (Sept 2000), 614-626.

Article based on qualitative and quantitave evidence. On the impact of migr economist on
American Economic Science the author utilized an study of citations frequency. It brings a
few interesting insights, and reached general conclusions based on the studies by Harald
Hagemann and Kaus-Dieter Krohn.

David Pyke, "Contributions by German Emigres to British medical Science," Q.J.Med 2000;
93:487-495. A very sympathetic account of the scientists who fled Germany for England.

Michael H. Kater, "Composers of the Nazi Era," N.Y.: Oxford UP 2000.

Paul Hindemith, the reluctant emigre, pg. 31

Kurt Weill, a survivor on two continents, pg. 57

Arnold Schoenberg, musician of contrasts, pg. 183

Kim H. Kowalke, "Kurt Weill's American Dreams," Theater, vol. 30, No. 3 (Fall 2000): 76-
81. It shows Weill as one of the most assimilated German exiles.

Kenneth L. Deutsch, "Interwar German-Speaking Emigres and American Political Thought:

Strauss, Voegelin, and Arendt," Political Science Reviewer, 2000, vol. 29.

George Robinson, "A Long Weill Coming: For the First Time since 1937, Kurt Weill's 'The
Eternal Road' will be performed here in its original German," The New York Jewish Week
(Manhattan Edition) New York, Feb. 25, 2000, vol. 212, Issue 39, pg. 35.
[The conductor (John Mauceri) and an actor (Meyer Weissgall) reflect on the historic

Malachi Haim Hacohen, Karl Popper. The Formative Years 1902-1945, Politics and Philosophy
in Interwar Vienna, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Sebastiaan Faber, El Norte nos Devora: La Construccion de un espacio hispanico en el

Exilio anglosajon de Luis Cernuda, Hispania, vol. 83, No. 4 (Dec. 2000): 733-744.

Rainer Funk, Erich Fromm: his life and ideas: and illustrated biography, New York: The
Continuum International, 2000.
Christine von Oertzen, Networks of an Academic World Community: The Exodus of German-
Speaking Women Scientists and the Refugee Aid Program of the American Association of
University Women, GHI 27 (Fall 2000).


Walter Laqueur, Generation Exodus: The Fate of Young Jewish Refugees from Nazi Germany,
Hanover, N.H.: Brandeis UP 2001

Anthony Grafton, Bring out your Dead: the past as revelation, Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2001
[Chapter I: Panofsky, Alberti, and the Ancient World, pg. 19 (Graftons praising of

Arthur D. Brenner, Emil J. Gumbel. Weimar German Pacifist and Professor, Boston:
Humanities Press, 2001.

Maurie Alioff, "Lionel Chetwynd and the enigmatic Mr. Fry," Take One 9.31 (Spring 2001):
19-22. [theories to explain the silence surrounding the figure and the exploits of Varian

Larry Eugene Jones, Crossing Boundaries: the Exclusion and Inclusion of Minorities in
Germany, London: Berghahn Books, 2001. (University of Buffalo Conference [Fall of 1998], a
sort of homage to Georg G. Iggers)

Konrad H. Jarausch, The Expulsion of Jewish Professors and Students from the
University of Berlin during the Third Reich, (Keynote Address). Since many traces
of this exodus have already vanish, an act of critical remembrance is needed in order
to keep this exemplary debasement of scholarship from being forgotten.

Part Two: New Perspectives on the Experiences of Jewish Refugees from Germany
Werner T. Angress, Growing Up Jewish in the Nazi Era. School, Emigration, and War,
pg. 85.
Supriya Mukherjee, William Stern (1871-1938). A World View at Risk, pg. 104.
Michael Hanel, Exclusions and Inclusions of a Cosmopolitan Philosopher. The Case of
Ernst Cassirer, pg.117.

Peter Wyden, The Hitler Virus, New York: Arcade 2001.

Chapter 6 and 7 (pgs. 51 to 67) contained a discussion of the denazification policy, and
American military government in post-war Germany.n In Chapter 9, Wyden discussed
Adenauer's politics and the Nazi presence in his goverment. Throughout the book Wyden
tells the story of ex-Nazis and war criminals who escaped justice and even gained official
respectability in post-war Germany.

Christian Fleck & Dirk Raith, migr Social Scientists from Austria: A Prosopography, in
Janusz Mucha, et al., ed., Mirrors and Windows. Essays in the History of Sociology, Torun:
Nicholas Copernicus University Press 2001, pgs. 208-218.

Jean Medawar & David Pyke, Hitler's Gift. The True Story of the Scientists Expelled by the
Nazi Regime, 2000 (U.K.), NY: Arcade, 2001-10-13

David McCain McMurray, "Conserving Individual Autonomy in Exile: Hans Habe's Struggle
Against Totalitarianism," Venderbilt University, 2001, 346 pgs., AAT 3005322.

Sheila Isenberg, A Hero of our Own, NY: Random House, 2001

Frederic Spotts, "Hitler's Heroes," BBC Music Magazine, November 2001, pg. 48-50.

James W. Russell, "Intellectual Partnerships and Grudges; Gerth's Relationship with C.

Wright Mills," Critical Sociology, 27 (2001) 3: 147-158

Hans Gerth (1908-1978)

Peter Uwe Hohendahl, ed., Whose Brain Drain? Immigrant Scholars and American Views of
Germany, AHCGS Humanities, vol. 9, Feb 2001.

Peter Uwe Hohendahl, "The Displaced Intellectual? Adorno's American Years Revisited," 56
New German Critique, Spring/Summer, 1992

Peter Gay, Weimar Culture. The Outsider as Insider, N.Y.: Norton, 2001

Teaching German in Twentieth-century America

edited by David P. Benseler, Craig W. Nickisch, Cora Lee Nollendorfs, University of
Wisconsin press 2001 The reference is to Marianne Bonwit (teacher of German,
Germanistics ?) Frdric J. Grover - 1958 - Preview - More editions
Marianne Bonwit took a warm and active interest and helped me considerably with her
encouragement and suggestions. My colleagues at Swarthmore College, Harold March, Jeanne
Whitaker, and more especially Edith Philip
... indebted to the excellent monograph by Marianne Bonwit, Gustave Flaubert et le
principe d'impassibilite' (Berkeley, Calif., 1950)
Marianne Bonwit 1913-1982 Professor of German, Emerita Berkeley Death has scattered the
person we knew as Marianne into countless memories in our minds. We are still able to hear
her voice. Her English was British and her German, ..

Stefanie Averbeck, The Post-1933 Emigration of Communication Researchers from Germany,

European Journal of Communication, vol. 16 (4): 451-475.

Albert O. Hirschman, Crossing Boundaries. Selected Writings, New York: Zone Books, 2001.

Chapter 3 entitled Respassing: Places and Ideas in the Course of a Life is a short

A.J. (Ari Joshua) Sherman, "An Die Musik," 22 New England Review, n. 4 (Fall 2001): 25-31.

The central theme of this essay is a description of the German musical school where the
author took lessons in the late 1930s, however it also contains a short but vivid
description of the refugees( presence in 1930s New York.

Rhonda F. Levine, Class, Networks, and Identity. Replanting Jewish Lives from Nazi Germany
to Rural New York, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001

Marcel Reich-Ranicki, The Author of Himself. The Life of Marcel Reich-Ranicki, Princeton,
N.J.: Princeton UP, 2001.

Keith Tribe, "German migr Economists and the Internationalisation of Economics," The
Economic Journal, 111 (November 2001): 740-746.

This is a book review of Harald Hagemann, Claus-Dieter Krohn (eds.) Biographisches

Handbuch der deutschprachigen wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Emigration nach 1933,
(Biographical Guide to the Emigration of German-Speaking Economists after 1933, K.G.
Sauer, Munich 1999 (2 vols.).
This author distinguishes between an older generation of economists, and a younger
generation of economists. The older one born before 1910, as a rule continue to work along
the same lines of research that they had pursued before their emigration. The younger
generation, by contrast, born after 1918, assimilated the style and substance of the
economic sciences in the countries to which they emigrated.

Michele D. Ricci, "Between Depiction and Experience: The Exile Dreams of Paula Ludwig," 17
Women in German Yearbook (2001): 181-197.

Kim H. Kowalke, "Dancing with the Devil: Publishing Modern Music in the Third Reich,"
Modernism/Modernity, vol. 8, No. 1, 1-41.

Tom Ambrose, Hitler's Loss. What Britain and America gained from Europe's Cultural Exiles,
London: Peter Owen, 2001

Manfred Henningsen, "Voegelin's America," The Review of Politics, 2001, pag. 625-28.

It characterizes EV as a political philosopher who visits America in 1924 on a Rockefeller

grant and acquires a very peculiar experience here. He returns to Europe in 1926, and
later on emigrates in 1938.

"Contested Legacies: The German-Speaking Intellectual and Cultural Emigration to the

United States and United Kingdom, 1933-45," Bard College, Feb 13-15, 2001.

David Kettler, Introduction: The "No Happy End" Workshop at Bard.

Peter Baehr, Freedom, Politics, and Social Science: Hannah Arendt in America.

Jonathan Bordo, Sites of Nachtraglichkeit.

Peter Breiner, Max Weber among the Exiles: The Weber-Mannheim Problem and the
Launching of a Dynamic Political Science.

Susanne Heim, "Emigration and Jewish Identity: 'An Enormous Heartbreak'," The Journal of
Holocaust Education, vol. 10, No. 1, Summer 2001, pgs. 21-33.

David Bankier, "Responses of Exiled German Socialists in the U.S.A. and the U.K. to the
Holocaust," The Journal of Holocaust Education, vol. 10, No. 1, Summer 2001, pgs. 1-20.

Franco Modigliani, Adventures of an Economist, New York: Texere, 2001.

Claus-Dieter Krohn, "Artistic, Intellectual and Political Refugees." Encyclopedia of

American Cultural and Intellectual History, 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, 2001.

Saverio Giovacchini, Hollywood Modernism. Film and Politics in the Age of the New Deal,
Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001.

Donald E. Osterbrock, Walter Baade: A Life in Astrophysics, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton

Univ. Press, 2001.
[Baade was not a refugee because he was neither a Jew nor a leftist, on the contrary,
his feelings where with Germany. The biography includes two chapters on his American
experience and his connection to Germany which in a way was sort of unique among migrs].

Richard Wolin, Heideggers Children, Hannah Arendt, Karl Lowith, Hans Jonas, and Herbert
Marcuse, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Frank Trommler, Brain Drain or Academic Exile? German Scholars in American Universities,
Germany in America: Essays in Honor of Gerald R. Kleinfeld, ed. By Wolfgang-Uwe Friedrich,
New York: Berghahn Books, 2001.

Use of the term exile and brain drain to characterize de migrs who came to the
American colleges and universities and acculturated in the United States. Trommler
proposes to see the exiles theme within the larger context of German intellectual
migration into the United States.

Comitato Nazionale per le Celebrazioni del Centernario della Nascita di Enrique Fermi,
Proceedings of the International Conference Enrico Fermi and the Universe of Physics,
Rome: Sept 29 Oct 2, 2001.

Eugene P. Kennedy, Hitlers Gift and the Era of Biosynthesis, The Journal of Biological
Chemistry, vol. 276, No. 46, 11/16/2001, pgs. 42619/42631. [JBC Centennial, 1905-2005, 100
Years of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Eric Jennings, "Last Exit from Vichy France: The Martinique Escape Route and the
Ambiguities of Emigration," The Journal of Modern History, 74 (June 2002): 289-324.

Leon Sokoloff, "Refugees from Nazism and he biomedical publishing industry," Studies in
History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 33 (2002) 315-324.

Egon Schwarz, Refuge. Chronicle of a Flight from Hitler, Riverside, CA: Ariadne Press,

Valentine L. Telegdi, Enrico Fermi in America, 55 Physics Today (6), 38 (2002).

Uta Gerhardt, "Worlds Come Apart: Systems Theory v. Critical Theory. Drama in the History
of Sociology in the Twentieth Century," The American Sociologist, Summer 2002, 5-39.

Bard College, August 13-15, 2002; Contested Legacies: The German-Speaking Intellectual and
Cultural Emigration to the United States and United Kingdom, 1933-45, Essays from the (No
Happy End( Workshop, Bard College, February 13-15, 2001 (David Kettler).

David Kettler(s Introduction (pgs. 2 to 4)

He indicates that the project focuses on (1) ways in which the exiles variously
reinvented their roles and their pasts; (2) diverse readings of the exile(s lives and
works by suceeding generations.
Kettler reaches the conclusion that "forced emigrations are inherently unhappy and
that they never end."
Kettler emphasizes that the impression that the group of exiles made on their hosts
was in part due to their effectiveness in interpreting their own significance within the
host culture.
According to Kettler, the emigres form in Kark Mannheim(s sense a generational unit.
Despite differences in age, the members of this cohort remained interactively bound by
their common activities and experiences in the Weimar years, notably in the crisis years
of 1930-1933.
For the emigrants, acculturation was a very difficult and always incomplete
negotiation, with generational memories and intellectual linkages frequently disrupting
the settlements that were made.

Lawrence J. Friedman, in his Erik Erikson, Emigration, and Identity (pgs. 18-20),
says in talking about Erikson(s embellishment of the story of his emigre experience, that
(the lessons to students of the intellectual emigration is obvious -that forced emigration
can be a fictional construct for some and a pressing reality for others.

Jerry Z. Muller, American Views of German History Since 1945, pgs. 14-27

This paper explores the influence of cross-Atlantic migrations on American views of modern
German History. Before 1933, there were no historians of Modern Germany in the U.S. The
author distinguishes three generational groups. The first group is composed of those born
between 1900-1914, for instance Franz Neumann, Hannah Arendt, Hajo Holborn, and Hans
Rosenberg. The second group came to the U.S. as adolescents and made their impact around
1960. The most important members of this generation are Fritz Stern, George Mosse, Raul
Hilberg, Walter Laqueur, Hans Gatzke, Klaus Epstein, and Peter Gay. Finally, Muller
referes to the contemporary scene, those born between 1930 and 1940, and mentions Gerald
Feldman, Henry Turner, Mack Walker, and James Sheehan. This article is interesting for two
reasons, first it complements (An Interrupted Past( published in 1991; and, second, uses
the concept of generations to classified the migrs albeit it does it in a limited way
because it does not consider generations previous to 1900 and it refers only to

Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: a political autobiography, Philadelphia: Temple University Press,


She describes a middle class bourgeois household in 1920s Vienna and how dysfunctional her

family was. Through Lerne's child's eyes she discovers Vienna's social make up and the
adult's world(s hypocrisy. She also describes the Central European educational system and
he omnipresent Catholic Church in Austria before and after 1934. She compared the Catholic
seductions of Christ(s church with the plain and unattractive Jewish rituals. She saw
class and gender discrimination in the Synagogue. Distinction between High German and
Viennese dialect, the language of servants and storekeepers. Social democrats in Vienna.
She describes the defeat of Social democracy in Vienna in February 1934. Lerner's father
was a medical officer in the Imperial Austro-Hungarian army in WWI. On page 279, Lerner
says that (we [she and her father] still had profound differences in regards to politics
and our views of the world." Lerner is part of the IM and belongs to the younger
generation. Her father did not emigrate and belongs to the war generation.

Leon Botestein, A World Apart, Internet, 2002 (America Symphony Orchestra) Bard College
(on the emigre musicians)

Richard Leppert, Introduction, Comments, and Notes on Theodor Adorno, Essays on Music,
Univ of California Press, 2002.

Lutz Koepnick, The Dark Mirror. German Cinema between Hitler and Hollywood, Berkeley: Univ
of California Press, 2002.

Clifford F. Porter, "Eric Voegelin on Nazi Political Extremism," Journal of the History of
Ideas, 63.1 (2002):151-171.

"The political, economic, and social chaos in Austria after WWI was the catalyst for the
young EV's studies of the essence of ideologies and the ideologists who promoted them from
both the left and the right wing. ... The generation after WWI, however, was deeply
troubled, lacking social or political stability in any form, paradigm, zeitgeist, or even
a Platonic noble myth. A related and fundamental question remained which EV witnessed
around him academically, socially, and politically: why did intellectuals, political
groups, or factions cling to philosophies that were demonstrably false -for example,
Zionist Jewish conspiracies or the inevitability of the proletarian revolution?"

EV (1901-1985), when he left Austria (1938) he broke with his father who was a Hitler's

Mordecai Roshwald, "Stefan Zweig: A Witness to the Collapse of Europe," Modern Age, Fall
2002, pg. 359-367.

Hermann Broch, Geist and Zeitgeist. The Spirit in an Unspiritual Age, New York,
Counterpoint, 2002.

Kyle Graham, The Refugee Jurist and American Law Schools, The American Journal of
Comparative Law, vol. 50, pg. 777.

John W. Dawson, Jr., Max Dehn, Kurt Godel, and the Trans-Siberian Escape Route,
Internationale Mathematische Nachrichten, Nr. 189 (56. Jahrgang) April 2002.

Keith Holz, The Exiled Artists from Nazi Germany and Their Art, in Richard A. Etlin,
ed., Art, Culture, and Media Under the Third Reich, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2002,
pages 343-367.

Foster Hirsch, Kurt Weill on Stage. From Berlin to Broadway, New York: Knopf, 2002.

Jane Eblen Keller, They Have Everything! Georges Simenon in Arizona, Journal of the
Southwest, vol. 44, 2002.

Nigel Gibson and Andrew Rubin, ed., Adorno. A Critical Reader, Malden, Mass, Blackwell,

Russell Berman, Adornos Politics, pg. 110 (ch. 4).


2003 was a year in which memories of German suffering, experienced fifty-eight years
previously, returned with a unique and unexpected impact. During this year Germany
witnessed a flood of memories, whose intensity and scope nobody, least of all Grass, could
have predicted. In images and reports, in books and films, interviews and documentations,
the media relayed these stories of German suffering with great emotional intensity and
published them with considerable commercial success. The themes included flight and
expulsion from the East, the carpet-bombing of German cities, and the mass rapes of German
women at the end of the war. In an article in the Sddeutsche Zeitung Ulrich Raulff asked
why it was that these memories could not have waited until 2005, when the calendar would
have put them on the agenda and allowed them, sixty years later, to re-enter collective
consciousness via formal commemoration. Aleida Assmann, On the (in)compatibility of Guilt
and Suffering in German Memory, German Life and Letters 59:2 April 2006, pg.188

Lutz Koepnick, "Doubling the Double: Robert Siodmak in Hollywood," New German Critique,
Spring/Summer 2003, issue 89, pag. 81.

Edward Alexander, "Bela Bartok, a Memoir," The Hungarian Quarterly, vol. 64, No. 170
(Summer 2003).

John Cornwell, Hitler's Scientists. Science, War and the Devil's Pact, New York: Viking,

Ch. 9, pg. 127: The Dismissals. According to Cornwell (pg. 139) The exodus of Jewish
scientists was devastating in its consequences for Germany, citing two sources: (1) Kragh,
Quantum Generations, 230; and (2) Beyerchen, Scientists under Hitler, 40.
As to the Bohr-Heisenberg Copenhagen meeting in Sept 1941, "Heisenberg said that he could
see Bohr's point: 'Hitler had driven these good people to America and so he cannot be
surprised if they make atomic bombs'." (pag. 303).

Laue acknowledged (Farm Hall transcripts) that it was fear and loathing of the Hitler's
regime that led to the bomb: 'The ... emigres passionate hatred of Hitler was the thing
that set it all in motion,' he remarked in a letter to his son. (pg. 405).

... Hermann Weyl, the mathematician, who left Gottingen for the United States. 'I could
not bear to live,' he wrote, 'under the rule of that demon who had dishonored the name of
Germany, and although the wrench was hard and the mental agony so cruel that I suffered a
severe breakdown, I shook the dust of the Fatherland from my feet.' (pg. 409).

Ruth Gruber, Inside of Time. My Journey from Alaska to Israel, N.Y.: Carroll & Graf, 2003.

Emily Apter, "Global Translatio: The "Invention" of Comparative Literature, Istanbul,

1933," Critical Inquiry, 29, Winter 2003, pg. 253.

Opera News, May 2003

Brian Kellow, Angelika(s Art, 14

Jan Morris, Vienna(s Crooked Smile, 18

Jorg von Uthmann, Uneasy Union, 38

Eric Myers, A Problem Like Maria, 44

Anthony Rudel, Return to the city of dreams, 50

Opera News, July 2003

Lance Bowling, How the West was won, 12

Steve Wasserman, Cultural Earthquake, 18

Timothy Mangan, The Golden Bowl, 30

S. Eppinger, et al., The Emigration of Germanys Jewish Dermatologists in the Period of

National Socialism, Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
(2003)17, 525-530.

Gerald Holton & Gerhard Sonnert, What Happened to the Austrian Refuge Children in
America? A Report from Research Project Second Wave, Department of Physics, Harvard
University, July 17, 2003.

This project studies the American experience of about 2000 refugees from Austria who
came to America in the 1930s. They belonged to the younger generation group, those born
between 1918 and 1935. It is an anticipation of a wide-ranging book to be published in
2005. Despite it presents itself as a combination of sociological, intellectual, and
historical research. It is my impression that what predominates is a quantitative big
picture of this cohort. It is basically a sociological study similar to Davie's and

Thomas Levenson, Einstein in Berlin, N.Y.: Bantam Books, 2003

It tells Einstein's life between the years 1914 and 1932 during his residence in
Berlin. It also tells Einstein's biography before and after that period. It is also a
history of Germany-Berlin up to Hitler's take over.

Helmut Pfanner, The Contribution by German and Austrian Exiles in Free World Magazine,
TRANS. Internet-Zeitschrift fur Kulturwissenschaften, No. 15, 2003.

Jennifer M. Kapczynski, "Homeward Bound? Peter Lorre's The Lost Man and the End of Exile,"
New German Critique, Spring/Summer 2003, issue 89, pg. 145.

Mark M. Anderson, The Silent Generation? Jewish Refugee Students, Germanistik, and
Columbia University, The Germanic Review, Win 2003, vol. 78, issue 1, pages 20-38.

In great part this analysis of the silent generation sketches a history of the American
university reception of the refugee Germanists, and utilizes the generation (cohort)
concept to place these refugees in their proper historical context.

Wolfgang Schivelbusch, The Culture of Defeat, N.Y.: Holt, 2003.

(192)The Wilhelminian power elite had two characteristics: organizational and

technical brilliance coupled with an utter lack of political, social, or psychological
acumen (inability to compromise). H. Mann had his views on authoritarian Wilhelminian

(194) Germany's wartime leadership generation formed by those born between

1853 and 1865. They were too young to take part in the 1870-71 Franco-Prussian war but old
enough to have experienced the founding of the German empire as the most significant event
of modern history. It was a classic "post heroic" generation of inheritors (victors' sons,
epigones, and "literati"). It is an epigonal generation. The Wilhelminian generation in
the 1890s saw its own historical mission as the expansion of its inheritance, the
Bismarckian empire, into a Weltmacht against the opposition of the other great powers.
Heinrich von Treitschke (1834-1896) is the historian who most embodied Germany's
transformation from liberal secularism to aggressive imperialism pointed to a whole
generation of students this bright future. The generation of his disciples succumbed to a
kind of denial or revision of reality that has been fittingly called "symbolic inflation."
The term refers to the grandiose theatrical representations of empire and nation common
under Wilhelm II. For this generation all that remained of the previous one was the image
of triumph. This generations was heir to and prisoner of a heroic past that they thought
to emulate with gestures and rhetoric (the Wilhelminian passion for the grand gesure).

(205) "The idea of an internal enemy lying in wait to overthrow the rule of
law, an enemy against whom it was legitimate to employ any and all means of defense, was
on of the political-psychological foundations of Wilhelminian culture."

(208) Wilhelminian exaltation of manliness.

(209) After Germany's unification following the wars of 1864-1871, Siegfried

became a symbol of an empire built on military victory and an honorary title for Germany's
founding fathers. As the Wilhelminian empire progressed, the Nibelungenlied -the story-
was increasingly reinterpreted.

(210) The post-Bismarck generation was steeped from childhood in this version
of Siegfried and Hagen's metaphorical significance. Thanks to Wagner, Germany became
Siegfriedland. The humiliation that the Sigfried generation suffered in 1918 was a double,
indeed triple shock. For revolutionary nationalists Siegfried was seen as the embodiment
of the despised Wilhelminian culture: the absolute antithesis of a chivalric and noble

(222) In 1871 Wilhelm I and Bismarck had proclaimed the German empire in the
Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.

(231) "With the founding of the empire in 1871, Germany had renounced its
former universalistic spirit, embraced non-Germanic traits such as materialism,
mercantilism, and imperialism, and thereby lost all sense of proportion and spiritual
substance. In short Germany had lost its soul. ... the Wagner cult as a culture of the
ersatz and make-believe, characterized Wilhelminism as "electric-journalistic Caesaro-
papism." The "brass-band sentimentality and "family-album idiocy" of Wilhelminian Germany.

(232) The German Fronterlebnis, or experience of the front. The so-called

generation of the front underwent its baptism, its salvation ritual, its purification of
the illusions, deformities, and pieties of prewar society experiencing fire at the front.
Having emerged from its trial by fire, the wartime generation was convinced that it had
been called to lead the nation.

(238) The Weimar Republic is usually divided into three distinct periods-
revolution and inflation (1918-23), stability (1924-29), and economic crisis (1930-32).

(270) In 1939, Sebastian Haffner, looking back on the hyper-inflation of 1923,

wrote: "An entire German generation had a spiritual organ removed: and organ that gives
human beings constancy, balance, even gravity, and that expresses itself, depending on the
individual, as conscience, reason, the wisdom of experience, fidelity to principles,
morality, and piety. A whole generation back then learned, or at least thought it had
learned, how to live without any ballast."

(274) German obsession with theorizing.

(357) According to H. Mann, the Wilhelminian empire was the counterfeiting of

our entire character as a people, boasting, challenges, lies, and self-deception as our
daily bread, and greed as our only motivation to live. Another author characterizes the
psychological makeup of the Wilhelminian as combining a fixation with authority with a
striving for harmony, conformity, and aggression. Seeing their pale and impotent revolt
against their fathers and grandfathers (Bismarck is their grandfather who founded the
empire over the objections of the despised liberal fathers of 1848) everywhere in evidence
in the 1890s: in their program of liberal imperialism, in their taste for literary
naturalism, and in the revisionism of the Social Democratic Party.

(372) the Nazi assumption of power as the work of the front generation of 1918
and the revanche of the sons who wanted to reverse the subordination of the unvanquished
returning fighter-fathers to the defeatist leadership of the homeland.

Sanford Gifford, "Emigre Analysts in Boston, 1930-1940," Int Forum Psychoanal 12:164-172

Emily Apter, "Global Translatio: the 'Invention' of Comparative Literature, Istanbul,
1933," Critical Inquiry 29 (Winter 2003).

Christopher Johnson, Claude Levi-Strauss. The Formative Years, New York: Cambridge UP,

David Jenemann, "Transmissions: Adorno in America, 1938-1953," Dissertation University of

Minnesota, UMI # 3092751, 2003.

Paul Michael Lutzeler, Hermann Broch, Visionary in Exile, Rochester: Camden House, 2003
[The 2001 Yale Symposium]
Paul Michael Lutzeler, Visionaries in Exile: Brochs Cooperation with G.A.
And Hannah Arendt, pg. 67.

Sanford L. Segal (1937- ), Mathematicians Under the Nazis, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton
UP, 2003.

David E. Rowe, Mathematics Unbound: The Evolution of an International Mathematical

Research Community, 1800-1945, by Karen Hunger Parshall and Adrian C. Rice, eds. History
of Mathematics, vol. 23, American Mathematical Society/London, Providence, RI, 2002;
review at the Bulletin (New Series) of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 40, No. 4,
pges. 535-542, 2003.

Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze, The Late Arrival of Academic Applied Mathematics in the

United States: a paradox, theses, and literature, N.T.M., No. 11 (2003) 116-127.

Volker Remmert, Mathematicians Under the Nazis, H-Net Reviews, H-German (Sept. 2003),
review of Sanford L. Segal, Mathematicians under the Nazis, Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 2003.

Edward Timms, Jon Hughes, ed., Intellectual Migration and Cultural Transformation.
Refugees from National Socialism in the English-Speaking World, Wiener Kreis Institute
series, vol. 12, 2003. [TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction Jennifer Platt: Some Issues in
Intellectual Method and Approach Christian Fleck: The Role of Refugee Help Organizations
in the Placement of German and Austrian Scholars Abroad Dorothea McEwan: Mapping The
Trade Routes of the Mind: The Warburg Institute Johannes Feichtinger: The Significance
of Austrian migr Art Historians for English Art Scholarship Charlotte Benton: Refugee
and migr Architects in Britain, 1933-39 Ulrike Walton-Jordan: Designs for the Future:
Gaby Schreiber as an Exponent of Bauhaus Principles in Britain Nick Hubble: Franz
Borkenau, Sebastian Haffner and George Orwell: Depoliticisation and Cultural Exchange
Nick Warr: Siegfried Kracauers Extraterritorial Critique Feiwel Kupferberg: From Berlin
to Hollywood: German-Speaking Refugees in the American Film Industry Friedrich Stadler:
The Wiener Kreis in Great Britain: Emigration and Interaction in the Philosophy of
Science Roland Graf: The Persistence of Austrian Motifs in Wittgensteins Later Writings
David Kettler: Self-Knowledge and Sociology: Nina Rubinsteins Studies in Exile Andrea
Hammel: Gender and Migration: A Feminist Approach to German-Jewish Women Refugees and
their Texts Edward Timms: New Approaches to Child Psychology: From Red Vienna to the
Hampstead Nursery Mitchell Ash: Forced Migration or Scientific Change after 1933: Steps
Towards a New Overview].
[Intellectual Migration and Cultural Transformation: Refugees from National Socialism in
the English-Speaking World, Modern Language Review, The, July, 2004 by J.M. Ritchie,12
Intellectual Migration and Cultural Transformation: Refugees from National Socialism in
the English-Speaking World. Ed. by EDWARD TIMMS and JON HUGHES. (Veroffentlichungen des
Instituts Wiener Kreis, 12) Vienna and New York: Springer. 2003. vi 267 pp. 32 [euro].
ISBN 3-211-83750-7 (pbk).
As the title indicates, the focus in this volume is on intellectual and cultural history.
The first paper, by the sociologist Jennifer Platt, is on 'Some Issues of Intellectual
Method and Approach', while the last, by Mitchell Ash, is on 'Forced Migration or
Scientific Change after 1933: Steps towards a New Overview'. The papers in between tend to
be individual case studies, though they do aim to elucidate questions of underlying

principle. The reference in the title to the English-speaking world means that North
America will be included as well as Great Britain. In fact, however, more of the examples
are from Britain than from North America. For the United States Feiwel Kupferberg presents
an extremely short paper on German-speaking refugees in the American film industry; Nick
Warr, in his paper on Siegfried Kracauer's 'extraterritorial critique', suggests reasons
why the wider work of the famous author of modern film studies is neglected despite his
troubled move to America; and David Kettler's 'Self-Knowledge and Sociology; Nina
Rubinstein's Studies in Exile' examines the ambiguous conjunction of autobiography and
sociological theory in her work. Thereafter the case studies tend to be British. Dorothea
McEwan maps the trade routes of the mind through the example of the Warburg Institute in
London; Johannes Feichtinger discusses the significance of Austrian emigre art historians
for English art scholarship; and Charlotte Benton highlights refugee and emigre architects
in Britain from 1933 to 1939. Other papers focus, for example, on Gaby Schreiber in exile
in England as a remarkably successful exponent of Bauhaus principles in her vast design
consultancy; on the Wiener Kreis in Britain; on Austrian motifs in Wittgenstein's later
works; and on child psychology and the Hampstead Nursery. The paper by Andrea Hammel on
German-Jewish women writers and their texts is the only one devoted to exile literature,
though the cultural alienation of German writers in Hollywood is briefly mentioned in
Kupferberg's paper. Though not literary figures as such, Franz Borkenau and Sebastian
Haffner are singled out in another paper as the most successful political writers to make
the cultural and intellectual transfer from the German to the English scene. This book is
the outcome of a conference at the University of Sussex in September 2000. Almost
inevitably there is some unevenness in the quality and scope of the papers. Some are
extremely technical and theoretical, while others are short and general. Some have
extensive notes and bibliographies, while others have hardly any of either. Nevertheless,
the range of the work analysed makes this volume an invaluable extension of the scope of
Humanities Research Association. COPYRIGHT 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning]

Judith Szapor, From Budapest to New York: The Odyssey of the Polanyis, Hungarian Studies
Review, vol. XXX, Nos.1-2 (2003).

Tibor Frank, Patterns of Interwar Hungarian Immigration to the United States, Hungarian
Studies Review, vol. XXX, No. 1-2 (2003).


Anton Kaes & Gerd Gemunden, "Introduction," German Historical Institute Bulletin, No. 34,
Spring 2004, 1-5.

Very interesting comments on new perspectives to study the emigration. It proposes all
sort of questions and privileges the historical context and specific circumstances of each

Marianne Kroger, Child Exiles: A New Research Area?, Shofar, Fall 2004, vol. 23, No. 1,
pgs. 8-20.

The author addresses this subject as a sub-topic of exile research (Exilforschung). It

brings a retrospective on exile research and analyses three literary texts touching on
child exile.

Edith Simon Coliver, The Life of a Social Activist: Germany, San Francisco, the
Philippines, and Twain, Berkeley: University of California, 2004.
[1922-2001] [She was born in Karlsruhe, Germany and died in San Francisco, CA. Emigrated
to the U.S. in 1938 and became a U.S. citizen in 1944. There is no drama in her emigration
because his father was a banker of means and the whole family left Germany without mayor
problems. Expend sometime in England before coming to the U.S. directly to San Francisco
where her mother had family. Her dad had family in New York. She described in some detail
her Jewish family and their Jewish practices including the animosities between the Eastern
Jews and the Western German Jews. She also spent some time helping at the Nuremberg trials

in 1946]. [This memoir can be read online].[She wrote a number of books, fiction and non-
fiction. In her The Anglo-Saxon Manner: the English Contribution to Civilization, London:
Cassell, 1972, on pag. 8, she describes human bias and its unavoidable presence everywhere
using the expression a flesh and blood bundle of sentiments to describe a computer
programmer programming a dispassionate computer.]

Marjorie Perloff, The Vienna Paradox: A Memoir, New York: New Directions, 2004.

Janet Malcolm, The Emigre. The Farewell Broadcast of a Voice from the Past, The New
Yorker, 11/29/2004. George Jallinek as an emigre from Hungary in May 1939 on the same boat
than Peter Gay (the Iberia to Havana).

Timothy Mennel, Victor Gruen and the Construction of Cold War Utopias, Journal of
Planning History, vol. 3, No. 2, May 2004, 116-150.

Verena Jung, "Writing Germany in Exile - the Bilingual Author as Cultural Mediator: Klaus
Mann, Stefan Heym, Rudolf Arnheim and Hannah Arendt," 25 Journal of Multilingual and
Multicultural Development No. 5&6, 2004.

Thomas Wheatland, The Frankfurt Schools Invitation from Columbia University. How the
Horkherimer Circle Settled on Morningside Heights, German Politics and Society, Issue 72,
vol. 22, No. 3, Fall 2004.

Hartmut Lehmann, "Hans Rogger as a Second Generation Refugee Historian, Jewish Social
Studies 11, No. 1 (Fall 2004): 25-31.

As a result of asking Rogger (1923-2002) for an essay contribution to honor Rudolf

Vierhaus's 75th birthday, Lehmann realized that most of those already engaged to write
essays were not part of Rogger's cohort and then paused to ponder he had made a mistake.
"Rogger did not want to bridge the fundamental existential gap that existed between those
who had fought in the German army as young men, and those forced to leave Germany in the
1930s who fought against the Nazis as members of the Allied forces." Already contributing
pieces were "Karl Dietrich Bracher, Karl Otmar Freiherr von Aretin, Walther Hofer, and
Fritz Fellner, all of whom had opposed the Nazi regimen from the beginning." Rogger as the
other participants belonged to the younger generation, but they were different in that one
group emigrated after 1933 and the other stayed in Germany even tough the opposed the Nazi
regime. Then Lehmann distinguishes the younger generation to whom they called Second
Generation Refugee Historians from the First Generation of Refugee Historians who belong
to the Weimar Generation.

Peter Marcuse, "Herbert Marcuse's Identity," in John Abromeit et al. ed., Herbert Marcuse:
A Critical Reader, New York: Routledge, 2004.

Peter Galison, Focus: The Elusive Icon: Einstein, 1905-2005, Introduction, The History of
Science Society, 95-610/613, 2004.

Fred Jerome, Einstein, Race, and the Myth of the Cultural Icon, The History of Science
Society, 95-627/639, 2004

Stephen H. Norwood, "Legitimating Nazism: Harvard University and the Hitler Regime, 1933-
1937," American Jewish History, vol. 92, No. 2 (June 2004): 189.

M. Jeffrey Hardwick, Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream,

Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004

James Schmidt, Mephistopheles in Hollywood. Adorno, Mann, and Schoenberg, Ch.6, pg. 148,
from Tom Huhn, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Adorno, New York: Cambridge UP, 2004.

Daniel Horowitz, The Anxieties of Affluence: Critiques of American Consumer Culture, 1939-
1979, Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 2004. [Ch. 2, Celebratory Emigres: Ernest
Dichter and George Katona, pg. 48].

Michael D. Barber, The Participating Citizen: a biography of Alfred Schutz, Albany: State
University of New York Press, 2004 (Google Books)

Fritz Stern, Memorial Wolfgang Mommsen, 1930-2004, Central European History, vol. 38,
No. 4, 637-639.

John Breuilly, Obituary: Wolfgang Mommsen, 1930-2004, German History, vol. 22, No. 4,
pg. 595-599.

Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze, The Ideology of Applied Mathematics within Mathematics in

Germany and the U.S. until the end of World War II,LLULL, vol. 27, 2004, pgs. 791-811.

Roger L. Geiger, To Advance Knoledge: the growth of American Research universities, 1900-
1940, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2004.
(pg. 240, 5. The Intellectual Migration [the migr academics represented at most one-half
of one percent of all American faculty members at the end of the 1930s.] [This may
explained the lack of notoriety of the migration, at least in terms of academics and


Daniel Anker, director, Imaginary Witness: Hollywood and the Holocaust, documentary, 2005
(on tape).

Meredith L. Clausen, The Pan Am Building and the Shattering of the Modernist Dream,
Cambridge: MIT, 2005.

David Kettler and Gerhard Lauer, ed., Exile, Science, and Bildung The Contested Legacies
of German migr Intellectuals. Studies in European Culture and History, New York:
Palgrave Macmillan,2005.

David Kettler and Gerhard Lauer, The Other Germany and the Question of Bildung:
Weimar to Bonn, pg. 1.

Ernst Osterkamp, The Legacy of the George Circle, pg. 19.

Irving Wohlfarth, Walter Benjamins Secret Germany, pg. 27.

Reinhard Mehring, A Humanist Program in Exile: Thomas Mann in Philosophical

Correspondence with His Contemporaries, pg. 47.

Tibor Frank, "Ever Ready to Go: The Multiple Exiles of Leo Szilard," Physics in
Perspective, 7 (2005):204-252.

Chris Walton, "Exit Lines," Review of "Sources Relating to the History of Emigre Musicians
1933-1950; vol. I: California," The Musical Times, Spring 2005, pg. 115-118. Another
review in Fontes Artis Musicae, 51/1 pg. 140 by Philip V. Bohlman.

Theodor Adorno, Minima Moralia. Reflections on a Damaged Life, New York: Verso 2005
[original edition: 1951]

Pol ODochartaigh and Alexander Stepahn, ed., German Monitor. Refuge and Reality.
Feuchtwanger and the Europeans Emigres in California, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2005.
Wulf Koepke, Hitler in Hollywood. Lion Feuchtwangers Abschled von Deutschland im
Spiegel von Die Bruder Lautensack, pg. 1.
Pol ODochartaigh, The Present Sense of an Historical Novel: Feuchtwangers Waffen
fur Amerika, pg. 31.
Ian Wallace, Hangmen also die. Varieties of Collaboration, pg. 43.
David Midgley, Doblin in Hollywood, pg. 57.
Marje Schuetze-Coburn, Feuchtwangers Relocation to Southern California:
Frustration & Successes, pg. 101.

Helmut Walser Smith, "The Vanishing Point of German History. An Essay on Perspective,"
History and Memory, vol. 17, issue 1/2 (Fall 2005): 269-297.

Chuck Wills, Destination America - The Peoples and Cultures that Created a Nation, New
York: DK Publishing, 2005.

Chapter 6, pag. 234, entitled Freedom to Create. The Art of Departure focuses on the IM
(before WWII) and on emigration from the Soviet Union (after WWII). It asserts that the
impact of the IM on American Intellectual life was incalculable. It was the single
greatest transfer of talent the world has ever seen. It dedicates special subchapters to
Werner von Braun and the Paperclipped scientists. On Psychoanalisis discusses Sigmund
Freud, Erik Erikson, Erich Fromm and Ruth Westheimer. It also includes Thomas and Heinrich
Mann, Hannah Arendt, Varian Fry, Vladimir Nabokov and Andre Breton. It also discusses
Alfred Eisenstadt, George Grosz, Josef Albers, Anni Albers, Wassily Kandinsky, Marcel
Breuer, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, Hans Hofmann, Igor Stravinsky, Arturo
Toscanini, Arnold Schoenberg, Kurt Weill, Bela Bartok, George Balanchine, Bertolt Brecht,
Billy Wilder, and Marlene Dietrich.

Frederic Morton, Runaway Waltz, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.

John J. Simon, "Albert Einstein, Radical. A Political Profile," Monthl Review, May 2005,

Gary Mongiovi, "Emigre Economists and American Neoclassical Economics, 1933-1945," Journal
of the History of Economic Thought, vol. 27, No. 4, Dec. 2005, 427-437.

Peter I. Rose, ed., The Dispossessed. An Anatomy of Exile, Amherst: University of

Massachusetts Press, 2005.

Ruth Gruber, Fortunate Few: Politics, Perseverance, and the Rescue of One Thousand
Refugees, 1944, pg. 84.

Peter I. Rose, Making a Difference: William Allan Neilson and the Rescue of Refugees,
pg. 117.

Charles Killinger, Fighting Fascism from the Valley: Italian Intellectuals in the
United States, pg. 133.

Richard Preston Unsworth, A French Connection: Chambon, Chalmers, and Cummington, pg.

Gertraud E.G. Gutzmann, Acculturation Transfer and Integration: Exiled Scholars and
Writers in Western Massachusetts, pg. 183.

Deirdre Bonifaz, A Haven in Whately: The Refugees Who Came to our Farm, pg. 203.

Lale Aka Burk, An Open Door: German Refugee Scholars in Turkey, pg. 235.

Karen Koehler, Angels of History Carrying Bricks: Gropius in Exile, pg. 257.

Saverio Giovacchini, The Joys of Paradise: Reconsidering Hollywoods Exiles, pog.


Krishna Winston, Second-Class Refugees: Literary Exiles from Hitlers Germany and
Their Translators, pg. 309.

Nandor F. Dreisziger, A Hungarian Patriot in American Exile: Bela Bartok and migr
Politics, Journal of the Royal Musical Association, 130, No. 2, pgs. 283/301, 2005.

Anne Kornhauser, "Who is an American Intellectual? The Case of the German migrs in the

United States," Paper presented at the Intellectuals and the Nation State Conference at
University College Dublin, Clinton Institute for American Studies, December 2005.

Marcia H. Kay, "Heroic Endeavor; A bethesda resident is featured in a new documentary

about German speaking Jewish Refugees," Baltimore Jewish Times, Jan 21, 2005, vol. 282,
Issue 3, pg. 28.
[Philip Glaessner (1919- ), born in Lausanne, Switzerland and raised in Vienna. He was
one of the Ritchie Boys. Economist and tranlator.

Harald Hagemann, "Dismissal, Expulsion, and Emigration of German-Speaking Economists after

1933," Journal of the History of Economic Thought, vol. 27, No. 4, December 2005, p. 405.

Laurence S. Moss, "Richard A. Musgrave and Ludwig von Mises: Two Cases of Emigre
Economists in America," Journal of the History of Economic Thought, vol. 27, No. 4,
December 2005, pg. 443.

Ingrid H. Rima, "Reflections of a 'Second Generation' German emigre: the Impact of my

Emigre Professors on a future Economist," Journal of the History of Economic Thought, vol.
27, No. 4, December 2005, pg. 421.

Warren J. Samuels, "Comments on Papers on Emigre Economists," Journal of the History of

Economic Thought, vol. 27, No. 4, December 2005, pg. 439.

Laurel Leff, Buried by The Times. The Holocaust and Americas Most Important Newspaper,
New York: Cambridge UP, 2005.

Christine Marcink, Extraordinary Things. The Life of Varian Fry, The Ozark Visitor, vol.
96, No. 4, Spring 2005, pag.10.

Alexander Stephan, ed., Exile and Otherness, New Approaches to the Experience of the Nazi
Refugees, Exile Studies, Bern: Peter Lang, 2005

Edwige Brender, Neither as a Cowboy nor as a Goldhunter, but simply as a refugee:

Franz Werfels Debate with his American Publishers, Translators, and Adapters, pg. 97.

Georg G. Iggers, Refugee Historians from Nazi Germany: Political Attitudes towards
Democracy, Monna and Otto Weinmann Lecture Series, 14 Sept 2005, U.S.H.M.M.

Maria Presas Beneyto et al., Mexico y Estados Unidos, dos Paises Receptores del Exilio
Republicano Espanol de 1936, in Gutierrez Escudero et al, Estudios sobre America: Siglos
XVI-XX, Sevilla, AEA, 2005.

Pol ODochartaigh and Alexander Stephan, ed., German Monitor. Refuge and Reality.
Feuchtwanger and the European Emigres in California, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2005.

A Hungarian Patriot in American Exile: Bela Bartok and Emigre Politics Author: Nandor F.
Dreisziger - Nandor F. Dreisziger (nandor@kingston.net) has been teaching North American
and European history at the Royal Military College of Canada since 1970.
DOI: 10.1093/jrma/fki013 Publication Frequency: 2 issues per year Published in: Journal
of the Royal Musical Association, Volume 130, Issue 2 2005 , pages 283 - 301

Jeffrey K. Olick (1964- , Univ. of Virginia), In the House of the Hangman. The Agonies
of German Defeat, 1943-1949, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2005.


Jean-Michel Palmier, Weimar in Exile, London: Verso, 2006

Istvan Hargittai, The Martians of Science. Five Physicists Who Changed the Twentieth

Century, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. [Karman, von Neumann, Szilard, Teller,
and Wigner; the Hungarians].

Robert N. Rosen, Saving the Jews: Franklyn D. Roosevelt and the Holocaust, New York:
Thunders Mouth Press, 2006.

Wm. Theodore de Bary, ed., Living Legacies at Columbia, N.Y.: Columbia University Press,
2006. (Chapter 21: Paul F. Lazarsfelds Scholarly Journey, by Jonathan R. Cole).

Fr. James Lloyd, "The Difference Between Organized Religion and Authentic Religion," Web
site at Yahoo Geocities "frjimlloyd", 2006. On Max Ascoli becoming a Catholic.

Gerhard A. Ritter, "Meinecke's Proteges: German Emigre Historians Between Two Worlds,"
(lecture delivered at the GHI on 05/15/2006), GHI Bulletin No. 39 (Fall 2006):23-38.
Analysis of the migrating experience of Hajo Holborn, Dietrich Gerhard, and Hans

Gerhard Sonnert & Gerald Holton, What Happened to the Children who Fled Nazi Persecution,
New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2006
Exhaustive analysis of the young generations immigration to the United States (only
German and Austrian refugees).

Gerhard Loewenberg, The Influence of European migr Scholars on Comparative Politics,

1925-1965, American Political Science Review, vol. 100, No. 4 (Nov 2006): 597-604.

Rosemary Sullivan, Villa Air-Bel. World War II, Escape, and a House in Marseille, New
York: Harper Collins, 2006

Stephen Walsh, Stravinsky: the Second Exile: France and America, 1934-1971, Knopf, 2006.

Marjorie Lamberti, "The Reception of Refugee Scholars from Nazi Germany in America:
Philantrophy and Social Change in Higher Education," Jewish Social Studies: History,
Culture, and Society, vol. 12, No. 3 (Spring-Summer 2006): 157-192

Gerhard Sonnert & Gerald Holton, "'The Grand Wake for Harvard Indifference' How Harvard
and Radcliffe Students aided young Refugees from the Nazis," Harvard Magazine, Sept-
October 2006, pgs. 50-55.

Kati Marton, The Great Escape. Nine Jews who fled Hitler and changed the World, New York:
Simon & Schuster, 2006.

Marton develops the biographies of six Hungarian Jews exiled in the U.S. ( Teller, von
Neumann, Weigner, Szilard, Curtiz, and Kertesz), and two Hungarian Jews who emigrated to
Britain (Korda and Koestler) and one who who was exiled to the world (Capa). It is true
that for some periods Capa and Korda lived in the U.S. The narratives of their lives
intertwine each other and are shown within the frame of their common fin de siecle
Budapest culture. In a way Marton explains the "mistery of Hungarian talent" that so much
intrigued Laura Fermi. Marton herself is a Hungarian and this book reveals her own talent.

Hendrik Edelman, "Kurt Wolff and Jacques Schiffrin Two Publishing Giants start over in
America," Logos, vol. 17, No. 2 (2006):76-82

Judith Thurman, "Prolific - The Talk of the Town," The New Yorker, 12/18/2006. On Eva
Zeisel, the ceramicist and industrial designer.

Fritz Stern, Five Germanys I have Known, New York: Farrar 2006.

Glenn C. Altschuler, "The Convictions of Peter Debye," Daedalus, Fall 2006.

Karl-Heinz Fussl, "Pestalozzi in Dewey's Realm? Bauhaus Master Josef Albers among the
German-Speaking Emigres' Colony at Black Mountain College (1939-1949)," Paedagogica

Historica, vol. 42, Nos. 1 & 2, February 2006, pp. 77-92.

Christian Hacke, "John H. Herz: A Remembrance," American Foreign Policy Interests, 28:
155-158, 2006.

Kathleen James-Chakraborty, From Isolationism to Internationalism. American Acceptance of

the Bauhaus, at Bauhaus Culture: From Weimar to the Cold War, K J-Ch ed., Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, 2006, ch. 8, pg. 153/170.

Eric R. Kandel, In Search of Memory, New York: Norton, 2006.

David Wallace, Exiles in Hollywood, New Jersey: Limelight 2006.

This book analyces the world of the refugees by the short biography method. In 20 chapters
narrates the lives of one or more migrs. For instance on chapter 4 is Alma Mahlers turn
under the title The Muse to Genius. In the first paragraph Wallace makes a comparison
that is emblematic of the true importance not only of Alma Mahler and her husband Franz
Werfel settling in Los Angeles on December 30, 1940 but also of the entire intellectual
migration meeting the American society and culture. The other event of the day compare
with the Mahler-Werfel arrival was that the Pasadena Freeway was opened after years of
planning and construction. Wallace observes that while the Pasadena Freeway set a pattern
for rapid transportation in America that would be both praised and cursed, the arrival of
the couple that was merely the latest of a flood of German-speaking refugees fleeing
Hitlers Fortress Europe that would be also praised and cursed. The parallel is revealing
but it seems to me that the contrast is more remarkable if we highlight the importance of
this two events not only for Los Angeles but also for America itself. All the immigrants
are convinced of their self-importance even in the context of the new and foreign culture,
but in the case of the intellectual migration this strain was a given. Us, the
hagiographers also feel that way but after further reflection realized that we were also
immigrants like the European migrs. The irony is that the natives always looked at them
as did to us- with spontaneous indifference, after all the Pasadena Freeway was an urban,
societal, and cultural milestone for America.
The book includes the biographies of some fascinating characters who were not really part
of the intellectual migration proper, like Alfred Hitchcock, Aldous Huxley, Christopher
Isherwood, Charles Laughton, and Elsa Lanchester.
Other gems in this book are the statement that Los Angeles became in the 1930s and 40s,
arguably, the cultural capital of America for a time, many especially New Yorkers-
considered the place a cultureless hick town (many of course still do). (pg. 125). The
book obviously centers around Hollywood and Los Angeles.
Another gem on pag. 135 states our culture has changed so much since 1939 that it is
difficult to even imagine
On pg. 169 while discussing the architects Neutra and Schindler, the author mentions The
new city that Schindler said was being built in Los Angeles was a product of a building
boom that would last until World War II and has rarely been equaled since.

Arnold Reisman, Turkeys Modernization. Refugees from Nazism and Ataturks Vision,
Washington D.C., New Academia, 2006.

Alfons Sollner, Exilforschung as Mirror of the Changing Political Culture in Post-War

Germany, Journal of the Interdisciplinary Crossroads, vol. 3, No. 1 (April 2006): 63-74.

The ambiguity of Exilforschung as both, object and subject of the cultural and political
development. Sollner says that Exilforschung as a professional historiography is open to
this ambiguity in the sense that it designates not only what migr thought argued or
published on their country of origin, but also the research on emigration. The article
deals with only West Germany and the migr social and political scientists,
distinguishing 4 stages: (1) The Adenauer Era during the 50s and 60s; also called the
years of silence; (2) Period of Politization during the late 60s and the 70s; the
Wirtschaftswunder initiated by the student movement in 1967/68; (3) The
professionalization of Research during the 80s; highlighting specialization, theories and
methods, and own form of organization; (4) Years since reunification [1989 on]

Mark W. Clark, Beyond Catastrophe. German Intellectuals and Cultural Renewal after World

War II, 1945-1955, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

It includes an extensive analysis of the 4 main intellectual German figures: F.

Meinecke, K. Jaspers, T. Mann, and B. Brecht.

Carlos Blanco Aguinaga, On the Specificity of the Spanish Exile of 1939, Journal of the
Interdisciplinary Crossroads, vol.3, No.1 (April 2006):33-43.
[CBA finds that the main characteristic of the Spanish exile of 1939, the specificity of
it is that the exiles left Spain together and were seen in Mexico as a collective.
According to CBA those of the Germans between 1933 and 1942 and of the Spaniards in 1939
were the two most clearly political and massive exiles of the century. The exile was not
for the Spanish intellectuals an individual (and/or elitist) problem. The German exile
like the Spanish one, is clearly political, massive and takes with it writers like Mann
or Brecht, composers like Weill, actors like Lorre, philosophers like Arendt and Marcuse,
etc.; but neither these intellectuals nor the rest of the German exiles left their country
simultaneously, whereas in the Spanish case, with minor exceptions, all of the exiles left
together because they had been together in a sgtruggle and a defeat clearly delimited in
time: from July 18, 1936 to February-March, 1936.

Karl Leydecker ed., German novelists of the Weimar Republic: intersections of literature
and Politics, New York: Camden House, 2006 [Chapter 11: Vicki Baum: A First-Rate Second-
Rate Writer? by Heather Valencia] and other migr writers.

Ellis Sandoz, ed. The Collected Works of Eric Voegelin, vol. 34, Autobiographical
Reflections, Columbia, MO: Univ. of Missouri Press, 2006.

[EV tells the story of his education in Vienna, his leaving in

1938 for philosophical reasons (his opposition to National Socialism) neither Jew nor
Communist), how he escaped; his settlement in America; his previous, in the 1920s
discovery in America of the Anglo-Saxon intellectual world, his discovery of that world,
etc.] This volume is available in Google Books.

Alexander J.P. Thomson, Adorno: a guide for the perplexed, Cornwall: MPG Books, 2006. [In
America, pg. 20].

James J. Sheehan, Three Generations of German Gelehrtenpolitik, GHI Bulletin No. 39

(Fall 2006): 3943.

Eugene R. Sheppard, Leo Strauss and the Politics of Exile: the making of a political
philosopher, Brandeis, 2006.

Vilmos Juhasz, Bartoks Years in America, Washington D.C.: Occidental Press, 2006.

Christopher Benfrey & Karen Remmler, ed., Artists, Intellectuals, and WW II: the Pontigny
Encounters at Mount Holyoke College, 1942-1944, University of Massachusetts Press, 2006.

David Kettler & Zvi Ben-Dor, ed., The Limits of Exile, Journal of the Interdisciplinary
Crossroads, vol. 3, No. 1, April 2006.


Wikipedia, Peter Joseph William Debye (1884, Maastricht, 1966, Ithaca), page last modified
01/02/2007. (Interesting case of an Aryan, Dutch, chemist/physicist, who emigrated in 1940
after having temporary "accepted" the Nazi regime).

Les Back, Homage in Ruins: A visit to Walter Benjamins Grave, Street Signs, Spring
2007, pgs. 12-15 (Goldsmiths Centre for Urban and Community Research, University of

Sabine Eckmann & Lutz Koepnick, ed., Caught by Politics. Hitler Exiles and American Visual
Culture, New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007. (Studies in European Culture & History). This
book recalls the exile of German & European visual artists & film practitioners in the
United States. It traces the paths & aesthetic strategies of Hitler exiles in the United
States as ones of productive encounters & ironic cultural masquerades. While stressing
creative transformations & per formative self-reinventions, the accounts don't ignore the
hardship of forced displacement. The book encourages the reader to revise dominant & one-
sided understandings of modernist culture & instead to engage with the various cross-
cultural dialogues between European & American artists.

Martin Mauthner, German Writers in French Exile 1933-1940, London: Valentine Mitchell,

Sharon Krummel, ed., Refugee Archives: Theory and practice, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2007.

John Spalek, Fifty Years of Exile Research in the USA: A Personal Overview, pg. 57

Michael P. Steinberg, Hannah Arendt and the cultural style of the German Jews, Social
Research, 09/22/2007.

Birgit Maier-Katkin, Silence and Acts of Memory. A Postwar Discourse on Literature,

History, Anna Seghers, and Women in the Third Reich, Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press,

Terence Renaud, The German Resistance in New York: Karl B. Frank and the New Beginning
Group, 1935-1945, Online publication, 2007.

Christian Wiese, The Life and Thought of Hans Jonas: Jewish Dimensions, Waltham, Mass.:
Brandeis UP, 2007.

Arnold Reisman, German Jewish Intellectuals Diaspora in Turkey: 1933-55, The Historian,
Summer 2007, pgs. 450-478.

Marjorie Lamberti, German Antifascist Refugees in America and the Public Debate on What
Should be Done with Germany after Hitler,1941-1945, Central European History 40 (2007),

Eric D. Weitz, Weimar Germany. Promise and Tragedy, Princeton: Princeton UP, 2007

The modern condition represented by advanced technology and mass society. [Probably it
could be added: urban setting, and a more secular mindset. Even though the old imperial
order had been eliminated by war and political upheaval, Germany did not go through a
total revolution that completely eliminated the power and prestige of the traditional

Feiwel Kupferberg, Hidden Impacts of a Cultural Migration: Traces of Lewis Cosers

Transatlantic Experiences in his Sociological Work, Paper presented to the Transatlantic
Voyages, International Congress of Sociology, University of Nancy, France, May 31 June
1, 2007.

Pamela M. Potter, Dismantling a Dystopia: On the Historiography of Music in the Third

Reich, Central European History 40 (2007): 623-651.

Steven E. Aschheim, Beyond the Border: the German-Jewish Legacy Abroad, N.J.: Princeton
University Press, 2007. [Ch.2, The Tensions of Historical Wissenschaft. The migr
Historians and the Making of German Cultural History, pg. 45; and Ch. 3, Icons Beyond the
Border. Why Do We Love (Hate) Theodor Adorno, Hannah Arendt, Walter Benjamin, Frans
Rosenzweig, Gershom Scholem, and Leo Strauss?; pg. 81]

Antonio Nino, El Exilio Intelectual Republicano en los Estados Unidos, Cuadernos de

Historia Contemporanea, vol. Extraordinario (2007): 229-244. [good article in Spanish

explaining the reasons for the small group of exiles coming to the U.S., foreign relations
between the U.S. and Spain, immigration policy, etc.].

David Jenemann, Adorno in America, Minneapolis: Univ. Of Minnesota Press, 2007.

Edoardo Tortarolo, Objectivity and Opposition. Some migr Historians in the 1930s and
Early 1940s, Ch. 4, pg. 59, at Q. Edward Wang et al., The Many Faces of Clio: cross-
cultural approaches to Historiography, Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2007.

Frank Estelmann, Exile in Paradise: A Literary History of Sanary-sur-Mer, E-Paper, ASA

Conference 2007, London Metropolitan University, 2007.


Bruce A. Weinberg, Scientific Leadership, Ohio State University, March 2008, Internet.

Philipp Stelzel, Working Toward a Common Goal? American Views on German Historiography
and German-American Scholarly Relations During the 1960s, Central European History 41
(2008) 639-671.

Marion F. Deshmukh, The Visual Arts and Cultural Migration in the 1930s and 1940s: A
Literature Review, Central European History 41 (2008): 569-604.

Francois Cusset, French Theory, How Foucault, Derrida, Deleuze, & Co. Transformed the
Intellectual Life of the United States, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
[on pg. 18, Cusset says that in every domain, the inevitable, and more or less felicitous,
contacts between the local innovators (who in many cases had themselves visited Europe
between the wars) and these exiled strangers in paradise helped determine the postwar
orientation of several deep tendencies of Western culture this through a mixture of
subterranean influence and critical emulation.]
[for literary criticism and theory, see pag. 47].

The Royal Conservatory of Music, Canada, Music in Exile. migr Composers of the 1930s,
Cadigan Hall, London, April 12/13, 2008.


Deborah Dework & Robert Jan Van Pelt, Flight from the Reich Refugee Jews, 1933-1946, New
York: Norton, 2009.

Introduction, pg. XIII, The refugees escape around de world defies traditional
plotlines. Unlike other histories that start and end at conventionally established dates,
this history has many starting points, even more end dates, and actors scattered across
the globe. Realizing that the so-called grand narrative could not encompass the story we
sought to tell, we devised a grid to capture pivotal moments and core issues. Focusing on
four turning points in a repeat pattern of people, places, papers, and problems allowed us
to zero in on individual agency, geographic reach, government and philanthropic
organization policy, and the difficulties quotidian to existential- refugees faced. It
allowed us to move from broad vision to narrow opportunities; from petty application of
the law to daring defiance of it. It is at once a grand story and a tale of details. If
our new narrative form is fractured, so too were the lives of those we study.

One becomes younger when one leads a new life (264)

Exile was a crucible in which people might develop their full potential (431)
Reveling in the tremendous stimulus brought on by emigration (274)
Unless one happens to be an Einstein, on is deprived of all ones marks of rank and left

only with the opportunity to regain them under completely changed circumstances (274)
It was an emigration psychosis. The complete readjustment demanded by emigrant life
requires a parallel readjustment of all ones habitual notions (267)

Robert M. Edsel, The Monuments Men, New York: Center Street 2009 [Harry Ettlinger, born in
Karlsruhe, Germany in 1926, to the U.S. in 1938]

Richard Breitman, Barbara McDonald Stewart, and Severin Hochberg, Refugees and Rescue. The
Diaries and Papers of James G. McDonald, 1935-1945, Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
2009. James G. McDonald (1886-1964)[one of the righteous gentiles?]

Dorothy L. Crawford, A Windfall of Musicians: Hitlers Emigres and Exiles in Southern

California, Bronfman Foundation & Yale College, 2009.

Richard Abel & Gordon Graham, ed., Immigrant Publishers The Impact of Expatriates in
Britain and America, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2009.

Thomas Wheatland, The Frankfurt School in Exile, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota

Press, 2009.

Telos (Winter 2009) No. 149, Adorno and America.

Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze, Mathematicians Fleeing from Nazi Germany: Individual Fates and
Global Impact, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2009.

George Steinmertz, Ideas in Exile: Refugees from Nazi Germany and the Failure to
Transplant Historical Sociology into the United States, Int J Polit Cult Soc, Springer
Science + Business Media, published on line: 06/20/2009.

Tibor Frank, Double Exile: Migrations of Jewish-Hungarian Professionals Through Germany,

Bern: Peter Lang, 2009.

Bernardo J. Carducci, The Psychology of Personality: viewpoints, research, and

applications,2d edition, Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Chapter 5: The Viewpoints
of Horney, Erikson, and Fromm: The Neo-Freudians, pg. 169.

Klemens von Klemperer, Voyage through the twentieth century: a historians recollections
and reflections, Berghahn Books, 2009.


Richard Bodek & Simon Lewis, ed., The Fruits of Exile: Central European Intellectual
Immigration to America in the Age of Fascism, Columbia, S.C.: University Press of South
Carolina, 2010.

Jordan Schoenberg, The Exodus of German Physicists to America, 1933-1945: A Thesis on

Emigration-Induced Academic Change, College of New Jersey, History Department, Senior
Honors Thesis, 04/30/2010.

Guy Benveniste, From Paris to Berkeley. California: Create Space, 2010.

Russell A. Berman, British Expatriates and German Exiles in 1930-1940s Los Angeles, in
Kevin R. McNamara (1958- ), ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Literature of Los
Angeles, Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2010 at pg. 49.

Patrick Wilcken, Claude Levi-Strauss. The Poet in the Laboratory, New York: Penguin Press,
2010. [Chapter 4: Exile, pg. 115].

Frank W. Stahnisch, German-Speaking migr Neuroscientists in North America after 1933:

Critical Reflections on Emigration-Induced Scientific Change, Osterreichische Zeitschrift
fur Geschichtswissenschaften, Band 21 (2010)[Preprint 403](Max Planck Institute for the
History of Science).

Marc D. Moskovitz, Alexander Zemlinsky: A Lyric Symphony, Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press,
2010. [Chapter 12 is entitled Zemlinsky Comes to live here and tells the story of the
composers last 3 years (1939-1942)].

Cherry Schrecker, Transatlantic Voyages and Sociology: the migration and development of
Ideas, Farnham, England: Ashgate, 2010. Chapter 13: Christian Fleck, A collective
Biography (Prosopography) of German-Speaking Sociologists, pgs. 209-223.

Peter Watson, The German Genius. Europes Third Renaissance, the Second Scientific
Revolution, and the Twentieth Century, New York: HarperCollins, 2010
[Chapters 38 & 39].

Marc D. Mosckovitz, Alexander Zemlinsky. A Lyric Symphony, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2010.

Kader Konuk, East West Mimesis: Auerbach in Turkey, Stanford: Stanford Univ Press, 2010.

Journal of Modern Italian Studies, Volume 15, Issue 5, 2010 Special Issue: Mussolini's
Gifts. Exiles from Fascist Italy Articles
A forgotten generation: Italian cultural migration to the Americas (193045)
Renato Camurri, pages 639-643
Max Ascoli and Italian intellectuals in exile in the United States before the Second
World War, Renato Camurri pages 644-656
Gaetano Salvemini: antifascism in thought and action
Charles Killinger, pages 657-677
Sforza in America: the dilemmas of exile politics, 194043
James Edward Miller, pages 678-692
The antifascist climate and the Italian intellectual exile in interwar Argentina
Ricardo Pasolini, pages 693-714


Allan Mitchell, Fleeing Nazi Germany. Five Historians Migrate to America, Trafford
Publishing, 20011 (www.trafford.com).

Richard Pells, Modernist America,Art, Music, Movies, & the Globalization of American
Culture, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011. Pgs. 48-52

Sabine Feisst, Schoenberg's New World.The American Years, New York: Oxford UP, 2011.


Anthony Heilbut, The Fan Who Knew Too Much, New York: Knopf, 2012. [this books theme is
Gospel music, however, Heilbut dedicates two chapters in part II to continue his
discussion on the refugees of the intellectual migration, as a sequel to his postscript in
the 1997 edition of his Exiled in Paradise].