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Chapter 1

1. (AB/BC, non-calculator)

x2 5x 6
The function f is defined as follows: f ( x) .
2x2 7 x 3

(a) State the value(s) of x for which f is not continuous.

(b) Evaluate lim f ( x) . Show the work that leads to your answer.
x 3

(c) State the equation(s) for the vertical asymptote(s) for the graph of y f ( x).

(d) State the equation(s) for the horizontal asymptote(s) for the graph of y f ( x) . Show the
work that leads to your answer.
2. (AB/BC, calculator neutral)

y

y

Graph of f Graph of g

The graphs of functions f and g are shown above. Evaluate each limit using the graphs provided.
Show the computations that lead to your answer.

(a) lim f ( x) 4 (c) lim f ( x) g ( x)


x 1 x2

5 f ( x)
(b) lim (d) lim (Assume that f and g are linear on the interval
x 3 g ( x) x 3 g ( x) 1

[2,3]).
3. (AB/BC, calculator neutral)

A hot cup of tea is placed on a counter and left to cool. The temperature of the tea, in degrees
Fahrenheit (correct to the nearest degree), x minutes after the cup is placed on the counter is
modeled by a continuous function T ( x) for 0 x 10 . Values of T ( x) at various times x are
shown in the table below.

x 0 3 4 6 8 9

T ( x) 180 174 172 168 164 162

(a) Evaluate: lim T ( x) . Justify your answer.


x 4

(b) Using the data in the table, find the average rate of change in the temperature of the tea for
3 x 8 . Include units on your final answer.

(c) Identify, using the times listed in the table, the shortest interval during which there must exist
a time x for which the temperature of the tea is 166.5 ? Justify your answer.

(d) Use the data in the table to find the best estimate of the slope of the line tangent to the graph
of T at x 8 .
4. (AB/BC, non-calculator)

Find the value of each of these limits, or else explain why the limit does not exist. Show the
computations which lead to your answers.

3x 4 6 x3 x 2 x 1
(a) lim
x 2 x3 9 x 4 5

x5 5
(b) lim
x 0 5x

2 2 cos 2 x
(c) lim
x 0 x sin x

5 5

(d) lim x 2
x 2 x 2
5. (AB/BC, non-calculator)

The position function s (t ) 4.9t 2 396.9 , gives the height (in meters) of an object that has
fallen from a height of 396.9 meters after t seconds.

(a) Explain why there must exist a time t , 1 t 2 , at which the height of the object must be
382 meters above the ground.

(b) Find the time at which the object hits the ground.

(c) Find the average rate of change in s over the interval t 8,9 . Include units of measure.
Explain why this is a good estimate of the velocity at which the object hits the ground. How can
this estimate be improved?

s(t ) s (3)
(d) Evaluate: lim . Show the work that leads to your answer. Include units.
t 3 t 3
6. (AB/BC, calculator neutral)

Let a and b represent real numbers. Define

ax 2 x b if x 2


f ( x) ax b if 2 x 5 .

2ax 7 if x 5

(a) Find the values of a and b such that f is continuous everywhere.

(b) Evaluate: lim f ( x) .


x 3

f ( x)
(c) Let g ( x) .
x 1

Evaluate: lim g ( x) .
x 1
7. (AB/BC, calculator neutral)

The graph of function g is shown above.Which of the following is true?

I. lim g ( x) 1
x 2

II. lim g ( x) g (2)


x 2

III. g is continuous at x 3 .

(a) I only

(b) I and II only

(c) I and III only

(d) III only

(e) I, II and III


8. (AB/BC, calculator neutral)
y

The graph of the function f is shown above. The line x 1 is a vertical asymptote. Which of the
following statements about f is true?

(a) lim
x1

(b) lim 1
x 3

(c) lim f ( x) lim f ( x)


x 3 x 3

(d) lim f ( x) does not exist


x 4

(e) lim f ( x) lim f ( x)


x 0 x 3
9. (AB/BC, non-calculator)

x 2 4 x 32
x 2 2 x 8 if x 2, 4

Define f ( x) .
8 if x 4

Which of the following statements about f are true?

I. f is not continuous at x 4 .

II. lim f ( x) 4
x

III. x 4 is a vertical asymptote of the graph of y f ( x) .

(a) None

(b) I only

(c) I and II only

(d) I and III only

(e) I, II and III

10. (AB/BC, calculator neutral)


y

The figure above shows three rectangles each with a vertex on the graph of y 16 x 2 . The sum
of the areas of these rectangles is

(a) 42 sq. units

(b) 40 sq. units

(c) 34 sq. units

(d) 33 sq. units

(e) 29 sq. units

Chapter 1 (Solutions)
Question 1

x2 5x 6
The function f is defined as follows: f ( x) .
2 x3 7 x 2 3x

(a) State the value(s) of x at which f is not continuous.

(b) Evaluate lim f ( x) . Show the work that leads to your answer.
x 3

(c) State the equation(s) for the vertical asymptote(s) for the graph of y f ( x).

(d) State the equation(s) for the horizontal asymptote(s) for the graph of y f ( x) . Show the
work that leads to your answer.

(a) f ( x)
x 3 x 2
x 2 x 1 x 3

1
f is discontinuous at x ; x 3 and x 0 3: 1 per answer
2

(b) lim
x 3
x2
x(2 x 1)

1
15
2 : 1: reduced fraction
1: answer

1
(c) x ; x 0 2: 1 per answer
2
Question 1 (cont.)

(d) lim
x2 5x 6 1
x 2 x 2 7 x 3

2
2 : 1: limit expression
1: answer

Question 2

y
y


x
x





Graph of f Graph of g

The graphs of functions f and g are shown above. Evaluate each limit using the graphs
provided. Show the computations that lead to your answer.

(a) lim f ( x) 4
x 1

5
(b) lim
x 3 g ( x)

(c) lim f ( x) g ( x)
x 2

f ( x)
(d) lim (Assume that f and g are linear on the interval [2,3]).
x 3 g ( x) 1

(a) lim f ( x) 4 = 3 4 7
x 1
2 : 1: breaking up limit
1: answer

(b) lim
x 3
5 5
= 5
g ( x) 1
2 : 1: breaking up limit
1: answer
Question 2 (cont.)

(c) lim f ( x) g ( x) = (2)(0) 0


x 2
2 : 1: breaking up limit
1: answer

f ( x) 2 x 6
lim

lim
(d)
x 3 g ( x) 1 x 3 ( x 2) 1 3 : 2: algebraic representations
x 3 1: factoring and answer
2 lim 2
x 3 x 3

Question 3

A hot cup of tea is placed on a counter and left to cool. The temperature of the tea, in degrees
Fahrenheit (correct to the nearest degree), x minutes after the cup is placed on the counter is
modeled by a continuous function T ( x) for 0 x 10 . Values of T ( x) at various times x are
shown in the table below.

x 0 3 4 6 8 9

T ( x) 180 174 172 168 164 162

(a) Evaluate: lim T ( x) . Justify your answer.


x 4

(b) Using the data in the table, find the average rate of change in the temperature of the tea for
3 x 8 . Include units on your final answer.

(c) Identify, using the times listed in the table, the shortest interval during which there must exist
a time x for which the temperature of the tea is 166.5 ? Justify your answer.

(d) Use the data in the table to find the best estimate of the slope of the line tangent to the graph
of T at x 8 .

(a) Since T is continuous for 0 x 10 , lim T ( x) T (4).


x 4

lim T ( x) 172
x 4
2 : 1: justification
1: answer

T (8) T (3) F 1: setup


(b) 2 3 : 1: answer
83 min 1: units
Question 3 (cont.)

(c) By the Intermediate Value Theorem, the

temperature must be 166.5 for some time 6 x 8


2 : 1: answer
1: justification

since T (6) 166.5 T (8) .

(d)
T (9) T (8)
98
2
2 : 1: setup
1: answer

Question 4

Find the value of each of these limits, or else explain why the limit does not exist. Show the
computations which lead to your answers.

3x 4 6 x3 x 2 x 1
(a) lim
x 2 x3 9 x 4 5

x5 5
(b) lim
x 0 5x

2 2 cos 2 x
(c) lim
x 0 x sin x

5 5

(d) lim x 2
x 2 x 2

1
(a) 1: answer
3

(b) lim
x 0
5x
x
x5 5
lim
x 0
5
1
x5 5

1
10 5

3 : 2 : simplify
1: answer

(c) 2 lim
x 0
sin x
x
2
2 : 1: simplify
1: answer

(d) 5 lim
2 x
x 2 2 x ( x 2)
5
lim
1
2 x 2 x
5
4
3 : 2 : simplify
1: answer
Question 5

The position function s (t ) 4.9t 2 396.9 , gives the height (in meters) of an object that has
fallen from a height of 396.9 meters after t seconds.

(a) Explain why there must exist a time t, 1 t 2 , at which the height of the object must be 382
meters above the ground.

(b) Find the time at which the object hits the ground.

(c) Find the average rate of change in s over the interval t 8,9 . Include units of measure.
Explain why this is a good estimate of the velocity at which the object hits the ground. How can
this estimate be improved?

s (t ) s (3)
(d) Evaluate: lim . Show the work that leads to your answer. Include units.
t 3 t 3

(a) s (1) 382 s (2) . The function s (t ) is a polynomial, and is

therefore continuous. Therefore by the Intermediate Value Theorem, 1: explanation

there exists a value t, 1 t 2 , for which s (t ) 382 .

(b) 0 4.9t 2 396.9 t 9 s 1: answer

s (9) s (8) m
(c) 83.3 . This is the average velocity on
98 sec

1: answer
the interval 8 t 9 . Since the object hits the ground at t 9 , 4 : 1: units
2: 1 per explanation

this average velocity is close to the instantaneous velocity

s (9) s (t )
at t = 9. The estimate can be improved by allowing the value of t to approach 9.
9t
Question 5 (cont.)

s (t ) s (3) 4.9(t 3)( t 3) m 1: work


(d) lim 29.4 3 : 1: answer
t 3 t 3 t 3 sec 1: units

Question 6

Let a and b represent real numbers.

ax 2 x b if x 2


Define f ( x) ax b if 2 x 5 .

2ax 7 if x 5

(a) Find the values of a and b such that f is continuous everywhere.

(b) Evaluate: lim f ( x) .


x 3

f ( x)
(c) Let g ( x) .
x 1

Evaluate: lim g ( x) .
x 1

4a 2 b 2a b 1: limits
(a) a 2; b 3 4 : 1: equations
5a b 10a 7 2: answers

(b) 9
2 : 1: correct interval
1: answer

(c) lim
x 1
2x2 x 3
x 1
5
2 : 1: correct interval
1: answer

Questions 7-10

7. c g (2) 3 lim g ( x) 1
x 2

8. e both of these limits equal 2

lim f ( x) 2
x 4
9. b
lim f ( x) 1 so the horizontal asymptote is y 1
x

10. c 15 + 12 + 7 = 34