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CLASS : 12-E
ACADEMIC YEAR : 2017-2018

Serial Topic Page
No: No:
1. Acknowledgement 4
2. Introduction 5
3. Ingredients of Antacids
4. Types of Antacids 7
5. Uses of Antacids 9
6. Side effects of Antacids 10
7. Experiment 11
8. Conclusion 15
9. Further Scope of the project
10. Reason for the choice of project 16
11. Bibliography 17

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my
chemistry teacher, Ms Femy Abraham for her vital
support, guidance and words of encouragement without
which this project would not have come forth from my
I would like to express my heartily gratitude to the lab
assistants for their support and cooperation in making this
project accurate.
Lastly, I would like to thank my parents and team
members who have helped me with their valuable
suggestions and guidance has been helpful in various
phases of the completion of the project.

An Antacid is any substance, generally an acid or a basic salt, which neutralizes
stomach acidity. They are used to relieve acid indigestion, upset stomach, sour stomach
and heartburn.

How does an antacid works?

Stomach contents are highly
acidic due to the action of the
cells in the stomach walls that
secrete Hydrochloric acid. The
acidic environment suppresses
growth of bacteria and aids in
the digestion process. The acid
hydrolyses proteins and helps to
activate the enzyme pepsin
which further breaks down food
proteins. The primary
component of gastric juice is
Hydrochloric acid and its pH is
very close to 1, which is the pH of 0.1 M solution of the acid. Under normal conditions
, the inner lining of the stomach is not damaged by the acid, due to presence of a mucosa
layer , which is replaced at a very rapid rate. Upset stomach, indigestion, and
gastroesophageal reflex disease may occur when excess acid travels to more delicate
tissues, causing a burning, painful sensation which is so called heartburn. Apart from
the short-term discomfort and in long-term, gastric and duodenal ulcers may occur, as
the excess acid denatures the proteins composing the stomach wall.
Normally the acid level in the stomach is about 2 to 3. Trouble starts when the pH drops
below those numbers. For the proper functioning of the stomach, the antacid elevates
the number to 3 to 4, by neutralizing some of the excess acid.

An antacid is taken to neutralize the excess acid. Antacids are over-the-counter
medications which are used to decrease the concentrations of Hydrochloric acid in the
stomach. They are available in solid or liquid form and many formulations. They can
contain one of a combination of the following active ingredients.
Aluminium Hydroxide
Calcium Carbonate
Magnesium Hydroxide
Sodium Bicarbonate


Antacids perform a neutralization reaction, i.e. they buffer gastric acid, raising the
pH to reduce acidity in the stomach. When gastric hydrochloric acid reaches the
nerves in the gastrointestinal mucosa, they signal pain to the central nervous
system. This happens when these nerves are exposed, as in peptic ulcers. The
gastric acid may also reach ulcers in the esophagus or the duodenum. Other
mechanisms may contribute, such as the effect of aluminium ions inhibiting
smooth muscle cell contraction and delaying gastric emptying.

Antacids have four types of ingredients. Within these four types, there are many
different brands.

1 ) Sodium Antacids
Sodium bicarbonate (commonly known as
baking soda) is perhaps the best-known of the
sodium-containing antacids. It is potent and
fast-acting. As its name suggests, it is high in
Examples - Alka-Seltzer, Bromo-Seltzer
2 ) Calcium Antacids

Antacids in the form of calcium
carbonate or calcium phosphate are also
potent and fast-acting. Regular or heavy
doses of calcium (more than five or six
times per week) can cause constipation.
Heavy and extended use of this product
may clog your kidneys and cut down the
amount of blood they can process.
Extended use of calcium antacids can also
cause kidney stones.
Examples - Tums, Alka-2, Titralac

3 ) Magnesium Antacids
Magnesium salts come in many forms -
carbonate, glycinate, hydroxide, oxide,
trisilicate, and aluminosilicate.
Magnesium has a mild laxative effect;
it can cause diarrhea. For this reason,
magnesium salts are rarely used as the
only active ingredients in an antacid,
but are combined with aluminum,
which counteracts the laxative effect.
Examples - Maalox, Mylanta, Riopan, Gelusil,

4 ) Aluminum Antacids
Salts of aluminum (hydroxide,
carbonate gel, or phosphate gel) can
also cause constipation. For these
reasons, aluminum is usually used in
combination with the other three
primary ingredients.
Examples - Rolaids ,
ALternaGEL, Amphojel

Antacids contain a variety of ingredients. Included in these are :
Aluminium Carbonate
Bismuth Compounds (Bismuth Aluminate, Bismuth Carbonate, Bismuth
Subcarbonate, Bismuth Subnitrate )
Magnesium Compounds
Dried Milk Solids
Aluminium Sodium Silicate
Sodium Compounds
Sodium Citrotartrate and Tartaric
The following table contains a list of
active ingredients found in several common commercial antacids, and the
reactions by which these antacids neutralize the HCl in the stomach acid.


1)Aluminium Al(OH)3 Al(OH)3(s)+3 HCl(l)
Hydroxide AlCl3(aq)+3 H2O(l)
2)Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 CaCO3(s)+2 HCl(l)
CaCl2(aq)+ H2O(l)+CO2(g)
3)Magnesium MgCO3 MgCO3(s)+ HCl(l)
Carbonate MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

4)Magnesium Mg(OH)2 Mg(OH)2(s)+2 HCl(l)
Hydroxide MgCl2(aq)+2 H2O(l)
5)Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO3 NaHCO3(s) + HCl(l)
NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

Antacids may be used:

To reduce the symptoms of acid reflux which may cause heartburn or

inflammation of the gullet (oesophagitis). These conditions are
sometimes called gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD).
To relieve some of the
symptoms caused by ulcers in
the stomach and part of the
gut called the duodenum.
In other conditions where it is
helpful to neutralise stomach
acid. For example, for
occasional bouts of indigestion

Before the discovery of other more modern medicines, antacids were commonly
used for the above conditions. They were also used to help heal ulcers in the
stomach and duodenum.

However, antacids still have a place. They are most commonly used to
provide quick relief of symptoms caused by stomach acid. In particular, in people

who get occasional bouts of mild dyspepsia or heartburn.


Side effects from antacids are rare. However, they can happen, even when it is
used according to directions. Antacids can cause constipation. In some cases,
they can have a laxative effect instead. Some people have had allergic reactions.
Antacids might also increase the risk of developing sensitivities to certain foods.
Many of the side effects of antacids come from not taking them as directed.

Antacids may cause dose-dependent rebound hyperacidity and milk-alkali

Antacids that contain aluminum
hydroxide may cause constipation,
aluminum-intoxication, osteomalacia,
and hypophosphatemia.
Antacids that contain magnesium have a
laxative effect that may cause diarrhea,
and in patients with renal failure they
may cause increased magnesium levels in
the blood, because of the reduced ability
of the kidneys to eliminate magnesium
from the body in the urine.
Many antacids, such as Maalox, Mylanta, Rolaids and Tums, contain calcium. If
you take too much or take them for longer than directed, you could get an
overdose of calcium. Too much
calcium can cause:

mental status changes
kidney stones

Excess calcium can also lead to a

condition called alkalosis. In this
condition, your body doesnt make enough acid to function properly.

To analyse the given samples of commercial antacids by determining the amount
of hydrochloric acid they can neutralize.


1.Burette 6.Weighing scale
2.Pipettes 7.Sodium Hydroxide
3.Titration 8.Sodium Carbonate
4.Measuring Flasks 9.Hydrochloric Acid
5.Beakers 10.Phenolphthalein and Methyl Orange

This procedure follows Volumetric analysis using redox titrations. In the first part
of the experiment, each antacid tablet is made to react with a known volume of
HCl. The neutralization reaction will be completed by adding enough NaOH to
convert the excess HCl to salt and water.
As indicator, phenolphthalein will be used to determine the end points of the
titration which indicates the complete neutralization process, the amount of HCl
originally neutralized by the antacid can be calculated. Several antacids will be
tested and the relative strengths of each will be compared.

1. Prepare 1 litre of HCl solution by diluting 10 ml of the conc. Acid for
one litre.
2. Similarly, make 1litre of NaOH solution by dissolving 4.0 g of NaOH to
prepare exactly 0.25 litre of solution.
3. Prepare Na2CO3 solution by weighing exactly 1.325 g of anhydrous
sodium carbonate and then dissolving it in water to prepare exactly 0.25
litre of solution.
4. Standardize the HCl solution by titrating it against standardized Na 2CO3
solution using Methyl Orange as the indicator T

5. Similarly, standardize the NaOH solution by titrating it against

standardized HCl solution using phenolphthalein as indicator.
6. Powder the various samples of antacid tablets and weight 1.0 g of each.
7. Add a specific volume of the standardized HCl to each of the weighed
sample taken in conical flasks. The acid should be slight excess, so that
it can neutralize all the alkaline compounds of the tablet.
8. Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein and warm the flask till most of the
powder dissolves. Filter the insoluble material.

9. Titrate the solution against the standardized NaoH solution, till a
permanent pinkish tinge is obtained . Repeat this experiment with
different antacids.

1.Standardisation of HCl solution:
Serial No: Burette reading Volume of acid used
Initial Final (mL)
1. 0 mL 15 mL 15Ml
2. 0 mL 15mL 15Ml

Volume of Na2CO3 solution taken =20 mL

Applying Molarity equation, M1V1
M1 x 15.0 = 1 x 20
Molarity of the HCl, M1 = 0.133 N

2.Standardization of NaOH solution :-

Serial No: Burette Reading Volume of
Initial Final acid used
1. 0 mL 26.5 mL 26.5 mL
2. 0 mL 26.5 mL 26.5 mL

Condordant Volume = 26.5 mL

Applying molarity equation, M1V1 = M2V2
0.133 x 26.5 = M2 x 20
Thus, Molarity of NaOH, M2 = 0.176 M

3.Analysis of Antacid Tablets:-

Weight of the antacid sample = 1.0 g
Volume of HCl solution added = 40 mL

Antacid Volume of NaOH solution Volume of HCl
needed used for neutralising used for
unused HCl neutralizing 1.0 g of
antacid matter
Gelusil 12.1 mL 27.9 mL
Rantidine 21.4 mL 18.6 mL
Gaviscon 24.3 mL 15.7 mL
Moxal 22.7 mL 17.3 mL
ENO 19.3 mL 20.7 mL
The antacid, for which the maximum volume of HCl is used for neutralizing 1.0 g
of antacid matter, is most effective. Therefore, out of the above mentioned
tablets, Gelusil is the most effective.


Do not misjudge the color of the indicator near the end point.
Take care to not misread the volume at any moment, and due to
whatever reason. This can be example for a parallax problem.
Usage of contaminated solutions for example when two different
solutions are transferred using the same pipette and pipette is not rinsed
with distilled water in between can give incorrect results .
Rinsing burette and/or pipette with wrong solution if the burette or
pipette is not dry before use, it has to be rinsed with the solution that
will be transferred. Using just distilled water for rinsing will mean
transferred solution is slightly diluted.
Not filling burette properly if there is an air lock in the burette
stopcock it can block the flow of the titrant.

Antacids play a very important role in relieving many patients suffering from
gastric hyperacidity, commonly known as gastritis. This project was undertaken
to analyse the best commercially available antacid according to the amount of
hydrochloric acid they could neutralize . The following samples were chosen for
the experiment.
Volumetric titrations were conducted to standardize the HCL solution and the
NaOH solution. The antacid sample was made to react with the HCL solution
and after adding the indicator (phenolphthalein) the abovesolution was heated and
later, filtered. The filtrate was titrated against the standardized NaOH solution.

The antacids, for which the minimum volume of NaOH solution is used for
neutralizing unused HCL, is most effective. Therefore, out of the given antacid
samples, Gelusil is the most effective antacid.


Nowadays, many people are suffering from
upset stomach due to heavy workload,
nervous tension due to the stress of daily life
and poor eating habits, which is eating too
much high-fat foods too quickly as well as
eating out more often. They usually use
antacids to relieve the symptoms.
From our previous knowledge, we know
that antacids contain weak bases to
neutralize the excess acid in the stomach.
Every day we are bombarded by
commercials dealing with acid indigestion.
Each in turn declares they neutralise more acid and provide the strongest relief and
are fast acting Acid blockers may continue to increase in popularity at the expense
of acid neutralizers. Drug manufacturers of both types will continue to improve
their antacid products regarding taste, cost, and effectiveness to make it even easier
of the consumers to treat them. Hence, the present scenario has intrigued me to

find out, through scientific research, which brand of antacid is the best with le ast
side effects.
In this experiment, five commercially available antacids were chosen and they were
analysed on the basis of their ability to neutralize hydrochloric acid and thus the
best brand with the highest ability of neutralize the acid was determined to be

1. https://www.ibdrelief.com/learn/treatment/medication-for-ibd/antacid-
2. https://www.iffgd.org/diettreatments/antacids.html
3. https://patient.info/health/antacids
4. www.ranbaxy.com
5. http://chemantacids.blogspot.ae

1. Comprehensive Practical Chemistry for Class 12
Lakshmi Publications Pvt LTD
2. Textbook for Chemistry Class 12 Ncert