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By George Felfoldi, D.D., Ph.D.

Copyright 2007




No parts of this book can be reproduced in

any way or form without the written
permission from the Author or
from the Publisher.


belong to their respectable

Title Page 1
Subtitle Page 3
Copyright Information 4
Table Of Contents 5
Special Thanks 6
Dedication 7
About The Author 8
Other Books By The Author 9
And God Said: 11
History 12
Hass Avocado Mother Tree 14
How To Grow Your Own Tree 16
Varieties Of Avocados 19
Selecting & Handling 30
Seedling To Supermarket 33
Avocado Persea Species 35
Description 37
Culture 39
Cultivars 43
What Dr. Schwartz Have To Say About Avocados 51
Health Benefits Of Avocados 52
Nutritional Facts (Of Avocados) 55
Avocados: Good Fat 58
Comments Are Welcome 59

I like to take this opportunity to thank all the people
and companies that made this book possible. And
also all the people and companies that I failed
to mention.


Bettyann Felfoldi
Toronto Public Library System
California Avocado Growers Association
California Avocado Commission
Dr. Schwartz.com
The Toronto Avocado Marketing Board
California Rare Fruit Growers Inc.
All my family and friends.


I would like to dedicate this book

to my wife

to all the Avocado lovers
out there. (I know who you are.)



Is an Independent Baptist Minister,

A musician, and an Author,
who is a native of Toronto, Canada.
George has written several books on
various subjects such as: Health, Occult,
Ships, Religion, Herbals, Solar Power,
Cooking, Mythology, Vision Care, etc. George
also holds several doctors degrees from various
Universities and is married and is the
father of four grown children.

Here is a list of other books of interest
by the same Author:


The Powers Of Garlic
Meaning Of New Birth
Speaking To God Through Prayers
Ginger The Herb And Root Guide
The Complete Book On Angels
Chamomile The Healing Herb
The Healing Powers Of Aloe Vera
The Healing Powers Of Cranberry
The Healing Powers Of Seaweed And Algae
The Spiritual Key To Healing
The Healing Powers Of Pomegranate


The Healing Powers Of Blueberries

AMD - Age-related Macular Degeneration
A Modern Look At Solar Power
The Healing Powers Of Oregano

The Healing Powers Of Coconuts

The Book Of Spells: White Magic Vs. Black Magic

The Healing Powers Of Cherries
Experimenting With The G-Spot
Sex Magic
The Images Of God
The Healing Powers Of Thistles
The Felfoldis: Medical Herbal Encyclopedia
The Complete Book On Herbal Magick
The Herbs And Animals Of The Bible
The Road To Better Health
The Gnomes In Mythology
The Magic Of Having Great Sex
The Healing Powers Of Strawberries
The Backyard Terror: Squirrels
Changing The Way We Look At Wolves
Cooking With Eggs Cookbook
The Healing Powers Of Watermellons
The Healing Power Of Avocados



from the King James Version (KJV) unless
otherwise noted.

Gen 1:11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the
fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was
Gen 1:12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the
tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

Gen 1:29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon
the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to
you it shall be for meat.
Gen 1:30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing
that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat:
and it was so.

The History of Avocado

The Californian avocado is a native American plant with a long,

distinguished history. Today, the most popular variety of this fruit
is the Hass. The mother tree of all Hass avocados was born in a
backyard in La Habra Heights, California.

Avocado History

The avocado (Persea Americana) originated in south central

Mexico, sometime between 7,000 and 5,000 B.C. But it was
several millennia before this wild variety was actually cultivated.
Archaeologists in Peru have found domesticated avocado seeds
buried with Incan mummies dating back to 750 B.C. and there is
great evidence that avocados were cultivated in Mexico as early as
500 B.C.

From Aguacate to Avocado

The Spanish conquistadores loved the fruit but couldnt pronounce

it and changed the Aztec word to a more manageable aguacate,
which eventually became avocado in English. The first English-
language mention of avocado was by Sir Henry Sloan.

Californias Cash Crop

Fast forward to 1871, when Judge R. B. Ord of Santa Barbara
successfully introduced avocado to the United States with trees
from Mexico. By the early 1900s, growers were seeing the
avocados commission and ever since growers, enthusiasts and
researchers have been hunting for improved varieties through the
industrys foremost annals, in particular the California Avocado
Society Yearbook that many new selections of avocado were made
in the industrys infancy and over subsequent few had
commercially significance. By the 1950s around 25 different
varieties of avocados were commercially packed and shipped in
California, with Fuerte accounting for more than two-thirds of
the production. Even though Hass was discovered in the early
1930s and patented by Rudolph Hass in 1935, it was not until
large-scale industry expansion occurred in the late 1970s that
Hass and Fuerte was the leading California variety.

Today, California is the leading producer of domestic avocados

and home to about 90% of the crop. Most California avocados are
harvested on 60,000 acres between San Luis Obispo and the
Mexican border, by about 6,800 growers. San Diego County,
which produces 60% of all California avocados, is the
acknowledged avocado capital of the nation.

California avocados are grown all year round. A single California

avocado tree can produce unlimited pounds of fresh fruit each
year, approximately 500 pieces, although most average around 150
pieces of fruit.

HASS Avocado Mother Tree

1926 to 2002

Not so long ago in 2002, the tree to which every Hass avocado in
the world can trace its lineage was finally up rooted due to rot at
the ripe old age of 76. Her offspring account for 95% of the
avocado that is grown in California the fruit of her labor resulted
in one of the states most important industries. Yet, despite
contrary, nobody knows what variety of seed production the
original Hass Mother Tree was actually from.

The tree began life as lucky-find; a simple seed planted by A. R.

Rideout of Whittier. Rideout was pioneer in avocados, who was
always searching for new varieties and tended to plant what new
ones he could find, often along streets or in neighbors yards.

In the late 1920s, Mr. Rudolph Hass, a postman, purchased the

seedling tree from Rideout in his new orchard. He planned to graft
another variety on it, but when repeated grafts didnt take he
planned to cut the tree down. Fortunately for avocado lovers
everywhere, Hasss children kept it. They preferred the taste of the
trees fruit to that of the Fuerte, predominant variety that was
standard in those days.

Since the quality was high and the tree gave a good yield, Hass
named the variety after himself and took a patent on it in 1935.
That same year, he signed an agreement with Harold Brokaw, a
Whittier nurseyman, to grow and promote the Hass avocados.
They would split the gross income: 25% and 75% for Brokaw.

Brokaw began to propagate the rough, black Hass exclusively and
promote it in favor of the other varieties of the day. It made sense.
The Hass was a far better bearer than the Fuerte and in different
time of the year. Because of the seasonal advantage, Brokaw was
successful to the part sellouts of his nursery crop.

The patent expired in 1952, the same year Rudolph Hass died. But
by then, the bumpy black that bore his name was rapidly gaining
in popularity on the smooth green Fuerte. Consumed a richer,
nuttier taste, while grocers favored it for its durability and long
shelf life. Today, that accounts for about 80% of all avocados
eaten worldwide and generates more dollars in revenues in the
United States alone.

The tree that launched an avocado revolution lived out her days in
suburban La Habra Heights. Brokaws nephew Hank nursed her
through more than a decade, trying to save her from rot. Hank lost
the fight in 2002, and the trees wood is currently in storage in a
Ventura nursery and decision on a fitting commemoration of the
original Hass Mother Tree.

If you use avocados, do not throw out the seed! You can grow a
beautiful houseplant or even your own tree following these simple
steps below.


1. Wash the seed. Using three toothpicks, suspend it broad end

down over a water-filled glass to cover about an inch of the
2. Put it in a warm place out of direct sunlight and replenish water
as needed. You should see roots and stem sprout in about two

(2) to two (6) weeks.
3. When the stem is six (6) or seven (7) inches long cut it back to
about three (3) inches.
4. When the roots are thick and the stem has leafed out again,
plant it in a rich humus soil in a 10 diameter pot, leaving the
seed half exposed.
5. Give it frequent, light watering with an occasional deep soak.
Generally, the soil should be but not saturated. Yellowing
leaves are a sign of over-watering; let the plant dry out a couple
of days.
6. The more sunlight, the better it grows.
7. If the leaves turn brown and fry at the tips, too much salt has
accumulated in the soil. Let the pot drain freely for several
8. When the stem is 12 inches high, cut it back to 6 inches to
encourage the growth.
9. Dont expect your house plant to bear fruit. Although this does
occur occasionally, in required grafting. A plant grown from
seed will take anywhere from five (5) to thirteen (13) years to
bear fruit. Fruit on trees grown from seed are seldom good to

Avocados In The Home Garden

The California avocado trees are one of the most popular tropical
fruit trees used in landscaping about 10 to 11. They like soil ph of
6 to 6.5. It is a shallow rooted tree that needs good aeration, when
mulched with coarse material such as redwood bark or other
woody mulch about 2. Use about 1/3 cubic yard per tree, but keep
it about 6 to 8 inches away from the trunk of the tree. Plant lawn
area with full sun, protect from wind and frost. The ideal time to
plant is March through to April. During summer there is risk of
sun damage since young trees can not take water very well.

The hole should be as deep as the root ball and just a bit wider.
Gently place the root ball in the hole taking care not to disturb the
delicate root system. If the ball is root-bound, carefully loosen
around the edge and clip away any roots that are going in circles.
Back fill the hole with soil and gravel or with potting mixture.

The major nutrients needed by avocado trees are: Nitrogen,

Phosphorus, and Potassium (N) fertilizer and Zinc. Feed young
trees 1/3 to pounds of actual nitrogen per tree per year, and
several applications if you like.

When watering, it is best to soak the soil well, then allow it to dry
out somewhat before watering and planting. The tree can hold
about 2 gallons of water. Depending on the weather, you tree
needs 2 gallons of water a day along the coast. Typically, trees
need to be watered two to three times and mature trees will take
about 20 gallons of water a day.


California Hass Avocados

What makes these California Hass avocados so luscious and

creamy? Ideal growing conditions. Southern California Hass
avocados groves and blessed with good soil, proper drainage,
abundant sunshine and cool ocean breezes, everything and
avocado needs to grow up creamy rich and velvety. And, since
these conditions prevail year-round, theres always an abundant
supply of California Hass Avocados.

Hass Avocados Let You Know When They Are Ripe

The great think that I find about a California Hass avocado is that
its pebbly skin turns from a green to yellow when it is ripe. Look
for fruit that is average to large, oval-shaped and heavy. Then slice
into natures perfect food and enjoy the silky smooth texture and
rich nutty flavor.

Fresh California Avocado Varieties

Although there are close to 500 varieties of avocados, seven

varieties are grown commercially. California, and the Hass variety
accounts for the approximately 95% of the total crop.

Organic California Avocados

Many of the varieties listed below are available as certified organic


A mid-winter green variety

A green-skinned variety of good quality, the Bacon is sized fruit

available late fall into spring.


Oval-shaped fruit
Medium to large seed
Easy peeling
Light taste


Medium, ranging from 6 to 12 ounces


Smooth thin green skin
Yellow-green flesh

Ripe Characteristics:

Skin remains green, darkens slightly

Fruit yields to gentle pressure when ripe


An established favorite

Harvested late fall through spring, the Fuerte is the average quality
California avocado.


Medium seed
Peels easily
Great taste


Medium to large fruit, ranging from 5 to 14 ounces.


Smooth thin green skin

Creamy, pale green flesh

Ripe Characteristics:

Skin remains green

Fruit yields a gentle pressure when ripe


The Hass-like green variety

Gwen is similar in appearance, taste and texture to Hass slightly



Plump oval fruit

Small to medium seed

Easy peeling
Great taste


Medium to large, ranging from 6 to 15 ounces.


Pebbly, thick but pliable green skin.

Creamy, gold-green flesh

Ripe Characteristics:

Green skin turns dull

Fruit yields to gentle pressure when ripe.


The year-round avocado

Distinctive for its skin that turns from green to purplish when ripe,
the Hass is the leading variety of California avocados that has an

excellent shelf life.


Oval-shaped fruit
Small to medium seed
Easy pealing
Great taste


Full range from average to large, 5 to 12 ounces.


Pebbly, thick but pliable skin

Pale green flesh with creamy texture

Ripe Characteristics:

Skin darkens as it ripens

Fruit yields to gentle pressure when ripe


The California summer sun variety

Exceptional flavor and a large robust size are the Hass new
avocado variety.


Pebbly skin with pale green flesh

Smooth, creamy, nutty taste
Large in size
Symmetrical in shape; displays exceptionally


Ranges in size from 11.75 ounces to 18.75 ounces.

32 = 11.75 ounces to 14.00 ounces
28 = 13.75 ounces to 15.75 ounces
24 = 15.75 ounces to 18.75 ounces


Looks and ripens like a Hass avocado

Oval shaped
Medium-size seed

Ripe Characteristics:

Skin darkens as it ripens

Yields to gentle pressure when ripe


Late June through October


A premium winter variety

Pinkerton avocados have small seeds, yields more fruit and are
available in a full range of sizes early winter through.


Long, pear-shaped fruit

Small seeds
Excellent peeling characteristics

Great taste


Large fruit, ranging from 8 to 18 ounces


Medium thick green skin slight pebbling

Creamy, pale green flesh

Ripe Characteristics:

Green skin deepens in color as it ripens

Fruit yields to gentle pressure when ripe


The summertime variety

A large, round fruit available in the summer months.


Round fruit
Medium seeds
Easy peeling
Good taste


Medium to large, ranging from 8 to 18 ounces.


Thick green skin with slight pebbling

Creamy flesh

Ripe Characteristics:

Skin remains green

Fruit yields to gentle pressure when ripe


A season opener

Easily recognized by its shiny, yellow-green skin, the first variety

harvested when the season begins, in September and is available
through early winter.


Pear-shaped fruit
Moderately easy to peel
Light taste


Average to large fruit, ranging from 6 to 14 ounces.


Shiny, thin yellow-green skin

Pale green flesh with light texture

Ripe Characteristics:

Skin retains color when ripe

Fruit yields to gentle pressure when ripe


Selecting Fresh Fruit

When selecting an avocado, look for the fresh California

Avocado Brand, your assurance that the fruit was grown under
the best conditions possible.
The best way to tell if a California avocado is ready for
immediate use is to gently squeeze the fruit in the palm of your
hand. Ripe, ready-to-eat fruit will be firm yet will yield to
gentle pressure.
Color alone may not tell the whole story. The Hass avocado will
turn dark green or black as it ripens, but other varieties retain
their light-green skin even when they are fully ripe.
If you plan to serve the fruit in a few days, stock up on hard, un-
ripened fruit.
Avoid fruit with dark blemishes on the skin or soft fruit.

Ripening a California Avocado

To ripen a California avocado, place the fruit in a plain brown

paper bag and store in a temperature at 65-75 degrees until
ready to eat (usually two (2) to five (5) days).
Including an apple or banana in a bag accelerates the process
because these fruits give off ethylene gas, which is a ripening
Soft ripe fruit can be refrigerated until it is eaten, but not for
more than two (2) to three (3) days.
The California Avocado Commission does not recommend
using a microwave to arouse the ripening process. Note: DO
not use the microwave whatsoever.

Handling California Avocados

As with any food preparation, begin with washing your hands in

hot, soapy water and dry them with a paper towel. To avoid cross-
contamination from raw meat, poultry or eggs, always disinfect
surfaces and all utensils. Thoroughly was the fruit before you slice

Peeling the Avocado

1. Start with a ripe avocado and cut it lengthwise around the seed.
Rotate the halves.
2. Remove the seed by sliding the tip of a spoon gently underneath
and lifting it out. The common seed-extraction method is
sticking the seed with a knife and twisting, required and is not

3. Peel the fruit by placing the cut side down and removing the
skin with a knife or your starting at the small end. Or simply
scoop out the avocado meat with a spoon. Be sure all cut
surfaces with lemon or lime juice or white vinegar to prevent

Storing or Freezing Avocados

Ripe fruit can be stored in the refrigerator uncut for two (2) to
three (3) days. To store cut fruit, splice a lemon or lime juice or
white vinegar and place in an air-tight container in your
refrigerator. The guacamole turns brown during storage, discard
the top layer.

When you have an abundance of fresh avocados, consider freezing

them, Pureed avocados well and can be used in salads, sandwiches
and also in dips.

Wash, seed and peel the fruit as described above.

Puree the flesh, adding one tablespoon of lemon juice to two
pureed avocados and puree into an air-tight container, leaving 1
inch of headspace.
Freeze and use within four (4) to five (5) months.


Growing the Avocados

Thanks to coastal Californias micro-climate, California avocados

are available all year round. Avocados are harvested from
November 1st through to October 31 st, on 60,000 acres in southern
and central California, like I mentioned before, between San Luis
Obispo and the Mexican border. These California avocados rank
among the lowest of all fruits and vegetables for pesticide use.

Picking the Avocados

All the avocados are harvested by hand with the help of special
shears called clippers. Using ladders up to 30 feet high and poles
up to 14 feet long to reach the fruit, pickers place the harvested
fruit in large nylon bags fastened around their shoulders. Each bag
holds about 50 pounds of fruit.

The harvested avocados are carefully placed in large picking bins

that hold between 600 to 1000 fruit each.

Packing the Avocados

The picking bins are transferred by forklift, tractor or trailer from

the grove to the main road for boom trucks to pick up the fruit,
hauling several bins at a time to the packing house.

At the packing house, avocados are immediately put into cold

storage for about 24 hours to reduce field heat and to preserve their
quality. Then the pre-cooled fruit is ready for packing.

Each bin of avocado is carefully placed on a conveyor belt, which

gently tips over the bins, the fruit to roll onto a grading belt, where
graders hand check and sort the avocados by size.

Once the fruit is sorted, the avocados are brushed and washed as
they roll into packing tubs where they are placed into single layer
or double layer cartons which are called Lugs. The lug size
indicates the number avocados it holds.

Before the lugs are sealed, the avocados are checked one more
time for quality. The sealed, organized by size and stacked onto
pallets containing 60 lugs each.

Shipping of Avocados

Avocados are shipped from the packing house in refrigerated

trucks. If they are being sent they are placed in special containers
and shipped by train, air freight or by boat. Once these strict
quality and freshness procedures are complete, the avocados are
available at your supermarkets around the country.

AVOCADO Persea Species

Persea Species

Common Name: Avocado, Alligator Pear (English);
Aguacate, Palta (Spanish)

Origin: The avocado probably originated in southern Mexico but

was cultivated from the Rio Grande to central Peru before the
arrival of Europeans.

Species: Guatemalan (Persea nubigena var. guatamalensis L.

Wms.), Mexican (P. americana var. drymifolia Blake), West
Indian (P. americana Mill. Var. americana). Hybrid forms exist
between all three types of fruit.

Related Species: Coyo (Persea schiedeana Nees), Anay

(Beilschmiedia anay Kosterm).

Adaptation: Avocados do well in the mild-winter areas of
California, Florida and Hawaii. Some hardier varieties can be
grown in the cooler parts of northern and inland California and
along the Gulf Coast. The northern limits in California is
approximately Cape Mendocino and Red Bluff. Avocados do best
some distance from ocean influence but are not adapted to the
desert interior. West Indian varieties thrive in humid, tropical
climates and freeze at or near 32 degrees F. Guatemalan varieties
are native to cool, high-altitude tropics and are hardy 30 - 26
degrees F. Mexican varieties are native to dry subtropical plateaus
and thrive in a Mediterranean climate. They are hardy 24 - 19
degrees F. Avocados need some protection from high winds which
may break the branches. There are also dwarf forms of avocados
suitable for growing in containers. Avocados have been grown in
California (Santa Barbara) area since 1871.


Growth Habit: The avocado is a dense, evergreen tree, shedding

many leaves in early spring. It is fast growing and can with age
reach 80 feet, although usually less, and generally branches to
form a broad tree. Some cultivars are columnar, others selected for
nearly prostrate form. One cultivar makes a good espalier. Growth
is in frequent flushes during warm weather in the southern regions
with only the long flush per year in cooler areas. Injury to
branches causes a secretion of dulcitol, which is a white, powdery
sugar, at scars. Roots are coarse and greedy and will raise
pavements with age. Grafted plants normally produce fruit within
one (1) or two (2) years compared to 8 to 20 years for seedlings.

Foliage: Avocado leaves are alternate, glossy, elliptic and dark

green with paler veins. They normally remain on the tree for 2 to 3
years. The leaves of the West Indian variety are scentless, while
Guatemalan types are rarely anise-scented and have medicinal use.
The leaves of the Mexican types have a pronounced anise scent
when they are crushed. The leaves are high in oils and slow to
compose and may collect in moulds beneath trees.

Flowers: Avocados flowers appear in January to March before the

first seasonal growth, in terminal panicles of 200 to 300 small
yellow-green blooms. Each panicle will produce only one to three
fruits. The flowers are perfect, but are either receptive to pollen in
the morning and shed pollen the following afternoon (Type A), or
are receptive to pollen in the afternoon, and shed pollen the

following morning (type B). The smell of the flowers attract bees
and hoverflies and pollination usually good except during cool
weather. Off-season blooms may appear during the year and often
set fruit. Some cultivars bloom and set fruit in alternate years.

Fruits: West Indian type avocado produce enormous, smooth

round, glossy green fruit that are low in oil and weight up to 2
pounds. Guatemalan types produce medium ovoid or pear-shaped,
pebbly green fruits that turn blackish-green when they are ripe.
The Mexican varieties are small (6 to 10 ounces) with paper-thin
skins that turn glossy green or black when ripe. The flesh of the
avocados is deep green near the skin, becoming yellowish nearer
the single large, inedible ovoid seed. The flesh is hard when
harvested but softens to a buttery texture. Wind-caused abrasion
can scar the skin, forming cracks which extend into the flesh.
Cukes are seedless, pickle-shaped fruits. Off-season fruit should
not be harvested with the main crop, but should be left on the tree
to mature. Seeds may sprout within an avocado when it is over-
mature, causing internal molds and breakdown. High in
monosaturates, the oil content of the avocado is second only to
olives among fruits, and sometimes greater. Clinical feeding
studies in humans have shown that avocado oil can reduce blood

Location: Avocados will grow in shade and between buildings,
but are productive only in full sun. The roots are highly
competitive and will choke out nearby plants. The shade under the
trees is to dense to garden under, and the constant litter can be
annoying. In cooler areas plant the tree where it will receive sun
during the winter. Give the three plenty of room, up to 20 feet. The
avocado is not suitable for hedgegrow, but two (2) or three (3)
trees can be planted in a single large hole to save garden space and
enhance pollination. At the beach or in windy island canyons,
provide a windbreak of some sort. Once established the avocado is
a fairly though tree. Indoor trees need low night temperatures to
induce bloom. Container plants should be moved outdoors with
care. Whitewashing a trunk or branches will prevent sunburn.

Soil: I have covered some of this earlier, but avocado trees like
loose, decomposed granite or sandy loam best. They will not
survive in locations with poor drainage. The trees grow well on
hillsides and should never be planted in stream beds. They are
tolerant of acid or alkaline soil. In containers use a planting mix
combined with topsoil. Plastic containers should be avoided. It is
also useful to plant the tub with annual flowers to reduce excess
soil moisture and temperature. Container plants should be leached
often to reduce salts.

Irrigation: Avocado trees may not need irrigation during the

winter rainy season, but watch for pro-longed mid-winter dry
spells. Over irrigation can induce root which is the most common
cause of avocado failure. To test to see if irrigation is necessary,

dig a hole 9 inches deep and test the soil by squeezing. If it is
moist (holds together), do not irrigate; if it crumbles in the hand, it
may be watered. Watch soil moisture carefully at the end of the
irrigation season. Never enter winter with wet soil. Avocados
tolerate some salts, though they will show leaf tip burn and
stunting of leaves. Deep irrigation will leach salt accumulation.

Fertilization: I have covered this earlier in the book somewhat.

Commence feeding of young trees after one year of growth, using
a balanced fertilizer, four times yearly. Older trees benefit from
feeding with nitrogenous fertilizer applied in late winter and early
summer. Yellowed leaves (chlorosis) indicate iron deficiency. This
can usually be corrected by a chelate foliar spray of trace elements
containing iron. Mature trees often show a zinc deficiency.

Frost Protection: It is important to choose a cultivar that is hardy

in your area. Mexican types are the best choice for cooler regions.
Plant above a slope for air drainage, or near the house for added
protection. In youth, protect with rugs, towels and such spread
overhead on a frame. For further protection heat with light bulbs
and wrap the trunk with sponge foam. These measures also permit
tender cultivars to become established in borderline locations;
established trees are much hardier than the young ones. The upper
branches can also be top worked with hardy Mexican types, which
will protect a more tender cultivar on lower branches, as well as
serving as a pollinator. Harvest fruit before the frost season begins.
Cold-damaged fruit will turn black. Avocados are often in bloom
at the time of frost and the flowers are killed, but the tree tends to
rebloom. This is especially true of Mexican types.

Pruning: Columnar cultivars require pinching at early age to form

a rounded tree. Others need no training. Current orchard practice

avoids staking. The best results that I find are obtained by fencing
the tree with plastic mesh for the first two (2) to three (3) years.
Container and dwarf trees will need constant staking. The skirts of
avocado trees are sometimes trimmed to discourage rodents,
otherwise the trees are usually never pruned. Branches exposed to
sun by defoliation are extraordinarily susceptible to sunburn and
will surely die. Such branches should always be whitewashed. It is
better to avoid any pruning. Most cultivars are ill-adapted to
espalier. They are to vigorous. Avocado fruit is self-thinning.

Propagation: Desired clonal rootstocks can be propagated by a

method known as The Etiolation Technique. The largest seed are
planted in gallon cans an the seedlings are then grafted to a root rot
tolerant clonal scion. When the stem of the graft reaches about
inch in diameter, the top is cut off leaving a whorl of buds just
above the graft. A 4 inch band of black tar paper is formed into a
extension of the can and filled with vermiculite and placed in a
dark box with high temperature and humidity.

When growth is some 3 to 4 inches above the vermiculite, the

plant is removed into the light where the upper portion quickly
assumes a green color. The tar paper collar is removed, the shoot is
severed from the seed and then placed in flats where the cuttings
are rooted in the conventional manner. Any seed may also be used
for rootstock, but Mexican varieties make the strongest growth and
are the most often used. Plant cleaned seeds as soon as they are
ripe. The seedling plants are ready to bud the following year.
Budding is done in January, when suitable buds are available.
Larger stocks are worked by bark grafts in the spring. Scions are
collected December to January after the buds are well-formed.
Paint and cover the graft with a moistened plastic bag and place a
vented paper bag over the whole.

Pest And Diseases: Rats and Squirrels will strip the fruit. Protect
with tin trunk wraps. Leaf-rolling caterpillars (Tortrix and
Amorbia) may destroy branches terminals. Avocado Brown Mite
can be controlled by powdered sulfur. Six-spotted Mite is very
harmful; even a small population can cause massive leaf shedding.
A miticide may be required if natural predators are absent. Snails
can be a problem in California.

Two fungi and one virus cause more damage than any pests.
Dothiorella (Botryosphaeria ribis) canker infects the trunk,
causing dead patches that spreads to maturing fruit, causing
darkened, rancid smelling spots in the flesh. Flesh injury begins
after harvest and is impossible to detect on the outside. Mexican
types are immune to trunk cankers but the fruit is not. Keep that in
mind. The disease is rampant near the coast and has no economical
control. Root Rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi) is a soil-borne
fungus that infects many plants, including avocados. It is a major
disease problem in California. Select disease-free, certified plants
and avoid planting where avocados once grew or where soil
drainage is poor. The disease is easily transported by equipment,
tools and shoes from the infected soils. Once a tree is infected
(signs include yellowing and dropping leaves), there is little that
can be done other than cut back on water. Sun Blotch is a viral
disease that causes yellowed streaking on young stems, motting
and crinkling on new leaves and occasional deformation of the
fruit. It also causes rectangular cracking and checking of the trunk,
as if sunburned. It has no insect vector but it spread by use of
infected scions, contaminated tools and roots grafted with adjacent
trees. It is important to use virus-free propagating wood.

Harvest: The time of harvest depends upon the variety of

avocados. Commercial standards require fruit to reach 8% oil
content before harvesting. Mexican types ripen in 6 to 8 months
from the time of bloom while the Guatemalan types usually take

12 to 18 months. Fruit may continue enlarging on the tree often
after maturity. Purple cultivars should be permitted to color fully
before harvest. Guatemalan types can be stored firm, at 40 to 50
degrees F. for up to six weeks. Mexican types discolor quickly and
require immediate consumption.

Miscellaneous: Leaf and seed extracts have been used for a

variety of medical applications, including treatment of diarrhea
and dysentery and as an antibiotic.


Origin Otto Keup, Anaheim, 1910. Guatemalan. Tree columnar,

productive. Fruit very large, to 24 ounces, elongated glossy green,
seed small, oil 15%. Tenderness of cvs. For coast only. To 32
degrees F. Season July.


Origin James Bacon, Buena Park, 1954. Hybrid. Tree broad,

productive. Fruit small to medium, to 12 ounces, round-ovoid,
smooth green. Flesh only fair, almost colorless, seed cavity molds
rapidly. Hardy for Bay Area, Central Valley. To 25 degrees F.
Season December.


Origin Orton Englehart, Escondido, 1969. Hybrid. Seedling of

Reed. Tree open, upright, branching. Fruit medium, to 14 ounces,
skin green flesh extraordinarily pale, buttery, nearly fiberless. Not
alternate bearing. To 30 degrees F. Season April to July.


Origin Bangor (Oroville), 1912. Tree vigorous, open, resists wind.

Fruit small, 12 ounce, elongated pyriform, waxy green, skin paper-
thin. Flesh excellent, oil 21%. Seeds commonly used for
rootstocks, resists root rot, Extraordinarily hardy, recovers quickly

from freeze, to 22 degrees F. Season October.


Origin Atlixco, Mexico, introduced by Carl Schmidt, 1911.

Hybrid. Tree open, spreading, tall. Fruit large to very large, 16
ounces, elongated pyriform, skin dark green with numerous small
raised pale spots, waxy bloom, skin thin. Flesh good, oil 18%, seed
medium. Formerly standard cv. Of California industry. Tends to
bear in alternate years, unproductive near coast or in north. To 26
degrees F. Season December.


Origin Albert Rideout, Whittier, 1905. Mexican. Tree tall,

spreading, open. Fruit small, to 8 once, long pyriform, skin paper-
thin, pale waxy green. Flesh good, oil 18%. Oldest avocado cv. In
California. Quite hardy, for Central Valley floor and far north. To
23 degrees F. Season October.


Origin Riverside, Robert Whitsell, 1982, patented. Seedling of

Hass. Tree dwarf, to 14 feet, low vigor. Fruit small, to 8 ounce, a
Hass look alike, elongated green, flesh good. Most productive of
dwarf avocados, best dwarf for outdoor use, also for containers,
greenhouse. Not hardy, to 30 degrees F. Season February to


Origin Rudolph Hass, La Habra Heights, 1926. Seedling of Lyon.
Guatemalan. Tree rather open, not tall. Fruit medium, to 12
ounces, pyriform, skin thick, pebbled, coppery purple. Flesh good,
oil 19%, seed fairly small. Currently the standard of the industry.
To 26 degrees F. Season July.


Origin John Reinecke, San Diego, 1939. Hybrid. Tree upright.

Fruit small to medium, to 10 ounces, olive green, with long neck,
oil 12%, to 26 degrees F. Season June.


Origin George Cellon, Miami Florida, 1919. West Indian. Tree

dense, broad, profilic. Fruit round, slightly pyriform, to 20 ounces,
slightly rough glossy green, oil 12%. Only West Indian types
recommended for California, rather hardy, to 28 degrees F. Season


Origin R. Lyon, Hollywood, California, 1908. Central American.

Tree columnar, slow growing, difficult to propagate, often scion
incompatible. Fruit commonly over 24 ounces, dark glossy green,
rough, pyriform, oil 21%. High quality. Tender, to 30 degrees F.
Season April.


Origin Coolidge, Pasadena, 1910. Mexican. Tree tall and

spreading, vigorous. Fruit small, 5 ounces, round pyriform, skin
paper-thin, purplish black, waxy bloom. Flesh highest quality, seed
very large. Harvest cv. Known, seedling useful as rootstocks in far
north. Recovers rapidly from freeze. Defoliated at 20 degrees F.,
trunk killed at 17 degrees F. Season September.


Seedling selected of Mexicola. Mexican. Tree tall and spreading

similar to Mexicola. Fruit 15% to 25% larger than Mexicola and
somewhat rounder in shape with better seed/flesh ratio. Skin
paper-thin, purple-black. High quality flesh with high oil content.
Hardy to about 18 degrees F.


Origin Colima, Mexico, was introduced by Juan Murrieta, 1910.

Hybrid. Tree slow growing, easily trained. Fruit large, to 18
ounces, oblate, green, resembling Fuerte. Flesh exceptional, oil
18%. Only cv. Readily adaptable to espalier. For coast and
intermediate. To 27 degrees F. Season September.


Original Antigua, Guatemala, introduced by F. W. Popenoe, 1917.

Tree dense, columnar. Fruit handsome, large pyriform, to 17
ounces, green, skin resembles Fuerte. Flesh exceptionally high
quality, oil 16%. Young trees require pinching to force low
branching. Tends to bear alternate years. To 27 degrees F. Season


Origin John D. Pinkerton, Saticoy, 1972, patented. Guatemalan.

Tree dense, productive. Fruit variable in size, 7 to 12 ounces, skin
thick, pebbled, green. To 30 degrees F. Season November.


Origin Antigua, Guatemala was introduced by E. E. Knight, 1914.

Guatemalan. Tree broad. Fruit exceptionally large, to 24 ounces,
elongated, purple, flesh excellent, oil 13%. Fairly hardy for large
cv., worthy trying in Bay Area. To 26 degrees F. Season August.


Origin Atlixco, Mexico, was introduced by Carl Schmidt, 1911.

Mexican. Tree broad, high branching. Fruit beautiful, medium to
large, to 18 ounces, ovoid, skin thin, lacquered maroon purple.
Flesh excellent, oil 20%. Least hardy Mexican type, to 29 degrees
F. Season December.


Origin James S. Reed, Carlsbad, 1948. Hybrid. Tree columnar.

Fruit large, to 15 ounces, round skin thick, pebbled, green. Flesh
good. To 30 degrees F. Season August.


Origin Carlsbad, Sam Thompson, 1944. Hybrid. Tree small. Fruit

small to medium, 10 ounces, green resembles Fuerte. Flesh good.
For coast, Santa Barbara and Ventura. To 27 degrees F. Season


Origin Albert Rideout, Whittier, 1927. Hybrid. Tree low,

spreading. Fruit medium, 14 ounces, elongated, otherwise
resembling Hass, skin thick, pebbled, purple. Flesh good, oil 25%.
For Island Empire, Bay Area. To 26 degrees F. Season August.


Origin E. Bradbury, Bradbury, 1911. Hybrid. Tree spreading. Fruit

medium, to 15 ounces, round with small neck, tangelo shaped.
Lacquered, coppery purple, outstanding flavor, oil 16%. To 27
degrees F. Season April.


Origin E.S. Thatcher, Ojai, 1912. Mexican. Tree columnar,

vigorous. Fruit handsome, elongated, pyriform, small to medium,
8 ounces, smooth dark purple with white waxy bloom. Skin paper-
thin. Flesh rather poor, oil 15%, seed elongated. Seedlings
commonly used for rootstocks. Hardy, for far north. To 23 degrees


Origin Robert Whitsell, Riverside, 1982, patented. Hybrid. Hass

seedling. Tree dwarf, to 12 feet, low vigor. Fruit small, 6 ounces,

elongated Hass look alike. Flesh good. Bears in alternate years.
For containers and greenhouses only, not hardy. To 30 degrees F.
Season February to October.

WURTZ (syn. Littleecado)

Origin Roy Wurtz, Encinitas, 1935. Hybrid. Tree prostrate,

difficult to train, low vigor. Fruit dark green, medium, to 10
ounces. For containers and greenhouses. To 26 degrees F. Season


Origin R. L. Ruitt, Fallbrook, 1926. Hybrid. Tree columnar. Fruit

small to medium, to 10 ounces, elongated smooth green, resembles
Fuerte but is inferior, has fibers. Hardy for Bar Area, and for
Central Valley. To 25 degrees F. Season November.


A question was put to Dr. Schwartz of what he thought about

Avocados. His reply was.

DR. SCHWARTZ: Do you have a love-hate relationship with

avocados? Then its time to toss any bad feelings aside, because a
little avocado in your life could help you grow younger.

The avocado is rich in monounsaturated fats, which raises HDL

(healthy) cholesterol levels and help slow arterial aging. Also, new
research indicates that the avocado contains an antioxidant,
gluthathione, which may help fight cardiovascular disease and also


The pleasing taste and creamy texture of avocados is innately

appealing. Beyond satisfying flavor, avocados provide important
nutrients and phytochemicals necessary during the early
developmental years of life and beyond.

Nutrient-dense avocados are an ideal food to introduce when

babies are old enough to eat table food. Soft in texture and
digestible, avocados come with their own natural packaging,)
which makes them convenient for meals.

In the later years of life, avocados promote successful aging by

providing nutrients that have been linked to disease prevention,
including folare, beta-sitosterol, lurein and monounsaturated fat.
Avocados also can help maintain a healthy weight as a delicious,
satisfying alternative to unhealthy sandwich spreads and salad

dressings laden with harmful cholesterol and other saturated fats.


Compared to other fruits, ounce-per-ounce, California avocados

rank highest in the following key nutrients that can promote
optimum growth and help protect against a variety of diseases:

Folate - Lowers homocysteine levels in the blood stream, which

may prevent heart disease, stroke, and Alzheimers disease;
reducing the risk of birth defects like spina difida and promotes
healthy cells and tissue development.
Vitamin E - Helps slow the aging process and protects against
heart disease and various other forms of cancers.
Monounsaturated Fat - Helps lover LDL (bad) cholesterol and
boosts HDL (good) cholesterol. Avocados are one of the only
fruits that provide babies with the good fat. Monounsaturated
fat is essential for cognitive and visual development.
Beta-Sitosterol - Helps inhibit the absorption of cholesterol and
promotes lower cholesterol levels.
Lutein - Protects against prostate cancer and eye disease such as
cataracts and macular degeneration.
Glutathione - Functions as an antioxidant like vitamin E to
neutralize free radicals that can cause cell damage and lead to

These are only some of the benefits of this fruit. Research is still
being conducted all over the world. So far we have not even taped
into the surface of this great little fruit. Future tests and
investigations will give us a better and more complete look inside
this marvelous little fruit.

California Avocado Sweet Spread is a delicious substitute for
butter on your toast in the morning. Spread on whole grain toast or
English muffins or serve as an afternoon snack on crackers. It also
makes a great dip for strips of red bell peppers, jicama or celery

California Avocado Sweet Spread

1. 1/5 ripe California Avocado (1 ounce)

2. 2 teaspoons of orange marmalade
3. 1/8 teaspoon ground ginger
4. 1 slice whole wheat toast

In a medium bowl. Mash avocado with a fork. Stir in marmalade,

then ginger to taste. Spread on toast and serve.

Makes 1 serving

( Of Avocados)



Scientific Name: Persea americana

NDB No: 09037

Nutrients UI Val per 100g Sample Std.

Edible Count Error

Water g 74.27 58 0.817
Energy kcal 161 0
Energy kj 674 0
Protein g 1.98 58 0.042
Total lipid (Fat) g 15.32 54
Carbohydrates by
difference g 7.39 0
Fiber, total dietary g 5.0 0
Ash g 1.04 57 0.093
Calcium, Ca mg 11 6 1.610
Iron, Fe mg 1.02 54 0.122
Magnesium, Mg mg 39 54 3.062
Phosphorus, P mg 41 54 2.996
Potassium, K mg 599 30 57.306

Sodium, Na mg 10 30 1.146
Zinc, Zn mg 0.42 1
Copper, Cu mg 0.262 54 0.020
Manganese, Mn mg 0.226 54 0.038
Selenium, Se mcg 0.4 2
Vitamin C, total
ascorbic acid mg 7.9 6 1.528
Thiamin mg 0.108 6 0.005
Riboflavin mg 0.122 6 0.006
Niacin mg 1.921 6 0.081
Pantothenic acid mg 0.971 6 0.071
Vitamin B-6 mg 0.280 7
Folate, total mcg 62 12 10.333
Folic acid mcg 0 0
Folate, food mcg 62 12 10.33
Folare, DFE mcg-DFE 62 0
Vitamin B-12 mcg 0.00 0
Vitamin A, IU IU 612 6 70.839
Vitamin A, RE mcg-RE 61 6 7.084
Vitamin E mg-ATE 1.340 0
Fatty acids, total
saturated g 2.437 0
4:0 g 0.000 0
6:0 g 0.000 0
8:0 g 0.000 0
10:0 g 0.000 0
12:0 g 0.000 0
14:0 g 0.000 0
16:0 g 2.402 0
18:0 g 0.027 0
Fatty acids, total
monounsaturated g 9.608 0
16:1 undiff g 0.643 0

18:1 undiff g 8.965 0
20:1 g 0.000 0
22:1 undiff g 0.000 0
Fatty acids, total
polyunsaturated g 1.955 0
18:2 undiff g 1.840 0
18:3 undiff g 0.111 0
18:4 g 0.000 0
20:4 undiff g 0.004 0
20:5 n-3 g 0.000 0
22:6 n-3 g 0.000 0
Cholesterol mg 0 0
Amino acids
Tryptophan g 0.021 12
Threonine g 0.066 4
Isoleucine g 0.071 4
Leucine g 0.123 4
Lysine g 0.094 4
Methionine g 0.037 4
Cystine g 0.021 2
Phenylalanine g 0.068 4
Tyrosine g 0.049 4
Valine g 0.097 4
Arginine g 0.059 4
Histidine g 0.029 4
Alanine g 0.119 4
Aspartic acid g 0.283 4
Glutamic acid g 0.207 4
Glycine g 0.083 4
Proline g 0.077 4
Serine g 0.081 4

Note: undiff = undifferentiated

Think of avocados, and the first word that probably comes to mind
is guacamole. But an avocado is fruit with much more to offer.

Avocados are known for being high in unsaturated (or good) fat.
And an avocado contains vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, and beta
carotene, which forms vitamin A.

Avocados come in literally all shape and sizes, ranging from round
to pear-shaped. The skin can be thick or thin, green or black,
smooth or rough.

The rich, buttery taste of an avocado goes with everything from

salsas to soups and salads to steak. Avocados discolor rapidly once
cut, so add it to your dish at the last minute with a touch of lemon
or lime juice to prevent discoloration.

ALL YOUR COMMENTS are welcome. Please feel free
to write to me in regards to this Book or any other of my

The mailing address and e-mail address is listed below.