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VEHICLES OF THE AIR

A Popular Exposition of Modern Aeronautics

With Working Drawings

By

VICTOR LOUGHEED

Member of the Aeronautic Society, Founder Member of the Society of Auto- mobile Engineers, Secretary of the American Aeronautical Association,

Consulting Engineer of the Aero Club of Illinois, former

editor of Motor, and author of " Some Trends of Modern Automobile Design."

PUBLISHERS

THE REILLY AND BRITTON CO.

CHICAGO

JOHN S. PRELL

Civil & Mechanical

Engineer.

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

VEHICLES OF THE AIR

THIRD EDITION REVISED AND ENLARGED

Entered at Stationers' Hall

Copyright, 1909, by The Reilly and Brltton Co. Copyright, 1910, by The Reilly and Britton Co. Copyright, 1911, by The Reilly and Britton Co.

All Rights Reserved

PHOTOGRAPHS BY

M. Branger, E. Filiatre, M. Rol, and J. Theodoresco, of Paris. All illustrations

herein are fully protected by international copyright. Reproductions

positively will not be permitted without due credit, and

written authorization from the publishers.

a

"

GIFT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Scope and Prophecy

Skepticism is Ignorance

Three Traversable Media

Types of Air Craft

Aeroplane Most Successful

Speed and Eadius

Sizes of Aeroplanes

First and Operating Costs

The Moral Aspect The Physical Hazard

Dangers

Fear a

in All Travel

Habit of Mind

Commercial Applications Limitations Expected Relation to Warfare

An Imaginative Spectacle

Travel Over Water Conclusion

CHAPTER 1 THE ATMOSPHERE.

Introduction

EXTENT

PKOPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS

Weight

Composition Color and Transparence

AIR AT REST

Compressibility

Effect of Temperature

Liquefaction and Solidification

AIR IN MOTION

Inertia

Elasticity

Viscosity

METEOROLOGY

Temperature

Barometric Pressure

Humidity

Condensation of Moisture

Winds

Coastal Winds

Trade Winds

Cyclones, Whirlwinds, and Tornados Ascending Components

Wind Velocities

Atmospheric Electricity

7

M715816

21

23

24

24

26

27

28

28

29

29

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

43

43

45

45

46

49

48

49

49

50

50

51

52

53

53

54

56

56

57

57

59

60

61

62

62

64

FL

8

VEHICLES OF THE AIR

CHAPTER 2 LIGHTER-THAN-AIR MACHINES.

Introductory

65

NON-DIRIGIBLE BALLOONS

 

66

History

66

Spherical Types

75

DIRIGIBLE BALLOONS

76

History

80

Spherical Types

88

Elongated Types

.,

.

89

Pointed Ends

',',

89

Rounded Ends

90

Sectional Construction

90

The Effect of Size

90

Envelope Materials

91

Sheet Metal

92

Silk

93

Cotton

93

Linen

94

Miscellaneous Envelope Materials

 

94

Coating Materials

95

Inflation

96

Heated Air

97

Hydrogen

98

Illuminating Gases

101

Vacuum

101

Miscellaneous

102

Nettings

103

Car Construction

104

Rattans

105

Wood

106

Miscellaneous

106

Height Control

106

Non-Lifting Balloons

107

Escape Valves

107

Ballast

109

Compressed Gas

109

Drag Ropes

.

110

Open Necks

110

Internal Balloons

Ill

Moisture

112

Temperature

112

Steering

113

Lateral Steering

113

Vertical Steering

114

Balloon Housing

115

Sheds

115

Landing Pits

116

CHAPTER 3 HEAVIER-THAN-AIR MACHINES.

 

Introductory

117

ORNITHOPTERS

118

History

118

Two Chief Classes

124

Eecent Ornithopters

124

Analogies in Nature

124

HELICOPTERS

125

History

126

CONTENTS

9

Eecent Experiments

Lateral Progression

Analogy With Aeroplane

AEROPLANES AEEOPLANE HISTORY

Clement Ader

Louis Bleriot

Octave Chanute

Samuel Pierpont Langley Otto and Gustav Lihemhal

John J. Montgomery A. Penaud

Percy S. Pilcher

Alberto Santos-Dumont

F. E. Wenham

Wilbur and Orville Wright

Voisin Brothers

Miscellaneous

129

130

131

131

132

134

135

136

136

137

138

146

147

148

149

149

153

153

CHAPTER 4 AEROPLANE DETAILS.

Introductory

ANALOGIES IN NATURE

Flying Fish

Comparison of Flying Animals and Aeroplanes

Flying Lizards

Flying Squirrels

Flying Lemur

Flying Frog

Soaring Birds

Soaring Bats

The Pterodactyl

Flying Insects

MONOPLANES

MULTIPLANES

Biplanes

More Than Two Surfaces

FORMS OF SURFACES

Flat Sections

Curved Sections

Arcs of Circles

Parabolic Surfaces

Force and Motion

Momentum

Action and Reaction

Impact of Elastic Bodies

The Impact of Fluids Application Flattened Tips

Angles of Chords

Wing Outlines

Length

and Breadth

ARRANGEMENTS OF SURFACES

Advancing and Following Surfaces Superposed Surfaces Staggered Surfaces

Lateral Placings

Separated Wings

158

159

161

162

163

163

163

164

164

165

165

166

167

168

169

169

169

171

172

172

173

193

194

194

195

198

199

203

204

204

204

205

205

205

205

206

206

10

VEHICLES OF THE AIR

Lateral Curvature

207

Dihedral Angles

.

%

207

VERTICAL SUBFACES

209

SUSTENTION OF SUEFACES

210

Effect of Section

210

Effect of Angle

211

Ejfect of Speed

211

Effect of Outline

212

Effect of Adjacent Surfaces

212

Center of Pressure

213

Head Resistances

213

METHODS OF BALANCING

215

Lateral Balance

215

Vertical Surfaces

216

Dihedral Angles

216

Wing Warping

216

Tilting Wing Tips

217

Hinged Wing Tips

217

Variable Wing Areas

Kocking Wings

 

218

218

Shifting Weight

218

Swinging Wings or Wing Tips

219

Plural Wing Tips

220

Longitudinal Balance

220

By Front Eudders

220

By Bear Budders

220

Box Tails

220

Shifting Weights

 

221

Elevators as Carrying Surfaces

221

Automatic Equilibrium

221

Arrangement of Surfaces

222

Electric Derices

222

The Gyroscope

222

Compressed Air

223

The Pendulum

223

STEEBING

223

Effects of Balancing

223

Vertical Eudders

224

Pivoted Budders

224

Flexible Budders

224

Horizontal Eudders

225

Twisting Eudders

225

CONTEOLLING MEANS

226

Compound Movements

227

Plural Operators

227

Wheels

228

Levers

228

Pedals

229

Miscellaneous

229

Shoulder Forks.

229

Body Cradles

229

FRAMING

230

CHAPTER 5 PROPULSION.

Introductory

231

MISCELLANEOUS PBOPELLING DEVICES

231

Feathering Paddles

Wave Surfaces

233

CONTENTS

11

'Reciprocating Wings and Oars

SCREW PROPELLERS

Some Comparisons

Essential Characteristics Effective Surface

Angles of Blades

Slip

forms of Surfaces

Plane Sections .

Parabolic Sections

,

Blade Outlines

Multibladed Propellers

Two-Bladed Propellers

Propeller Diameters

Arrangements of Blades

Right-Angled Propeller Blades Dihedrally-Aranged Propeller Blades

Propeller Efficiencies

The Effects of Form

The Effects of Rotational Speed The Effects of Vehicle Speed

The Effects of Skin Friction

Propeller Placings

Single Propellers

Plural Propellers

Location of Propeller Thrust

Propeller Materials

Wood

Steel

Aluminum Alloys

Framing and Fabric

Propeller Hubs

A TYPICAL PROPELLER

CHAPTER 6 POWER PLANTS.

Introductory

GASOLINE ENGINES

Multicylinder Designs

Clylinder Arrangements

Vertical Cylinders

V-Shaped Engines

Opposed Cylinders

Rerolving Cylinders

Miscellaneous Arrangements

Ignition

Make-and Break Ignition Jump-Spark Ignition Hot-Tube Ignition

Ignition by Heat of Compression

Catalytic Ignition

Cooling

Water Cooling

Air Cooling

 

234

236

237

238

241

242

244

244

245

245

246

248

249

250

252

252

253

253

,

 

255

255

256

257

258

259

259

264

264

265

268

268

269

269

270

273

277

277

279

279

280

281

282

284

284

284

285

287

287

288

288

289

290

Carburetion

291

Carburetors

291

Fuel Pumps

294

12

VEHICLES OF TEE AIR

Muffling

296

Auxiliary Exhausts

297

Flywheels

.

297

STEAM ENGINES

299

Available Types

301

Boilers

301

Burners

303

Fuels

303

Comparison of Fuels

304

ELECTRICITY

304

Electric Motors

304

Current Sources

305

Storage Batteries

306

Primary Batteries

307

Thermopiles

307

MISCELLANEOUS

308

Compressed Air

309

Carbonic Acid

309

Vapor Motors

309

Spring Motors

310

Eoclcet Schemes

310

TANKS

310

CHAPTER 7 TRANSMISSION ELEMENTS.

Introductory

313

CHAINS AND SPEOCKETS

314

Block Chains

316

Eoller Chains

317

Miscellaneous

317

Block Chains

317

Standard American Eoller Chains

318

Eoller Chains

318

Cable Chains

319

Reversible Sprockets

319

Missed Teeth

319

SHAFTS AND GEAES

320

Shafts

320

Spur Gears

321

Bevel Gears

322

Staggered and Herringbone Teeth

323

BELTS AND PULLEYS

324

Pulley Construction"

324

Belt Materials

325

CLUTCHES

325

CHAPTER 8 BEARINGS.

Introductory

327

BALL BEAEINGS

328

Adjustable Ball Bearings

328

Annular Ball Bearings

330

Annular Bali-Bearing Sizes, Capacities, and Weights

337

BOLLEE BEAEINGS

339

Cylindrical Eoller Bearings

340

Flexible Eoller Bearings

340

Tapered Eoller Bearings

341

PLAIN BEAEINGS

342

Plain Bearing Materials

342

CONTENTS

13

Cast Iron

343

Bronzes

343

Brasses

343

Babbitt

343

Graphite

Wood

344

344

Vulcanized Fiber

344

Finish of Plain Bearings

344

Areas

344

Scraping

MISCELLANEOUS BEAEINGS

345

346

CHAPTEE 9 LUBRICATION.

Introductory

347

SPLASH LUBBICATION

347

Eing and Chain Oilers

348

GEAVITY LUBKICATION

349

Oil Cups

349

Reservoir Systems

350

FOECED LUBEICATION

350

Pressure Feed

350

Single Pumps

351

Multiple Pumps

351

Grease Cups

352

LUBEICANTS

352

Mineral Oils

352

Vaseline

353

Vegetable Oils

353

Castor Oil

353

Olive Oil

353

Animal Oils

354

Sperm Oil

354

Tallow

354

Miscellaneous Lubricants

354

Water

354

Kerosene

355

CHAPTEE 10 STARTING AND ALIGHTING.

Introductory

356

STAETING DEVICES

357

Wheels

358

Sails

358

Floats

359

Eunners

360

The Starting Impulse

360

Propeller Thrust

361

Dropped Weights

362

Winding Drums

363

Inclined Surfaces

364

Launching Vehicles

365

Automobiles

365

Eailway Cars

365

Boats

366

Cleared Areas

366

Facing the Wind

,

367

Launching from Height

368

ALIGHTING GEAES

369

Wheels

369

14

VEHICLES OF THE AIR

Runners

Floats

Miscellaneous

370

370

371

CHAPTEE 11 MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION.

Introductory

WOODS

Hardwoods

Applewood

Ash

Bamboo

Birch

Boxwood

Elm

Hemlock

Hickory

Holly

Mahogany

Maple

Oak

Walnut

Softwoods

Pines

Poplar

Spruce

Willow Veneers and Bendings

METALS

Iron

Steel

Alloy Steels

Cast Iron

Aluminum Alloys

Aerial Metal

Aluman

Argentalium

Chromaluminum

Magnalium

Nickel-Aluminum

Partinium

Wolframinium

Brasses and Bronzes

Aluminum Bronze

Phosphor Bronze

Metal Parts

COKDAGE AND TEXTILES

Cotton

Linen

Silk

PAINTS AND VARNISHES

Oils

Shellacs

Spar Varnishes

Aluminum Paint

Miscellaneous

MISCELLANEOUS

Catgut

China Grass

Hair

372

373

374

375

375

375

376

376

376

377

377

378

378

378

378

378

379

379

379

379

380

380

381

382

382

383

384

384

384

384

385

385

385

385

385

385

386

386

386

386

387

388

388

388

388

388

389

389

389

389

389

389

390

390

CONTENTS

15

Silk Cord

Silkworm Gut

ASSEMBLING MATERIALS AND METHODS

Nails

Glues and Cements

Screws

Bolts

Clips

Eivets

Electric Welding

Autogenous Welding

Brazing

Soldering

Tabular Comparisons of Materials

Metals

Miscellaneous Materials Transverse Strength of Wood Bars

Woods

390

390

390

390

390

391

391

391

391

391

391

391

392

392

393

393

393

393

CHAPTER 12 TYPICAL AEROPLANES.

Introductory

Antoinette Monoplanes Bleriot Monoplanes

Chanute Gliders

Cody Biplane

Curtiss Biplane

Farman Biplane

Langley Machine

Lilienthal 's Machines

Maxim Multiplane

Montgomery Machine

Pilcher Gliders

E. E. P. Monoplanes Santos-Dumont Monoplane

Voisin Biplane

Wright Biplane

394

396

396

398

399

400

404

404

404

405

406

407

408

408

409

409

CHAPTER 13 ACCESSORIES.

Introductory

LIGHTING SYSTEMS

Electric Lighting

Advantages of Uniform Motor Speed

Arc Lamps

Incandescent Lamps

The Nernest Lamp

Acetylene Storage Tanks Acetylene Generators Acetylene Burners

Oxygen Systems

With Hydrogen

With Gasoline

With Acetylene Incandescent Mantles

With Gas

With Liquid Fuek

Oil Lamps

Sperm Oil

Kerosene

t .

"

410

410

411

411

411

412

413

413

414

414

415

416

416

416

416

416

417

417

417

417

418

16

VEHICLES OF THE AIR

Beflectors

Arrangement of

SPEED AND

Lights

DISTANCE MEASUKEMENTS

Anemometers

Miscellaneous

COMPASS

Fixed-Dial Compasses

Floating-Dial Compasses

BABOMETEES

Mercurial Barometers Aneroid Barometers

.

.

.

WIND VANES

MISCELLANEOUS INSTEUMENTS

418

419

420

420

421

422

423

423

424

424

424

425

425

CHAPTER 14 MISCELLANY.

Introductory

APPLICATIONS

Warfare

Sport Mail and Express

News Service

Effects of Low Cost and Maintenance

General Effects

EADII OF ACTION

Influence of Wind.

DEMOUNTABILITY PASSENGEB ACCOMMODATION

Seats

Housing

Upholstery

Pneumatic Cushions Heating the Exhaust

By

PAEACHUTES

DESIGNING

TESTING AND LEAENING

Learning from Teacher

Practice Close to the Surface Practice over Water

Maintaining Headway

Landing

AEEIAL NAVIGATION

Flying High

Steadier Air

Choice of Landing

Flying Low

Falling Striking Obstacles Vortices and Currents

-

TEBBESTBIAL ADJUNCTS

Signals

Fog

Horns and Whistles

PATENTS GLOSSAEY OF AEEONAUTICAL TEEMS

. 427

428

429

432

433

434

434

435

436

437

437

439

440

440

440

440

441

441

442

443

444

444

444

445

445

445

446

446

446

447

447

448

448

448

449

449

450

451

464

CHAPTER 15 FLIGHT RECORDS.

Introductory

TABULAE HISTOEY OF FLIGHTS

INDEX

473

.478

LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS

FIGURE.

PAGE.

Sands, in an Antoinette Monoplane, Coming to Ground at Cannes, France

Frontispiece

Count de Lambert in Wright biplane at Juvisy, France

43

65

76

80

81

82

65

90

104

108

90

94

Ill

94

96

96

100

104

108

108

104

104

117

Degen's Orthogonal Flier Trouve's Flapping Flier Engine and Wing Mechanism of Hargrave Model No. 18

Collomb Ornithopter

Toy Helicopter Toy Helicopter Toy Helicopter Bertin Helicopter Cornu Helicopter Bertin Helicopter-Aeroplane Box Kite

Montgomery Aeroplanes of 1884-5, with Hinged Ailerons in Wings. 140

133

140

Count de Lambert Piloting Wright Biplane

Nacelle of the French Dirigible, "Zodiac III"

Malicot Semi-Rigid Dirigible Balloon

Balloon House for Dirigible "Russie"

Portable Balloon House Used by the French Army

Balloon Houses Nearing Completion

Rigid Construction of Zeppelin Dirigible

Internal Balloon

Curious Drag Rope of Wellman Dirigible

Car of Modern Spherical Balloon

Balloon Valve

452

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

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34.

35.

36

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

Bleriot Flying from Etampes to Orleans

,.

View in Paris Aeronautical Exhibition October, 1909

Layout of Gores for Spherical Balloon

Giffard's Dirigible Balloon

Tissandier's Dirigible Balloon

Renard's and Krebs' Dirigible Balloon Texture of Modern Balloon Fabrics

Modern Spherical Balloon Shuttles for Knotting Balloon Nettings, and Some Typical

Dirigible Balloon, "Ville de Nancy" Side View of Nacelle of Wellman Dirigible Front view of Nacelle of Wellman Dirigible

120

121

122

126

127

128

128

126

140

155

156

161

164

166

166

171

172

Le

Bris' Glider

Moy's Aerial Steamer

Flying Fish

Flying Frog

Comparison of Pterodactyl and Condor

Wing-case Insect

Pressure on Vertical and Inclined Surfaces

Plane and Arched

Surfaces without Angle of Incidence

Drawings

Explaining

44 to 67.

Geometrical and other

the Formation

and Action of Wing Surfaces

176-199

205

158

208

158

158

164

164

170

170

170

174

174

174

68. Staggered Biplane 69. Goupy Biplane

70.

71.

72.

73.

74.

75.

76.

77.

78.

79.

80.

Langley's 25-Pound Double Monoplane

Internal Framing of Antoinette Monoplane Wing

Framing of Antoinette Wing Inverted

Framing of Bleriot Monoplane Wing Inverted Upper Wing Frame of Wright Biplane Assembling Wright Wing Frames

Aileron Control of Lateral Balance in Antoinette Monoplane

Aileron Control of Bleriot Monoplane VIII

Lejeune Biplane with Double Aileron Control

Front View of Pischoff and Koechlin Biplane

Side View of Pischoff and Koechlin Biplane

17

18 VEHICLES OF THE AIR

FIGURE.

81.

Aileron Control of Farman Biplane

82.

Sliding Wing Ends

83.

Swinging Wing Ends

84.

Wright Flexible Elevator or Rudder

85.

Rear Controls of Antoinette Monoplane

86.

Double Control from Single Wheel

87.

Shoulder-Fork Control

88.

Frame of New Voisin Biplane

89.

Fuselage of Bolotoff Monoplane

90.

Feathering-Paddle Flying Machine

91.

Partially-Housed Paddle Wheel

92.

Wave Surface

93.

Helices of Propeller Travel

94.

Circles of Propeller Travel

95.

Diagram of Propeller Pitch

96.

Angle of Propeller Blade to Angle of Travel

97.

Advancing and Following Surfaces

98.

Three-Bladed Propeller

99.

Four-Bladed Propeller

100.

101.

102.

103.

104.

105.

106.

107.

108.

109.

110.

111.

112.

113.

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133.

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141.

142.

143.

144.

145.

146.

Shaft

Steam Engine for Aeronautical Use

Flue Boiler

Water-Tube Boiler for Aeronautical Use

Aeroplane Power-Transmission System

Aeroplane Power-Transmission System

Aeroplane Power-Transmission System

Aeroplane

Power-Transmission System

Voisin Biplane

Modified into a Triplane

Henry

Farman's Biplane in Flight

Adjustable Ball Bearing

Annular Ball Bearing

Full Type

Annular

Ball Bearing

147. Annular

Ball Bearing

148.

Annular Ball Bearing

PAGH<

' 174

218

! 219

225

226

226

228

230

230

232

\\ 233

233

239

239

240

242

248

231

231

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252

263

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271

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283

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300

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313

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316

317

313

313

316

327

327

329

330

332

332

332

'.'.'.'.

'.

.

Chauviere Walnut Propeller.

Propeller, Engine, and Wing Frame of Antoinette Monoplane

Engine and Propeller of Santos-Dumont Monoplane

Wooden Propeller of Clement Dirigible Balloon

All-Metal Propeller Applied to Dirigible Balloon

Straight, Dihedral, and Curved Propellers

Effect of Gyroscopic Action of Single Propeller on

Twin Wood Propellers on Single

Steering

Working Drawings of a Wooden Propeller

Templets for Securing a Desired Form in a Wooden Propeller

Four Cylinder Motor of Wright Biplane

Pump-Fed Antoinette Engine

Three-Cylinder, 22-Horsepower Anzani Engine Four-Cylinder "Double-Twin" Anzani Motor

Renault Eight-Cylinder V-Shaped Motor Fiat and Panhard Aeronautical Motors Darracq and Dutheil-Chalmers Aeronautical Motors Diagram of Revolving-Cylinder Motor Gnome Revolving-Cylinder Motor Ten-Cylinder Motor with Concentric Exhaust and Inlet Valves

Magnetic Plug Make-and-Break Ignition

Mechanical-Break Jump-Spark Ignition System

Jump-Spark Ignition

Hot-Tube Ignition

Fuel-Injection Aeronautical Engine

Carbureter Mietz and Weiss Fuel Pump

Silencer

Muffler

Block Chain

Roller Chain

chain Transmission of Wright Biplane

Chain Transmission in Hydroplane, Driven by A&rial Propellers

Belt Transmission in Recent Santos-Dumont Monoplane

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

19

FIGURE.

149.

150.

151.

152.

153.

154.

155.

156.

157.

158.

159.

160.

161.

162.

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PAGE.

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g34

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358

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364

360

368

368

370

370

Annular Ball Bearing Subjected to Thrust

</