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Entry Strategies for foreign

markets
Foreign Entry Decisions
The need for a solid market entry decision is an integral
part of a global strategy.
Entry decisions will heavily influence the firms other
strategic decisions.
Global marketers have to make a multitude of decisions
regarding the entry mode which may include:
(1) the target product/market
(2) the goals of the target markets
(3) the mode of entry
(4) The time of entry
(5) A strategic plan
(6) A control system to check the performance
Target Market Selection
Global market offers wide choices of markets
Not even GE can enter every market
Not desirable and profitable
Initially the firm may have to with stand loses
Wrong decisions may cost the firm a lot-
Wal-Mart failure in Germany
Target Market Selection
Must Markets & nice-to-be-in markets

Must markets- Volume perspective,


technological leadership, key competitive
battles
Measuring Market attractiveness
Market Size & Growth Rate
Markets Institutional contexts (Political &
Social systems, openness, product, labor &
financial markets)
Competitive Environment
Cultural, administrative, geographic and
economic distance
Choice of Entry Mode
Exporting
Licensing
Franchising
Contract Manufacturing
Joint ventures
Acquisitions
New wholly owned subsidiary
Exporting

Indirect Exporting
Export management companies
Cooperative Exporting
Piggyback Exporting
Direct Exporting
Firms set up their own exporting departments

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Licensing
Licensor and the license
Benefits:
Appealing to companies that lack resources
Faster access to the market
Rapid penetration of the global markets
Limitations:
Other entry mode choices may be affected
Licensee may not be committed
Lack of enthusiasm on the part of a licensee
Franchising
Franchisor and the franchisee
Master franchising
Benefits:
Overseas expansion with a minimum investment
Franchisees profits tied to their efforts
Availability of local franchisees knowledge
Limitations :
Revenues may not be adequate
Availability of a master franchisee
Lack of control over the franchisees operations
Problem in performance standards
Cultural problems

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Contract Manufacturing
Pharma companies, Electronics firms
Benefits:
Labor cost advantages
Savings via taxation, lower energy costs, raw materials, and
overheads
Lower political and economic risk
Quicker access to markets
Limitations:
Contract manufacturer may become a future competitor
Lower productivity standards
Backlash from the companys home-market employees
regarding HR and labor issues
Issues of quality and production standards

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Joint Ventures
Benefits:
Higher rate of return and more control over the
operations
Creation of synergy
Sharing of resources
Access to distribution network
Contact with local suppliers and government officials
Limitations:
Lack of control
Lack of trust
Conflicts on strategic directions

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Joint Ventures (contd.)

Drivers Behind Successful International Joint


Ventures :
Pick the right partner
Establish clear objectives from the beginning
Bridge cultural gaps
Gain top managerial commitment and respect
Use incremental approach

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Wholly Owned Subsidiaries

Acquisitions and Greenfield Operations


Acquisitions and Mergers
Quick access to the local market
Good way to get access to the local brands
Greenfield Operations
Offer the company more flexibility than
acquisitions in the areas of human resources,
suppliers, logistics, plant layout, and
manufacturing technology.

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Wholly Owned Subsidiaries (contd.)
Benefits:
Greater control and higher profits
Strong commitment to the local market on the part of
companies
Allows the investor to manage and control marketing,
production, and sourcing decisions

Limitations :
Risks of full ownership
Developing a foreign presence without the support of a
third part
Risk of nationalization
Issues of cultural and economic sovereignty of the host
country
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Strategic Alliances
Types of Strategic Alliances
Simple licensing agreements between two partners
Market-based alliances
Operations and logistics alliances
Operations-based alliances
The Logic Behind Strategic Alliances
Defend
Catch-Up
Remain
Restructure
Cross-Border Alliances that Succeed:
Alliances between strong and weak partners

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Choosing Among Entry Modes
Distinctive competencies and entry mode
Technological competency
Wholly-owned subsidiary is preferred over licensing
and joint ventures
Management competency
Franchising, joint ventures, subsidiaries
Pressures for cost reduction in entry mode
Great pressure for cost reductions
Exporting and wholly-owned subsidiaries
Choosing Among Entry Modes
The firm has no foreign manufacturing
expertise and requires investment only in
distribution - Exports
The firm needs to facilitate the product
improvements necessary to enter foreign
markets- Licensing
Choosing Among Entry Modes
Firm is facing uncertain situations such as an
emerging economy in its targeted market (Or) Firm
needs to reduce its risk through the sharing of
costs- Strategic Alliances
Firm needs to know the market from day one but
need to protect IP- Acquisition
The firms intellectual property rights in an
emerging economy are not well protected, the
number of firms in the industry is growing fast,
and the need for global integration is high-
Wholly-owned Subsidiary
Risk in the International Environment
Political risks include:
Instability in national governments
War, both civil and international
Potential nationalization of a firms resources
Economic risks are interdependent with political
risks and include:
Differences and fluctuations in the value of different
currencies
Differences in prevailing wage rates
Difficulties in enforcing property rights