Theory Manual 2
Version 13
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Theory Manual 2
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Chapter 7 Element Formulations 1
7.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1
iii
Table of Contents
iv
Theory Manual 2
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Standard matrix notation is used whenever possible throughout this manual and the
expressions are defined as follows:
v
Notation
vi
Theory Manual 2
vii
Notation
viii
Theory Manual 2
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Notation
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Theory Manual 2
xi
Notation
xii
7.0 Introduction
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This section of the Theory Manual covers the basic theoretical assumptions made for
each element formulation. Appropriate references are included when full details of the
element derivation are not provided. New elements included for version 12 are the
solid composite elements HX16C and PN12C.
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The bar elements are 2-node and 3-node isoparametric elements that can only transmit
longitudinal force (fig.7.1-1).
The nodal variables are:-
BAR2 and BAR3 U and V
BRS2 and BRS3 U, V and W
The element strain-displacement relationship and thermal strain vector are defined in
the local Cartesian system as
u
x =
x
and b g
o t = T
1
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
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The element output can be obtained at both the element nodes and Gauss points and
consists of
Fx - the axial force, (tension +ve)
The forces and strains are output in the local element coordinate system defined by
%$5 DQG %$5 HOHPHQWV
The element local x-axis lies along the element axis in the direction in which the
element nodes are specified (fig.7.1-3). The local y and z axes form a right-hand set
with the x-axis such that the y-axis lies in the global XY-plane and the z-axis is
parallel to the global Z-axis (up out of page).
%56 DQG %56 HOHPHQWV
The local x-axis lies along the element axis in the direction in which the element
nodes are specified (for a curved element it is tangent to the curve at the point
concerned).
For a curved element the local xy-plane is defined by the element nodes (fig.7.1-4).
Local y is perpendicular to local x and +ve on the convex side of the element.
For a straight element parallel to the global x-axis, the local z-axis is defined by the
unit vector z = j x x where j is a unit vector defining the Global Y-axis and x is a unit
vector defining the local x-axis (fig.7.1-4).
For a straight element not parallel to the global x-axis, the local z-axis is defined by
the unit vector z = i x x where i is a unit vector defining the global X-axis (fig.7.1-4).
The local y-axis forms a right-hand set with the local x and z-axes for all three cases.
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The bar elements can be employed in
1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the elastoplastic constitutive laws [O1]
(section 4.2).
2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.
4. Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5. Linear eigen-buckling analysis.
2
7.1 Bar Elements (BAR2, BAR3, BRS2, BRS3)
3
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
V
Y
V
BAR2 2
U U
V
3
V
U
U 2
1
V BAR3
1 U
X
Y V
U
BRS2 2 V
W
V
V 3 U
U
W
1
2 U BRS3
W V
W
X
U
1
W
Z
4
7.1 Bar Elements (BAR2, BAR3, BRS2, BRS3)
Continuum elements
2
Y y
x
y
x
y x 3
1
2
x
y
1 X
FIG 7.1-3 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BAR2 AND BAR3 ELEMENTS
5
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Y
x-y plane
y
y x x
3
z
x z 2
y
1
z X
Z
(a) Curved Element
z
z
x x
1 2
y
y
Y y
x
2
z
y
x
1
z
X
FIG. 7.1-4 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BRS2 AND BRS3 ELEMENTS
6
7.2 Beam Elements
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The family of explicit straight beams are derived by restraining various degrees-of-
freedom of the full 3D beam. The stiffness and mass matrices of these reduced
elements may be obtained by deleting the appropriate rows and columns of the full
stiffness and mass matrices.
The nodal forces/moments and degrees of freedom (in local coordinates) for the 3D
beam are
F T = Px1, Py1, Pz1, M x1, M y1, M z1, Px 2 , Py 2 , Pz 2 , M x 2 , M y 2 , M z 2
K=
LMK 11
K
21
OP
MNK 12
K
22 PQ
where submatrices are defined:
LM EA OP
Symmetric
MM L0 12 EI z PP
MM L 1 + y
3
d i PP
12 EI y
MM 0 0 PP
b
L 1 + z
3
g PP
K =M GJ
11 MM 0 0 0
L PP
MM 0 0
6 EI y
0
b4 + gEI
z y
PP
MM b
L2 1 + z g Lb1 + g z
MM 0 6 EI z
0 0 0
d4 + iEI PP y z
L2 1 + y
d i Ld1 + i P
N Q
y
7
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
LM EA OP
Symmetric
MM L0 12 EI z PP
MM L 1 + y
3
d i PP
12 EI y PP
MM 0 0
L 1 + z
3
b g PP
K =M GJ
22 MM 0 0 0
L PP
MM 0 0
6 EI y
0
b4 + gEI
z y
PP
MM L b1 + g
2
z Lb1 + g z
MM 0 6 EI z
0 0 0
d4 + iEI PP y z
N 2 +
L 1 y d i Ld1 + i PQ y
LM EA 0 0 0 0
OP 0
MM L 12 EI z 6 EI PP z
MM 0 L 1 + y
3
d i 0 0 0
L d1 + i P
PP
2
y
12 EI y 6 EI
MM 0 0 0
y
0
PP
b
L3 1 + z g L b1 + g
2
=M
z
K = KT GJ
12 21 MM 0 0 0
L
0 0 PP
MM 0 0
6 EI y
0
b2 gEI
z
0
y PP
MM 2
b
L 1 + z g bL 1 + g z P
MM 0 6 EI z d 2 iEI PP y z
0 0 0
N L2 1 + y
d i Ld1 + i PQ y
and where
12 EI z 12 EI y
y = and z =
GAs y L2 GAs z L2
A s y and A s z are the cross-sectional areas effective in shear about the respective
bending axis.
Element mass matrix
M = AL
LMM 11
M
21
OP
MNM 12
M
22 PQ
where submatrices are defined
8
7.2 Beam Elements
LM 1 OP
Symmetric
MM 3 13 6I z
PP
MM 0 + PP
35 5 AL2
MM 13
+
6I y PP
0 0
M = MM
35 5 AL2 PP
11 Jx
MM 0 0 0
3A
PP
MM 11 L Iy L2 2I y PP
+
MM 0 0
210 10 AL
0
105 15 A PP
2
MM 0 11 L Iz L 2I P
+ + z
105 15 A PQ
0 0 0
N 210 10 AL
LM 1 Symmetric
OP
MM 3 13 6I z
PP
MM 0 + PP
35 5 AL2
MM 13
+
6I y PP
0 0
M = MM
35 5 AL2 PP
22 Jx
MM 0 0 0
3A
PP
MM 11 L Iy L2 2I y PP
+ +
MM 0 0
210 10 AL
0
105 15 A PP
2
MM 0 11 L Iz L 2I P
+ z
105 15 A PQ
0 0 0
N 210 10 AL
LM 1 0 0 0 0
OP
0
MM 6 9 6I z 13 L I
PP
MM 0 0 0 0 P z
70 2 420 10 AL P
5 AL
MM 9
6I y
13 L
+
Iy PP
M = MT MM 0 0
70 5 AL 2
0
420 10 AL
0
PP
21 12 Jx
MM 0 0 0
6A
0 0 PP
MM 13 L Iy L2 Iy PP
MM 0 0
420 10 AL
0
140 30 A
0
PP
2
MM 0 13 L Iz L I P
+ z
140 30 A PQ
0 0 0
N 420 10 AL
9
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
The lumped mass matrix contains terms only the following terms,
AL AL AL
a f
, =
M 11
2
a f
M 2,2 =
2
a f
M 3,3 =
2
J x L I y L I z L
a f
M 4,4 =
2
a f
M 5,5 =
2
a f
M 6,6 =
2
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10
7.2 Beam Elements
F = Ka
The element does not possess any nonlinear capability, but may be utilised in a
nonlinear environment. The element cannot be employed for linear buckling analyses.
Y
V
z U
V 2
z
U
1
Load
Load
11
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
y
x 2
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The displacement variations along the length of the beam are linear axial, linear
rotation and cubic transverse displacements. The stress resultant variations are
constant axial, and linear moment and linear shear.
The nodal forces due to the thermal strains are assumed to be constant within each
element, and are evaluated explicitly using
e
M y = EI yy
LM T OP
N dz Q
where ( T dz) e is the average element value.
See [P1] for further element details.
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12
7.2 Beam Elements
The local y and z-axes form a right-hand set with the x-axis, such that the y-axis lies in
the global XY plane, and the z-axis is parallel to the global Z-axis (up out of page)
(fig.7.2.2-3).
The nodal forces F are evaluated directly using
F = Ka
The element does not possess any nonlinear capability, but may be utilised in a
nonlinear environment.
The element cannot be employed for linear buckling analyses.
y x
w
w 1
x X
13
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Z
Y
X
Point
Load
X
Problem Defintion Finite Element Mesh
y
x 2
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)RUPXODWLRQ
The displacement variations along the length of the beam are linear axial, linear
rotation and cubic transverse displacements. The stress resultant variations are
constant axial, linear moment and linear shear.
14
7.2 Beam Elements
The nodal forces due to the thermal strains are assumed to be constant within each
element, and are evaluated explicitly using
The element does not possess any nonlinear capability, but may be utilised in a
nonlinear environment.
The element cannot be employed for linear buckling analysis.
15
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
V
y
U
V 2
y x
W
U
W 1
x X
RPI4 elements
Z
Y
BRP2 elements
16
7.2 Beam Elements
y
x 2
'6WUDLJKW%HDP%06
)RUPXODWLRQ
This element is a 3-D two noded straight beam formulated by superimposing the
bending, shear, torsional and axial behaviour derived directly from the differential
equations for beam displacements used in engineering beam theory.
The nodal degrees of freedom are (fig.7.2.4-1)
U, V, W, X , Y and Z at each node
The displacement variations along the length of the beam are linear axial, linear
rotation and cubic transverse displacements. The stress resultant variations are
constant axial, constant torsion and linear moment and linear shear.
The nodal forces due to the thermal strains are assumed to be constant within each
element, and are evaluated explicitly using
R| U|
R| F U| || EAaLTTfO ||
e
x e
S|M V| = S|EI MN dz PQ V|
y yy
TM W | L T O |
z e
|| EI MN dy PQ ||
zz
T W
where ( T) e and ( T dz) e are average element values.
See [P1] for further element details.
17
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
The local x-axis lies along the element axis in the direction in which the element
nodes are specified. The local xy-plane is defined by the third element node and the
element x-axis. The local y and z-axes form a right-hand set with the local x-axis
(fig.7.2.4-3).
The nodal forces F are evaluated directly using
F = Ka
The element does not possess any nonlinear capability, but may be utilised in a
nonlinear environment.
The element cannot be utilised for linear buckling analysis.
Y
Y
V
2
Y X
W Z
U
1
X
W Z
X
18
7.2 Beam Elements
3
Y
y
x 2
z 1
19
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
20
7.2 Beam Elements
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The BM3 and BMX3 elements are thin, curved, non-conforming beam elements
formulated using the constraint technique.
The global displacements and rotations are initially quadratic and are interpolated
independently using linear Lagrangian shape functions for the end nodes and a
hierarchical quadratic function for the central node. Therefore, the initial degrees of
freedom are (fig.7.2.5-1)
U, V, j at the end nodes
u, v, j at the mid-length node.
The Kirchhoff condition of zero shear strain is applied at the two integration points,
by forcing
v u v
+ = z = 0
x z x
and eliminating the local transverse translational and rotational degrees of freedom at
the central node. The final degrees of freedom for the element are (fig.7.2.5-1)
U, V, z at the end nodes,
2 v
z =
x 2
The elastic rigidity (resultant modulus) and modulus matrices are defined as
Explicit
LM EA
$ =
D
EAe z OP
MNEAe z EI zz + Ae2y PQ
Numerically Integrated D=z M
L Eb Eyb OP dy
NEyb
h Ey 2 b Q
The thermal strain vector is defined as
21
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
R| U|
T
e j = |S| |V
|T dadyTf LMN + T ddT OPQ||W
0 t
where T is the global-local transformation matrix. The values at the centre point
are then interpolated from these end values and the values at the Gauss points
assuming a cubic variation (fig.7.2.5-7). This method can only be used for linear
analyses and is invoked via OPTION 136.
3. This method is similar to (b) except that the stress resultants at the centre node are
also computed by considering equilibrium and is invoked via OPTION 137.
22
7.2 Beam Elements
23
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
3
3 4
Y, V
1
TSM3 2
2 1 SMI4
X, U
Z, W
24
7.2 Beam Elements
2 3
1 4
Element 1 or
2 3
Quadrilateral 1
1 2 3 4
Element 2 or Z
Quadrilateral 2
2 1 4 3
Element 3 or
Quadrilateral 3
1 4
25
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Y Y
Z Z
Y
y
x
y x
3
2
x
y
26
7.2 Beam Elements
UDL
Support
Mid-point moment
evaluated using
equilibrium
27
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Load
BM3
Axial Force
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The BS3, BS4, and BSX4 elements are 3-D thin, curved, non-conforming beam
elements formulated using the constraint technique.
The global displacements and rotations are initially quadratic and are independently
interpolated using linear Lagrangian shape functions for the end nodes and a
hierarchical quadratic function for the central node. This provides C(0) continuity of
the in-plane displacement. The initial freedoms are (fig.7.2.6-1)
U , V , W, X , Y , Z at the end nodes
28
7.2 Beam Elements
2 u
y =
x 2
2 v
z =
x 2
2 w
xy =
xy
2 w
xz =
xy
The elastic rigidity (resultant modulus) and modulus matrices are defined as
Explicit
LM EA EAe z EAe y 0 0 0 OP
MMEAe z E I yy + Ae z2
e j EAe y e z 0 0 0 PP
$ = MEAe y EAe y e z E I zz + Ae 2y
e j 0 0 0 P
D
MM 0 0 0 GI yy 0 0 P
P
MM 0 0 0 0 GI zz 0 P
N 0 0 0 0 0 GA PQ
29
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
x axial strain
y , z flexural strain
xy , xz torsional strain
The forces and strains are output in the local Cartesian system which is defined by
%6 For a curved element the local xy-plane is defined by the three element
nodes. Local y is perpendicular to local x and +ve on the convex side of the
30
7.2 Beam Elements
element. The local y and z-axis form a right-hand set with the local x-axis
(Fig.7.2.6-7a).
For a straight element parallel to the global X-axis, the local z-axis is given by
the unit vector z = j x x (j is a unit vector along the global Y-axis) (fig.7.2.6-
7b)
For a straight element not parallel to the global X-axis, the local z-axis is given
the unit vector z = i x x (i is a unit vector along the global X-axis) (fig.7.2.6-
7c)
The local y-axis forms a right-hand set with the local x and z axes.
%6 %6; The local xy-plane is defined by all four element nodes which
are assumed to be coplanar. The local y-axis is perpendicular to the local x-
axis and +ve on the side of the element where the fourth node lies. The local y
and z-axis form a right-hand set with the local x-axis (fig.7.2.6-6)
Note. The torques are +ve for anti-clockwise rotations at first node and clockwise
rotations at third node.
Force and stress output may be obtained at either the nodes or element Gauss points.
Greatest accuracy is obtained at the Gauss points.
1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ
31
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
2 w u 2 w w 2 u w 2 v
y = + +
x 2 x x 2 x x 2 y x 2
2v u 2 v v 2 u w 2 w
z = +
x 2 x x 2 x x 2 y x 2
2 w u 2 w w 2 v
xz =
xy x xy x x 2
2 w u 2 w v 2 v
xy =
xy x xy x x 2
v w
yz =
x x
V V
Y Y
U U
W 3 X W Z
3 X
Z
V
Y u
U
W 2 2 X
Z X
V V
Y Y
Y U Y U
1 1 X
X
Z Z
W W
X X
Z Z
32
7.2 Beam Elements
Quadrature Points
Quadrature points
coincide with
frame joints
2 3
1 4
33
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Element 1 or
2 3
Quadrilateral 1
1 2 3 4
Element 2 or Z
Quadrilateral 2
2 1 4 3
Element 3 or
Quadrilateral 3
1 4
34
7.2 Beam Elements
Y 3 x
z
x y
2
y
x
1 4
y
X
35
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Y
x-y plane
y
y x x
3
x 2 z
y
1
z X
Z
(a) Curved Element
z
z
x x
1 2 3
y
y
Y y
x
3
z
y 2
x
1
z
X
36
7.2 Beam Elements
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The BSL3,BSL4 and BXL4 elements are 3-D thin, curved beam elements based on
the Kirchhoff constraint technique. Their formulation and nodal configuration has
been specifically designed to provide an element compatible with the Semiloof shell
element QSL8. Initially, the displacements and rotations are interpolated using
quadratic and cubic shape functions respectively, where the cubic variation is
provided by the rotational degrees of freedoms of the 'loof' nodes, which are located at
the quadrature points of the 2 point Gauss rule (fig.7.2.7-1).
Unlike the thick beam formulation presented by Irons [I1], the present formulation
utilises Kirchhoff constraints of zero shear strain applied at the 2-point Gauss
quadrature locations, by forcing
v u v
+ = z = 0
x y x
w u w
+ = + y = 0
x z x
which provides four constraint equations and permits elimination of the two flexural
degrees of freedoms at these positions. The final degrees of freedom for the element
are (fig.7.2.7-1)
U, V, W, X , y , z at nodes 1 and 3
U, V, W at node 2
and
X at nodes 4 and 5
Note. The rotations at the 'loof' nodes are local, but are not relative rotations
(departures from linearity) as with the other LUSAS beam elements based on
Kirchhoff constraints.
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is
u
x =
x
2w
y =
x 2
2 v
z =
x 2
2 w
xy =
xy
37
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
2 w
xz =
xy
Note. xy + xz = z the total torsional strain The elastic rigidity (resultant modulus)
and modulus matrices are defined as
([SOLFLW
LM EA EAe z EAe y 0 OP 0 0
MMEAe z E e I yy + Ae 2z j EAe e y z 0 0 0 P
EeI + Ae j 2
0 P
P
$ = MEAe y EAe y e z zz 0y 0
D MM 0 0 0 GeI + Ae j 0
yy
2
0 P
z
P
MM 0 0 0 0 GeI + Ae j 0 PP zz
2
y
NM 0 0 0 0 0 GA QP
LM E Ez Ey 0 0 0 OP
MME z Ez2 Eyz 0 0 0 PP
Eyz Ey 2
D= zz h b
MME0y
0 0
0
Gz 2 0
0 0
0P
P dydz
MM 0 0 0 0 Gy 2 0P
MN 0 0 0 0 0 G PQ
P
The thermal strain vector is defined by
LM daTf T d OP
MM dz LMN + T dT OPQPP
e j = MM daTf LM + T d OPPP
0 t
MM dy N 0 dT QPP
MN 0 PQ
A more detailed description of the element formulation is given in [A1,I1,M1].
The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).
(YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVIRUFHV
38
7.2 Beam Elements
Fx axial force
My , Mz moments
Ty , Tz torques
x axial strain
y, z flexural strain
xy , xz torsional strain
The forces and strains are output in the local Cartesian system which is defined by
%6/
For a curved element the local xy-plane is defined by the three element nodes. Local y
is perpendicular to local x and +ve on the convex side of the element. The local y and
z-axis form a right-hand set with the local x-axis (fig.7.2.7-6a).
For a straight element parallel to the global X-axis, the local z-axis is given by the unit
vector z = j x (j is a unit vector along the global Y-axis) (fig.7.2.7-6b).
For a straight element not parallel to the global X-axis, the local z-axis is given the
unit vector z = i x (i is a unit vector along the global X-axis) (fig.7.2.7-6c).
The local y-axis forms a right-hand set with the local x and z axes.
%6/
The local xy-plane is defined by all four element nodes which are
%;/
assumed to be coplanar. The local y-axis is perpendicular to the local x-axis and +ve
on the side of the element where the fourth node lies. The local y and z-axis form a
right-hand set with the local x-axis (fig.7.2.7-7)
Note. The torques are +ve for anti-clockwise rotations at the first node and clockwise
rotations at the third node.
Force and stress output may be obtained at either the nodes or element Gauss points.
Greatest accuracy is obtained at the Gauss points.
1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ
39
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
2 v u 2 v v 2 u w 2 w
z = +
x 2 x x 2 x x 2 y x 2
2 w u 2 w w 2 v
xz =
xy x xy x x 2
2 w u 2 w v 2 v
xy =
xy x xy x x 2
v w
yz =
x x
40
7.2 Beam Elements
V V
Y Y
Y
U U
W Z 3 X W Z 3 X
5 5 X
X
Z
V V
U U
W 2 W 2
V V X
Y 4
X Y 4
Z
Y U Y U
1 1
X X
Z Z
W W
X X
Z Z
QSL8 elements
BSL3 elements
41
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
2 3
1 4
Element 1 or
2 3
Quadrilateral 1
1 2 3 4
Element 2 or Z
Quadrilateral 2
2 1 4 3
Element 3 or
Quadrilateral 3
1 4
42
7.2 Beam Elements
43
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Y
x-y plane
y
y x x
3
x 2 z
y
1
z X
Z
(a) Curved Element
z
z
x x
1 2 3
y
y
Y y
x
3
z
y 2
x
1
z
X
44
7.2 Beam Elements
Y 3 x
z
x y
2
y
x
1 4
y
X
'6WUDLJKW%HDP%76
)RUPXODWLRQ
This element is a 3-D, two noded, straight beam formulated using Timoshenko beam
theory so that shear deformations are accounted for. In essence, this element is
formulated in a very straight forward manner, using linear shape functions and
standard degrees of freedom. The complexities in this formulation arise in the
consistent derivation of the geometric tangent stiffness and in the treatment of the
rotational degrees of freedom. The nodal degrees of freedom for BTS3 are identical to
those of the BMS3 element, (fig.7.2.8-1). End releases may be applied to all the nodal
freedoms, see section 7.2.8.4.
The nodal degrees of freedom are
U, V, W, X , Y , Z at each node.
All displacement and rotation variations along the length of the element are linear
while all internal forces and moments are constant.
Consistent and lumped mass matrices are available which are evaluated using the
procedures defined in section 2.7.1.
(YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVIRUFHV
45
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Element strains and curvatures are also available but nodal values are not output. The
local x-axis lies along the element axis in the direction in which the element nodes are
specified. The local xy-plane is defined by the third element node and the element x-
axis. The local y and z-axes form a right-hand set with the local x-axis. These axes are
consistent with those of the BMS3 element (fig.7.2.8-2).
The formulation is such that engineering strain measures are used in both linear and
geometrically nonlinear applications. These strains always relate to a local Cartesian
system.
The internal forces are computed using:
P = D
Where P are the local internal forces, are the local strains and curvatures and D is
the modulus matrix given by (terms not shown are zero)
LM EA xx EA xx e z OP
GA sy
MM PP
GA sz
D= M
M G J xx + A xx e 2z
PP
MM e j PP
E I yy + A xx e 2z
e j
MM EA e xx z
PP
N EI zz Q
1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ
46
7.2 Beam Elements
end of a previous increment. Solutions obtained using this element will not be load
step size dependant. The local strains for the element are given by
T
= x , y , z , X x , X y , X z
o t
where:
x = u / lo
y = 2 + 5
e i2
z = e + i 2 3 6
Xx = e i 10
4 1
Xy = e i 10
2 5
Xz = e i 10
3 6
Where, lo is the initial element length, u is the axial stretch measured in the co-
rotated frame, and i , i=1,6 are the local gradients at the nodes or 'curvature
producing' rotations relative to the co-rotated frame, (fig. 7.2.8-3).
The current local gradients at the nodes are computed from
2 1 = t 2 T e3 t 3T e 2
2 2 = t1T e 2 t 2 T e1
2 3 = t1T e 3 t 3T e1
2 4 = q T
e3 q T
e2
2 3
2 5 = q T e 2 q T
e1
1 2
2 6 = q T e3 q T
e1
1 3
Where e i are unit vectors defining the co-rotated base frame and t i , q i , i=1,3 are the
cartesian sets at nodes 1 and 2 respectively defining the orientation of the beam cross-
section. These expressions may be thought of as being a means of computing an
'average' value for a local gradient at a node. This is easily visualised in two
dimensions where, for example, t1T e 2 = t 2 T e1 .This is not true for the three
dimensional case and a stricter derivation of the expressions for local gradients would
involve the polar decomposition theorem. The approach then taken is to decompose
the total rotation into a rigid body component and a local gradient. The expressions
described above are the result of applying these principles. The variation of these
47
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
expressions is used in the virtual work equation to relate variations in local strains to
variations in global nodal displacements.
The local frame e i , i=1,3 is easily established for a two dimensional problem. In three
dimensions defining the local frame is more difficult. The approach described by
Crisfield [C7] has been used for this purpose. The following expressions are used for
defining e 2 and e3 .
r 2 T e1
e2 = r 2 ne 1 + r1 s
2
r 3T e1
e3 = r 3 ne
1 + r1 s
2
The local frame is established at the centre of the element and the vectors r i , i=1,3
represent the 'average' of the nodal cartesian sets, t i and q i . These expressions are
approximations to the exact expressions for defining the 'smallest' rotation between
vectors r1 and e1 . These expressions have been used with a view to obtaining less
costly derivatives in a consistent derivation of the tangent stiffness. This lack of
orthogonality has been shown to be 0.25 degrees for a local gradient of 15 degrees
and 1.9 degrees for a gradient of 30 degrees [C7]. As these values actually represent
the 'curvature producing' rotations in a single element the deformation would need to
be very severe to reach these values.
The axial stretch may be taken as
u = ln lo
where ln is taken as the current element length (or chord length). By defining the
vectors
x 21 = x 2 x1
d 21 = d 2 d1
48
7.2 Beam Elements
Differentiation of the above equations relating to axial stretch and local gradients
allows virtual variations of local strains to be related to virtual variations in global
nodal displacements via a strain displacement matrix B
= B a
where a are the global nodal displacements. Using this expression in the virtual work
equation allows global internal forces at the nodes to be expressed in terms of local
internal forces as
P = BT P
d = BT DBda + dBT P
The first term on the right hand side of this equation may be recognised as the material
or standard linear stiffness matrix. The second term gives rise to the geometric
stiffness.
1RWHV
This geometrically nonlinear formulation is consistently formulated and
displays a quadratic rate of convergence in the limit. A consequence of this
consistency is the ability of the element to cope with larger load increments.
The total strains are computed from the current configuration and local frame
only. Therefore, results obtained using this element are not load step size
dependant.
This element incorporates rotational degrees of freedom. As explained in
section 3.5, large rotations in three dimensions are non-vectorial in nature and
therefore may not be summed as vectors. To overcome this problem the
rotation variables are never added to establish the current orientation of the
element. A set of Cartesian axes are established at each node to define the
orientation of the beam cross section. These axes, which are used in the
computation of internal forces and the stiffness matrix, are updated correctly
using the iterative increments in nodal rotations, section 3.5. The procedure for
this operation is outlined as
a. Extract the Euler parameters from the initial nodal Cartesian set.
49
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Many structures which are modelled with three-dimensional beam elements require
joints at the nodes which follow the axes of the rotating system. Examples include
deployable space structures, robots and rotating machinery.
Prismatic (sliding), revolute (hinges), spherical and cylindrical joints can be modelled
by releasing the appropriate degrees of freedom at a node. These freedoms relate to
the local beam axes and a master-slave procedure has been adopted to model the
release [J2]. At present, this facility is restricted to static analyses.
Consider a node which is initially shared by a number of elements, one of which is not
fully connected to the others. In the deformed configuration the node is no longer
completely shared and from (fig.7.2.8-5) the following relationships can be
established:
d = dm +
Q = Q* Q
m
where d m and Q define the displacement vector and rotation matrix of the master
m
node, and d and Q define the displacement vector and rotation matrix of the
disconnected (at least partially) slave node. It should be noted that, following
conventional beam theory assumptions, the origins of the vectors d m and d coincide,
with the gap in (fig.7.2.8-5) drawn for illustrative purposes only.
The columns of the rotation matrices Q and Q consist of orthonormal base vectors
m
q
m1
, q m2 , q m3 and q1 , q 2 , q 3 (fig.7.2.8-5):
50
7.2 Beam Elements
Q = q , q , q
m m1 m2 m3
Q= q , q , q
1 2 3
The rotation matrix Q * is the matrix that defines the rotation of the master triad Q ,
m
on to the slave triad Q.
When modelling different types of joints, the master variables, d m and Q , are
m
generally not entirely independent from the slave variables, d and Q . Depending on
the type of joint, some of the components of the displacement vectors, d m and d ,
and/or parameters of the rotation matrices Q and Q , can be the same. Different types
m
of joints are defined by releasing displacements and/or rotations around chosen axes.
In a geometrically nonlinear analysis these axes rotate together with the structure. For
translational joints, the 'difference vector', (with local components), between the
master and slave variables is, when transformed into coordinates defined by the master
triad, equal to the vector of released displacements (fig.7.2.8-6):
s = QT
m
Using these equations a relationship can be established between the variations of the
master, slave and released freedoms. This relationship can then be used to derive a
modified stiffness matrix and internal force vector which accounts for any released
freedoms. Full details of this derivation can be found in [J2] while (fig.7.2.8-6) and
(fig.7.2.8-7) illustrate a prismatic (sliding) and revolute (hinge) release.
51
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Y
Y
V
2
Y X
W Z
U
1
X
W Z
X
3
Y
y
x 2
z 1
52
7.2 Beam Elements
q2
6 4
q1
q3
e2 5
e1
e3
t1
1
t2
t3
Y 3 2
Final Configuration ln
d2
lo
d1
x 21
Y x2 Initial Configuration
x1
X
Z
53
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
e3
e2
e1 q3
d
q2
dm
q1
qm3
q m2
q m1
e3
e2
e1
qm3
qm2
qm1
54
7.2 Beam Elements
e3
e2 qm3
q3
q2
e1
q m2
q m 3= q 1
55
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
56
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
7ZR'LPHQVLRQDO&RQWLQXXP(OHPHQWV
6WDQGDUG,VRSDUDPHWULF(OHPHQWV
Isoparametric finite elements utilise the same shape functions to interpolate both the
displacements and geometry, i.e.
n
U= N b, gU
i =1
i i
displacement
n
geometry X= N b, gX
i =1
i i
b g
where N i , is the element shape function for node i and n is the number of nodes.
Fig.7.3.1-1 shows the nodal configurations available within LUSAS.
The nodal degrees of freedom are U and V.
All the isoparametric elements described in this section must be defined using only X
and Y coordinates. For 3-D plane membrane elements see section 7.5 on space
membrane elements A complete description of their formulation is given in [H1,B2].
The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).
3ODQH VWUHVV 430 430 730 730 43. 73.
The plane stress elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of out of
plane direct stress and shear stresses is negligible, i.e.
z = 0, xz = 0, yz = 0
The plane stress elements are suitable for analysing structures which are thin in the out
of plane direction, e.g. thin plates subject to in-plane loading (fig.7.3.1-2).
Note. The thickness of the material is defined at each node and may vary over the
element.
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is defined as
U
X =
X
V
Y =
Y
57
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
U V
XY = +
Y X
The plane strain elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of out of
plane direct strain and shear strains is negligible, i.e.
Z = 0, YZ = 0, XZ = 0
The plane strain elements are suitable for analysing structures which are thick in the
out of plane direction, e.g. dams or thick cylinders (fig.7.3.1-3). The infinitesimal
strain-displacement relationship is defined as
58
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
U
X =
X
V
Y =
Y
U V
XY = +
Y X
LM E + ,
z
xz z x
OP T
Orthotropic c h = TMM E
0 t
x
E
PP
MMN z
yz z + y , xy PPQ
E y
59
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
The axisymmetric elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of out of
plane shear stresses is negligible, i.e.
XZ = 0, YZ = 0
60
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
to maintain symmetry.
Note. To obtain a valid material
1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2
xy < E x / E y
d i b
xz < E x / E z g yz < E y / E zy
d i
The thermal strain vector is defined as
T
Isotropic c h = T , , 0,
0 t
T
Orthotropic d i = T , ,
0 t x y xy , z
The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of
Stress Output
X , Y , XY , Z the direct and shear stresses
max , min the maximum and minimum principal stresses
the angle between the maximum principal stress and the
positive X-axis
S the maximum shear stress
V von Mises equivalent stress
Strain Output
X , Y , XY , z the direct and shear strains
max , min the maximum and minimum principal strains
the angle between the maximum principal strain and the
positive X-axis
S the maximum shear strain
V von Mises equivalent strain
Stress resultant output, which accounts for the thickness of the element, is available as
an alternative to stress output for the plane stress elements, i.e
Stress Resultant Output
N X , N Y , N XY , N z the direct and shear stress resultants/unit length
N max , N min the maximum and minimum principal stress
resultants/unit length
61
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
62
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
Plane Strain
2 2
X = +
LM OP
U 1 U
+
LM OP
1 V
X 2 X
N Q 2 X
N Q
2 2
V 1 L U O 1 L V O
= + + M P
X 2 MN Y PQ
Y
2 N Y Q
U V U U V V
XY = + + +
Y X X Y X Y
Axisymmetric
2 2
X = +
LM OP
U 1 U
+
LM OP
1 V
X 2 X
N Q 2 X
N Q
2 2
V 1 L U O 1 L V O
= + + M P
X 2 MN Y PQ
Y
2 N Y Q
U V U U V V
XY = + + +
Y X X Y X Y
2
Z =
LM OP
U 1 U
+ symmetry about the Y axis
N Q
R 2 R
2
V 1 LVO
or = + M P
Z symmetry about the X axis
R 2 NRQ
The output is now in terms of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and Green-
Lagrange strains referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.
b. An Updated Lagrangian formulation, which takes account of large
displacements and moderately large strains provided that the strain increments
are small. The output is now in terms of the true Cauchy stresses and the
strains approximate to logarithmic strains. The loading approximates to being
non-conservative.
c. An Eulerian formulation, which takes account of large displacements and
large strains. The output is in terms of true Cauchy stresses and the strains
approximate to logarithmic strains. The loading is non-conservative.
63
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
3 5
6
4
1 1 2
2 3
3 6 5
4 7
4
8
2 2 3
1 1
64
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
65
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Problem Definition
QPN8 elements
TPN6 elements
QPN4 elements
66
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
QAX4 elements
QAX8 elements
67
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
X, Y +ve tension
Y X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y
X Y
X X
X Y
Y
X
68
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
(QKDQFHG6WUDLQ(OHPHQWV43004310
4$;0
The lower order enhanced strain elements exhibit improved accuracy in coarse meshes
when compared with their parent elements QPM4,QPN4 and QAX4, particularly if
bending predominates. In addition, these elements do not suffer from 'locking' in the
nearly incompressible limit. The elements are based on a three-field mixed
formulation [S8] in which stresses, strains and displacements are represented by three
independent functions in three separate vector spaces. The formulation is based on the
inclusion of an assumed 'enhanced' strain field which is related to internal degrees of
freedom. These internal degrees of freedom are eliminated at the element level before
assembly of the stiffness matrix for the structure. The formulation provides for the
following three conditions to be satisfied
Independence of the enhanced and standard strain interpolation functions.
L2 orthogonality of the stress and enhanced strains.
Capability of the element to model a constant state of stress after enforcing the
orthogonality condition, i.e. requirement for passing the patch test.
In addition to ensuring that the element passes the patch test, these conditions also
allow the stress field to be eliminated from the formulation.
)RUPXODWLRQ
The formulation requires that the total strain is expressed as the sum of a 'compatible'
strain and an 'enhanced' strain
= c + e
The compatible strain is directly related to the displacements of the element nodes in
the standard manner. The enhanced strain is related to internal degrees of freedom
which are eliminated using static condensation at the element level. The enhanced
strains are therefore discontinuous between elements. The weak form of the three field
variational equations for equilibrium, compatibility and constitutive relationship may
be expressed as
z
T
c d R T a = 0
z
T
e d = 0
LM W OP d = 0
z
T
+
N Q
69
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
where R is the applied loading, W is the strain energy density, a are nodal
displacements and is the stress vector.
By enforcing the so called L2 orthogonality condition between stress and enhanced
strain, terms involving T e will disappear. This allows the stress field to be
eliminated from the formulation.
The compatible and enhanced strains are computed from
c = Ba
e = G e
z
T
c D Bda + Gd e R T a d +
{ } z
T
e D Bda + Gd e
{ } d = 0
The following matrices are defined for use in discretising this equation
Kak f = z
BT D B d ( n el * nel matrix)
Ha k f = z
G T D G d ( mel * mel matrix)
ak f = z
G T D B d ( mel * n el matrix)
n el is the dimension of the element displacement field, mel is the number element
enhanced strain modes. D is the modulus matrix at loadstep k.
ha k f = z
Ga k fT a k f d
where h (k) is the internal force vector relating to the incompatible modes which is
subsequently eliminated at the element level.
Using standard finite element techniques for assembling the system of equations gives
70
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
MN a f
k S V=S V
Ha f PQ T| a f W| T| 0 h a f W|
k k +1 k
K
a k faa k +1f = a k f
where
K
a k f = K a k f a k f T H a k f 1 a k f
a kf = R P
akf
P
a k f = P a k f a k f T H a k f 1 h a k f
71
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
where
N1 = b g 12 e1 j, 2
N2 = a f 12 e1 j 2
where
N = a 0 + a1 + a 2 + h
and
1 T
a0 = 1 1 1 1
4
1 T
a1 = 1 1 1 1
4
1 T
a2 = 1 1 1 1
4
1 T
h= 1 1 1 1
4
T
x = x1 x 2 x3 x 4
T
y = y1 y 2 y3 y 4
72
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
R| eu, j g
T U|
|| T
||
i =S du, i g V|
|| T T ||
|T d u , i g + e u , j
g
W
R| T
1 g0
1
U|
|| T 0
g
2 2
||
LM 0 0 0 0 O|
P| T 0 ||
1 g2
= M0 0 0 0 P S V| = E i
ie
MN 0 0 2 PQ |
2 | T 0
2 g1
||
|| T
1 g
||
|T T
2 g W
The stress field for the element is derived from the linear uncoupled stress field [P2]
xR| 1 U| LM OP
= y =
S| 1
V| MM PP
xyT W 1
N Q
The introduction of four internal degrees of freedom allows four of the nine stress
parameters () to vanish. The remaining terms satisfy the equilibrium equations. By
basing the formulation on natural coordinates the element is less sensitive when
distorted and possesses no zero-energy deformation modes. Full details of the
elimination of the four stress parameters is described in [P2] for a hybrid element. The
final contravariant stress field using five parameters is defined as
R| U| L1 0 0 0 OP
= |S| |V = M0
|| MMN0
1 0 0 P
|T
W 0 1 0 0PQ
zz1
1 1
1
r
T
dd 0
This condition is violated if the six initial enhanced strain parameters () are used.
However, the condition is satisfied if
5 = 6
73
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Forcing this equality, and hence L2 orthogonality, gives the final enhanced strain
interpolation matrix as
LM 0 0 0 OP
E= 0 0 0
MM PP
0 0 2
N 2
Q
This matrix is used in linear analyses but for nonlinear applications four enhanced
strain parameters are used with the final column of E deleted [S8]. The final
interpolation functions E also allow condition (III) to be satisfied. This is a
requirement for passing the patch test [S8] and is implied in the sense that:
z z
1
1 1
1
E dd 0
The procedure for establishing the enhanced strain interpolation matrix for the
axisymmetric element is similar to that used for the plane elements. The initial matrix
is given by
LM 0 0 0 0 OP
0 0
=M PP
0 0
Ei
MM0 0 0
PQ
N0 0 0 0
For the axisymmetric case, a factor r(,) will be included in the integrand for
enforcing orthogonality
zz1
1 1
1
r T dd 0
where
=
T
, = 2
r = rT N
z = zT N
r = r1, r2 , r3 , r4
z = z1, z 2 , z3 , z 4
74
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
Inclusion of the factor r( ,) means that the orthogonality condition is violated using
this interpolation matrix. Simo and Rifai [S8] have derived interpolation functions
which account for the factor r and satisfy this condition
E = Ei
z z
1
1
1
1
1
r dd
z z
1
1
1
1
E i r dd
LM 0 0 0 0 OP
P
=M
0 0 0 0
MM 0 0 0 P
MN 0 0 0 0 PQ
P
where
1 r T a1 1 rT a2 1 rT h
= , = , =
3 rT a0 3 rT a0 9 rT a0
The comments made in section 7.3.1.6 regarding the nonlinear capability of the
standard elements are also applicable to these elements. The nonlinear formulation for
the enhanced strain elements involves enforcing orthogonality between assumed
Green-Lagrange strains and 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses. The geometrically nonlinear
performance of these elements is much improved in comparison with the standard
elements.
75
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
76
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
,QFRPSDWLEOH3ODQH0HPEUDQH(OHPHQW30,
)RUPXODWLRQ
is replaced with
n 2
U = N i , U i + Pi , a i
b g b g
i =1 i =1
where
b g
P1 , = 1 2 and b g
P2 , = 1 2
and a i are nodeless degrees of freedom which are condensed out before element i
assembly. The nodal configuration and non-conforming shape functions are shown in
fig.7.3.3-1.
The element passes the patch test (ensuring convergence as the mesh is refined) and
the displacement field is approximately an order higher than the QPM4 element (i.e.
quadratic displacement accuracy).
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is the same as QPM4, i.e.
U
X =
X
V
Y =
Y
U V
XY = +
Y X
The isotropic and orthotropic elastic modulus matrices are defined as
LM1 0
OP
Isotropic D=
E M 1 0 P
e1 j MM0
2
0
a f PP
1
N 2 Q
1
LM 1 / E x yx / E y 0 OP
Orthotropic D = M / E
xy x 1 / Ey 0 PP
MN 0 0 1 / G xy Q
77
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
T
Orthotropic d i = T , ,
0 t x y xy
The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.3.3-4. The
stress resultants are evaluated directly at the nodes.
1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ
78
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
Y,V
3
4
2
1 P 1 = 1-2 P 2 = 1-2
X,U
79
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Y
4
2
y
x
1
X, Y +ve tension
Y X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y
X Y
X X
X Y
Y
X
'([SOLFLW'\QDPLFV(OHPHQWV
Explicit time integration schemes have used simple linear elements rather than those
of a higher order by virtue of their computational efficiency. A number of further
advantages may also be obtained in explicit dynamic analyses
The use of higher order shape functions creates difficulties at the contact
interface in the form of uncontrolled overlap.
80
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
It has been shown that higher order continuum elements require a time step
reduced from that of linear elements because of the greater mass associated
with the interior nodes.
The mass lumping formulations for higher order elements are currently
impractical for modelling shock wave propagation since the resulting
numerical noise pollutes or destroys the solution.
The combination of mass lumping with linear elements, when applied in
conjunction with the central difference operator, increases accuracy in
solutions by virtue of their respective compensatory spectral errors.
The linear explicit dynamics elements have been implemented to take advantage of
these benefits. They are for use only with the explicit central difference time
integration scheme.
The explicit dynamics elements are based upon the isoparametric approach in which
the same shape functions are used to interpolate both the displacements and the
geometry, i.e.
n
displacement U= N b, gU
i =1
i i
n
geometry X = N i , X i
b g
i =1
b g
where N i , is the element shape function for node and n is the number of nodes.
Fig.7.3.1-1 shows the nodal configurations available within LUSAS. The nodal
degrees of freedom are U and V. All the explicit dynamics elements described in this
section must be defined using only X and Y coordinates.
3ODQH VWUHVV 430( 730(
The plane stress elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of the out of
plane direct stress and shear stresses is negligible, i.e.
Z = 0, XZ = 0, YZ = 0
The plane stress elements are suitable for analysing structures which are thin in the out
of plane direction, e.g. thin plates subject to in-plane loading (fig.7.3.4-2).
Note that the thickness of the material is defined at each node and may vary over the
element.
A rate relationship is used to define the strain-displacement characteristics as
&
t U
t & x =
X
t
81
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
tV&
t & y =
Y
t
& t V
t U &
t & XY = +
t Y t X
t & z =
LM U& + V& OP
t t
MN X Y PQ
t t
T
Orthotropic d i = T , ,
0 t x y xy
The plane strain elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of the out of
plane direct strain and shear strains is negligible, i.e.
Z = 0, YZ = 0, XZ = 0
The plane strain elements are suitable for analysing structures which are thick in the
out of plane direction, e.g. dams or thick cylinders (fig.7.3.4-3).
A rate relationship is used to define the strain-displacement characteristics as
&
tU
t &X =
tX
&
tV
t &Y =
tY
82
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
&
tU &
tV
t & XY = +
tY tX
t &Y = 0
Orthotropic d i = a1 + fT , ,
0 t x y
T
xy
The axisymmetric elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of out of
plane shear stresses is negligible, i.e.
XZ = 0, YZ = 0
83
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
The elements are defined in the XY-plane and symmetry can be specified about either
the X or Y axes.
Standard axisymmetric isoparametric elements are formulated with the Galerkin
weighted residual method, in which the governing differential equation is utilised
directly to form a weighted residual statement, where the weighting functions are
generally the element shape functions. For large strain axisymmetric analyses, the use
of elements based on the Galerkin method leads to computational difficulties near the
axis of symmetry. These difficulties may be overcome by formulating the elements
with the Petrov-Galerkin method [G2]. This method is also a weighted residual
method, however, the weighting functions are taken to be the product of the element
shape functions and the inverse of the radius, i.e. eliminating the radial weighting in
the governing equations.
The use of this particular formulation produces a time dependent mass matrix and as
such must be computed each time.
A rate relationship is used to define the strain-displacement characteristics as
&
tU
t
&X =
tX
&
tV
t &Y =
tY
&
tU &
tV
t
& XY =
+
tY tX
t &
U
t
&Z =
(symmetry about the Y axis)
R
t &
V
or t
&Z =
(symmetry about the X axis)
R
The isotropic and orthotropic linear elastic modulus matrices are defined as
LMa1 f 0 O
P
E MM a1 f 0 P
D=
Isotropic
a1 fa1 2f M 0 0 a1 22f 0 PP
MN 0 a1 fPQ
1
LM 1 / E / E 0 / E OP
x yx y zx z
/ E 1/ E 0 / E
Orthotropic D=M
MM 0
xy x
0
y
1/ G 0
zy PP z
xy
MN / E / E 0 1 / E PPQ
xz x yz y z
84
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
T
Orthotropic d i = T , , ,
0 t x y xy z
A one point quadrature integration rule is utilised. This provides elements that are
efficient, do not lock when incompressible behaviour is being modelled, e.g. plastic
straining with von Mises plasticity, and integrate the stresses at the most accurate
location.
The location of the integration point is given in Appendix A.
(OHPHQW VWDELOLVDWLRQ
The utilisation of one point Gauss quadrature has a limitation in that zero energy
deformation or hourglass modes are generated (see fig.7.3.4-5). The effects of such
modes are minimised by the viscous damping technique [H7].
The technique provides a damping force capable of preventing the formation of
spurious modes but which has negligible influence on the true structural modes. This
is possible since the spurious modes are orthogonal to the real deformations.
The rate of diagonal drifting is defined by the velocity at which the mid-points of the
element are separating. This is utilised as the basis for hourglass detection, giving the
hourglass velocities as
4
h ij = x& ik jk ai = 1,2f
j =1
in which A is the current element area, Q hg is a constant which is modified via the
SYSTEM command and is usually set to a value between 0.05 and 0.15, and x& ik is the
nodal velocity of the kth node in the ith direction. is the current element density,
while c, the material sound speed is defined from
85
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
c2 =
a f
E 1
a fa f
1 + 1 2
The hourglass base vectors for the four node quadrilateral are defined as:-
i = 1 - 1 1 - 1 T
these viscous forces are included directly into the element force vector.
6KRFN ZDYH VPRRWKLQJ
The shock discontinuities that occur in impact problems may promote numerical
instabilities which must be smoothed out. This is achieved using an artificial bulk
viscosity method. The salient characteristic of the method is the augmentation of
element pressure with an artificial viscous term (q) prior to the evaluation of the
element internal force. This is zero in expanding elements and non-zero in contracting
elements. The algorithm has the effect of spreading the shock front over a small
number of elements.
The exact form of artificial viscosity is somewhat arbitrary and the method used is
based on the formulation originally proposed in [V1]
q = L c D kk Q1 L c D kk + Q 2 c
where Q1 and Q2 are dimensionless constants which default to 1.5 and 0.06
respectively, and may be modified as necessary via the SYSTEM command. D kk is
the trace of the velocity strain tensor and Lc is the characteristic length of the element
which is related to the smallest element diagonal as
2A
Lc =
LD
where
2 2 2 2
L D = MAX 1 / 2 y 24
e + 1 / 2 x 42 , 1 / 2 y 31 + 1 / 2 x13 j
in which the distance between any two nodal points i,j is given as
x ij = x i x j
The quadratic term in strain rate is chosen to be small except in regions of very large
gradients. The linear term, however, is included to control the small spurious
oscillations following the shock waves in which the gradients are insufficient to make
the quadratic term effective. Care should be taken with the linear term since there is a
danger of distorting the solution.
In converging geometries, the centred strain rate term is negative and the q term is
then non-zero. This occurs even though no shocks are generated and results in a non-
86
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
The direct stresses at time t+t are modified by the addition of the artificial viscosity
pressure q as follows
x = x + q and y = y + q
The contribution to the force vector due to the element stresses is evaluated from the
equilibrium equations of Timoshenko as
b
Fx = x / x + xy / y + r / r = 0 g
Fy = y / y + xy / x + xy / r = 0
Note that the terms r r and xy r from these two equations are not typically included
in static analyses and occur as a result of the inertial effects. The hourglass forces are
included to give the final force vector. The mass matrix is computed as each node i as
t M x = 1 / 4 t t A = 1 / 4 o t A t v / o v
e j
i
tMy = 1 / 4 A = 1 / 4 Ae v / v j
t t o t t o
i
The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of
Stress Output
X , Y , XY , Z the direct and shear stresses
max , min the maximum and minimum principal stresses
the angle between the maximum principal stress and the
positive X-axis
S the maximum shear stress
V von Mises equivalent stress
Strain Output
X , Y , XY , Z the direct and shear strains
max , min the maximum and minimum principal strains
the angle between the maximum principal strain and the
positive X-axis
S the maximum shear strain
V von Mises equivalent strain
87
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Stress resultant output which accounts for the thickness of the element is available as
an alternative to stress output for the plane stress elements, i.e.
Stress Resultant Output
N X , N Y , N XY , N Z the direct and shear stress resultants/unit length
N max , N min the maximum and minimum principal stress max min
resultants/unit length
the angle between the maximum principal stress resultant
and the positive X-axis
NS the maximum shear stress resultant/unit length
NV von Mises equivalent stress resultant/unit length.
The sign convention for stress, stress resultants and strain output is shown in fig.7.3.4-
5. The Gauss point stress is usually more accurate than the nodal values. The nodal
values of stress and strain are obtained using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.
1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ
88
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
3
3 4
2
2 1
1
89
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Thick Cylinder
Thick Cylinder
90
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
X, Y +ve tension
Y X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y
X Y
X X
X Y
Y
X
7ZR3KDVH3ODQH6WUDLQ&RQWLQXXP(OHPHQWV
7313DQG4313
)RUPXODWLRQ
These isoparametric finite elements utilise the same shape functions to interpolate
both the displacements/pressures and geometry, i.e.
n
displacement/pressures U= Ni b, gUi
i =1
91
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
n
geometry X= N b, gX
i =1
i i
b g
where N i , is the element shape function for node i and n is the number of nodes.
Fig.7.3.5-1 shows the nodal configurations available within LUSAS.
The nodal degrees of freedom are U, V and P at the corner nodes and U and V at the
midside nodes.
The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).
The plane strain assumptions and details of elastic modulus matrices applicable for
these elements are described in section 7.3.1.2.
These elements are used to model the behaviour of a two phase medium such as soil.
In this instance the two phases comprise the soil skeleton and the pore water fluid.
Separate equations are derived for each phase, coupled by the interaction of the pore
pressure and the soil deformation. The soil skeleton is analysed in terms of effective
stress (total stress minus pore water pressure), taking into account the loading due to
the pore pressure; whilst the pore fluid analysis takes account of the volumetric strain
due to the soil skeleton deformation.
The finite element method is used to solve the coupled equations in terms of nodal
displacements and pore pressures. Two plane strain elements QPN8P (quadrilateral)
and TPN6P (triangular) based on a mixed displacement-pressure formulation are
available in LUSAS to solve these problems.
8QGUDLQHG FRQGLWLRQV
In this type of analysis no consolidation is assumed to take place and the coupled
governing equations for static undrained conditions can be expressed as:
LMK L U F OPR U R U
=
MNL
T
S P 0 PQST VW ST VW
where the matrices K, L and S are defined as:
K= z
v
BT D' B dv
z
L = - BT mN dv
v
S= - z v
1 T
Ke
N N dv
92
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
When fluid flow in the soil is to be considered drained conditions are assumed.
Currently in LUSAS only linear material models are available for this type of analysis.
The coupled governing equations for linear transient consolidation can be expressed
as:
LMK L OPRUU LMK L OPRUU |R F |U
SV = S V +S V
MNL
T
S + TH P TP W MNL
T
S + (1 )TH P TP W T| QW|
Q t + t Q t
where:
F is the incremental load
Q the incremental flow
the time stepping scheme parameter (set to1.0 for backward Euler scheme)
H the permeability matrix
The permeability matrix H is defined in terms of the shape function derivatives and a
permeability matrix of the soil, K , as:
p
z
H = N K N dv
v
T
p
The bulk modulus of the soil particle Ks is very large compared to the bulk modulus
of the pore fluid K f . Therefore the overall compressibility of the soil mass is
approximated to be that of the pore fluid.
1 (1 )
= +
Ke K f Ks Kf
where:
Ke is the equivalent bulk modulus of the soil
K f the bulk modulus of the pore fluid
Ks the bulk modulus of the solid soil particle
the porosity of the soil
93
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
The two phase continuum elements can only be employed in a nonlinear analysis
when undrained conditions are assumed. The following analysis types may be carried
out:-
(Materially nonlinear analysis, utilising the elasto-plastic constitutive laws
[O1] (section 4.2) .
Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5
5 U,V,P
6
7 U,V,P
U,V,P U,V
6
U,V
U,V 4 U,V 4
8 U,V
/DUJHVWUDLQ0L[HGW\SH(OHPHQWV431/4$;/
1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ
x
F=
X
94
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
where X and x denote the material and spatial position vector of a material particle.
The elements are currently available with Hencky and Ogden matrial models
described in section 4.10, so that the principal Kirchhoff stresses i = i [C16]
i
are obtained from the corresponding stored-energy function as
i = 2G ln i + kJ J 1b g
for the Hencky material model, where G is the shear modulus, k is the bulk modulus
and i = i / 3 J are the deviatoric stretches, and as
N
p 1 p p p
i = p [i b g
( 1 + 2 + 3 )] + kJ J 1
3
p =1
for the Ogden material model, where N is the number of pairs of Ogden parameters
p and p , while k and i have the same meaning as for the Hencky model. By
introducing the independent pressure variable as
b g
p = k J 1
and by transforming i from the principal directions the Kirchhoff stress tensor is
obtained as
= 2Gn ln nT pJ
for the Hencky material model, where is the diagonal matrix of deviatoric stretches
and n = [ n1 , n2 , n3 ] is the Eulerian triad (spatial orientation of the principal directions)
and as
N
p p
p[
1
=n tr ( )I]n T pJ
p =1
3
f z LMNb
V0
g kp OPQdV
J 1 + 0 =0
95
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
where the first equation is the conventional nodal equilibrium equation, where R is
the vector of applied loading and P is the vector of nodal internal forces, and the
b g
second equation follows from p = k J 1 . By expressing the stress tensor in the
vector form, the vector of nodal internal forces can be written as
P= z
V0
T
bg
B x dV0
where, in line with the adopted spatial approach, x is the spatial and not the material
position vector. Note that the formulation is defined in terms of the Kirchhoff and not
the Cauchy stresses, hence integration is still performed over the initial rather than the
current volume.
/LQHDULVDWLRQ RI WKH HTXLOLEULXP WDQJHQW VWLIIQHVV PDWUL[
By expanding the element equilibrium into a Taylors series, the following linearised
equilibrium is obtained
L O
RSgUV MM K K PPRSa UV = RSgUV
11 12
Tf W MK K PTpW Tf W
T
N Q12 22
where a is the vector of nodal displacements, and the entries in the tangent stiffness
matrix are obtained by the consistent linearisation of the element equilibrium.
In order to derive the subvector K12 and (in particular) submatrix K it helps to
11
regard the vector of nodal internal forces P as coming from the internal virtual power
via
a& T P = z
V0
&: dV0
da 1
where a& = is the time rate of the nodal displacements, and & = ( L + LT ) is the
dt 2
strain-rate tensor with
u&
L = d& =
x
u
with L being the so-called velocity gradient and d = being only introduced for the
x
sake of convenience during the following derivation. Also &: = tr ( T & ) = & ijij , where
96
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
the repeated indices indicate summation over the dimension of the space. For
configuration-independent loads, a& Tg is equal to a& T P , hence
ij ij
a& T ( K a + K12p) =
11 z
V0
(& ij ij + & ij
kl
kl )dV0 + z
V0
& ij
p
pdV0
ij
where, for both material models, = J ij so, by introducing standard FE
p
matrix/vector notation whereby & = B( x)a& , subvector K12 immediately follows as
z
K12 = B ( x)iJdV0
V0
T
R|1U| R|1U|
|1|
with i = S1V for the plane strain element QPN4L and i = S V for the axisymmetric
|T0|W ||0||
T1W
element QAX4L. By noting the relationship between Kirchhoff stress and second
Piola-Kirchhoff stress S via = FSFT and bearing in mind that FF1 = d we obtain
= F( E S E) FT + d + d T = + d + d T , or in indicial notation
T
ij
kl = T,ij + d ik kj + ik d jk = Dijkl
tTK
kl + d ik kj + ik d jk
kl
where is called the Truesdell rate of Kirchhoff stress (which is often used in rate-
T
dependent constitutive models; here it is introduced because it enables a
tTK
straightforward formation of the material part of the stiffness matrix) and Dijkl is the
tangent constitutive matrix relating the strain-rate tensor to the Truesdell rate of
1
Kirchhoff stress. By using & ij = ( d& ij + d& ji ) and noting the symmetry of the Kirchhoff
2
ij
stress tensor ij = ji , the product & ij kl can be written as
kl
ij
& ij kl = & ijDijkl
tTK
kl + d& ijd ik kj + d& jid ik kj
kl
97
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
so that, after noting the symmetry of the Kirchhoff stress tensor, the product & ijij
reduces to
& ij ij = d& ik d kj ij
a& T K a =
11 z
V0
(& ijDijkl
tTK
kl + d& ij kjd ik )dV0
K
11
=
V0
z [ BT ( x) D
tTK
B( x) + G T ( x) $ G ( x)]dV0
where the tangent constitutive matrix D , which relates the strain-rate to the
tTK
Truesdell rate of Kirchhoff stress can be defined in different ways. An easy way to
define it is by rotating the constitutive matrix D , which relates the strain-rate with
tTKE
the Truesdell rate of Kirchhoff stress, where both of these are given with components
in the Eulerian frame, via
tTK
Dijkl = nia n jb n kc n ld Dabcd
tTKE
where nij denotes components of the Eulerian triad n . The components of the
constitutive matrix D follow from the stretches and the principal Kirchhoff
tTKE
stresses. By dropping the summation convention, the normal components are
defined as
98
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements
tTKE = i
Diijj 2 i ij
j
j
i 2
j = pJ + 2 ij
j 3
i
N p p p 1 p p p p p
j
j
= 3
[3 i ij + (1 + 2 + 3 ) i j ] pJ
3
p =1
f K12
T +
a K22p = z LMN
V0
J +
p
k
OP
dV0
Q
where K12 has already been defined and
K22 = z
V0
dV0
k
99
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
100
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
7KUHH'LPHQVLRQDO&RQWLQXXP(OHPHQWV
(OHPHQWW\SHV+;+;+;313131
7+7+
6WDQGDUG,VRSDUDPHWULF(OHPHQWV
Three dimensional isoparametric finite elements utilise the same shape functions to
interpolate both the displacements and geometry, i.e.
n
displacement U= N b, gU
i =1
i i
n
geometry X = N i , X i
b g
i =1
b g
where N i , is the element shape function for node i and n is the number of i nodes.
Fig.7.4.1-1 shows the nodal configurations available within LUSAS. The nodal
degrees of freedom are
U, V and W at each node
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is fully 3-D and is defined as
U
X =
X
V
Y =
Y
U
Z =
Z
U V
XY = +
Y X
V W
YZ = +
Z Y
U W
XZ = +
Z X
101
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Isotropic
LM b 1 g 0 0 0
OP
MM PP
MM b 1 g 0 0 0 PP
MM PP
E M b 1 g 0 0 0
PP
D=
b 1 gb 1 2 g MM 0 0 0
b 1 2 g
0 0 PP
MM 2
MM 0 0 0 0
b 1 2 g 0 PP
2 P
MM b 1 2 g P
MN 0 0 0 0 0 PP
2 Q
Orthotropic
LM 1 / E x yx E y zx E z 0 0 0 OP
MM / E
xy x 1/ Ey zy / E z 0 0 0 PP
/ E yz / E y 1/ Ez 0 0 0
D= M
MM 0
xz x
0 0 1 / G xy 0 0
PP
MM 0 0 0 0 1 / G yz 0 PP
N 0 0 0 0 0 1 / G xz PQ
where yx , zx , and zy are defined by
yx = xy E y / E x zx = xz E z / E x zy = yz E z / E y
to maintain symmetry.
T
Orthotropic d i = T , , ,
0 t x y z xy , yz , xz
102
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).
The element output can be obtained at both the element nodes and Gauss points and
consists of
Stress Output
X , Y , Z , XY , YZ , XZ the direct and shear stresses
Strain Output
X , Y , Z , XY , YZ , XZ the direct and shear strains
Principal stresses and strains and the corresponding direction cosines may also be
output.
The sign convention for stress and strain output is shown in fig.7.4.1-3.
The Gauss point stresses are usually more accurate than the nodal values. The nodal
values of stress and strain are obtained using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.
103
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Y =
LM OP + 1 LM V OP + 1 LM W OP
V 1 U
+
2 2 2
Y 2 Y
N Q 2 N Y Q 2 N Y Q
W 1 L U O 1 L V O
2
1 L W O
2 2
= + M P + M P + M P
Z
Z 2 N Z Q 2 N Z Q 2 N Z Q
U V U U V V W W
XY = + + + +
Y X X Y X Y X Y
V W U U V V W W
YZ = + + + +
Z Y Y Z Y Z Y Z
U W U U V V W W
XZ = + + + +
Z X X Z X Z X Z
The output is now in terms of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and Green-
Lagrange strains referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.
b) An Updated Lagrangian formulation, which takes account of large
displacements and moderately large strains provided that the strain increments
are small. The output is now in terms of the true Cauchy stresses and the strains
approximate to logarithmic strains. The loading approximates to being non-
conservative.
c) An Eulerian formulation, which takes account of large displacements and large
strains. The output is in terms of true Cauchy stresses and the strains
approximate to logarithmic strains. The loading is non-conservative.
104
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
HX8
HX16
PN6
HX20
PN12
PN15
TH4 TH10
105
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Y
Arrows indicate +ve
stress directions
X Y
Y Z
X Y
Y
Y Z
X
X Z
X Z
Z
106
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
(QKDQFHG6WUDLQ(OHPHQW+;0
The low order enhanced strain element HX8M exhibits improved accuracy in coarse
meshes when compared with the parent element HX8, particularly if bending
predominates. In addition, the element does not suffer from 'locking' in the nearly
incompressible limit. The element is based on a three-field mixed formulation [S8] in
which stresses, strains and displacements are represented by three independent
functions in three separate vector spaces. The formulation is based on the inclusion of
an assumed 'enhanced' strain field which is related to internal degrees of freedom.
These internal degrees of freedom are eliminated at the element level before assembly
of the stiffness matrix for the structure. The formulation provides for the following
three conditions to be satisfied
)RUPXODWLRQ
The general approach taken to formulate this element is identical to that described for
the 2-D continuum elements in section 7.3.2.
bg bg
u = N1 1 + N 2 2 + N3 3 bg
where
N1 = b g 12 e1 j, N af = 12 e1 j, N bg = 12 e1 j
2
2
2
3
2
R|x a U| R|x
T
1
T
h1 U| R|
xT h3 xT kU| R| U|
g = Sy a V + Sy
T T
h1 + y T h 3 + y T k = g 0 + g1 + g1 + g
V S| V S| V
1
|Tz a |W |Tz
T
1
T
h |W
1 Tz T
h |W
3 Tz T
k |W
1 1 3
107
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
R|x a U| R|x
T
2
T
h1U| xT h2 R| xT k U| R| U|
g = Sy a V + Sy
T
2
T
h1 + y h 2 + y T k = g 0 + g1 + g1 + g
V| T
S| V| S| V|
|Tz a |W |Tz
T
2
T
h W
1 Tz T
h2 W Tz T
kW
2 1 2
R|x a U| R|x
T
3
T
h2 U| R|
x T h3 xT k U| R| U|
g = Sy a V + Sy
T
3
T
h 2 + y h 3 + y T k = g 0 + g1 + g1 + g
V| T
S| V| S| V|
|Tz a |W |Tz
T
3
T
h2 W Tz T
h W 3 Tz T
kW
3 2 3
where
1
a1 = 1 1 1 1 1 1
T
1 1
8
1
a2 = 1 1 1 1 1
T
1 1 1
8
1
a3 = 1 1 1 1
T
1 1 1 1
8
1
h1 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
T
1
h2 = 1 1 1 1 1
T
1 1 1
8
1
h3 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
T
1
8
1
k= 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
T
1
8
T
x = x1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 x8
T
y = y1 y 2 y 3 y 4 y 5 y 6 y 7 y8
T
z = z1 z 2 z3 z 4 z 5 z 6 z 7 z8
The enhanced strain field in isoparametric space can initially be expressed using 21-
parameter interpolation functions as follows
108
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
R|d u, i g
T U|
||d u, i g
T ||
||d u, i g
T ||
=S
||d u, i g + d u, i g V||
i
T T
||d u, i g + du, i g ||
T
T
||d u, i g + d u, i g ||
T
T
T W
LM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OP
MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P
=M
MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 P
P i
e
P
MM00 00 00 00 0 0 00 0 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 2 2 PQ
P
N 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
= E i ie
MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0P
MN0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1PQ
P
where the contravariant stresses are defined as
=
T
This stress field is similar to the assumed five stress field used by Pian [P2] for a
hybrid stress quadrilateral element. The field satisfies both equilibrium and symmetry
conditions.
The final enhanced strain interpolation matrix is assembled by enforcing the L2
orthogonality condition < , > L2
zzz 1
1 1 1
1 1
T ddd 0
109
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
LM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OP
MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PP
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
E
9
=M
MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0P
P
0 0 0 0 0 0P
MM00 0 0 0 0 0 0 PQ
P
N
Both the final interpolation functions E and E also allow condition III to be
9 18
satisfied. This is a requirement for passing the patch test [S8] and is implied in the
sense that
z z z
1
1 1
1
1
1
E ddd 0
The comments made in section 7.4.1.3 regarding the nonlinear capability of the
standard isoparametric element are also applicable to this element. The nonlinear
formulation for the enhanced strain element involves enforcing orthogonality between
assumed Green-Lagrange strains and 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses. The geometrically
nonlinear performance of this element is much improved in comparison with HX8.
110
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
'([SOLFLW'\QDPLFV(OHPHQWV+;(31(
7+(
Explicit time integration schemes have used simple linear elements rather than those
of a higher order by virtue of their computational efficiency. A number of further
advantages may also be obtained in explicit dynamic analyses
The use of higher order shape functions creates difficulties at the contact
interface in the form of uncontrolled overlap.
It has been shown that higher order continuum elements require a time step
reduced from that of linear elements.
The mass lumping formulations for higher order elements are currently
impractical for modelling shock wave propagation since the resulting
numerical noise pollutes or destroys the solution.
The combination of mass lumping with linear elements, when applied in
conjunction with the central difference operator, increases accuracy in
solutions by virtue of their respective compensatory spectral errors.
The linear explicit dynamics elements have been implemented to take advantage of
these benefits. They are for use only with the explicit central difference time
integration scheme.
The explicit dynamics elements are based upon the isoparametric approach in which
the same shape functions are used to interpolate both the displacements and geometry,
i.e.
n
displacement U= N b, gU
i =1
i i
n
geometry X = N i , X i
b g
i =1
b g
where N i , is the element shape function for node i and n is the number of nodes.
Fig.7.4.3-1 shows the nodal configurations available within LUSAS. The nodal
degrees of freedom are U, V and W at each node.
The velocity strain rates e t+Dt/2are defined from the midpoint velocity ij gradients in
the global axis system. A rate relationship is used to define the strain-displacement
characteristics as
&
t U
t & x =
X
t
111
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
tV&
t & y =
Y
t
t W&
t & z =
Zt
& t V
t U &
t & XY = + t
Y X
t
t V& t W
&
t & YZ = +
t Z t Y
& t W
t U &
t & XZ = + t
Z X
t
Orthotropic
LM 1 / E x yx E y zx E z 0 0 0 OP
MM / E xy x 1 / Ey zy / E z 0 0 0 PP
/ E yz / E y 1 / Ez 0 0 0
D=M
MM 0
xz x
0 0 1 / G xy 0 0
PP
MM 00 0 0 0 1 / G yz 0 PP
N 0 0 0 0 1 / G xz PQ
to maintain symmetry the following relations are utilised
yx = xy E y / E x zx = xz E z / E x zy = yz E z / E y
112
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
T
Orthotropic d i = T , , ,
0 t x y z xy , yz , xz
t
M y i = 1 /8 t t V
A one point quadrature integration rule is utilised. This provides elements that are
efficient and do not lock when incompressible behaviour is being modelled, e.g.
plastic straining with von Mises plasticity. The stresses are integrated at the most
accurate location.
The location of the integration point is given in Appendix I.
The utilisation of one point Gauss quadrature has a limitation in that zero energy
deformation or hourglass modes are generated (see Fig.7.3.3-5). The effects of such
modes are minimised by the viscous damping technique [H7].
The technique provides a damping force capable of preventing the formation of
spurious modes but which has negligible influence on the true structural modes. This
is possible since the spurious modes are orthogonal to the real deformations.
The rate of diagonal drifting is defined by the velocity at which the mid-points of the
element are separating. This is utilised as the basis for hourglass detection, giving the
hourglass velocities as
4
h ij = x& ik jk ai = 1,3f
j =1
113
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
4 L 4 O
fik = Q hg v2e /3 c / 4 dh ij jk i MM1 + 100 Q hg dh ij jk iPP
j =1 N j =1 Q
in which v e is the current element volume, Q hg is a constant which is modified via the
SYSTEM command and is usually set to a value between 0.05 and 0.15, and x& ik is the
nodal velocity of the kth node in the ith direction. is the current element density,
while c, the material sound speed is defined from
c2 =
a f
E 1
a fa f
1 + 1 2
The hourglass base vectors ij for the 8 node solid elements are given as
LM1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 OP T
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PP
=M
1
ij
MM1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
PQ
N1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
these viscous forces are included directly into the element force vector.
The shock discontinuities that occur in impact problems may promote numerical
instabilities which must be smoothed out. This is achieved using an artificial bulk
viscosity method. The salient characteristic of the method is the augmentation of
element pressure with an artificial viscous term (q) prior to the evaluation of the
element internal force. This is zero in expanding elements and non-zero in contracting
elements. The algorithm has the effect of spreading the shock front over a small
number of elements.
The exact form of artificial viscosity is somewhat arbitrary and the method used is
based on the formulation originally proposed in [V1]
q = L c D kk Q1 L c D kk + Q 2 c
where Q1 and Q2 are dimensionless constants which default to 1.5 and 0.06
respectively, and may be modified as necessary via the SYSTEM command. D kk is
the trace of the velocity strain tensor and Lc is the characteristic length of the element
which is related to the smallest element diagonal as
V
Lc =
Af
114
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
where V is the current element volume and A f the current largest face area of the
element. The face area is evaluated by considering each face in turn and using
a f
A f = 4 J 0,0
x x
a f
J 0,0 = *
The direct stresses at time t+t are modified by the addition of the artificial viscosity
pressure q as follows
ii = ii + q
115
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
The element output can be obtained at both the element nodes and Gauss points and
consists of
Stress Output
X , Y , Z , XY , YZ , XZ the direct and shear stresses
Strain Output
X , Y , Z , XY , YZ , XZ the direct and shear strains
Principal stresses and strains and the corresponding direction cosines may also be
output.
The sign convention for stress and strain output is shown in fig.7.4.3-3.
The Gauss point stress is usually more accurate than the nodal values.
The nodal values of stress and strain are obtained using the extrapolation procedures
detailed in section 6.1.
116
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
HX8E
PN6E
TH4E
117
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
HX8E Elements
PN6E Elements
Y
Arrows indicate +ve
stress directions
X Y
Y Z
X Y
Y
Y Z
X
X Z
X Z
Z
118
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
&RPSRVLWH6ROLG(OHPHQWV+;&31&
If brick elements are used for an analysis of composite structures the number of
degrees of freedom even for small laminate structures rapidly becomes very large
leading to prohibitively excessive computer costs. To overcome this difficulty layered
brick elements were developed where several laminae are included in a single
element. For these elements the three degrees of freedom per node are used to
interpolate a displacement field that varies linearly over the thickness and
quadratically in-plane. Each layer is specified by an orthotropic material stiffness
matrix.
In order to speed up the computation, the elements are restricted to constant layer
thicknesses [H13]. This limitation requires the calculation of only a 2x2 Jacobian
matrix. For the integration of the element stiffness matrix, the material stiffnesses are
summed layerwise through the thickness, while the strain-displacement matrices can
be integrated using a plane 2x2 (or 3 corner point quadratic for PN12C) gauss
integration scheme outside the through thickness loop.
The shape functions for the top and bottom surfaces of the composite elements can be
considered to be single membrane element shape functions, see figure 7.4.4-1. The
shape functions N i ( top ) = N i ( bot ) = N i , are defined in terms of natural coordinates and
, for the HX16C element these are given by:
1
Ni =
4
b gb gb
1 + i 1 + i i + i 1 g for corner nodes
1
Ni =
2
jb
1 2i 2 2i 1 + i + i
e g for mid-side nodes
The PN12C element element uses the equivalent shape functions for a 6 noded
triangular membrane. To form the complete shape functions for the brick element N br ,
linear interpolation is used between the functions for the top and bottom surfaces:
1
N Tbr =
2
b g b g
+ 1 N Tia bot f ; + 1 N Ti b top g
The in-plane and through-thickness shape functions can then be separated to give:
N Tbr = T + T
where
1 T T
T = N ;N
2 i i
1
T = N Ti ; N Ti
2
119
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
LM T
+ T 0T 0T OPR u U
U=M
MM
0 T
+
T T
0T
PP|S v |V
0 T
0T T + P |Tw |W
T
N Q
U = Ha
T
v = lv , v ,.............. v q
1 2 n
T
w = lw , w ,........... w q
1 2 n
T =
RS u , v , w , u + v , v + w , u + w UV
T x y z y x z y z x W
The strain displacement relationship is given by:
= Ba
LM T T OP
MM x + x 0T 0T
PP
T T
MM 0 T
+ 0 T PP
y y
MM 2
PP
T
0T T
B=M
M 0 c PP
MM +
T T
T
+
T
0 T PP
MM y y x x
T
P T
P
2 T
MM 0 T
+ P
c y y P
MM 2 T
P T
MN c
T
0T
x
+
x PQ
P
B can be split into two matrices combining in-plane and through thickness terms:
B = B + B
1 2
120
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
where
LM T OP LM T OP
0T 0T 0T 0T
MM x PP MM x PP
T T
MM 0 T
0 P T MM 0 T
0 P
T
MM y PP MM y PP
P 0 P
T 2
0T T T
0T T
B =M
M0 c PP B =M
M0 PP
1
MM T
T
0 P T P 2
MM T
T T
0 P
P
MM y x
P
PT
MM y x
P T
P
2 T
MM 0T
P MM 0
T
0T P
c y P y P
MM 2 P T
MM 0 P T
MN c
T
0T
x PQ
P T
MN 0T
x PQ
P
The restriction of constant layer thicknesses provides an uncoupling between the in-
plane coordinates and the through-thickness coordinate. Consequently for the
transformation of the cartesian derivatives into the natural derivatives only a 2
dimensional Jacobian matrix is required.
R| U| LM x y OPR U
S| V| = MM x
y
PP|S x |V
|T |W MN PQ||T y ||W
or inverted
1 1
= J11 + J12
x
1 1
= J 21 + J 22
y
where c is the depth of the element see figure 7.4.4-1. The differential of the volume is
given by
c
dV = J dd
2
121
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
K= zV
BT DB dV
LM 1 / E x yx E y zx E z 0 0 0 OP1
MM / Exy x 1 / Ey zy / E z 0 0 0 PP
/ E yz / E y 1 / Ez 0 0 0
D=M PP
xz x
MM 0 0 0 1 / G xy 0 0
PP
MM 00 0 0 0 1 / G yz 0
PQ
N 0 0 0 0 1 / G xz
yx = xy E y / E x zx = xz E z / E x zy = yz E z / E y
to maintain symmetry.
As the matrices B and B are independent of , only D varies from layer to layer.
1 2
Therefore the strain-displacement matrices can be left out of the integration through
the thickness:
F L nlay LM OP OP nlay I
GG B MM
T
1
GG N
zlay n MN
D d B + BT
PQ D
1
d
1PQB zlay n 2
JJ
K=
zz
n =1
L O
nlay L
n =1
nlay O 2
JJ c J dd
GG
H
+ B M
T
MN
2 PQ
n =1
z
D d P B + B M
MN
lay n 1
T
2
n =1
z
lay
D d P B J
2
n PQ JK 2
122
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements
LM 1
T 1
T OP
+ J 12 0T 0T
MMJ 11
PP
MM
T 1
T PP
0
T
J 211 + J 22 0
T
MM 2 T
PP
M 0T 0T PP
B =M
c
1 MMJ 1
T 1
+ J 22
T
J111
T 1
+ J12
T
0T
PP
MM 21
P
T 1
P T
MM 0T
2 T
c
J 211
+ J 22
P
P
MM T
P T
2 T
0T
1
J11
1
+ J12 P
MN c QP
LM 1
T 1
T OP
+ J 12 0T 0T
MMJ 11
PP
MM
T 1
T PP
0
T
J 211 + J 22 0
T
MM PP
M 0T 0T 0T PP
B =M
2 MMJ 1
T 1
+ J 22
T
J111
T 1
+ J12
T
0
T
PP
MM 21
P
T P T
MM 0T 0T
J 211
1
+ J 22
P
P
MM T P T
0T 0T
1
J 11
1
+ J12 P
MN PQ
123
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
15 14
13
16
12
10
9 11
x,
7 6 5
c
8 4
HX16C
1 2 3 9
10
11
12
8
z,
c y,
7
x,
3
4
5
2
6
PN12C
124
7.5 Space Membrane Elements
6SDFH0HPEUDQH(OHPHQWV
$[LV\PPHWULF0HPEUDQH%;0%;0
)RUPXODWLRQ
E 1 LM OP
D=
1 2 1 N Q
The thermal strain is defined by
b g = T ,
o t
T
The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).
The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of
Stress Output
x Meridional stress (+ve tension)
Strain Output
x Meridional strain (+ve tension)
125
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
The element local x-axis lies along the element axis in the direction in which the
element nodes are specified. The local y and z axes form a right-hand set with the x-
axis such that the y-axis lies in the global XY-plane and the z-axis is parallel to the
global Z-axis (up out of page) (fig.7.5.1-4).
The Gauss point stresses are usually more accurate than the nodal values.
The nodal values of stress and strain are obtained using the extrapolation procedures
detailed in section 6.1.
The output is now in terms of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and Green-
Lagrange strains referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.
126
7.5 Space Membrane Elements
Y,V 1
2
1 BXM3
3
2
BXM2
X,U
127
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
BXM3 elements
QAX8 elements
y
x
y
x
Y
y x 3
2
y 2
x
x
y
1
1
'6SDFH0HPEUDQH60,760
)RUPXODWLRQ
SMI4 and TSM3 elements are membrane elements that function in 3-D. They are
formulated in 2-D, by forming a local Cartesian system in the plane of the element
(using a least squares fit through the element nodes). Once the element matrices have
been formed they are then transformed to the global Cartesian basis.
Their formulations are exactly equivalent to their 2-D conterparts given in table 7.5.2-
1
128
7.5 Space Membrane Elements
SMI4 PMI4
TSM3 TPM3
The nodal configurations are shown in fig.7.5.2-1. The nodal degrees of freedom are
U, V and W at each node
Only a lumped mass matrix is evaluated using the procedure defined in (section 2.7).
129
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
3
3 4
Y, V
1
TSM3 2
2 1 SMI4
X, U
Z, W
130
7.5 Space Membrane Elements
4
Y
z y
x
1
2
X
X, Y +ve tension
Y X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y
X Y
X X
X Y
Y
X
131
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
132
7.6 Plate Elements
3ODWH(OHPHQWV
,VRIOH[7KLQ3ODWH4)4)7)7)
)RUPXODWLRQ
The Isoflex family of thin plate elements are formed by applying Kirchhoff constraints
within elements formulated using Mindlin plate assumptions. The displacements and
rotations are considered independent and the unconstrained nodal configurations are
(fig.7.6.1-1)
w, x , y at the corner
where and re the relative (departure from linearity) and absolute rotations of the
through-thickness normals after deformation. These rotations include the transverse
shear deformations (fig.7.6.1-2). An element with thin plate performance is then
produced by constraining the shear strains to zero at discrete points within the
element. These constraints provide extra equations that permit certain nodal degrees
of freedom to be discarded. The final nodal configurations are (fig.7.6.1-3)
w, x , y at the corner
where is the relative rotation about a tangent to the element edge. This removes 8
and 11 degrees of freedom for the 6 and 3 noded triangles and 11 and 15 degrees of
freedom for the 8 and 4 noded quadrilaterals respectively. This is achieved by using
the following constraints, originally proposed by Irons for the Semiloof shell [I1]
w
t = y = 0
x
zA
XZdA = 0 ,
z
A
YZdA = 0
133
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Where the integral is performed using 2*2 Gauss quadrature. This provides 2
constraints for both the triangles and quadrilaterals, which are suitable for removing
the rotations at the central node.
zS
n dS = 0
Where n is the transverse shear strain normal to the element sides and the integral is
performed using 2-point quadrature along each side. This provides 1 constraint
suitable for removing the central translation of the quadrilaterals.
These constraints are sufficient for the higher order elements and the extra constraints
required for the lower order elements are provided by enforcing a linear variation of
tangential rotation along the element sides.
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is derived from the 3-D continuum
relationship [Section 7.4] by neglecting Z which is zero in the Mindlin plate
assumptions, and XZ and YZ which have been constrained to zero, so that
U
X =
X
V
Y =
Y
U V
XY = +
Y X
The continuum displacements for plates of varying thickness are related to the original
degrees of freedom of the plate using
z n
U= N i , t i Yi
t i =1
b g
z n
V= N i , t i X i
t i =1
b g
n
W = N i , Wib g
i =1
where t and t i are the thicknesses of the plate at the integration and nodal points
respectively, and N(,) are the element shape functions. Therefore the discretised,
generalised, flexural strain-displacement relationship is
134
7.6 Plate Elements
LM 1 t N i
0
OP
t i N 1
LMX OP M 1t Xt NX
n
N1
t X PPLM W OP i
MM Y PP = MM t Y Y i
ti
t Y
0
P MM PP
Xi
NXY
i =1
Q MM1 t N + 1 t N
i i t
i
N1 t N P N Q
i
P1 Yi
N t Y X t X Y t Y t Y Q
where the terms involving t / X and t / Y are the small strain contributions due to
thickness variations. For flat plates
LM W OP
2
LM X OP MM XW PP
2
2
MM Y PP = MM Y PP
2
NXY Q M2 W P
2
MN XY PQ
The isotropic and orthotropic elastic resultant modulus or rigidity matrices are
d ( DT) T
Isotropic ey j0 t
=
dz
a , a , 0, 0, 0
d ( DT) T
Orthotropic ey j0 t
=
dz
a x , a y , a xy , a yz , a xz
Isotropic e j = dbdzTg , , 0
0 t
T
Orthotropic e j = d a T f , ,
0 t dz
x y xy
T
The element output obtained at the element nodes or Gauss points consists of
135
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Strain Output
X , Y , XY the flexural strains in the global Cartesian system.
The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.5.2-6.
The Gauss point values are usually more accurate than the nodal values.
The nodal stress resultants are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.
Note. Approximate shear forces evaluated by differentiating the moments may also
be output.
W W 5
W x
y y
y W
W
9 4 y
8 x x 6
x y
x 4
W W x
W
Y y y Y
y W
W W
2 y y
1 x x
3 y
x
2 3
X 1 x x
x
136
7.6 Plate Elements
Displacement of any
W / X point a distance z
along normal is
Y U = z Y
Z where
X Z W
Y = XZ
X
Y
X
W
x W
W y y
3
4 y
x x
x
W
W W W
y
y y y
2
1 x
x x x
QF4 TF3
W W
W
y 7 y
4 y
3
3
x x
x
8
6
6
5
W W
W
Z y y W
y
1 y
1 5 2
x x 4
x 2
x
Y QF8
TF6
137
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
1/ 3 1/ 3
2
1/ 3
1/ 3 1/ 3
2 2 1/ 3
1/ 3 1/ 3
1/ 3 1/ 3
2
2
QF4 elements
Y
X
(b) Finite Element Mesh
138
7.6 Plate Elements
M XY
MY
MX
MX
M XY M XY
Y MY
Z
X
M XY
,VRIOH[7KLFN3ODWH46&
)RUPXODWLRQ
The Isoflex thick plate element QSC4 is formed by imposing an assumed shear strain
field on the isoflex thin plate element QF4 [section 7.6.1]. This is accomplished by
first forming the constrained flexural strain-displacement relationship in exactly the
same manner as for the QF4 element, and then imposing a bilinear shear strain field
defined using nodeless degrees of freedom, i.e.
XZ = P1 XZ1 + P3 XZ 3 and YZ = P2 YZ 2 + P4 YZ4
where XZi and YZi are the transverse shear strains along the element sides and Pi are
linear interpolation functions defined in fig.7.6.2-1.
The extra higher order degrees of freedom are condensed out before assembly so that
the final nodal configuration is (fig.7.6.2-2)
w , X , Y at the corner nodes
139
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
$ =
LMD$b
0 OP
D $
MN 0 D
s
PQ
where, for isotropic materials
LM1 0 OP
3
$ =
D
Et M 1 0 PP
12e1 j M
MN0 0 a1 2 f PQ
2
$ =
D
Et LM1 0OP
s2.4a1 + f N0 1 Q
Isotropic e j = dbdzTg , , 0, 0, 0
0 t
T
Orthotropic e j = dbTg , , ,
0 t dz
x y xy yz , xz
T
The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of
140
7.6 Plate Elements
Strain Output
X , Y , XY the flexural strains in the global Cartesian system,
The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.6.2-4.
The Gauss point values are usually more accurate than the nodal values. The nodal
stress resultants are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures detailed in section
6.1.
3 4 3
1 2 1 2
P5 P 66
4
3
1 2
1 2
P7 P8
141
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
W
x
W
3 y
4 y
x
x
W
W
y
y
Z 2
1 x
x
142
7.6 Plate Elements
M XY
MY
MX SY MX
M XY M XY
SX
SX MY
Y
Z
SY
X
M XY
143
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
,VRSDUDPHWULF7KLFN0LQGOLQ3ODWH47)77)
)RUPXODWLRQ
The QTF8 and TTF6 elements are isoparametric plate elements formulated using
Mindlin plate theory [M3], which assumes that
where X and Y are the rotation of the normals to the mid-surface and include the
effects of shear deformations. The infinitesimal, generalized, flexural strain-
displacement relationship is derived from the 3-D continuum strain-displacement
relationship by neglecting the out of plane strain, so that
Y
X =
X
X
Y =
Y
Y Y
XY =
Y X
W
YZ = X
Y
W
XZ = + Y
Y
$ =
LMD$b
0 OP
D $
MN 0 D
s
PQ
where, for isotropic materials
144
7.6 Plate Elements
Et 3
LM 1 0 OP1
$ =
D
b 12(1 2 ) MM 1 0 P
N 0 0 (1 ) / 2 PQ
and
$ = t G yz
D
LM 0 OP
s 1.2 0 N G xz Q
and for orthotropic materials
L 1/ E xy / E x 0 OP1
t M
3 x
$ =
D
b
M / E
12 M
xy x 1 / Ey 0 PP
N 0 0 1 / G xy Q
and
$ = t G yz
D
LM 0 OP
s 1.2 0 N G xz Q
where yx has been set to xy E y / E x to maintain symmetry.
Isotropic e j = dbdzTg , , 0, 0, 0
0 t
T
Orthotropic e j = d a T f , , ,
0 t dz
x y xy yz , xz
T
Both consistent and lumped mass matrices are available and are evaluated using the
procedures defined in section 2.7.
The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of
Stress Resultant Output
M X , M Y , M XY - the moments/unit width in the global Cartesian system,
145
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.6.3-4.
The Gauss point values are usually more accurate than the nodal values.
The nodal stress resultants are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.
Y
X
146
7.6 Plate Elements
W W
W
y y
y
6 5
7 x x
W
x y
5
W W x
y y W
W
8 4 y
x x 6 y
x 4
W W x
W
Y y y Y
y W
W W
2 y y
1 x x
3 y
x
2 3
X 1 x x
x
Z QTF8 TTF6
147
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
M XY
MY
MX SY MX
M XY M XY
SX
SX MY
Y
Z
SY
X
M XY
5LEEHG3ODWH53,753
)RUPXODWLRQ
The 2-D flat ribbed plate elements are formulated by superimposing standard
isoparametric plane stress elements (QPM4,TPM3,PMI4) on the isoflex thin plate
elements (QF4,TF3). The membrane and bending stiffnesses are formed
independently, and combined to give
LMK membrane
0 OPR|a membrane U|V = R|SRmembrane U|V
MN 0 K
bending PQS|T a bending |W |T R bending |W
The component elements are listed in table 7.6.4-1
The element is formulated in a local Cartesian basis and then transformed to the
global Cartesian system. The final nodal variables are (fig.7.6.4-1)
U, V, W, X , Y at each node
148
7.6 Plate Elements
The strain-displacement relationship, resultant modulus matrix and thermal strains are
defined in section 7.3 (in-plane) and section 7.6 (bending).
For further details of the element formulation see Section 7.3, Section 7.6 and
[Z1,L1].
A lumped mass matrix is evaluated using the procedures presented in section 2.7.
Stress Output
x , y , xy
direct and shear stresses in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane stresses,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane stress and
the local x-axis.
Stress Resultant Output
N x , N y , N xy
the membrane stress resultants/unit width in the local Cartesian
system,
M x , M y , M xy
the moments/unit width in the local Cartesian system,
Strain Output
x , y , xy
the membrane strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane strains,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane strain and
the local x-axis,
x , y , xy
the flexural strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal bending strains,
the angle between the maximum principal bending strain and
the local x-axis
The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.6.4-3.
The local x-axis is defined as being a line joining the first and second element nodes.
The xy-plane is defined by the third element node and the local x-axis. The local y and
z-axes are defined by a right hand screw rule (fig.7.6.4-4).
The nodal stress resultants are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.
The stress resultants are most easily interpreted if the local Cartesian axes are all
parallel. Also, the presence of eccentricity requires that the forces and moments are
examined at the mid-points of the element sides by averaging the nodal values.
149
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
W W W W
y y y y
Z 1
V V V V
1 2 2
U x U x U x U x
RPI4 TRP3
Y
RPI4 elements
BRP2 elements
Z X
Y
X
Finite Element Mesh
150
7.6 Plate Elements
M XY
MY
Y X, Y +ve tension
X Y +ve into XY quadrant MX
MX
Y M XY M XY
X Y
X X
Y
MY
Z
X Y
Y
X X
M XY
4 y
3 1
x
z
z
y
Z x 2 2
3
Y
151
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
152
7.7 Shell Elements
6KHOO(OHPHQWV
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and eliminating the local transverse translational and rotational degrees of freedom at
the central node. The final degrees of freedom for the element are (fig.7.7.1-1)
U, V, z at the end nodes,
2 v
x =
x 2
1 v
z = cos
R x
153
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
where R and are the radius and angle between the local and global Cartesian systems
(fig.7.7.1-2)
The elastic modulus and resultant modulus (or rigidity) matrices are defined as
$ =
LMD$m
0 OP
Explicit D $
MN 0 D
b
PQ
where
Isotropic $ =
D
Et 1 LM OP $ =
D
Et 3 LM 1 OP
m 1 2 1 N Q b
12e1 j N 1 Q
2
Orthotropic $ =
D
t LM E OPx xz $
D =
3
t LM E OP
x xz
m 1 2xz N E Q xz z
b
12e1 j N
2
xz xz E Q
z
Numerically Integrated
LM 1 y y OP
D= z E
t1 2
MM y 1
y
y
y2
y
y 2
dy PP
MNy y y 2 y2
PQ
The thermal strain vector is defined as
LM T OP
MM dbTTg PP
e j = M dy P
0 t
MM dbTg PP
Isotropic NM dy QP
LM T OP x
MM dbTTg PP z
e j = M dy P
0 t x
MM dbTg PP
Orthotropic
MN dy PQ z
154
7.7 Shell Elements
Element output is available at both the nodes and Gauss points and consists of
(fig.7.7.1-5)
Stress Resultants
N x , N z - the meridional and circumferential forces/unit width in the local
Cartesian system,
M x , M z - the meridional and circumferential moments/unit width in the
local Cartesian system.
Strains
x , z - the meridional and circumferential membrane strains,
The forces and strains are output in the local Cartesian system, defined as having its x-
axis lying along the element axis in the direction in which the element nodes are
specified. The local y and z-axes form a right-hand set with the x-axis, such that the y-
axis lies in the global XY plane, and the z-axis is parallel to the global Z-axis (up out
of page) (fig.7.7.1-4).
The top fibre lies on the +ve local y side of the element and +ve values define tension.
The forces have greatest accuracy at the Gauss points.
Note Layer stress output is also available when the nonlinear continuum
plasticity model is utilised.
1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ
155
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
2 v u 2 v v 2 u
x = +
x 2 x x 2 x x 2
1 v u v v v
z = cos 2 cos2 + 2 cos sin
R x R x R x
where R is the radius and is the angle between the local and global
Cartesian systems.
The forces and strains output with the geometrically nonlinear analysis will
be the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff forces and Green-Lagrange strains
respectively, referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.
or
An Updated Lagrangian formulation which takes account of large
displacements and large rotations but small strains, provided that the
rotations are small within a load increment. The output now approximates
to the true Cauchy stresses and logarithmic strains. The loading
approximates to being non-conservative.
The initial assumptions used in deriving the BXS3 element limit the rotations
to one radian in a Total Lagrangian analysis and rotation increments of one
radian in an Updated Lagrangian analysis (section 3.5).
156
7.7 Shell Elements
V V
Z Z
U U
3 3
V
U
Z
U
2 2
V V
Y Y
Z Z
U U
1 1
X X
Axis of
v, y
Revolution
u, x
157
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
A A
Plan
Section A - A
158
7.7 Shell Elements
y
x
y x
Y
x
y
z
x
Y y
z
x
Mx Mz
Nz Nx
159
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
)ODW7KLQ6KHOO46,76
)RUPXODWLRQ
These flat shell elements are formulated in a local Cartesian system by superimposing
standard isoparametric plane stress elements (QPM4,TPM3,PMI4) and the isoflex
thin plate elements (QF4,TF3). The xy-plane of the local Cartesian system is
evaluated using a least squares fit through the element nodes. The membrane and
bending stiffnesses are then formed independently, and combined to give
LM 1.0 1 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3
OP
1 / 3 1.0 1 / 3 1 / 3
Quadrilaterals K
art
= k d E + E itA M
ip x y
MM1 / 3 1 / 3 1.0 1 / 3
PP
N1 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3 1.0 Q
P
The in-plane stiffness parameter k ip has a default value of 0.02 which may be changed
by using the SYSTEM command (variable STFINP).
Once the local element matrices have been evaluated they are transformed to the
global Cartesian system. The final nodal variables are (fig.7.7.2-1)
U, V, x , y , z at each node
160
7.7 Shell Elements
Note. The incompatible terms in the strain-displacement matrix are not used to
evaluate nodal loads due to initial Gauss point stresses, e.g. thermal loading, initial
stresses.
For further details of the element formulation see section 7.3, section 7.6, [Z1,L1]
A lumped mass matrix is evaluated using the procedures presented in section 2.7.
Stress Output
x , y , xy
direct and shear stresses in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane
stresses,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane
stress and the local x-axis.
Stress Resultant Output
N x , N y , N xy
the membrane stress resultants/unit width in the local
Cartesian system,
M x , M y , M xy
the moments/unit width in the local Cartesian system.
Strain Output
x , y , xy
the membrane strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane strains,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane
strain and the local x-axis,
x , y , xy
the flexural strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal bending strains,
the angle between the maximum principal bending strain
and the local x-axis
The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.7.2-3.
The xy-plane of the local Cartesian system is evaluated using a least squares fit
through the element nodes. The local x-axis is defined as being a line joining the first
and second element nodes, and the local y and z-axes are defined by a right hand
screw rule (fig.7.7.2-4)
161
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
W W W
z W z z
z
y y
Z y 1 V
V V
1 V y 2
U x 2 U x U x
U x
QS4/QSI4 TS3
Y
162
7.7 Shell Elements
M XY
MY
MX
MX
Stress Resultants M XY M XY
Y
MY
Z
X
M XY
X, Y +ve tension
X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y
Y
X Y
Stresses
X X
X Y
Y
X
4 y
3 1
x
z
z
y
Z x 2 2
3
Y
163
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
)ODW7KLQ6KHOO%R[6+,
)RUPXODWLRQ
The flat shell box element is formulated in a local Cartesian system by superimposing
a non-standard isoparametric plane membrane element on the isoflex thin plate
element. The xy-plane of the local Cartesian system is evaluated using a least squares
fit through the element nodes. The membrane and bending stiffnesses are then formed
independently and combined to give the total element stiffness in the local Cartesian
system, i.e.
LMK membrane
0 OPR|a membrane U|V = R|SR
membrane U|V
MN 0 K
bending PQS|T a bending |W |T R bending |W
The component bending stiffness and force vector used for this element is from the
QF4 element [Section 7.6.1]. The elements use a non-standard plane membrane
formulation which is more effective for modelling the in-plane bending in the web of
box structures than the standard plane membrane formulation. The initial nodal
configuration (fig.7.7.3-1) has 4 nodes with 3 in-plane degrees of freedom at each
node
u, v and v / x
where
b g b g
P1 , = 1 2 and P2 , = 1 2
and a i are nodeless degrees of freedom which are condensed out before element
assembly.
The extra incompatible modes are condensed out and the element matrices are then
transformed to the global Cartesian system. This provides an element with the
following nodal degrees of freedom (fig.7.7.3-2)
U, V, W, x , y , z - at the corner nodes
u - the relative (departure from linearity) local x-displacement for the mid-
side nodes
164
7.7 Shell Elements
Note. No artificial in-plane rotational stiffnesses are required for this element. For
further details of the element formulation see section 7.6, [L1,T2]. A lumped mass
matrix is evaluated using the procedures presented in section 2.7.
Stress Output
x , y , xy
direct and shear stresses in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane
stresses,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane
stress and the local x-axis.
Stress Resultant Output
N x , N y , N xy
the membrane stress resultants/unit width in the local
Cartesian system,
M x , M y , M xy
the moments/unit width in the local Cartesian system.
Strain Output
x , y , xy
the membrane strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane strains,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane
strain and the local x-axis,
x , y , xy
the flexural strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal bending strains,
the angle between the maximum principal bending strain
and the local x-axis.
The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.7.3-4.
The xy-plane of the local Cartesian system is evaluated using a least squares fit
through the element nodes. The local x-axis is defined as being a line joining the first
and second element nodes, the local y and z-axes are defined by a right hand screw
rule (fig.7.7.3-5).
The nodal stress resultants are evaluated by extrapolating the strain- displacement
relationship at the Gauss points to the nodes, and then computing the nodal stress at
each node directly.
165
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
The stress resultants are most easily interpreted if the local Cartesian axes are all
parallel.
Note. The averaged nodal stresses are output in the global Cartesian system.
z U z U
4 3
V
V
z U
Z z U 2
1
SHI4
Y
W
W z
z
x
V V
x 3 Z
4 U y
U y
Y
W
z
W y X
z
V
V 2
U x
U x
1 y
SHI4
166
7.7 Shell Elements
M XY
MY
MX
MX
Stress Resultants M XY M XY
Y
MY
Z
X
M XY
X , Y +ve tension
X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y
Y
X Y
Stresses
X X
X Y
Y
X
167
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
z
y
Z x 2
Y
6HPLORRI7KLQ6KHOO46/76/
)RUPXODWLRQ
The Semiloof shell element is a thin, doubly curved, isoparametric element formed by
applying Kirchhoff constraints to a three dimensional degenerated thick shell element.
The displacements and rotations are considered independent and the unconstrained
nodal configurations are (fig.7.7.4-1)
U, V, W - at the corner and mid-side nodes,
x , y - at the loof nodes,
where x and y are the rotations of the through-thickness normals. These rotations
include transverse shear deformations.
An element with thin shell performance is then produced by constraining the shear
strains to zero at discrete points within the element, i.e. by ensuring that [I1]
w
1. t = y = 0
x
at the points shown in fig.7.7.4-2. Where t is the through-thickness shear strain
tangential to the element edges. This provides 6 and 8 constraints respectively for
the triangles and quadrilaterals which are suitable for eliminating the tangential
rotations at the loof nodes.
2. z dA
A xz
= 0, z dA
A yz
=0
168
7.7 Shell Elements
where the integral is performed using 2*2 Gauss quadrature. This provides 2
constraints for both the triangles and quadrilaterals which are suitable for
removing the rotations at the central node.
3. z dS =
S n
0
where n is the transverse shear strain normal to the element sides and the integral
is performed using 2-point quadrature along each side. This provides 1 constraint
suitable for removing the central translation of the quadrilaterals.
These constraints provide extra equations that permit certain nodal degrees of freedom
to be discarded. The final nodal configurations are (fig.7.7.4-3)
U, V, W - at the corner and mid-side nodes,
v
y =
y
u v
xy = +
y x
2 w
x
x 2
2w
y
y 2
2w
xy 2
xy
The isotropic and orthotropic modulus and resultant modulus (rigidity) matrices are
defined as
Explicit
$ =
LMD$ membrane
0 OP
D $
MN 0 D
bending
PQ
where, for Isotropic materials
169
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
LM1 0 OP
0 P
$ E M
D = 1
1 M a1 f P
membrane 2
MN0 0 2 PQ
LM1 0 OP
3
$
D =
Et M 1 0 PP
12e1 j M
MN0 0 a1 2 f PQ
bending 2
1RWHV
1/ 2
1. To obtain a valid material xy < E x / E y d i
2. A three dimensional orthotropic modulus matrix may be specified by using the
appropriate data input. This 6 by 6 modulus matrix is the same as that given in
section 7.4.1 and is reduced to the plane stress modulus matrix in the following
way:
a. remove the YZ and XZ shear strain rows and columns,
b. invert the matrix so that the stress-strain relationship is obtained,
c. remove the s Z row and column since this stress is assumed to be zero,
d. re-invert the matrix to obtain the stress-strain relationship (a 3 by 3 matrix).
1XPHULFDOO\ ,QWHJUDWHG
170
7.7 Shell Elements
LM 1 0 z z 0 OP
MM 1 0
a f
1
z z
a f PP
0
1 z
D= z E MM 0 0
2
0 0
2 PP dz
t1 2 z 2 z 2
MMzz z
0
0
z
z 2 z2
0
0
PP
MM 0 0
a1 fz 0 0
a1 fz PP2
N 2 2 Q
The thermal strain vector is defined as
LM T OP
MM T PP
0
M P
Isotropic e j = MM dbdzTg LMN + T ddT OPQPP
0 t
MM dbTg L + T d OPP
MM dz MN 0 dT PQPP
N Q
LM x T OP
MM y T PP
T
MM dbTg L xy
d O P
P
M + T x
P
e j = MM dz N dT Q P
x
Orthotropic
MM d T M + T OP PPP
0 t
b g L d y
y
MM dbdzTg LN dT Q
d OP
P
MN dz MN + T dT PQPQ
xy
xy
The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of
Stress Output
x , y , xy direct and shear stresses in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane stresses,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane stress
and the local x-axis.
171
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
Strain Output
x , y , xy
the membrane strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane strains,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane strain
and the local x-axis,
x , y , xy the flexural strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal bending strains,
the angle between the maximum principal bending strain
and the local x-axis.
The local Cartesian system varies over the element for curved elements. For the
quadrilateral element, the local y-axis, at any point within the element, coincides with
the curvilinear line = constant (fig.7.7.4-8). The local x-axis is perpendicular to the
local x-axis in the +ve x direction and is tangential to the shell mid-surface. For the
triangular element, the local Cartesian system is formed by orientating the local y-axis
parallel to a line joining the mid-point of the first side with the 5th node. The x-axis is
then formed perpendicular to the y-axis and tangential to the shell mid-surface, with
the +ve direction defined by the +ve x direction. The local z-axis forms a right-handed
set with the x and y-axes. The +ve z-axis defines the top surface.
The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.7.4-9.
The nodal stress resultants are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.
1RWHV
The Gauss point stresses are converted to the global Cartesian system before
extrapolation.
The average nodal stresses are in the global Cartesian system.
172
7.7 Shell Elements
u v u u v v w w
xy = + + + +
y x x y x y x y
2 w
x =
x 2
2 w
x =
y 2
2 w
xy = 2
xy 2
The output is now in terms of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and Green-
Lagrange strains referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.
or
An Updated Lagrangian formulation, which takes account of large
displacements and moderately large strains provided that the strain
increments are small. The output is now in terms of the True Cauchy
stresses and the strains approximate to logarithmic strains. The loading
approximates to being non-conservative.
The initial assumptions used in deriving the shell elements limit the rotations to
one radian in a Total Lagrangian analysis, and rotation increments of one
radian in an Updated Lagrangian analysis (section 3.5).
173
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
V V
V
7 x x 5
U U
6 U
W W
y y
W
x
y
y
x
W
V V
y
8
U U
W x W 4
y y
V x
V y V
U y
Y
U W 2 x U
x
W 1 W 3
X
(a) QTF8 V
Z 5
U
x W
y
y
V
x
V
6
U
W U
x 4
W
y
y
V x
V y V
U y
Y
2
U W x U
1
x 3
W W
X (b) TSL6
174
7.7 Shell Elements
1/ 3 1/ 3
1/ 3
2
1/ 3
(a) QSL8
2
1/ 3
1/ 3
2 1/ 3
1/ 3
1/ 3 1/ 3
(b) TSL6
175
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
V V
V
7 5
U U
6 U
W W
2 1
W
2
1
W
V V
y
8
U U
W x W 4
2 1
V
V 1 V
U 2
Y
U W 2 U
W 1 W 3
X
(a) QSL8 V
Z 5
U
W
2
1
V
V
6
U
W U
4
W
2
1
V
V V
U
Y
2
U 1 W 2 U
1 3
W W
X (b) TSL6
176
7.7 Shell Elements
177
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
QSL8 elements
BSL3 elements
178
7.7 Shell Elements
z
4
x
6 y
7 2
z
x
y 4
5
3
6 2
179
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
X, Y +ve tension
X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y
Y
X Y
X X
X Y
Y
X
Stresses
X, Y +ve tension
X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y
Y
X Y
X X
X Y
Y
X
M XY
MY
MX
MX
M XY M XY
Y
MY
Z
X
M XY
Stress Resultants
180
7.7 Shell Elements
7KLFN6KHOOV776776476476
)RUPXODWLRQ
The formulation for this family of thick shell elements is based on the degeneration of
a three dimensional continuum. In this approach, the displacements at any point in the
shell are defined by the translation of the reference surface together with the rotation
of a director. The director is subsequently referred to as the normal, however, the
director need not be initially normal to the reference surface. The normal is considered
to remain straight during deformation for computation of displacements through the
element thickness. The triangular elements (TTS3, TTS6) are formulated using a
standard isoparametric approach. The quadrilateral elements (QTS4,QTS8) adopt an
assumed strain field for interpolation of the transverse shear strains. The inclusion of
an assumed strain field prevents the element from 'shear locking' when used as a thin
shell. The displacements and rotations are considered independent and the nodal
degrees of freedom are (fig.7.7.5-1)
U, V, W, , - at all nodes.
and are the rotations of the through-thickness normals. These rotations include
transverse shear deformations and relate to a set of 'local' axes set up at each node. To
avoid singularities, the direction of these axes is dictated by the direction of the nodal
normal. One of the global axes is chosen to define the rotation, the axis chosen
corresponds with the smallest component of the nodal vector. The cross product of
this axis and the nodal vector defines the second axis of rotation for (fig.7.7.5-1).
This definition of the rotations is used when a smooth surface configuration is to be
modelled (fig.7.7.5-2). In the event of a discontinuity, connection with a beam
element, or a branched shell junction, these rotations are transformed to relate to
global axes, x , y , z (fig.7.7.5-1).
The location of the transverse shear sampling points for defining the assumed strain
fields are shown in fig.7.7.5-3. For the four noded quadrilateral (QTS4) the factors for
interpolating from the sampling points to the gauss points are
1
R1 =
2
a f
1
1
R2 =
2
a f
1+
while for the eight noded element (QTS8) the factors are
R1 =
1LM
1
OPa f1
1 R5
4 N a Q 4
181
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
R2 =
LM OPa f
1
1
1
1 + R5
N Q
4 a 4
1 L O 1
R3 = M1 + Pa1 f R 5
4 N aQ 4
1 L O 1
R4 = M1 + Pa1 + f R 5
4 N aQ 4
1 LM L O OP
2
R5 = 1
MN MN PQ PQe1 j
2
4 a
where
a =1/ 3
and
Si ( , ) = R i (, )
The covariant transverse shear strains at the gauss points are then given by
n
= R i ,
b g
i
i =1
n
= Si , i
b g
i =1
where and are the covariant transverse shear strains at the gauss points and
i
, i are the transverse shears at the sampling points.
e$1 = G / G
e$ 3 = e$ 1 x G / e$ 1 x G
e j
182
7.7 Shell Elements
e$ 2 = e$ 3 x e$ 1
b g
Strains in the curvilinear system lm may then be transformed to strains in the
$ ij by using the contravariant base vectors
orthogonal local system d i
d$ i =
ij lm dG e$ ieG
1
i
m e$ j j
The elements are formulated using the plane stress hypothesis so that zz in the
thickness direction is set to zero. The continuum strains are evaluated at integration
points through the thickness, and for the geometrically linear case these strains are
given by
$ xx = u
x
$ yy = v
y
u v
$ xy = +
y x
v w
$ yz = +
z y
u w
$ yz = +
z x
Material properties are specified in the local orthogonal axes. For a thick shell the
modulus matrix is condensed so that the plane stress hypothesis is observed.
The isotropic modulus matrix is given by [Z1]
LM 1 0 0 0 OP
MM 1 0
1
0 0 P
0 0 P
D=
E MM 2 PP
1 2 1
MM 0 P
1 PP
2.4
MNSymm. 2.4 Q
183
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
LM E x
E x xy
0 0 0
OP
MM d1 i d1 i
xy yx xy yx PP
MM E x E
xy y
0 0 0 P
PP
D=M
d1 i d1 i
xy yx xy yx
MM G xy 0 0 P
MM G xy
0 P
P
MMN Symm.
.
12
G Pxz
P
. PQ
12
Factors of 5/6 have been included in the transverse shear terms to take account of a
parabolic distribution through the thickness.
As the material properties are specified in local element directions and the element
formulation is based on covariant components of strain, the modulus matrix must be
transformed.
The required transformation of the modulus matrix is
C ijkl = G i e a G j e b G k e c G l e d D
d id id id i abcd
Full details of the element formulations may be found in [D4],[H9] and [S7].
Both consistent and lumped mass matrices are available and are evaluated using the
procedures defined in (section 2.7).
The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of
Stress Output
x , y , xy
direct and shear stresses in the local Cartesian
yz , xz , e
system, together with von Mises equivalent stress
Three dimensional principal stresses and the corresponding direction cosines
may also be output
Stress Resultant Output
N x , N y , N xy
the membrane stress resultants/unit width in the local
Cartesian system,
M x , M y , M xy
the moments/unit width in the local Cartesian system,
Sx ,S y
the shear stress resultants/unit width in the local Cartesian
system
184
7.7 Shell Elements
Strain Output
x , y , xy ,
the direct and shear strains in the local Cartesian
yz , xz , e
system, together with von Mises equivalent strain
The local cartesian systems are set up at the element reference surface. For curved
elements, the local Cartesian system will vary over the reference surface. The local x-
axis, at any point within the element, coincides with the curvilinear line = constant
in the direction of increasing (fig.7.7.5-4). The direction of the local z-axis is
defined by the vector product of the local x-axis and the curvilinear line = constant
(in the direction of increasing ). The local y-axis is defined by the vector product of
the local z and local x-axes. The +ve z-axis defines the element top surface. The
position of the origin of the curvilinear system for each element together with the
directions of increasing values are shown in (fig.7.7.5-5).
The sign convention for stress and strain output is shown in fig.7.7.5-6 and fig.7.7.5-7.
The nodal stresses and strains are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures
detailed in section 6.1.
1RWHV
The Gauss point stresses are converted to the global Cartesian system before
extrapolation.
The average nodal stresses are in the global Cartesian system.
x =
LM OP
u 1 u
+
2
+
LM OP
1 v
2
+
LM OP
1 w
2
x 2 xN Q 2 x
N Q 2 x
N Q
185
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
y =
LM OP
v 1 u
+
2
+
LM OP
1 v
2
+
LM OP
1 w
2
y 2 y
N Q 2 y
N Q 2 y
N Q
u v u u v v w w
xy = + + + +
y x x y x y x y
v w u u v v w w
yz = + + + +
z y z y z y z y
u w u u v v w w
xz = + + + +
z x z x z x z x
The output is now in terms of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and Green-Lagrange
strains referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is conservative.
186
7.7 Shell Elements
Z,w
X,u
Z,w
Y,v
x
X,u
187
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
V2
V1 V3
1 3
Element 1 Element 2
V 21 V 22
V1 V3
2
1 Element 1 Element 2 3
188
7.7 Shell Elements
2
4 3 4 3
1 2
1 2 1 2
1
Shear Shear
(a) QTS4
3 4
7 6 5 7 6 5
a a
3 4
a a
8 8 4
5 5
a a
1 2
a a
1 2 3 a = 3 -1/2 1 2 3
1 2
Shear Shear
(b) QTS8
189
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
4
z
3 = constant
y
5
= constant
5
= constant
= constant
6
z
4
y
x
7
3
8 2
190
7.7 Shell Elements
2 3
5 2
3
1 1
3 5
4 4
7
2 8 3
1 1
(c) QTS4 (d) QTS8
191
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
y
y
xy
x x
xy
y
x
z z
x z yz
x z yz
x y
192
7.7 Shell Elements
Y Y
Mxy
My Sx
Mx
Sy
Mxy
Mxy
Mx Sy
Sx
My Mxy
Y
X X
Nx
Nxy Ny
Nxy
Nxy
Ny
Nxy
Nx
193
Chapter 7 Element Formulations
194
Quadrature Rules
$SSHQGL[$
4XDGUDWXUH5XOHV
The locations and weights of the quadrature points used in integrating the element
matrices are listed in table A1 to table A7 and are shown in fig. A1 to fig. A7.
1 0.0000000000 2.0000000000
2 0.5773502692 1.0000000000
3 0.7745966692 0.5555555555
0.00000000000 0.8888888888
4 0.8611363116 0.3478548454
0.3399810436 0.6521451549
TABLE A2 SAMPLING POINTS AND WEIGHTS FOR 5-POINT RULE FOR 2-D
QUADRILATERALS AND SHELLS
229
Appendix A
A1 A2 A3
A1 A2 A3
V1 V2 V3 V4
230
Quadrature Rules
i i i
231
Appendix A
1
1 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 3 2
1 1 2 3 4 2
232
Quadrature Rules
4 3 7 6 5
4 3 9 8 7
6 5 4
8 4
1 2
1 2 3
1 2 1 2 3
(a) 2*2 Rule (b) 3*3 Rule
7 6 5 7 6 5
13 14 15 16 4 3
9 10 11 12 5
8 4 8 4
5 6 7 8
1 2
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 1 2 3
233
Appendix A
3 3
3 1
1 2 2 2
1
(a) 1-Point Rule (b) 3-Point Rule
3 3
1
5
7 4
4
3 2 3 1
6
1 2 1 2
(a) 4-Point Rule (b) 7-Point Rule
1 2
1 2
234
Quadrature Rules
1 3
4 2
1 3
1
2
(b) 4-Point Rule
6 2
3
5
3
1
4 1
2
(c) 6-Point Rule
235
Appendix A
8 7
5
8 7
3 4 5
6
5 4
5 6
6
4 3
3
2 1
1 2
3
1 2 1 2
8 7 8 7
16 17 25 26 27
18
5 13 14 15 5
6 19 6 18
10 11 12
7 8 9
10 11 12 9
3 3
4 5 6
4 5 6
1 2 3
1 2
3
1 2 1 2
236
Quadrature Rules
1 2
1 2 3
1 2 3 4
237
Appendix B
$SSHQGL[%
5HVWULFWLRQV2Q(OHPHQW7RSRORJ\
0LG/HQJWKDQG0LG6LGH1RGHV
The mid-length and mid-side nodes of elements should be equidistant from the two
end nodes, and the element curvature must satisfy the following requirements
(i) |a - b|/(a + b) < 0.05
(ii) (a + b)/c < 1.02
where a, b and c are defined in fig.B1.
c
a
:DUSLQJRI)ODW(OHPHQWV
The four nodes defining a flat quadrilateral element in 3-D should be coplanar.
However, a small amount of warping is permitted provided that
z < 0.01 a
where z is the distance of the out of plane node from the plane
and a is the length of the side between the first and second nodes.
238
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$SSHQGL[&
5HIHUHQFHV
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249
Appendix C
250