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Theory Manual 2

Version 13
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Theory Manual 2

7DEOHRI&RQWHQWV
Chapter 7 Element Formulations 1
7.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1

7.1 Bar Elements (BAR2, BAR3, BRS2, BRS3)................................................................... 1


7.1.1 Formulation................................................................................................................. 1
7.1.2 Evaluation and Output of Stresses/Forces ............................................................... 2
7.1.3 Nonlinear Formulation ............................................................................................... 2

7.2 Beam Elements............................................................................................................. 7


7.2.1 2-D Straight Beam (BEAM) ......................................................................................... 7
7.2.2 2-D Straight Grillage (GRIL) ..................................................................................... 12
7.2.3 2-D Ribbed Plate Beam (BRP2)................................................................................ 14
7.2.4 3-D Straight Beam (BMS3) ....................................................................................... 17
7.2.5 2-D Curved Thin Beam (BM3, BMX3)....................................................................... 21
7.2.6 3-D Curved Thin Beam (BS3, BS4, BSX4) ............................................................... 28
7.2.7 3-D Semiloof Thin Beam (BSL3, BSL4, BXL4) ........................................................ 37
7.2.8 3-D Straight Beam (BTS3) ........................................................................................ 45

7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements.................................................................... 57


7.3.1 Standard Isoparametric Elements ........................................................................... 57
7.3.2 Enhanced Strain Elements (QPM4M, QPN4M, QAX4M) ......................................... 69
7.3.3 Incompatible Plane Membrane Element (PMI4)...................................................... 77
7.3.4 2D Explicit Dynamics Elements ............................................................................... 81
7.3.5 Two Phase Plane Strain Continuum Elements (TPN6P and QPN8P) .................... 91
7.3.6 Large-strain Mixed-type Elements (QPN4L, QAX4L) .............................................. 94

7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements ................................................................101


(Element types HX8, HX16, HX20, PN6, PN12, PN15, TH4, TH10) ..................................101
7.4.1 Standard Isoparametric Elements ..........................................................................101
7.4.2 Enhanced Strain Element (HX8M) ..........................................................................107
7.4.3 3D Explicit Dynamics Elements (HX8E, PN6E, TH4E) ...........................................111
7.4.4 Composite Solid Elements (HX16C, PN12C)..........................................................119

7.5 Space Membrane Elements ......................................................................................125


7.5.1 Axisymmetric Membrane (BXM2, BXM3)................................................................125
7.5.2 3-D Space Membrane (SMI4, TSM3) .......................................................................128

7.6 Plate Elements ...........................................................................................................133


7.6.1 Isoflex Thin Plate (QF4, QF8, TF3, TF6)..................................................................133
7.6.2 Isoflex Thick Plate (QSC4) ......................................................................................139
7.6.3 Isoparametric Thick Mindlin Plate (QTF8, TTF6) ...................................................144
7.6.4 Ribbed Plate (RPI4, TRP3) .......................................................................................148

7.7 Shell Elements ............................................................................................................153


7.7.1 Axisymmetric Thin Shell (BXS3) .............................................................................153
7.7.2 Flat Thin Shell (QSI4, TS3) ......................................................................................160
7.7.3 Flat Thin Shell Box (SHI4) .......................................................................................164
7.7.4 Semiloof Thin Shell (QSL8, TSL6) ..........................................................................168
7.7.5 Thick Shells (TTS3, TTS6, QTS4, QTS8)..................................................................181

iii
Table of Contents

7.8 Field Elements ........................................................................................................... 195


7.8.1 Thermal Bar (BFD2, BFD3) ..................................................................................... 195
7.8.2 Thermal Axisymmetric Bar (BFX2, BFX3).............................................................. 195
7.8.3 Thermal Link (LFD2, LFS2, LFX2).......................................................................... 196
7.8.4 Plane Field (QFD4, QFD8, TFD3, TFD6) ................................................................. 197
7.8.5 Axisymmetric Field (QXF4, QXF8, TXF3, TXF6) .................................................... 198
7.8.6 Solid Field (HF8, HF16, HF20, PF6, PF12, PF15, TF4, TF10) ................................ 198

7.9 Joint Elements ........................................................................................................... 209


(Element types JNT3, JPH3, JF3, JRP3, JNT4, JL43, JSH4, JL46, JSL4, JAX3, JXS3) 209
7.9.1 Formulation............................................................................................................. 209
7.9.3 Evaluation of Stresses/Forces............................................................................... 209
7.9.4 Nonlinear Formulation ........................................................................................... 210
7.9.5 Use of Joints With Higher Order Elements ........................................................... 212

7.10 Fourier Element Formulation................................................................................. 215


(Element types TAX3F, QAX4F, TAX6F, QAX8F) ............................................................ 215
7.10.1 Global and Local Coordinate Systems................................................................ 215
7.10.2 Standard Isoparametric Elements ....................................................................... 215
7.10.3 Strain-Displacement Relationships ..................................................................... 217
7.10.4 Constitutive Relationships................................................................................... 217
7.10.5 Element Loading.................................................................................................. 219
7.10.6 Inertial Loading ..................................................................................................... 222
7.10.8 Evaluation of Stresses ........................................................................................ 225

7.11 Interface Elements................................................................................................... 225


Element types (INT6, INT16)............................................................................................ 225
7.11.1 Definition and interpolation ................................................................................. 225
7.11.2 Internal force vector and stiffness matrix ........................................................... 226
Appendix A 229
Quadrature Rules ............................................................................................................ 229
Appendix B 238
Restrictions On Element Topology ................................................................................ 238
Mid-Length and Mid-Side Nodes .................................................................................... 238
Warping of Flat Elements................................................................................................ 238
Appendix C 239
References ....................................................................................................................... 239

iv
Theory Manual 2

1RWDWLRQ
Standard matrix notation is used whenever possible throughout this manual and the
expressions are defined as follows:

v
Notation

vi
Theory Manual 2

vii
Notation

viii
Theory Manual 2

ix
Notation

x
Theory Manual 2

xi
Notation

xii
7.0 Introduction

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)RUPXODWLRQV
,QWURGXFWLRQ
This section of the Theory Manual covers the basic theoretical assumptions made for
each element formulation. Appropriate references are included when full details of the
element derivation are not provided. New elements included for version 12 are the
solid composite elements HX16C and PN12C.

%DU(OHPHQWV %$5%$5%56%56
)RUPXODWLRQ
The bar elements are 2-node and 3-node isoparametric elements that can only transmit
longitudinal force (fig.7.1-1).
The nodal variables are:-
BAR2 and BAR3 U and V
BRS2 and BRS3 U, V and W
The element strain-displacement relationship and thermal strain vector are defined in
the local Cartesian system as
u
x =
x
and b g
o t = T

The elastic constitutive relationship is defined as


x = E x

A complete description of the element stiffness formulation is given in [B1].


The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).

1
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

(YDOXDWLRQDQG2XWSXWRI6WUHVVHV)RUFHV
The element output can be obtained at both the element nodes and Gauss points and
consists of
Fx - the axial force, (tension +ve)

x - the axial strain. (tension +ve)

The forces and strains are output in the local element coordinate system defined by
%$5 DQG %$5 HOHPHQWV
The element local x-axis lies along the element axis in the direction in which the
element nodes are specified (fig.7.1-3). The local y and z axes form a right-hand set
with the x-axis such that the y-axis lies in the global XY-plane and the z-axis is
parallel to the global Z-axis (up out of page).
%56 DQG %56 HOHPHQWV
The local x-axis lies along the element axis in the direction in which the element
nodes are specified (for a curved element it is tangent to the curve at the point
concerned).
For a curved element the local xy-plane is defined by the element nodes (fig.7.1-4).
Local y is perpendicular to local x and +ve on the convex side of the element.
For a straight element parallel to the global x-axis, the local z-axis is defined by the
unit vector z = j x x where j is a unit vector defining the Global Y-axis and x is a unit
vector defining the local x-axis (fig.7.1-4).
For a straight element not parallel to the global x-axis, the local z-axis is defined by
the unit vector z = i x x where i is a unit vector defining the global X-axis (fig.7.1-4).
The local y-axis forms a right-hand set with the local x and z-axes for all three cases.

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The bar elements can be employed in
1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the elastoplastic constitutive laws [O1]
(section 4.2).
2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.
4. Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5. Linear eigen-buckling analysis.

2
7.1 Bar Elements (BAR2, BAR3, BRS2, BRS3)

Note. The geometric nonlinearity is a Total Lagrangian formulation which accounts


for large displacements but small strains. The nonlinear strain-displacement
relationship is defined by
BAR2 and BAR3
2 2
x = +
LM OP
u 1 u
+
LM OP
1 v
x 2 x
N Q 2 x
N Q
BRS2 and BRS3
2 2 2
x = +
LM OP
u 1 u
+
LM OP
1 v
+
LM OP
1 w
x 2 x
N Q 2 x
N Q 2 x
N Q
with reference to the local x-axis.
The forces and strains output with the geometrically nonlinear analysis will be the 2nd
Piola-Kirchhoff forces and Green-Lagrange strains respectively, referred to the
undeformed configuration. The loading is conservative.

3
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

V
Y
V
BAR2 2
U U
V
3
V
U
U 2
1
V BAR3

1 U
X

(a) 2-D Bar Elements

Y V
U
BRS2 2 V
W
V
V 3 U
U
W
1
2 U BRS3
W V
W
X
U
1
W
Z

(b) 3-D Bar Elements

FIG.7.1-1 NODAL FREEDOMS FOR BAR ELEMENTS

4
7.1 Bar Elements (BAR2, BAR3, BRS2, BRS3)

Struts represented with


BAR2 elements
Pressure

Continuum elements

2-D Roof Truss Excavation Supports

FIG.7.1-2 EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING USE OF BAR ELEMENTS

2
Y y
x
y
x
y x 3
1
2
x
y
1 X

FIG 7.1-3 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BAR2 AND BAR3 ELEMENTS

5
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Y
x-y plane

y
y x x
3
z
x z 2
y
1
z X

Z
(a) Curved Element

z
z
x x
1 2
y
y

(b) Straight Element Parrallel With Global X-axis

Y y
x

2
z
y
x
1
z
X

(c) Arbitrarily Orientated Straight Element

FIG. 7.1-4 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BRS2 AND BRS3 ELEMENTS

6
7.2 Beam Elements

%HDP(OHPHQWV
The family of explicit straight beams are derived by restraining various degrees-of-
freedom of the full 3D beam. The stiffness and mass matrices of these reduced
elements may be obtained by deleting the appropriate rows and columns of the full
stiffness and mass matrices.
The nodal forces/moments and degrees of freedom (in local coordinates) for the 3D
beam are
F T = Px1, Py1, Pz1, M x1, M y1, M z1, Px 2 , Py 2 , Pz 2 , M x 2 , M y 2 , M z 2

a T = u1, v1, w1, x1, y1, z1, u 2 , v 2 , w 2 , x 2 , y 2 , z 2

The corresponding stiffness and mass matrices are


Element stiffness matrix

K=
LMK 11
K
21
OP
MNK 12
K
22 PQ
where submatrices are defined:
LM EA OP
Symmetric
MM L0 12 EI z PP
MM L 1 + y
3
d i PP
12 EI y
MM 0 0 PP
b
L 1 + z
3
g PP
K =M GJ
11 MM 0 0 0
L PP
MM 0 0
6 EI y
0
b4 + gEI
z y
PP
MM b
L2 1 + z g Lb1 + g z

MM 0 6 EI z
0 0 0
d4 + iEI PP y z

L2 1 + y
d i Ld1 + i P
N Q
y

7
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

LM EA OP
Symmetric
MM L0 12 EI z PP
MM L 1 + y
3
d i PP
12 EI y PP
MM 0 0
L 1 + z
3
b g PP
K =M GJ
22 MM 0 0 0
L PP
MM 0 0
6 EI y
0
b4 + gEI
z y
PP
MM L b1 + g
2
z Lb1 + g z

MM 0 6 EI z
0 0 0
d4 + iEI PP y z

N 2 +
L 1 y d i Ld1 + i PQ y

LM EA 0 0 0 0
OP 0
MM L 12 EI z 6 EI PP z
MM 0 L 1 + y
3
d i 0 0 0
L d1 + i P
PP
2
y
12 EI y 6 EI
MM 0 0 0
y
0
PP
b
L3 1 + z g L b1 + g
2
=M
z
K = KT GJ
12 21 MM 0 0 0
L
0 0 PP
MM 0 0
6 EI y
0
b2 gEI
z
0
y PP
MM 2
b
L 1 + z g bL 1 + g z P
MM 0 6 EI z d 2 iEI PP y z
0 0 0
N L2 1 + y
d i Ld1 + i PQ y

and where
12 EI z 12 EI y
y = and z =
GAs y L2 GAs z L2

A s y and A s z are the cross-sectional areas effective in shear about the respective
bending axis.
Element mass matrix

M = AL
LMM 11
M
21
OP
MNM 12
M
22 PQ
where submatrices are defined

8
7.2 Beam Elements

LM 1 OP
Symmetric
MM 3 13 6I z
PP
MM 0 + PP
35 5 AL2
MM 13
+
6I y PP
0 0
M = MM
35 5 AL2 PP
11 Jx
MM 0 0 0
3A
PP
MM 11 L Iy L2 2I y PP
+
MM 0 0
210 10 AL
0
105 15 A PP
2
MM 0 11 L Iz L 2I P
+ + z
105 15 A PQ
0 0 0
N 210 10 AL

LM 1 Symmetric
OP
MM 3 13 6I z
PP
MM 0 + PP
35 5 AL2
MM 13
+
6I y PP
0 0
M = MM
35 5 AL2 PP
22 Jx
MM 0 0 0
3A
PP
MM 11 L Iy L2 2I y PP
+ +
MM 0 0
210 10 AL
0
105 15 A PP
2
MM 0 11 L Iz L 2I P
+ z
105 15 A PQ
0 0 0
N 210 10 AL

LM 1 0 0 0 0
OP
0
MM 6 9 6I z 13 L I
PP
MM 0 0 0 0 P z
70 2 420 10 AL P
5 AL
MM 9

6I y

13 L
+
Iy PP
M = MT MM 0 0
70 5 AL 2
0
420 10 AL
0
PP
21 12 Jx
MM 0 0 0
6A
0 0 PP
MM 13 L Iy L2 Iy PP

MM 0 0
420 10 AL
0
140 30 A
0
PP
2
MM 0 13 L Iz L I P
+ z
140 30 A PQ
0 0 0
N 420 10 AL

9
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

The lumped mass matrix contains terms only the following terms,
AL AL AL
a f
, =
M 11
2
a f
M 2,2 =
2
a f
M 3,3 =
2
J x L I y L I z L
a f
M 4,4 =
2
a f
M 5,5 =
2
a f
M 6,6 =
2

'6WUDLJKW%HDP %($0
 )RUPXODWLRQ

This element is a 2-D, 2-noded straight beam formulated by superimposing the


bending, shear and axial behaviour derived directly from the differential equations for
beam displacements, used in engineering beam theory.
The nodal degrees of freedom are (fig.7.2.1-1)
U, V and z at each node
The displacement variations along the length of the beam are linear axial, linear
rotation and cubic transverse displacements. The stress resultant variations are
constant axial force, linear moments and linear shear forces.
The nodal forces due to the thermal strains are assumed to be constant within each
element, and are evaluated explicitly using
R U
RS F UV = |S EAaLTTfO |V
e
x e
TM W |EI MN dy PQ |
z zz
T W
where ( T ) e and ( T dz ) e are average element values.
See [P1] for further element details.
 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVIRUFHV

The element output obtained at the nodes consists of


Fx , Fy and M z - +ve forces and moments are in the directions of the positive
local Cartesian system.
The forces are output in the local Cartesian system which is defined as having its local
x-axis along the element axis in the direction in which the element nodes are specified.
The local y and z-axes form a right-hand set with the x-axis, such that the y-axis lies in
the global XY plane, and the z-axis is parallel to the global Z-axis (up out of page)
(fig.7.2.1-3).
The nodal forces F are evaluated directly using

10
7.2 Beam Elements

F = Ka

in the local Cartesian system.


The local Cartesian forces may also be output at eleven equally spaced points along
the beam. These values are evaluated by combining the nodal values with the local
element forces and moments calculated explicitly.
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The element does not possess any nonlinear capability, but may be utilised in a
nonlinear environment. The element cannot be employed for linear buckling analyses.

Y
V

z U
V 2
z
U
1

FIG.7.2.1-1 NODAL FREEDOMS FOR BEAM ELEMENT

Load

Load

Cantilever Beam Plane Frame

FIG.7.2.1-2 EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING USE OF BEAM ELEMENTS

11
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

y
x 2

FIG.7.2.1-3 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BEAM ELEMENT

'6WUDLJKW*ULOODJH *5,/
 )RUPXODWLRQ

This element is a 2-D, 2-noded straight beam formulated by superimposing the


bending, shear, and torsional behaviour derived directly from the differential
equations for beam displacements used in engineering beam theory.
The nodal degrees of freedom are (fig.7.2.2-1)
W, x and y

The displacement variations along the length of the beam are linear axial, linear
rotation and cubic transverse displacements. The stress resultant variations are
constant axial, and linear moment and linear shear.
The nodal forces due to the thermal strains are assumed to be constant within each
element, and are evaluated explicitly using
e
M y = EI yy
LM T OP
N dz Q
where ( T dz) e is the average element value.
See [P1] for further element details.
 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVIRUFHV

The element output obtained at the nodes consists of


Fz , M x and M y +ve forces and moments are in the directions of the positive
local Cartesian system.
The forces are output in the local Cartesian system which is defined as having its local
x-axis along the element axis in the direction in which the element nodes are specified.

12
7.2 Beam Elements

The local y and z-axes form a right-hand set with the x-axis, such that the y-axis lies in
the global XY plane, and the z-axis is parallel to the global Z-axis (up out of page)
(fig.7.2.2-3).
The nodal forces F are evaluated directly using
F = Ka

in the local Cartesian system.


The local Cartesian forces may also be output at eleven equally spaced points along
the bar. These values are evaluated by combining the nodal values with the local
element forces and moments calculated explicitly.
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The element does not possess any nonlinear capability, but may be utilised in a
nonlinear environment.
The element cannot be employed for linear buckling analyses.

y x
w

w 1
x X

FIG.7.2.2-1 NODAL FREEDOMS FOR GRIL ELEMENT

13
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Z
Y
X
Point
Load

X
Problem Defintion Finite Element Mesh

FIG.7.2.2-2 EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATING USE OF GRIL ELEMENTS

y
x 2

FIG.7.2.2-3 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR GRIL ELEMENT

'5LEEHG3ODWH%HDP %53
 )RUPXODWLRQ

This element is a 2-D, 2-noded, straight eccentric beam formulated by superimposing


the bending, shear, torsional and axial behaviour derived directly from the differential
equations for beam displacements used in engineering beam theory.
The nodal degrees of freedom are (fig.7.2.3-1)
U, V, W, X and Y at each node

The displacement variations along the length of the beam are linear axial, linear
rotation and cubic transverse displacements. The stress resultant variations are
constant axial, linear moment and linear shear.

14
7.2 Beam Elements

The nodal forces due to the thermal strains are assumed to be constant within each
element, and are evaluated explicitly using

RS F UV = R|S EAaTTf U|V


e
x e
TM W |TEI LMN dz OPQ |W
y yy

where (T) and (T/dy) are average element values.


See [P1] for further element details.
 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVIRUFHV

The element output obtained at the nodes consists of


Fx , Fy , Fz , M x , M y +ve forces and moments are in the directions of the
positive local cartesian system.
The forces are output in the local Cartesian system which is defined as having its local
x-axis along the element axis in the direction in which the element nodes are specified.
The local y and z-axes form a right-hand set with the x-axis, such that the y-axis lies in
the global XY-plane, and the z-axis is parallel to the global Z-axis (up out of page)
(fig.7.2.3-3).
The nodal forces F are evaluated directly using
F = Ka

in the local Cartesian system.


The local Cartesian forces may also be output at eleven equally spaced points along
the beam. These values are evaluated by combining the nodal values with the local
element forces and moments calculated explicitly.
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The element does not possess any nonlinear capability, but may be utilised in a
nonlinear environment.
The element cannot be employed for linear buckling analysis.

15
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

V
y
U
V 2
y x
W
U
W 1
x X

FIG.7.2.3-1 NODAL FREEDOMS FOR BRP2 ELEMENT

RPI4 elements

Z
Y

BRP2 elements

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

FIG.7.2.3-2 RIBBED PLATE ILLUSTRATING USE OF BRP2 ELEMENT

16
7.2 Beam Elements

y
x 2

FIG.7.2.3-3 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BRP2 ELEMENT

'6WUDLJKW%HDP %06
 )RUPXODWLRQ

This element is a 3-D two noded straight beam formulated by superimposing the
bending, shear, torsional and axial behaviour derived directly from the differential
equations for beam displacements used in engineering beam theory.
The nodal degrees of freedom are (fig.7.2.4-1)
U, V, W, X , Y and Z at each node

The displacement variations along the length of the beam are linear axial, linear
rotation and cubic transverse displacements. The stress resultant variations are
constant axial, constant torsion and linear moment and linear shear.
The nodal forces due to the thermal strains are assumed to be constant within each
element, and are evaluated explicitly using
R| U|
R| F U| || EAaLTTfO ||
e
x e
S|M V| = S|EI MN dz PQ V|
y yy

TM W | L T O |
z e
|| EI MN dy PQ ||
zz
T W
where ( T) e and ( T dz) e are average element values.
See [P1] for further element details.

17
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVIRUFHV

The element output obtained at the nodes consists of


Fx , Fy , Fz Forces in the local Cartesian system.

Mx , My , Mz Moments in the local Cartesian system.

The local x-axis lies along the element axis in the direction in which the element
nodes are specified. The local xy-plane is defined by the third element node and the
element x-axis. The local y and z-axes form a right-hand set with the local x-axis
(fig.7.2.4-3).
The nodal forces F are evaluated directly using
F = Ka

in the local Cartesian system.


The local Cartesian forces may also be output at eleven equally spaced points along
the bar. These values are evaluated by combining the nodal values with the local
element forces and moments calculated explicitly.
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The element does not possess any nonlinear capability, but may be utilised in a
nonlinear environment.
The element cannot be utilised for linear buckling analysis.

Y
Y

V
2
Y X
W Z
U
1
X
W Z
X

FIG.7.2.4-1 NODAL FREEDOMS FOR BMS3 ELEMENT

18
7.2 Beam Elements

3
Y
y
x 2

z 1

FIG.7.2.4-2 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BMS3 ELEMENT

19
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

(a) 3-D Frame Structure

(a) 3-D Frame Structure

FIG.7.2.4-3 EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF BMS3 ELEMENTS

20
7.2 Beam Elements

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 )RUPXODWLRQ

The BM3 and BMX3 elements are thin, curved, non-conforming beam elements
formulated using the constraint technique.
The global displacements and rotations are initially quadratic and are interpolated
independently using linear Lagrangian shape functions for the end nodes and a
hierarchical quadratic function for the central node. Therefore, the initial degrees of
freedom are (fig.7.2.5-1)
U, V, j at the end nodes
u, v, j at the mid-length node.
The Kirchhoff condition of zero shear strain is applied at the two integration points,
by forcing
v u v
+ = z = 0
x z x
and eliminating the local transverse translational and rotational degrees of freedom at
the central node. The final degrees of freedom for the element are (fig.7.2.5-1)
U, V, z at the end nodes,

u at the mid-length node


where u is the local axial relative (departure from linearity) displacement.
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is defined in the local Cartesian
system as
u
x =
x

2 v
z =
x 2
The elastic rigidity (resultant modulus) and modulus matrices are defined as

Explicit
LM EA
$ =
D
EAe z OP
MNEAe z EI zz + Ae2y PQ
Numerically Integrated D=z M
L Eb Eyb OP dy
NEyb
h Ey 2 b Q
The thermal strain vector is defined as

21
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

R| U|
T
e j = |S| |V
|T dadyTf LMN + T ddT OPQ||W
0 t

A complete description of the element formulation is given in [M1,S1]. The consistent


and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined in (section 2.7).
 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVIRUFHV

The element output obtained at the nodes or Gauss points consists of


Fx - axial force (+ve tension)
Mz - moment
ex - axial strain
z - flexural strain
The forces and strains are output in the local x-axis which lies along the element axis
in the direction in which the element nodes are specified. The local y and z-axes form
a right-hand set with the x-axis, such that the y-axis lies in the global XY plane, and
the z-axis is parallel to the global Z-axis (up out of page) (fig.7.2.5-6).
Note. The moments are +ve for tension in the top fibre of the element (hogging). The
the fibre lies on the +ve local y side of the element.
Force and stress output may be obtained at either the nodes or element Gauss points.
Greatest accuracy is obtained at the Gauss points.
Three options for interpreting the forces and moments within an element are available
1. The axial force and moment are computed at the two Gauss points using numerical
integration. The true nodal moments for a beam element between supports is then
obtained by adding the fixed end moments to the end node values, and the sagging
moment to the mid-node value (fig.7.2.5-7). This is the default technique and must
be used for nonlinear analyses.
2. The axial force and moment are computed at the two end nodes by using
Fend = T Ka
T

where T is the global-local transformation matrix. The values at the centre point
are then interpolated from these end values and the values at the Gauss points
assuming a cubic variation (fig.7.2.5-7). This method can only be used for linear
analyses and is invoked via OPTION 136.
3. This method is similar to (b) except that the stress resultants at the centre node are
also computed by considering equilibrium and is invoked via OPTION 137.

22
7.2 Beam Elements

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The beam elements can be employed in


1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the elastoplastic constitutive laws [O1]
(section 4.2).
2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.
4. Nonlinear dynamics utilizing the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5. Linear eigen-buckling analysis.
1RWHV
BM3 and BMX3 may be used in conjunction with the stress resultant plasticity
model (section 4.2). BMX3 may be used with the concrete model and
continuum-based plasticity models (section 4.2).
The geometric nonlinearity may be either
A Total Lagrangian formulation which accounts for large displacements
but small strains. The nonlinear strain-displacement relationship is defined
by
2 2
x =
u 1 u
+
LM OP +
LM OP
1 v
x 2 x N Q 2 x
N Q
2 v u 2 v v 2 u
z = +
x 2 x x 2 x x 2
with reference to the local element x-axis.
The force and strain output with the geometrically nonlinear analysis will
be the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress resultants and Green-Lagrange strains
respectively, referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.
An Updated Lagrangian formulation takes account of large displacements
and large rotations but small strains, provided that the rotations are small
within a load increment. The output approximates to the true Cauchy stress
resultants and logarithmic strains. The loading approximates to being non-
conservative.
The initial assumptions used in deriving the BM3 and BMX3 elements limit
the rotations to one radian in a Total Lagrangian analysis and rotation
increments of one radian in an Updated Lagrangian analysis (section 3.5).
The BMX3 elements are valid for rotations (TL) or rotation increments (UL)
greater than one radian. As rotations become large, u / x may no longer be
interpreted as axial strain.
The axial force distribution from a simple problem is given in fig.7.2.5-8.

23
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

3
3 4
Y, V

1
TSM3 2
2 1 SMI4

X, U

Z, W

FIG.7.2.5-1 NODAL FREEDOMS FOR BM3 AND BMX3 ELEMENTS

Thin membrane SMI4 Elements

Stiffening members QSI4 elements

Problem definition Finite Element Mesh

FIG.7.2.5-2 PORTAL FRAME SHOWING LOCATIONS OF QUADRATURE


POINTS WITH A 3-POINT NEWTON-COTES RULE

24
7.2 Beam Elements

2 3

1 4

FIG.7.2.5-3 LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES FOR CROSS-SECTION

Element 1 or
2 3
Quadrilateral 1

1 2 3 4

Element 2 or Z
Quadrilateral 2

2 1 4 3
Element 3 or
Quadrilateral 3
1 4

FIG.7.2.5-4 CROSS-SECTION OF I-BEAM REPRESENTED BY


SUPERIMPOSING THREE BMX3 ELEMENTS OR BY DEFINING THREE
QUADRILATERALS

25
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Y Y

Z Z

3-Point Newton-Coates 5-Point Newton-Coates

FIG.7.2.5-5 QUADRATURE RULES FOR CROSS-SECTION INTEGRATION

Y
y
x
y x
3

2
x
y

FIG.7.2.5-6 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BM3 AND BMX3 ELEMENTS

26
7.2 Beam Elements

UDL

Support

True moment distribution


LUSAS + fixed end moments wl/24 wl/12

wl/12 Values evaluated at


Gauss points and
extapolated to nodes

(a) Adding Fixed End Moments

Nodal values computed


directly from F = K a

Gauss points values

(b) Cubic Fit Through Gauss and Nodal Values

Nodal values computed


directly from F = K a

Mid-point moment
evaluated using
equilibrium

(c) Quadratic Fit Through Nodal and Mid-length Values

FIG.7.2.5-7 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS OBTAINED USING BM3 AND


BMX3 ELEMENTS

27
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Load

(a) Problem Definition

BM3
Axial Force

(b) Axial Force Distribution

FIG.7.2.5-8 AXIAL FORCE DISTRIBUTIONS OBTAINED FOR A


GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF A CANTILEVER BEAM

'&XUYHG7KLQ%HDP %6%6%6;
 )RUPXODWLRQ

The BS3, BS4, and BSX4 elements are 3-D thin, curved, non-conforming beam
elements formulated using the constraint technique.
The global displacements and rotations are initially quadratic and are independently
interpolated using linear Lagrangian shape functions for the end nodes and a
hierarchical quadratic function for the central node. This provides C(0) continuity of
the in-plane displacement. The initial freedoms are (fig.7.2.6-1)
U , V , W, X , Y , Z at the end nodes

28
7.2 Beam Elements

U, V, W, X , Y , Z at the mid-side node


The Kirchhoff condition of zero shear strain is applied at the two integration points,
by forcing
v u v
+ = z = 0
x y x
w u w
+ = + y = 0
x z x
and eliminating the local transverse translational and bending rotational freedoms at
the central node. The final degrees of freedom for the element are (fig.7.2.6-1)
U , V , W, X , Y , Z at the end nodes
u and X at the mid-side node
where u and X are the local relative (departure from linearity) axial displacement
and torsional rotation of the central node.
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is
u
x =
x

2 u
y =
x 2
2 v
z =
x 2
2 w
xy =
xy

2 w
xz =
xy

Note. xy + xz = z the total torsional strain

The elastic rigidity (resultant modulus) and modulus matrices are defined as
Explicit
LM EA EAe z EAe y 0 0 0 OP
MMEAe z E I yy + Ae z2
e j EAe y e z 0 0 0 PP
$ = MEAe y EAe y e z E I zz + Ae 2y
e j 0 0 0 P
D
MM 0 0 0 GI yy 0 0 P
P
MM 0 0 0 0 GI zz 0 P
N 0 0 0 0 0 GA PQ

29
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Alternatively, if K t has a non-zero value in the element geometric properties data


section, the resultant torsional moduli GI yy and GI zz are replaced with GK t / 2 where
K t is a torsional constant (typically, for circular cross-sections K t = J , the polar
second moment of area).
Numerically integrated
LM E Ey
2
Ez 0 0 0 OP
MMEy Ey Eyz
Eyz Ez 2
0 0 0
0P
P
$ =
D zz h b
MMEz0 0 0
0
Gy 2
0
0 0P
P dydz
MM 0 0 0 0 Gz 2 0P
MN 0 0 0 0 0 G PQ
P
The thermal strain vector is defined as
R| daTf T d U|
|| dz LMN + T dT OPQ||
e j = S| dadyTf LM + T ddT OPV|
0 t
|| N 0 Q|
||W
|T 0

A description of the element formulation is given in [M2].


The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).
 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVIRUFHV

The element output obtained at the nodes or Gauss points consists of


Fx axial force
My , Mz moments
Ty , Tz torques

x axial strain
y , z flexural strain
xy , xz torsional strain

The forces and strains are output in the local Cartesian system which is defined by
%6 For a curved element the local xy-plane is defined by the three element
nodes. Local y is perpendicular to local x and +ve on the convex side of the

30
7.2 Beam Elements

element. The local y and z-axis form a right-hand set with the local x-axis
(Fig.7.2.6-7a).
For a straight element parallel to the global X-axis, the local z-axis is given by
the unit vector z = j x x (j is a unit vector along the global Y-axis) (fig.7.2.6-
7b)
For a straight element not parallel to the global X-axis, the local z-axis is given
the unit vector z = i x x (i is a unit vector along the global X-axis) (fig.7.2.6-
7c)
The local y-axis forms a right-hand set with the local x and z axes.
%6 %6; The local xy-plane is defined by all four element nodes which
are assumed to be coplanar. The local y-axis is perpendicular to the local x-
axis and +ve on the side of the element where the fourth node lies. The local y
and z-axis form a right-hand set with the local x-axis (fig.7.2.6-6)
Note. The torques are +ve for anti-clockwise rotations at first node and clockwise
rotations at third node.
Force and stress output may be obtained at either the nodes or element Gauss points.
Greatest accuracy is obtained at the Gauss points.
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The beam elements can be employed in


1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the elasto-plastic constitutive laws [O1]
(section 4.2).
2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.
4. Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5. Linear eigen-buckling analysis.
1RWHV
BS3, BS4 and BSX4 may be used in conjunction with the stress resultant
plasticity model (section 4.2). BSX4 may be used with the concrete model and
continuum based plasticity models (section 4.2).
All continuum based nonlinear material models do not consider nonlinear
torsional effects.
The geometric nonlinearity utilises a Total Lagrangian formulation which
accounts for large displacements but small strains. The nonlinear strain-
displacement relationship is defined by
2 2
x = +
LM OP
u 1 u
+
LM OP
1 v
x 2 x
N Q 2 x
N Q

31
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

2 w u 2 w w 2 u w 2 v
y = + +
x 2 x x 2 x x 2 y x 2

2v u 2 v v 2 u w 2 w
z = +
x 2 x x 2 x x 2 y x 2

2 w u 2 w w 2 v
xz =
xy x xy x x 2

2 w u 2 w v 2 v
xy =
xy x xy x x 2
v w
yz =
x x

with reference to the local element x-axis.


The force and strain output for a geometrically nonlinear analysis will be 2nd
Piola-Kirchhoff stress resultants and Green-Lagrange strains respectively,
referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is conservative.
The initial assumptions in deriving the BS3, BS4 and BSX4 elements limit the
rotations to one radian in a Total Lagrangian (TL) analysis, and rotation
increments of one radian in an Updated Lagrangian (UL) analysis (Section
3.5).

V V
Y Y

U U
W 3 X W Z
3 X
Z

V
Y u

U
W 2 2 X
Z X

V V
Y Y

Y U Y U
1 1 X
X
Z Z
W W
X X

Z Z

Initial Variables Final Variables

FIG.7.2.6-1 NODAL FREEDOMS FOR BS3, BS4 AND BSX4 ELEMENTS

32
7.2 Beam Elements

Quadrature Points

Quadrature points
coincide with
frame joints

FIG.7.2.6-2 PORTAL FRAME SHOWING LOCATIONS OF QUADRATURE


POINTS WITH A 3-POINT NEWTON-COTES RULE

2 3

1 4

FIG.7.2.6-3 LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES FOR CROSS-SECTION

33
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Element 1 or
2 3
Quadrilateral 1

1 2 3 4

Element 2 or Z
Quadrilateral 2

2 1 4 3
Element 3 or
Quadrilateral 3
1 4

FIG.7.2.6-4 CROSS-SECTION OF AN I-BEAM REPRESENTED BY


SUPERIMPOSING THREE BSX4 ELEMENTS OR BY DEFINING THREE
QUADRILATERALS

3*3 Newton-Cotes 5*5 Newton-Cotes

FIG.7.2.6-5 QUADRATURE RULES FOR CROSS-SECTION INTEGRATION

34
7.2 Beam Elements

Y 3 x
z
x y
2
y
x
1 4

y
X

FIG.7.2.6-6 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BS4 AND BSX4 ELEMENTS

35
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Y
x-y plane

y
y x x
3
x 2 z
y
1
z X

Z
(a) Curved Element

z
z
x x
1 2 3
y
y

(b) Straight Element Parrallel With Global X-axis

Y y
x

3
z
y 2
x
1
z
X

(c) Arbitrarily Orientated Straight Element

FIG.7.2.6-7 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR THE BS3 ELEMENT

36
7.2 Beam Elements

'6HPLORRI7KLQ%HDP %6/%6/%;/
 )RUPXODWLRQ

The BSL3,BSL4 and BXL4 elements are 3-D thin, curved beam elements based on
the Kirchhoff constraint technique. Their formulation and nodal configuration has
been specifically designed to provide an element compatible with the Semiloof shell
element QSL8. Initially, the displacements and rotations are interpolated using
quadratic and cubic shape functions respectively, where the cubic variation is
provided by the rotational degrees of freedoms of the 'loof' nodes, which are located at
the quadrature points of the 2 point Gauss rule (fig.7.2.7-1).
Unlike the thick beam formulation presented by Irons [I1], the present formulation
utilises Kirchhoff constraints of zero shear strain applied at the 2-point Gauss
quadrature locations, by forcing
v u v
+ = z = 0
x y x
w u w
+ = + y = 0
x z x
which provides four constraint equations and permits elimination of the two flexural
degrees of freedoms at these positions. The final degrees of freedom for the element
are (fig.7.2.7-1)
U, V, W, X , y , z at nodes 1 and 3
U, V, W at node 2
and
X at nodes 4 and 5
Note. The rotations at the 'loof' nodes are local, but are not relative rotations
(departures from linearity) as with the other LUSAS beam elements based on
Kirchhoff constraints.
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is
u
x =
x

2w
y =
x 2
2 v
z =
x 2
2 w
xy =
xy

37
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

2 w
xz =
xy

Note. xy + xz = z the total torsional strain The elastic rigidity (resultant modulus)
and modulus matrices are defined as
([SOLFLW

LM EA EAe z EAe y 0 OP 0 0
MMEAe z E e I yy + Ae 2z j EAe e y z 0 0 0 P
EeI + Ae j 2
0 P
P
$ = MEAe y EAe y e z zz 0y 0
D MM 0 0 0 GeI + Ae j 0
yy
2
0 P
z
P
MM 0 0 0 0 GeI + Ae j 0 PP zz
2
y
NM 0 0 0 0 0 GA QP

Alternatively if K t has a non-zero value in the element geometric properties data


section, the resultant torsional moduli GI yy and GI zz are replaced with GK t / 2 where
K t is a torsional constant (typically, for circular cross-sections K t = J , the polar
second moment of area).
1XPHULFDOO\ LQWHJUDWHG

LM E Ez Ey 0 0 0 OP
MME z Ez2 Eyz 0 0 0 PP
Eyz Ey 2
D= zz h b
MME0y
0 0
0
Gz 2 0
0 0
0P
P dydz
MM 0 0 0 0 Gy 2 0P
MN 0 0 0 0 0 G PQ
P
The thermal strain vector is defined by
LM daTf T d OP
MM dz LMN + T dT OPQPP
e j = MM daTf LM + T d OPPP
0 t
MM dy N 0 dT QPP
MN 0 PQ
A more detailed description of the element formulation is given in [A1,I1,M1].
The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).
 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVIRUFHV

The element output obtained at the nodes or Gauss points consists of

38
7.2 Beam Elements

Fx axial force
My , Mz moments
Ty , Tz torques
x axial strain
y, z flexural strain
xy , xz torsional strain

The forces and strains are output in the local Cartesian system which is defined by
%6/
For a curved element the local xy-plane is defined by the three element nodes. Local y
is perpendicular to local x and +ve on the convex side of the element. The local y and
z-axis form a right-hand set with the local x-axis (fig.7.2.7-6a).
For a straight element parallel to the global X-axis, the local z-axis is given by the unit
vector z = j x (j is a unit vector along the global Y-axis) (fig.7.2.7-6b).

For a straight element not parallel to the global X-axis, the local z-axis is given the
unit vector z = i x (i is a unit vector along the global X-axis) (fig.7.2.7-6c).
The local y-axis forms a right-hand set with the local x and z axes.
%6/
The local xy-plane is defined by all four element nodes which are
%;/
assumed to be coplanar. The local y-axis is perpendicular to the local x-axis and +ve
on the side of the element where the fourth node lies. The local y and z-axis form a
right-hand set with the local x-axis (fig.7.2.7-7)
Note. The torques are +ve for anti-clockwise rotations at the first node and clockwise
rotations at the third node.
Force and stress output may be obtained at either the nodes or element Gauss points.
Greatest accuracy is obtained at the Gauss points.
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The beam elements can be employed in


1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the elastoplastic constitutive laws [O1]
(section 4.2).
2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.

39
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

4. Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.


5. Linear eigen-buckling analysis.
1RWHV
BSL3, BSL4 and BXL4 may be used in conjunction with the stress resultant
plasticity model (section 4.2). BXL4 may be used with the concrete model and
continuum based plasticity models (section 4.2).
All continuum based nonlinear material models ignore nonlinear torsional
effects.
The geometric nonlinearity utilises a Total Lagrangian formulation which
accounts for large displacements but small strains. The nonlinear strain-
displacement relationship is defined by
2 2
x =
u 1 u
+
LM OP +
LM OP
1 v
x 2 x N Q 2 x
N Q
2 w u 2 w w 2 u w 2 v
y = + +
x 2 x x 2 x x 2 y x 2

2 v u 2 v v 2 u w 2 w
z = +
x 2 x x 2 x x 2 y x 2

2 w u 2 w w 2 v
xz =
xy x xy x x 2

2 w u 2 w v 2 v
xy =
xy x xy x x 2
v w
yz =
x x

with reference to the local element x-axis.


The force and strain output with the geometrically nonlinear analysis will be
the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress resultants and Green- Lagrange strains
respectively, referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.

40
7.2 Beam Elements

V V
Y Y
Y
U U
W Z 3 X W Z 3 X

5 5 X
X
Z
V V

U U
W 2 W 2

V V X
Y 4
X Y 4
Z
Y U Y U
1 1
X X
Z Z
W W
X X

Z Z

Initial Variables Final Variables

FIG.7.2.7-1 NODAL FREEDOMS FOR BSL3, BSL4 AND BXL4 ELEMENTS

QSL8 elements

BSL3 elements

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

FIG.7.2.7-2 STIFFENED SHELL ILLUSTRATING USE OF BSL3 ELEMENT

41
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

2 3

1 4

FIG.7.2.7-3 LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES FOR CROSS-SECTION

Element 1 or
2 3
Quadrilateral 1

1 2 3 4

Element 2 or Z
Quadrilateral 2

2 1 4 3
Element 3 or
Quadrilateral 3
1 4

FIG.7.2.7-4 CROSS-SECTION OF AN I-BEAM REPRESENTED BY


SUPERIMPOSING THREE BSL4 ELEMENTS OR BY DEFINING THREE
QUADRILATERALS

42
7.2 Beam Elements

3*3 Newton-Cotes 5*5 Newton-Cotes

FIG.7.2.7-5 QUADRATURE RULES FOR CROSS-SECTION INTEGRATION

43
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Y
x-y plane

y
y x x
3
x 2 z
y
1
z X

Z
(a) Curved Element

z
z
x x
1 2 3
y
y

(b) Straight Element Parrallel With Global X-axis

Y y
x

3
z
y 2
x
1
z
X

(c) Arbitrarily Orientated Straight Element

FIG.7.2.7-6 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BSL3 ELEMENT

44
7.2 Beam Elements

Y 3 x
z
x y
2
y
x
1 4

y
X

FIG.7.2.7-7 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BSL4 AND BXL4 ELEMENTS

'6WUDLJKW%HDP %76
 )RUPXODWLRQ

This element is a 3-D, two noded, straight beam formulated using Timoshenko beam
theory so that shear deformations are accounted for. In essence, this element is
formulated in a very straight forward manner, using linear shape functions and
standard degrees of freedom. The complexities in this formulation arise in the
consistent derivation of the geometric tangent stiffness and in the treatment of the
rotational degrees of freedom. The nodal degrees of freedom for BTS3 are identical to
those of the BMS3 element, (fig.7.2.8-1). End releases may be applied to all the nodal
freedoms, see section 7.2.8.4.
The nodal degrees of freedom are
U, V, W, X , Y , Z at each node.
All displacement and rotation variations along the length of the element are linear
while all internal forces and moments are constant.
Consistent and lumped mass matrices are available which are evaluated using the
procedures defined in section 2.7.1.
 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVIRUFHV

The element output consists of

45
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Fx , Fy , Fz - Forces in the local Cartesian system

Mx , My , Mz - Moments in the local Cartesian system

Element strains and curvatures are also available but nodal values are not output. The
local x-axis lies along the element axis in the direction in which the element nodes are
specified. The local xy-plane is defined by the third element node and the element x-
axis. The local y and z-axes form a right-hand set with the local x-axis. These axes are
consistent with those of the BMS3 element (fig.7.2.8-2).
The formulation is such that engineering strain measures are used in both linear and
geometrically nonlinear applications. These strains always relate to a local Cartesian
system.
The internal forces are computed using:
P = D

Where P are the local internal forces, are the local strains and curvatures and D is
the modulus matrix given by (terms not shown are zero)
LM EA xx EA xx e z OP
GA sy
MM PP
GA sz
D= M
M G J xx + A xx e 2z
PP
MM e j PP
E I yy + A xx e 2z
e j
MM EA e xx z
PP
N EI zz Q
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

This element can be employed in


1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the stress resultant plasticity model (section
4.2).
2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.
4. Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5. Linear eigen-buckling analysis.
Geometric nonlinearity is accounted for using a co-rotational formulation. In this
approach local strains are computed in a local Cartesian frame which is 'fixed' to the
element and follows the element as it rotates in 3-D space. Total local strains are
computed using the current configuration and local frame. In other words, the strains
computed at the end of one increment do not depend on the strains computed at the

46
7.2 Beam Elements

end of a previous increment. Solutions obtained using this element will not be load
step size dependant. The local strains for the element are given by
T
= x , y , z , X x , X y , X z
o t
where:
x = u / lo

y = 2 + 5
e i2
z = e + i 2 3 6

Xx = e i 10
4 1

Xy = e i 10
2 5

Xz = e i 10
3 6

Where, lo is the initial element length, u is the axial stretch measured in the co-
rotated frame, and i , i=1,6 are the local gradients at the nodes or 'curvature
producing' rotations relative to the co-rotated frame, (fig. 7.2.8-3).
The current local gradients at the nodes are computed from
2 1 = t 2 T e3 t 3T e 2

2 2 = t1T e 2 t 2 T e1

2 3 = t1T e 3 t 3T e1

2 4 = q T
e3 q T
e2
2 3

2 5 = q T e 2 q T
e1
1 2

2 6 = q T e3 q T
e1
1 3

Where e i are unit vectors defining the co-rotated base frame and t i , q i , i=1,3 are the
cartesian sets at nodes 1 and 2 respectively defining the orientation of the beam cross-
section. These expressions may be thought of as being a means of computing an
'average' value for a local gradient at a node. This is easily visualised in two
dimensions where, for example, t1T e 2 = t 2 T e1 .This is not true for the three
dimensional case and a stricter derivation of the expressions for local gradients would
involve the polar decomposition theorem. The approach then taken is to decompose
the total rotation into a rigid body component and a local gradient. The expressions
described above are the result of applying these principles. The variation of these

47
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

expressions is used in the virtual work equation to relate variations in local strains to
variations in global nodal displacements.
The local frame e i , i=1,3 is easily established for a two dimensional problem. In three
dimensions defining the local frame is more difficult. The approach described by
Crisfield [C7] has been used for this purpose. The following expressions are used for
defining e 2 and e3 .

r 2 T e1
e2 = r 2 ne 1 + r1 s
2
r 3T e1
e3 = r 3 ne
1 + r1 s
2
The local frame is established at the centre of the element and the vectors r i , i=1,3
represent the 'average' of the nodal cartesian sets, t i and q i . These expressions are
approximations to the exact expressions for defining the 'smallest' rotation between
vectors r1 and e1 . These expressions have been used with a view to obtaining less
costly derivatives in a consistent derivation of the tangent stiffness. This lack of
orthogonality has been shown to be 0.25 degrees for a local gradient of 15 degrees
and 1.9 degrees for a gradient of 30 degrees [C7]. As these values actually represent
the 'curvature producing' rotations in a single element the deformation would need to
be very severe to reach these values.
The axial stretch may be taken as
u = ln lo
where ln is taken as the current element length (or chord length). By defining the
vectors
x 21 = x 2 x1

d 21 = d 2 d1

and then by rearranging Pythagoras's theorem this may be expressed as


T
u=
2 RS
1
x + d
UV d 21
T
ln + lo 21 2 21 W
The vector x defines the nodes in the initial configuration while d 21 is the 'net'
translational displacement vector, (fig. 7.2.8-4). The variation of this expression
reduces to
u = e1T d 21

48
7.2 Beam Elements

Differentiation of the above equations relating to axial stretch and local gradients
allows virtual variations of local strains to be related to virtual variations in global
nodal displacements via a strain displacement matrix B
= B a

where a are the global nodal displacements. Using this expression in the virtual work
equation allows global internal forces at the nodes to be expressed in terms of local
internal forces as
P = BT P

The out of balance force vector is then given by


= BT P R

where R is the applied nodal loading.


The variation of this equation gives the tangent stiffness matrix. Assuming
conservative loading this gives
d = BT dP + dBT P

d = BT DBda + dBT P

The first term on the right hand side of this equation may be recognised as the material
or standard linear stiffness matrix. The second term gives rise to the geometric
stiffness.
1RWHV
This geometrically nonlinear formulation is consistently formulated and
displays a quadratic rate of convergence in the limit. A consequence of this
consistency is the ability of the element to cope with larger load increments.
The total strains are computed from the current configuration and local frame
only. Therefore, results obtained using this element are not load step size
dependant.
This element incorporates rotational degrees of freedom. As explained in
section 3.5, large rotations in three dimensions are non-vectorial in nature and
therefore may not be summed as vectors. To overcome this problem the
rotation variables are never added to establish the current orientation of the
element. A set of Cartesian axes are established at each node to define the
orientation of the beam cross section. These axes, which are used in the
computation of internal forces and the stiffness matrix, are updated correctly
using the iterative increments in nodal rotations, section 3.5. The procedure for
this operation is outlined as
a. Extract the Euler parameters from the initial nodal Cartesian set.

49
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

b. Form an incremental Euler parameter from the iterative rotation increment.


c. Update the Euler parameter by manipulating the previous and incremental
parameter using quarternion algebra.
d. Form the updated Cartesian set from the updated Euler parameter.
In view of the non-vectorial nature of these rotations it should be noted that the
nodal rotation output represents approximate values which should be treated
with caution. However, the translational displacements and internal force
output will be correct for problems involving arbitrary large nodal rotations.
A nonsymmetric stiffness matrix will result if a follower load is specified. This
arises as additional terms are added to the stiffness matrix to account for the
variation in the load direction between iterations. Full details of the derivation
of these additional terms are given in [C6].
A more detailed derivation of this element formulation may be found in [C6]
and [C8].

 (QG UHOHDVHV

Many structures which are modelled with three-dimensional beam elements require
joints at the nodes which follow the axes of the rotating system. Examples include
deployable space structures, robots and rotating machinery.
Prismatic (sliding), revolute (hinges), spherical and cylindrical joints can be modelled
by releasing the appropriate degrees of freedom at a node. These freedoms relate to
the local beam axes and a master-slave procedure has been adopted to model the
release [J2]. At present, this facility is restricted to static analyses.
Consider a node which is initially shared by a number of elements, one of which is not
fully connected to the others. In the deformed configuration the node is no longer
completely shared and from (fig.7.2.8-5) the following relationships can be
established:
d = dm +

Q = Q* Q
m

where d m and Q define the displacement vector and rotation matrix of the master
m
node, and d and Q define the displacement vector and rotation matrix of the
disconnected (at least partially) slave node. It should be noted that, following
conventional beam theory assumptions, the origins of the vectors d m and d coincide,
with the gap in (fig.7.2.8-5) drawn for illustrative purposes only.
The columns of the rotation matrices Q and Q consist of orthonormal base vectors
m
q
m1
, q m2 , q m3 and q1 , q 2 , q 3 (fig.7.2.8-5):

50
7.2 Beam Elements

Q = q , q , q
m m1 m2 m3

Q= q , q , q
1 2 3

The rotation matrix Q * is the matrix that defines the rotation of the master triad Q ,
m
on to the slave triad Q.
When modelling different types of joints, the master variables, d m and Q , are
m
generally not entirely independent from the slave variables, d and Q . Depending on
the type of joint, some of the components of the displacement vectors, d m and d ,
and/or parameters of the rotation matrices Q and Q , can be the same. Different types
m
of joints are defined by releasing displacements and/or rotations around chosen axes.
In a geometrically nonlinear analysis these axes rotate together with the structure. For
translational joints, the 'difference vector', (with local components), between the
master and slave variables is, when transformed into coordinates defined by the master
triad, equal to the vector of released displacements (fig.7.2.8-6):
s = QT
m

where the vector of released displacements, s , has zero components in non-released


directions. In a similar manner, if the rotational pseudovector * , is extracted from the
'rotation difference matrix', Q * and it is transformed to the master triad, the rotational
pseudovector of released rotations is obtained (fig.7.2.8-7):
= Q T *
m

Using these equations a relationship can be established between the variations of the
master, slave and released freedoms. This relationship can then be used to derive a
modified stiffness matrix and internal force vector which accounts for any released
freedoms. Full details of this derivation can be found in [J2] while (fig.7.2.8-6) and
(fig.7.2.8-7) illustrate a prismatic (sliding) and revolute (hinge) release.

51
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Y
Y

V
2
Y X
W Z
U
1
X
W Z
X

FIG.7.2.8-1 NODAL FREEDOMS FOR BTS3 ELEMENT

3
Y
y
x 2

z 1

FIG.7.2.8-2 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BTS3 ELEMENT

52
7.2 Beam Elements

q2
6 4
q1

q3
e2 5

e1
e3
t1
1
t2

t3
Y 3 2

FIG.7.2.8-3 LOCAL GRADIENTS BTS3 ELEMENT

Final Configuration ln
d2

lo

d1
x 21

Y x2 Initial Configuration
x1

X
Z

FIG.7.2.8-4 AXIAL STRETCH BTS3 ELEMENT

53
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

e3

e2

e1 q3
d
q2
dm
q1
qm3

q m2

q m1

FIG.7.2.8-5 GENERAL DISPLACEMENTS AT A NODE WITH RELEASED


FREEDOMS

e3

e2

e1

qm3

qm2
qm1

FIG.7.2.8-6 PRISMATIC (SLIDING) RELEASE

54
7.2 Beam Elements

e3
e2 qm3
q3

q2
e1
q m2

q m 3= q 1

FIG.7.2.8-7 REVOLUTE (HINGED) RELEASE

55
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

56
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

7ZR'LPHQVLRQDO&RQWLQXXP(OHPHQWV
6WDQGDUG,VRSDUDPHWULF(OHPHQWV
Isoparametric finite elements utilise the same shape functions to interpolate both the
displacements and geometry, i.e.
n
U= N b, gU
i =1
i i
displacement
n
geometry X= N b, gX
i =1
i i

b g
where N i , is the element shape function for node i and n is the number of nodes.
Fig.7.3.1-1 shows the nodal configurations available within LUSAS.
The nodal degrees of freedom are U and V.
All the isoparametric elements described in this section must be defined using only X
and Y coordinates. For 3-D plane membrane elements see section 7.5 on space
membrane elements A complete description of their formulation is given in [H1,B2].
The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).
 3ODQH VWUHVV 430 430 730 730 43. 73.

The plane stress elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of out of
plane direct stress and shear stresses is negligible, i.e.
z = 0, xz = 0, yz = 0

The plane stress elements are suitable for analysing structures which are thin in the out
of plane direction, e.g. thin plates subject to in-plane loading (fig.7.3.1-2).
Note. The thickness of the material is defined at each node and may vary over the
element.
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is defined as
U
X =
X
V
Y =
Y

57
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

U V
XY = +
Y X

The isotropic and orthotropic elastic modulus matrices are


LM 1 0
OP
Isotropic D=
E M
1 0 P
e j MM 0
1 2
0
b g PP
1
MN 2 PQ
1
LM 1 / E x xy / E x 0 OP
Orthotropic D M / E
= xy x 1 / Ey 0 PP
MN 0 0 1 / G xy Q
where yx has been set to xy E y / E x to maintain symmetry.
Note. To obtain a valid material
1/ 2
xy < E x / E y
d i

z = d x + y i for isotropic materials
E
xz yz
z = x y for orthotropic materials
Ex Ey

The thermal strain is defined by


LM(1 ) 0
OP
isotropic D=
E M (1 ) 0 PP
(1 + )(1 2 ) M (1 2 )
MM 0 0 PP
N 2 Q
T
Orthotropic (0 ) t = T x , y , xy

 3ODQH VWUDLQ 431 431 731 731 41. 71.

The plane strain elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of out of
plane direct strain and shear strains is negligible, i.e.
Z = 0, YZ = 0, XZ = 0

The plane strain elements are suitable for analysing structures which are thick in the
out of plane direction, e.g. dams or thick cylinders (fig.7.3.1-3). The infinitesimal
strain-displacement relationship is defined as

58
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

U
X =
X
V
Y =
Y
U V
XY = +
Y X

The isotropic and orthotropic elastic modulus matrices are


LM(1 ) 0
OP
M 0 PP
E
Isotropic D= (1 )
(1 + )(1 2 ) M (1 2 ) P
MM 0 0
N 2 PQ
1
LM E E z
2
xz x
xy E z xz yz E y
0
OP
MM E E x z EyEz PP
E E E z 2yz E y
D=M PP
xy z yz xz x
Orthotropic 0
MM E E x z EyEz
PP
1
MM 0 0
G xy PQ
N
where for symmetry
E y xy E z + yz xz E x = E x xy E z + xz yz E y
d i d i
Note. To obtain a valid material
1/ 2 1/ 2
xy < E x / E y
d i b
xz < E x / E z g
1/ 2
yz < E y / E z
d i
z = b X + Y g for isotropic materials
Ez E
z = xz + yz z for orthotropic materials
EX Ey

The thermal strain is defined by


Isotropic c h = (1 + )T , , 0
0 t
T

LM E + ,
z
xz z x
OP T

Orthotropic c h = TMM E
0 t
x
E
PP
MMN z
yz z + y , xy PPQ
E y

59
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

 $[LV\PPHWULF 4$; 4$; 7$; 7$; 4;. 7;.

The axisymmetric elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of out of
plane shear stresses is negligible, i.e.
XZ = 0, YZ = 0

and the out of plane direct strain is defined as


U
Z =
R
where R is the distance from the axis of symmetry.
The axisymmetric elements are suitable for analysing solid structures which exhibit
geometric symmetry about a given axis, e.g. thick cylinders or circular plates
(fig.7.3.1-4).
The elements are defined in the XY-plane and symmetry can be specified about either
the X or Y axes. The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is defined as:
U
X =
X
V
Y =
Y
U V
XY = +
Y X
U
Z = symmetry about the Y axis
R
V
or Z = symmetry about the X axis
R
The isotropic and orthotropic linear elastic modulus matrices are defined as
LM(1 ) 0
OP
Isotropic D=
E MM (1 ) 0 PP
(1 + )(1 2 ) (1 2 )
MM 0 0 PP
N 2 Q
1
LM 1 / E x yx / E y 0 zx / E z OP
/ E 1 / Ey 0 zy / E z
Orthotropic D=M
MM 0
xy x
0 1 / G xy 0
PP
MN / E yz / E y 0 1 / Ez
PP
xz x Q

60
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

where yx , zx and zy are defined by


yx = xy E y / E x zx = xz E z / E x zy = yz E z / E y

to maintain symmetry.
Note. To obtain a valid material
1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2
xy < E x / E y
d i b
xz < E x / E z g yz < E y / E zy
d i
The thermal strain vector is defined as
T
Isotropic c h = T , , 0,
0 t

T
Orthotropic d i = T , ,
0 t x y xy , z

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHV

The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of
Stress Output
X , Y , XY , Z the direct and shear stresses
max , min the maximum and minimum principal stresses
the angle between the maximum principal stress and the
positive X-axis
S the maximum shear stress
V von Mises equivalent stress
Strain Output
X , Y , XY , z the direct and shear strains
max , min the maximum and minimum principal strains
the angle between the maximum principal strain and the
positive X-axis
S the maximum shear strain
V von Mises equivalent strain
Stress resultant output, which accounts for the thickness of the element, is available as
an alternative to stress output for the plane stress elements, i.e
Stress Resultant Output
N X , N Y , N XY , N z the direct and shear stress resultants/unit length
N max , N min the maximum and minimum principal stress
resultants/unit length

61
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

the angle between the maximum principal stress resultant


and the positive X-axis
NS the maximum shear stress resultant/unit length
NV von Mises equivalent stress resultant/unit length
The sign convention for stress, stress resultants and strain output is shown in fig.7.3.1-
6.
The Gauss point stresses are usually more accurate than the nodal values. The nodal
values of stress and strain are obtained using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The 2-D isoparametric elements can be employed in:-


(Materially nonlinear analysis, utilising the elasto-plastic constitutive laws
[O1] (section 4.2) and the concrete model (section.4.3)
Geometrically nonlinear analysis.
Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear
material laws specified in 1.
Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
Linear eigen-buckling analysis.
1RWHV
The plane stress elements can be used with the nonlinear concrete model
(section 4.3).
The plane stress and plane strain elements may be used with the nonlinear
interface model (section 4.2).
The geometric nonlinearity may utilize:
a. A Total Lagrangian formulation which accounts for large displacements but
small strains. The nonlinear strain-displacement relationship is defined by
Plane stress
2 2
X = +
LM OP
U 1 U
+
LM OP
1 V
X 2 X
N Q 2 X
N Q
2 2
V 1 L U O 1 L V O
= + + M P
X 2 MN Y PQ
Y
2 N Y Q
U V U U V V
XY = + + +
Y X X Y X Y

62
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

Plane Strain
2 2
X = +
LM OP
U 1 U
+
LM OP
1 V
X 2 X
N Q 2 X
N Q
2 2
V 1 L U O 1 L V O
= + + M P
X 2 MN Y PQ
Y
2 N Y Q
U V U U V V
XY = + + +
Y X X Y X Y
Axisymmetric
2 2
X = +
LM OP
U 1 U
+
LM OP
1 V
X 2 X
N Q 2 X
N Q
2 2
V 1 L U O 1 L V O
= + + M P
X 2 MN Y PQ
Y
2 N Y Q
U V U U V V
XY = + + +
Y X X Y X Y
2
Z =
LM OP
U 1 U
+ symmetry about the Y axis
N Q
R 2 R
2
V 1 LVO
or = + M P
Z symmetry about the X axis
R 2 NRQ

The output is now in terms of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and Green-
Lagrange strains referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.
b. An Updated Lagrangian formulation, which takes account of large
displacements and moderately large strains provided that the strain increments
are small. The output is now in terms of the true Cauchy stresses and the
strains approximate to logarithmic strains. The loading approximates to being
non-conservative.
c. An Eulerian formulation, which takes account of large displacements and
large strains. The output is in terms of true Cauchy stresses and the strains
approximate to logarithmic strains. The loading is non-conservative.

63
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

3 5

6
4

1 1 2
2 3

3 node triangle 6 node triangle

3 6 5
4 7

4
8

2 2 3
1 1

4 node quadrilateral 8 node quadrilateral

FIG.7.3.1-1 NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR STANDARD 2-D


ISOPARAMETRIC

64
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

(a) Plate subject to Inplane Loading

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

(b) Cantilever subject to a Point Loading

FIG.7.3.1-2 EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF PLANE STRESS


ELEMENTS

65
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Problem Definition

QPN8 elements

TPN6 elements

Finite Element Mesh

(a) Embankment Dam

QPN4 elements

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

(b) Thick Cylinder

FIG.7.3.1-3 EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF PLANE STRAIN

66
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

QAX4 elements

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

(a) Thick Cylinder

QAX8 elements

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

(b) Circular Plate

FIG.7.3.1-4 EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF AXISYMMETRIC


SOLID ELEMENTS

67
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

FIG.7.3.1-5 DEFORMED MESH ILLUSTRATING FORMATION OF SPURIOUS


MECHANISMS

X, Y +ve tension
Y X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y

X Y

X X

X Y

Y
X

FIG.7.3.1-6 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS/STRAIN OUTPUT

68
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

(QKDQFHG6WUDLQ(OHPHQWV 43004310
4$;0
The lower order enhanced strain elements exhibit improved accuracy in coarse meshes
when compared with their parent elements QPM4,QPN4 and QAX4, particularly if
bending predominates. In addition, these elements do not suffer from 'locking' in the
nearly incompressible limit. The elements are based on a three-field mixed
formulation [S8] in which stresses, strains and displacements are represented by three
independent functions in three separate vector spaces. The formulation is based on the
inclusion of an assumed 'enhanced' strain field which is related to internal degrees of
freedom. These internal degrees of freedom are eliminated at the element level before
assembly of the stiffness matrix for the structure. The formulation provides for the
following three conditions to be satisfied
Independence of the enhanced and standard strain interpolation functions.
L2 orthogonality of the stress and enhanced strains.
Capability of the element to model a constant state of stress after enforcing the
orthogonality condition, i.e. requirement for passing the patch test.
In addition to ensuring that the element passes the patch test, these conditions also
allow the stress field to be eliminated from the formulation.
 )RUPXODWLRQ

The formulation requires that the total strain is expressed as the sum of a 'compatible'
strain and an 'enhanced' strain
= c + e

The compatible strain is directly related to the displacements of the element nodes in
the standard manner. The enhanced strain is related to internal degrees of freedom
which are eliminated using static condensation at the element level. The enhanced
strains are therefore discontinuous between elements. The weak form of the three field
variational equations for equilibrium, compatibility and constitutive relationship may
be expressed as

z
T
c d R T a = 0

z
T
e d = 0

LM W OP d = 0
z
T
+
N Q

69
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

where R is the applied loading, W is the strain energy density, a are nodal
displacements and is the stress vector.
By enforcing the so called L2 orthogonality condition between stress and enhanced
strain, terms involving T e will disappear. This allows the stress field to be
eliminated from the formulation.
The compatible and enhanced strains are computed from
c = Ba

e = G e

where G operates on the assumed strain parameters e to provide the enhanced


strains.
Substitution of these expressions into the two remaining field variational equations
yields

z
T
c D Bda + Gd e R T a d +
{ } z
T
e D Bda + Gd e
{ } d = 0
The following matrices are defined for use in discretising this equation
Kak f = z
BT D B d ( n el * nel matrix)

Ha k f = z
G T D G d ( mel * mel matrix)

ak f = z
G T D B d ( mel * n el matrix)

n el is the dimension of the element displacement field, mel is the number element
enhanced strain modes. D is the modulus matrix at loadstep k.

The internal force vectors are given by


Pa k f = z
Ba k fT a k f d

ha k f = z

Ga k fT a k f d

where h (k) is the internal force vector relating to the incompatible modes which is
subsequently eliminated at the element level.
Using standard finite element techniques for assembling the system of equations gives

70
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

LMKa f k OP|R aa f U| |RR Pa f |U


a k fT k +1 k

MN a f
k S V=S V
Ha f PQ T| a f W| T| 0 h a f W|
k k +1 k

This nonlinear system of equations is solved using a Newton-Raphson iteration


scheme. However, for the linear case, no iterations are necessary as h will be 0 and P
will not be considered.
Static condensation of this system of equations eliminates the equations included to
enforce the orthogonality condition. The element stiffness and internal forces used to
assemble the equations for the structure then become

K
a k faa k +1f = a k f
where

K
a k f = K a k f a k f T H a k f 1 a k f

a kf = R P
akf

P
a k f = P a k f a k f T H a k f 1 h a k f

In nonlinear analyses, the enhanced strain parameters are updated as


1
a k +1f = a k f Ha k f a k faa k f ha k f

The actual implementation of this formulation requires the orthogonality condition to


be related to the isoparametric space. Transformations are therefore required to
assemble matrices and vectors that relate to covariant strains and contravariant
stresses. Standard transformations are applied and full details of this procedure are
given in [S8].
It is postulated that the covariant enhanced strain field is given by
e = E e

where E is the equivalent of G in the isoparametric space.

 (QKDQFHG VWUDLQ LQWHUSRODWLRQ  SODQH HOHPHQWV 4300


4310

The incompatible displacement field is given by


bg
U = N1 1 + N 2 2 af

71
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

where

N1 = b g 12 e1 j, 2
N2 = a f 12 e1 j 2

and i represent the incompatible modes


T T
l
1 = u1, v1 q, l
2 = u 2 , v2 q
The covariant base vectors associated with the isoparametric space are
R| x T
N, U| R| x T
a1 U| R| x T
hU|
g = S| y V| = S| y V| + S| y V=g 0
+ g
T T
a1
T
h| 1
T N,
W T W T W
R| x T
N, U| R| x T
a2 U| R| x T
h U|
g =S V| = S| y V| + S| y V=g 0
+ g
T T T
h|
|T y N,
W T a2
W T W 2

where
N = a 0 + a1 + a 2 + h

and
1 T
a0 = 1 1 1 1
4
1 T
a1 = 1 1 1 1
4
1 T
a2 = 1 1 1 1
4
1 T
h= 1 1 1 1
4
T
x = x1 x 2 x3 x 4
T
y = y1 y 2 y3 y 4

The initial enhanced strain field in isoparametric space is then given by

72
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

R| eu, j g
T U|

|| T
||
i =S du, i g V|

|| T T ||
|T d u , i g + e u , j
g
W
R| T
1 g0
1
U|
|| T 0
g
2 2
||
LM 0 0 0 0 O|
P| T 0 ||
1 g2
= M0 0 0 0 P S V| = E i
ie
MN 0 0 2 PQ |
2 | T 0
2 g1
||
|| T
1 g
||
|T T
2 g W
The stress field for the element is derived from the linear uncoupled stress field [P2]
xR| 1 U| LM OP
= y =
S| 1
V| MM PP
xyT W 1
N Q
The introduction of four internal degrees of freedom allows four of the nine stress
parameters () to vanish. The remaining terms satisfy the equilibrium equations. By
basing the formulation on natural coordinates the element is less sensitive when
distorted and possesses no zero-energy deformation modes. Full details of the
elimination of the four stress parameters is described in [P2] for a hybrid element. The
final contravariant stress field using five parameters is defined as
R| U| L1 0 0 0 OP
= |S| |V = M0
|| MMN0
1 0 0 P
|T
W 0 1 0 0PQ

To satisfy the L2 orthogonality condition < , > L2

zz1

1 1
1
r
T
dd 0
This condition is violated if the six initial enhanced strain parameters () are used.
However, the condition is satisfied if
5 = 6

73
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Forcing this equality, and hence L2 orthogonality, gives the final enhanced strain
interpolation matrix as
LM 0 0 0 OP
E= 0 0 0
MM PP
0 0 2
N 2
Q
This matrix is used in linear analyses but for nonlinear applications four enhanced
strain parameters are used with the final column of E deleted [S8]. The final
interpolation functions E also allow condition (III) to be satisfied. This is a
requirement for passing the patch test [S8] and is implied in the sense that:

z z
1
1 1
1
E dd 0

 (QKDQFHG VWUDLQ LQWHUSRODWLRQ  D[LV\PPHWULF HOHPHQW


4$;0

The procedure for establishing the enhanced strain interpolation matrix for the
axisymmetric element is similar to that used for the plane elements. The initial matrix
is given by
LM 0 0 0 0 OP
0 0
=M PP
0 0
Ei
MM0 0 0
PQ
N0 0 0 0

For the axisymmetric case, a factor r(,) will be included in the integrand for
enforcing orthogonality

zz1

1 1
1
r T dd 0
where

=
T

, = 2

r = rT N

z = zT N

r = r1, r2 , r3 , r4

z = z1, z 2 , z3 , z 4

74
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

Inclusion of the factor r( ,) means that the orthogonality condition is violated using
this interpolation matrix. Simo and Rifai [S8] have derived interpolation functions
which account for the factor r and satisfy this condition

E = Ei
z z
1
1
1
1
1
r dd
z z
1
1
1
1
E i r dd

LM 0 0 0 0 OP
P
=M
0 0 0 0
MM 0 0 0 P
MN 0 0 0 0 PQ
P
where
1 r T a1 1 rT a2 1 rT h
= , = , =
3 rT a0 3 rT a0 9 rT a0

a 0 , a1 , a 2 and h vectors have been defined for the plane elements.

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHV

The evaluation of stresses is identical to that described in section 7.3.1.5.


 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The comments made in section 7.3.1.6 regarding the nonlinear capability of the
standard elements are also applicable to these elements. The nonlinear formulation for
the enhanced strain elements involves enforcing orthogonality between assumed
Green-Lagrange strains and 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses. The geometrically nonlinear
performance of these elements is much improved in comparison with the standard
elements.

75
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

76
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

,QFRPSDWLEOH3ODQH0HPEUDQH(OHPHQW 30,
 )RUPXODWLRQ

This element is a high performance, non-conforming, 4-noded, plane membrane


element. It is formed by adding two non-conforming modes to the standard
isoparametric formulation presented for QPM4, i.e.
n
U = N i , U i
b g
i =1

is replaced with
n 2
U = N i , U i + Pi , a i
b g b g
i =1 i =1

where
b g
P1 , = 1 2 and b g
P2 , = 1 2

and a i are nodeless degrees of freedom which are condensed out before element i
assembly. The nodal configuration and non-conforming shape functions are shown in
fig.7.3.3-1.
The element passes the patch test (ensuring convergence as the mesh is refined) and
the displacement field is approximately an order higher than the QPM4 element (i.e.
quadratic displacement accuracy).
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is the same as QPM4, i.e.
U
X =
X
V
Y =
Y
U V
XY = +
Y X
The isotropic and orthotropic elastic modulus matrices are defined as

LM1 0
OP
Isotropic D=
E M 1 0 P
e1 j MM0
2
0
a f PP
1
N 2 Q
1
LM 1 / E x yx / E y 0 OP
Orthotropic D = M / E
xy x 1 / Ey 0 PP
MN 0 0 1 / G xy Q
77
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

where yx is set to xy E x / E y to maintain symmetry.


1/ 2
Note. For a valid material xy < E x / E y
d i
The thermal strain is defined by
T
Isotropic d h = DT a, a, 0
0 t

T
Orthotropic d i = T , ,
0 t x y xy

Full details of the formulation are presented in [T2,W2].


Only a lumped mass matrix is evaluated using the procedure defined in (section 2.7).
 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHV

The element output obtained at the element nodes consists of


Stress Resultant Output
N x , N y , N xy the direct and shear stress resultants/unit length
N max , N min the maximum and minimum principal stress
resultants/unit length
the angle between the maximum principal stress resultant
and the positive X-axis
NS the maximum shear stress resultant/unit length
NV Von Mises equivalent stress resultant/unit length.
Strain Output
X , Y , XY the direct and shear strains
max , min the maximum and minimum principal strains
the angle between the maximum principal strain and the
positive X-axis
S the maximum shear strain
V Von Mises equivalent strain

The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.3.3-4. The
stress resultants are evaluated directly at the nodes.
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The element has no nonlinear capability, but may be utilised in a nonlinear


environment.
The element cannot be used for linear buckling analyses.

78
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

Y,V

3
4

2
1 P 1 = 1-2 P 2 = 1-2
X,U

(a) Nodal Configuration (b) Non-conforming shape functions

FIG.7.3.3-1 NODAL CONFIGURATION AND NON-CONFORMING SHAPE


FUNCTIONS FOR THE PMI4 ELEMENT

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

(a) Plate subject to Inplane Loading

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

(b) Cantilever Plate subject to Point Loading

FIG.7.3.3-2 EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF PMI4 ELEMENTS

79
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Y
4
2

y
x
1

FIG.7.3.3-3 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR THE PMI4 ELEMENT

X, Y +ve tension
Y X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y

X Y

X X

X Y

Y
X

FIG.7.3.3-4 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS/STRAIN OUTPUT

'([SOLFLW'\QDPLFV(OHPHQWV
Explicit time integration schemes have used simple linear elements rather than those
of a higher order by virtue of their computational efficiency. A number of further
advantages may also be obtained in explicit dynamic analyses
The use of higher order shape functions creates difficulties at the contact
interface in the form of uncontrolled overlap.

80
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

It has been shown that higher order continuum elements require a time step
reduced from that of linear elements because of the greater mass associated
with the interior nodes.
The mass lumping formulations for higher order elements are currently
impractical for modelling shock wave propagation since the resulting
numerical noise pollutes or destroys the solution.
The combination of mass lumping with linear elements, when applied in
conjunction with the central difference operator, increases accuracy in
solutions by virtue of their respective compensatory spectral errors.
The linear explicit dynamics elements have been implemented to take advantage of
these benefits. They are for use only with the explicit central difference time
integration scheme.
The explicit dynamics elements are based upon the isoparametric approach in which
the same shape functions are used to interpolate both the displacements and the
geometry, i.e.
n
displacement U= N b, gU
i =1
i i

n
geometry X = N i , X i
b g
i =1

b g
where N i , is the element shape function for node and n is the number of nodes.
Fig.7.3.1-1 shows the nodal configurations available within LUSAS. The nodal
degrees of freedom are U and V. All the explicit dynamics elements described in this
section must be defined using only X and Y coordinates.
 3ODQH VWUHVV 430( 730(

The plane stress elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of the out of
plane direct stress and shear stresses is negligible, i.e.
Z = 0, XZ = 0, YZ = 0

The plane stress elements are suitable for analysing structures which are thin in the out
of plane direction, e.g. thin plates subject to in-plane loading (fig.7.3.4-2).
Note that the thickness of the material is defined at each node and may vary over the
element.
A rate relationship is used to define the strain-displacement characteristics as
&
t U
t & x =
X
t

81
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

tV&
t & y =
Y
t

& t V
t U &
t & XY = +
t Y t X

t & z =
LM U& + V& OP
t t

MN X Y PQ
t t

The isotropic and orthotropic elastic modulus matrices are


LM1 0
OP
Isotropic D=
E M
1 0 P
e1 j MM0
2
0
a f PP
1
N 2 Q
1
LM 1 / E x yx / E y 0 OP
Orthotropic D = M / E
xy x 1 / Ey 0 PP
MN 0 0 1 / G xy Q
where yx is set to xy E y / E x to maintain symmetry.
1/ 2
Note. To obtain a valid material xy < E x / E y d i
The initial thermal strain is defined by
Isotropic d i = T , , 0
0 t
T

T
Orthotropic d i = T , ,
0 t x y xy

 3ODQH VWUDLQ 431( 731(

The plane strain elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of the out of
plane direct strain and shear strains is negligible, i.e.
Z = 0, YZ = 0, XZ = 0

The plane strain elements are suitable for analysing structures which are thick in the
out of plane direction, e.g. dams or thick cylinders (fig.7.3.4-3).
A rate relationship is used to define the strain-displacement characteristics as
&
tU
t &X =

tX
&
tV
t &Y =

tY

82
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

&
tU &
tV
t & XY = +
tY tX
t &Y = 0

The isotropic and orthotropic elastic modulus matrices are


LMa1 f 0 P
O
E M P
Isotropic D=
a1 fa1 2f MM a1 f a1 02f PP
MN 0 0 2 PQ
1
LM E Ez
2
xz x
E E
xy z xz yz y
0
OP
MM Ex zE E E y z PP
E E E E 2
D=M PP
xy z yz xz x z yz y
Orthotropic 0
MM E E
x z E E y z
PP
1
MM 0 0
G xy PQ
N
where for symmetry
E y xy E z + yz xz E x = E x xy E z + xz yz E y
d i d i
The initial thermal strain is defined by
Isotropic d i = a1 + fT , , 0
0 t
T

Orthotropic d i = a1 + fT , ,
0 t x y
T
xy

 $[LV\PPHWULF 4$;( 7$;(

The axisymmetric elements are formulated by assuming that the variation of out of
plane shear stresses is negligible, i.e.
XZ = 0, YZ = 0

and the out of plane direct strain rate is defined as


&
&Z= U

R
where R is the distance from the axis of symmetry.
The axisymmetric elements are suitable for analysing solid structures which exhibit
geometric symmetry about a given axis, e.g. thick cylinders or circular plates
(fig.7.3.4-4).

83
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

The elements are defined in the XY-plane and symmetry can be specified about either
the X or Y axes.
Standard axisymmetric isoparametric elements are formulated with the Galerkin
weighted residual method, in which the governing differential equation is utilised
directly to form a weighted residual statement, where the weighting functions are
generally the element shape functions. For large strain axisymmetric analyses, the use
of elements based on the Galerkin method leads to computational difficulties near the
axis of symmetry. These difficulties may be overcome by formulating the elements
with the Petrov-Galerkin method [G2]. This method is also a weighted residual
method, however, the weighting functions are taken to be the product of the element
shape functions and the inverse of the radius, i.e. eliminating the radial weighting in
the governing equations.
The use of this particular formulation produces a time dependent mass matrix and as
such must be computed each time.
A rate relationship is used to define the strain-displacement characteristics as
&
tU
t
&X =

tX
&
tV
t &Y =

tY
&
tU &
tV
t
& XY =
+
tY tX
t &
U
t
&Z =
(symmetry about the Y axis)
R
t &
V
or t
&Z =
(symmetry about the X axis)
R
The isotropic and orthotropic linear elastic modulus matrices are defined as

LMa1 f 0 O
P
E MM a1 f 0 P
D=
Isotropic
a1 fa1 2f M 0 0 a1 22f 0 PP
MN 0 a1 fPQ
1
LM 1 / E / E 0 / E OP
x yx y zx z
/ E 1/ E 0 / E
Orthotropic D=M
MM 0
xy x
0
y
1/ G 0
zy PP z
xy

MN / E / E 0 1 / E PPQ
xz x yz y z

84
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

in which symmetry is maintained by defining


yx = xy E y / E x zx = xz E z / E x zy = yz E z / E y

Note. To obtain a valid material


1/ 2 1/ 2
xy < E x / E y
d i b
xz < E x / E z g yz < E y / E zy
d i
The initial thermal strain vector is defined as
Isotropic d i = a1 + fT , , 0,
0 t
T

T
Orthotropic d i = T , , ,
0 t x y xy z

 ,QWHJUDWLRQ UXOH IRU WKH HOHPHQWV

A one point quadrature integration rule is utilised. This provides elements that are
efficient, do not lock when incompressible behaviour is being modelled, e.g. plastic
straining with von Mises plasticity, and integrate the stresses at the most accurate
location.
The location of the integration point is given in Appendix A.
 (OHPHQW VWDELOLVDWLRQ

The utilisation of one point Gauss quadrature has a limitation in that zero energy
deformation or hourglass modes are generated (see fig.7.3.4-5). The effects of such
modes are minimised by the viscous damping technique [H7].
The technique provides a damping force capable of preventing the formation of
spurious modes but which has negligible influence on the true structural modes. This
is possible since the spurious modes are orthogonal to the real deformations.
The rate of diagonal drifting is defined by the velocity at which the mid-points of the
element are separating. This is utilised as the basis for hourglass detection, giving the
hourglass velocities as
4
h ij = x& ik jk ai = 1,2f
j =1

The viscous hourglassing forces are


4
fik = 1 / 4 Q hg A1/ 2 c dh ij jk i
j =1

in which A is the current element area, Q hg is a constant which is modified via the
SYSTEM command and is usually set to a value between 0.05 and 0.15, and x& ik is the
nodal velocity of the kth node in the ith direction. is the current element density,
while c, the material sound speed is defined from

85
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

c2 =
a f
E 1
a fa f
1 + 1 2

The hourglass base vectors for the four node quadrilateral are defined as:-
i = 1 - 1 1 - 1 T

these viscous forces are included directly into the element force vector.
 6KRFN ZDYH VPRRWKLQJ

The shock discontinuities that occur in impact problems may promote numerical
instabilities which must be smoothed out. This is achieved using an artificial bulk
viscosity method. The salient characteristic of the method is the augmentation of
element pressure with an artificial viscous term (q) prior to the evaluation of the
element internal force. This is zero in expanding elements and non-zero in contracting
elements. The algorithm has the effect of spreading the shock front over a small
number of elements.
The exact form of artificial viscosity is somewhat arbitrary and the method used is
based on the formulation originally proposed in [V1]
q = L c D kk Q1 L c D kk + Q 2 c

where Q1 and Q2 are dimensionless constants which default to 1.5 and 0.06
respectively, and may be modified as necessary via the SYSTEM command. D kk is
the trace of the velocity strain tensor and Lc is the characteristic length of the element
which is related to the smallest element diagonal as
2A
Lc =
LD

where
2 2 2 2
L D = MAX 1 / 2 y 24
e + 1 / 2 x 42 , 1 / 2 y 31 + 1 / 2 x13 j
in which the distance between any two nodal points i,j is given as
x ij = x i x j

The quadratic term in strain rate is chosen to be small except in regions of very large
gradients. The linear term, however, is included to control the small spurious
oscillations following the shock waves in which the gradients are insufficient to make
the quadratic term effective. Care should be taken with the linear term since there is a
danger of distorting the solution.
In converging geometries, the centred strain rate term is negative and the q term is
then non-zero. This occurs even though no shocks are generated and results in a non-

86
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

physical generation of pressure. In view of the abundance of excellent results,


however, it is generally agreed that the effect is negligible.
 )RUFH FDOFXODWLRQV

The direct stresses at time t+t are modified by the addition of the artificial viscosity
pressure q as follows
x = x + q and y = y + q

The contribution to the force vector due to the element stresses is evaluated from the
equilibrium equations of Timoshenko as
b
Fx = x / x + xy / y + r / r = 0 g
Fy = y / y + xy / x + xy / r = 0

Note that the terms r r and xy r from these two equations are not typically included
in static analyses and occur as a result of the inertial effects. The hourglass forces are
included to give the final force vector. The mass matrix is computed as each node i as
t M x = 1 / 4 t t A = 1 / 4 o t A t v / o v
e j
i

tMy = 1 / 4 A = 1 / 4 Ae v / v j
t t o t t o
i

where t v is the current volume and o v is the initial volume of an element.


 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHV

The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of
Stress Output
X , Y , XY , Z the direct and shear stresses
max , min the maximum and minimum principal stresses
the angle between the maximum principal stress and the
positive X-axis
S the maximum shear stress
V von Mises equivalent stress
Strain Output
X , Y , XY , Z the direct and shear strains
max , min the maximum and minimum principal strains
the angle between the maximum principal strain and the
positive X-axis
S the maximum shear strain
V von Mises equivalent strain

87
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Stress resultant output which accounts for the thickness of the element is available as
an alternative to stress output for the plane stress elements, i.e.
Stress Resultant Output
N X , N Y , N XY , N Z the direct and shear stress resultants/unit length
N max , N min the maximum and minimum principal stress max min
resultants/unit length
the angle between the maximum principal stress resultant
and the positive X-axis
NS the maximum shear stress resultant/unit length
NV von Mises equivalent stress resultant/unit length.
The sign convention for stress, stress resultants and strain output is shown in fig.7.3.4-
5. The Gauss point stress is usually more accurate than the nodal values. The nodal
values of stress and strain are obtained using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The 2-D explicit dynamics elements can be employed in


1. Materially nonlinear dynamic analysis utilising the elasto-plastic constitutive laws
[O2] (section 4.2).
2. Geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.
1RWHV
The plane stress elements may not be used with nonlinear material model 75.
Plain strain and axisymmetry are, however, supported.
All explicit dynamics elements may be used with nonlinear material models 61,
64, 72.
Eulerian geometric nonlinearity is always invoked with the use of the explicit
elements in which the velocity strain measure is utilised. The Green-Naghdi
stress rate formulation is used to refer the constitutive variables to an unrotated
configuration prior to the stress integration. The output is in terms of true
Cauchy stresses and the strains approximate to logarithmic strains. The loading
is non-conservative.

88
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

3
3 4

2
2 1
1

FIG.7.3.4-1 NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR 2D EXPLICIT DYNAMICS


ELEMENTS

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

Plate subject to Inplane Loading

FIG.7.3.4-2 EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF PLANE STRESS


ELEMENTS

89
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

Thick Cylinder

FIG.7.3.4-3 EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF PLANE STRAIN

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

Thick Cylinder

FIG.7.3.4-4 EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF AXISYMMETRIC SOLID


ELEMENTS

90
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

FIG.7.3.4-5 DEFORMED MESH ILLUSTRATING FORMATION OF SPURIOUS


MECHANISMS

X, Y +ve tension
Y X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y

X Y

X X

X Y

Y
X

FIG.7.3.4-6 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS/STRAIN OUTPUT

7ZR3KDVH3ODQH6WUDLQ&RQWLQXXP(OHPHQWV
7313DQG4313
 )RUPXODWLRQ

These isoparametric finite elements utilise the same shape functions to interpolate
both the displacements/pressures and geometry, i.e.
n
displacement/pressures U= Ni b, gUi
i =1

91
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

n
geometry X= N b, gX
i =1
i i

b g
where N i , is the element shape function for node i and n is the number of nodes.
Fig.7.3.5-1 shows the nodal configurations available within LUSAS.
The nodal degrees of freedom are U, V and P at the corner nodes and U and V at the
midside nodes.
The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).
The plane strain assumptions and details of elastic modulus matrices applicable for
these elements are described in section 7.3.1.2.
These elements are used to model the behaviour of a two phase medium such as soil.
In this instance the two phases comprise the soil skeleton and the pore water fluid.
Separate equations are derived for each phase, coupled by the interaction of the pore
pressure and the soil deformation. The soil skeleton is analysed in terms of effective
stress (total stress minus pore water pressure), taking into account the loading due to
the pore pressure; whilst the pore fluid analysis takes account of the volumetric strain
due to the soil skeleton deformation.
The finite element method is used to solve the coupled equations in terms of nodal
displacements and pore pressures. Two plane strain elements QPN8P (quadrilateral)
and TPN6P (triangular) based on a mixed displacement-pressure formulation are
available in LUSAS to solve these problems.
 8QGUDLQHG FRQGLWLRQV

In this type of analysis no consolidation is assumed to take place and the coupled
governing equations for static undrained conditions can be expressed as:
LMK L U F OPR U R U
=
MNL
T
S P 0 PQST VW ST VW
where the matrices K, L and S are defined as:

K= z
v
BT D' B dv

z
L = - BT mN dv
v

S= - z v
1 T
Ke
N N dv

92
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

K is the tangent stiffness matrix


L is the coupling matrix
S is the compressibility matrix, where Ke is the equivalent bulk modulus of
the soil (see section 7.3.5.4) and D' the effective soil modulus matrix.
 'UDLQHG FRQGLWLRQV

When fluid flow in the soil is to be considered drained conditions are assumed.
Currently in LUSAS only linear material models are available for this type of analysis.
The coupled governing equations for linear transient consolidation can be expressed
as:
LMK L OPRUU LMK L OPRUU |R F |U
SV = S V +S V
MNL
T
S + TH P TP W MNL
T
S + (1 )TH P TP W T| QW|
Q t + t Q t

where:
F is the incremental load
Q the incremental flow
the time stepping scheme parameter (set to1.0 for backward Euler scheme)
H the permeability matrix

The permeability matrix H is defined in terms of the shape function derivatives and a
permeability matrix of the soil, K , as:
p

z
H = N K N dv
v
T
p

 0DWHULDO DVVXPSWLRQV

The bulk modulus of the soil particle Ks is very large compared to the bulk modulus
of the pore fluid K f . Therefore the overall compressibility of the soil mass is
approximated to be that of the pore fluid.
1 (1 )
= +
Ke K f Ks Kf

where:
Ke is the equivalent bulk modulus of the soil
K f the bulk modulus of the pore fluid
Ks the bulk modulus of the solid soil particle
the porosity of the soil

93
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

In practical geotechnical applications it is usually difficult to determine K f and Ks so


a large value of the equivalent modulus Ke is usually assumed, 1E12> Ke >1E9.
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The two phase continuum elements can only be employed in a nonlinear analysis
when undrained conditions are assumed. The following analysis types may be carried
out:-
(Materially nonlinear analysis, utilising the elasto-plastic constitutive laws
[O1] (section 4.2) .
Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5
5 U,V,P
6
7 U,V,P
U,V,P U,V
6
U,V
U,V 4 U,V 4
8 U,V

U,V U,V,P U,V


U,V,P
U,V,P 1 2 U,V,P
2 3
1 3
8 node 6 node
quadrilateral triangle

FIG.7.3.5-1 NODAL CONFIGURATION AND FREEDOMS FOR TWO PHASE


PLANE STRAIN CONTINUUM ELEMENTS

/DUJHVWUDLQ0L[HGW\SH(OHPHQWV 431/4$;/
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

These elements are based on a mixed displacement/pressure formulation, which


overcomes the problems of near-incompressibility and effective incompressibility in
standard plane-strain and axisymmetric elements. The formulation utilises a nonlinear
(spatial) Eulerian formulation, based on the logarithmic strain tensor, associated with
the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient F = VR , where V is the left
stretch tensor and R is the rotation of the axes of the stretches i . The Kirchhoff
(nominal) stress tensor is related to the (true) Cauchy stress via = J , where
J = det F = 1 2 3 .The deformation gradient is given as

x
F=
X

94
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

where X and x denote the material and spatial position vector of a material particle.
The elements are currently available with Hencky and Ogden matrial models

described in section 4.10, so that the principal Kirchhoff stresses i = i [C16]
i
are obtained from the corresponding stored-energy function as

i = 2G ln i + kJ J 1b g
for the Hencky material model, where G is the shear modulus, k is the bulk modulus
and i = i / 3 J are the deviatoric stretches, and as
N
p 1 p p p
i = p [i b g
( 1 + 2 + 3 )] + kJ J 1
3
p =1

for the Ogden material model, where N is the number of pairs of Ogden parameters
p and p , while k and i have the same meaning as for the Hencky model. By
introducing the independent pressure variable as
b g
p = k J 1

and by transforming i from the principal directions the Kirchhoff stress tensor is
obtained as

= 2Gn ln nT pJ

for the Hencky material model, where is the diagonal matrix of deviatoric stretches
and n = [ n1 , n2 , n3 ] is the Eulerian triad (spatial orientation of the principal directions)
and as
N
p p
p[
1
=n tr ( )I]n T pJ
p =1
3

for the Ogden material model.


 (OHPHQW HTXLOLEULXP PL[HG IRUPXODWLRQ

The element equilibrium equations are given as


gPR=0

f z LMNb
V0
g kp OPQdV
J 1 + 0 =0

95
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

where the first equation is the conventional nodal equilibrium equation, where R is
the vector of applied loading and P is the vector of nodal internal forces, and the
b g
second equation follows from p = k J 1 . By expressing the stress tensor in the
vector form, the vector of nodal internal forces can be written as

P= z
V0
T
bg
B x dV0

where, in line with the adopted spatial approach, x is the spatial and not the material
position vector. Note that the formulation is defined in terms of the Kirchhoff and not
the Cauchy stresses, hence integration is still performed over the initial rather than the
current volume.
 /LQHDULVDWLRQ RI WKH HTXLOLEULXP  WDQJHQW VWLIIQHVV PDWUL[

By expanding the element equilibrium into a Taylors series, the following linearised
equilibrium is obtained
L O
RSgUV MM K K PPRSa UV = RSgUV
11 12
Tf W MK K PTpW Tf W
T

N Q12 22

where a is the vector of nodal displacements, and the entries in the tangent stiffness
matrix are obtained by the consistent linearisation of the element equilibrium.
In order to derive the subvector K12 and (in particular) submatrix K it helps to
11
regard the vector of nodal internal forces P as coming from the internal virtual power
via

a& T P = z
V0
&: dV0

da 1
where a& = is the time rate of the nodal displacements, and & = ( L + LT ) is the
dt 2
strain-rate tensor with
u&
L = d& =
x

u
with L being the so-called velocity gradient and d = being only introduced for the
x
sake of convenience during the following derivation. Also &: = tr ( T & ) = & ijij , where

96
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

the repeated indices indicate summation over the dimension of the space. For
configuration-independent loads, a& Tg is equal to a& T P , hence

ij ij
a& T ( K a + K12p) =
11 z
V0
(& ij ij + & ij
kl
kl )dV0 + z
V0
& ij
p
pdV0

ij
where, for both material models, = J ij so, by introducing standard FE
p
matrix/vector notation whereby & = B( x)a& , subvector K12 immediately follows as

z
K12 = B ( x)iJdV0
V0
T

R|1U| R|1U|
|1|
with i = S1V for the plane strain element QPN4L and i = S V for the axisymmetric
|T0|W ||0||
T1W
element QAX4L. By noting the relationship between Kirchhoff stress and second
Piola-Kirchhoff stress S via = FSFT and bearing in mind that FF1 = d we obtain
= F( E S E) FT + d + d T = + d + d T , or in indicial notation
T

ij
kl = T,ij + d ik kj + ik d jk = Dijkl
tTK
kl + d ik kj + ik d jk
kl

where is called the Truesdell rate of Kirchhoff stress (which is often used in rate-
T
dependent constitutive models; here it is introduced because it enables a
tTK
straightforward formation of the material part of the stiffness matrix) and Dijkl is the
tangent constitutive matrix relating the strain-rate tensor to the Truesdell rate of
1
Kirchhoff stress. By using & ij = ( d& ij + d& ji ) and noting the symmetry of the Kirchhoff
2
ij
stress tensor ij = ji , the product & ij kl can be written as
kl

ij
& ij kl = & ijDijkl
tTK
kl + d& ijd ik kj + d& jid ik kj
kl

97
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

& 1 = d& yields u& = dF


By noting that the above-mentioned FF & , the variation of which
X
F I
u& & + d& F , and by noting that the variation of the material
X = dF
gives GH JK
X X
position vector X is equal to zero, we obtain d& = d& FF1 = d& d , which finally
gives
1 & 1
& ij = (d ij + d& ji ) = (d& ik d kj + d& jk d ki )
2 2

so that, after noting the symmetry of the Kirchhoff stress tensor, the product & ijij
reduces to
& ij ij = d& ik d kj ij

The symmetry of the Kirchhoff stress tensor further implies


ij
& ij kl + & ij ij = & ijDijkl
tTK
kl + d& ij kjd ik
kl

so that eventually the submatrix K follows from


11

a& T K a =
11 z
V0
(& ijDijkl
tTK
kl + d& ij kjd ik )dV0

Following the standard FE notation, the submatrix K is then given as


11

K
11
=
V0
z [ BT ( x) D
tTK
B( x) + G T ( x) $ G ( x)]dV0

where the tangent constitutive matrix D , which relates the strain-rate to the
tTK
Truesdell rate of Kirchhoff stress can be defined in different ways. An easy way to
define it is by rotating the constitutive matrix D , which relates the strain-rate with
tTKE
the Truesdell rate of Kirchhoff stress, where both of these are given with components
in the Eulerian frame, via
tTK
Dijkl = nia n jb n kc n ld Dabcd
tTKE

where nij denotes components of the Eulerian triad n . The components of the
constitutive matrix D follow from the stretches and the principal Kirchhoff
tTKE
stresses. By dropping the summation convention, the normal components are
defined as

98
7.3 Two-Dimensional Continuum Elements

tTKE = i
Diijj 2 i ij
j
j

where ij is the Kronecker symbol and

i 2
j = pJ + 2 ij
j 3

for the Hencky model and

i
N p p p 1 p p p p p
j
j
= 3
[3 i ij + (1 + 2 + 3 ) i j ] pJ
3
p =1

for the Ogden model. The shear components are defined as ( i j )

tTKE = tTKE = tTKE = tTKE =


2j i 2i j
Dijij Dijji D jiji D jiij
2i 2j

unless i = j , in which case the shear components are given as

tTKE = tTKE = tTKE = tTKE =


F
i i i
i
I
Dijij Dijji D jiji D jiij GH
2 i j
JK
N p p p
which returns the result i for the Hencky model and 2
i i for the
p =1

Ogden model. Varying the second equilibrium equation gives

f K12
T +
a K22p = z LMN
V0
J +
p
k
OP
dV0
Q
where K12 has already been defined and

K22 = z
V0
dV0
k

99
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

100
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements

7KUHH'LPHQVLRQDO&RQWLQXXP(OHPHQWV
(OHPHQWW\SHV+;+;+;313131
7+7+

6WDQGDUG,VRSDUDPHWULF(OHPHQWV
Three dimensional isoparametric finite elements utilise the same shape functions to
interpolate both the displacements and geometry, i.e.
n
displacement U= N b, gU
i =1
i i

n
geometry X = N i , X i
b g
i =1

b g
where N i , is the element shape function for node i and n is the number of i nodes.
Fig.7.4.1-1 shows the nodal configurations available within LUSAS. The nodal
degrees of freedom are
U, V and W at each node
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is fully 3-D and is defined as
U
X =
X

V
Y =
Y

U
Z =
Z

U V
XY = +
Y X

V W
YZ = +
Z Y

U W
XZ = +
Z X

The isotropic and orthotropic elastic modulus matrices are

101
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Isotropic

LM b 1 g 0 0 0
OP
MM PP
MM b 1 g 0 0 0 PP
MM PP
E M b 1 g 0 0 0
PP
D=
b 1 gb 1 2 g MM 0 0 0
b 1 2 g
0 0 PP
MM 2
MM 0 0 0 0
b 1 2 g 0 PP
2 P
MM b 1 2 g P
MN 0 0 0 0 0 PP
2 Q
Orthotropic

LM 1 / E x yx E y zx E z 0 0 0 OP
MM / E
xy x 1/ Ey zy / E z 0 0 0 PP
/ E yz / E y 1/ Ez 0 0 0
D= M
MM 0
xz x
0 0 1 / G xy 0 0
PP
MM 0 0 0 0 1 / G yz 0 PP
N 0 0 0 0 0 1 / G xz PQ
where yx , zx , and zy are defined by

yx = xy E y / E x zx = xz E z / E x zy = yz E z / E y

to maintain symmetry.

Note. To obtain a valid material


1/ 2 1/ 2 1/2
xy < E x / E y
d i b
xz < E x / E z g yz < E y / E zy
d i
The thermal strain is defined by
T
Isotropic d i = T , , , 0, 0, 0
0 t

T
Orthotropic d i = T , , ,
0 t x y z xy , yz , xz

A complete description of their formulation is given in [H2,B1].

102
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements

The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHV

The element output can be obtained at both the element nodes and Gauss points and
consists of

Stress Output
X , Y , Z , XY , YZ , XZ the direct and shear stresses

Strain Output
X , Y , Z , XY , YZ , XZ the direct and shear strains

Principal stresses and strains and the corresponding direction cosines may also be
output.
The sign convention for stress and strain output is shown in fig.7.4.1-3.
The Gauss point stresses are usually more accurate than the nodal values. The nodal
values of stress and strain are obtained using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The 3-D isoparametric elements can be employed in

1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the elastoplastic constitutive laws [O1]


(section 4.2).
2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.
4. Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5. Linear eigen-buckling analysis.
1RWHV
The nonlinear interface model (section 4.2) may be used with elements HX8,
HX16, HX20, PN6, PN12.
The geometric nonlinearity may utilise
a) A Total Lagrangian formulation which accounts for large displacements but
small strains. The nonlinear strain-displacement relationship is defined by
2 2 2
X =
U 1 U
+
LM OP +
LM OP
1 V
+
LM OP
1 W
X 2 X N Q 2 X
N Q 2 X
N Q

103
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Y =
LM OP + 1 LM V OP + 1 LM W OP
V 1 U
+
2 2 2

Y 2 Y
N Q 2 N Y Q 2 N Y Q
W 1 L U O 1 L V O
2
1 L W O
2 2
= + M P + M P + M P
Z
Z 2 N Z Q 2 N Z Q 2 N Z Q

U V U U V V W W
XY = + + + +
Y X X Y X Y X Y

V W U U V V W W
YZ = + + + +
Z Y Y Z Y Z Y Z

U W U U V V W W
XZ = + + + +
Z X X Z X Z X Z

The output is now in terms of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and Green-
Lagrange strains referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.
b) An Updated Lagrangian formulation, which takes account of large
displacements and moderately large strains provided that the strain increments
are small. The output is now in terms of the true Cauchy stresses and the strains
approximate to logarithmic strains. The loading approximates to being non-
conservative.
c) An Eulerian formulation, which takes account of large displacements and large
strains. The output is in terms of true Cauchy stresses and the strains
approximate to logarithmic strains. The loading is non-conservative.

104
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements


 
  

 
 


 

 


 HX8  
HX16

 


 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 PN6
 


HX20


  
  
   
 
   
 
  
 
 PN12

PN15

 


 



  
 
 
TH4 TH10




FIG.7.4.1-1 NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR SOLID ELEMENTS

105
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

FIG.7.4.1-2 TRACTOR BRAKE COMPONENT

Y
Arrows indicate +ve
stress directions

X Y
Y Z
X Y
Y

Y Z
X
X Z
X Z
Z

FIG.7.4.1-3 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS/STRAIN OUTPUT

106
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements

(QKDQFHG6WUDLQ(OHPHQW +;0
The low order enhanced strain element HX8M exhibits improved accuracy in coarse
meshes when compared with the parent element HX8, particularly if bending
predominates. In addition, the element does not suffer from 'locking' in the nearly
incompressible limit. The element is based on a three-field mixed formulation [S8] in
which stresses, strains and displacements are represented by three independent
functions in three separate vector spaces. The formulation is based on the inclusion of
an assumed 'enhanced' strain field which is related to internal degrees of freedom.
These internal degrees of freedom are eliminated at the element level before assembly
of the stiffness matrix for the structure. The formulation provides for the following
three conditions to be satisfied

Independence of the enhanced and standard strain interpolation functions.


L2 orthogonality of the stress and enhanced strains.
Capability of the element to model a constant state of stress after enforcing the
orthogonality condition, i.e. requirement for passing the patch test.
In addition to ensuring that the element passes the patch test, these conditions also
allow the stress field to be eliminated from the formulation.

 )RUPXODWLRQ

The general approach taken to formulate this element is identical to that described for
the 2-D continuum elements in section 7.3.2.

 (QKDQFHG VWUDLQ LQWHUSRODWLRQ

The incompatible displacement field is given by

bg bg
u = N1 1 + N 2 2 + N3 3 bg
where

N1 = b g 12 e1 j, N af = 12 e1 j, N bg = 12 e1 j
2
2
2
3
2

and i , represent the incompatible modes


T T T
l
1 = u1, v1 q, l
2 = u 2 , v2 q, l
3 = u3 , v3 q,
The covariant base vectors associated with the isoparametric space are

R|x a U| R|x
T
1
T
h1 U| R|
xT h3 xT kU| R| U|
g = Sy a V + Sy
T T
h1 + y T h 3 + y T k = g 0 + g1 + g1 + g
V S| V S| V
1
|Tz a |W |Tz
T
1
T
h |W
1 Tz T
h |W
3 Tz T
k |W
1 1 3

107
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

R|x a U| R|x
T
2
T
h1U| xT h2 R| xT k U| R| U|
g = Sy a V + Sy
T
2
T
h1 + y h 2 + y T k = g 0 + g1 + g1 + g
V| T
S| V| S| V|
|Tz a |W |Tz
T
2
T
h W
1 Tz T
h2 W Tz T
kW
2 1 2

R|x a U| R|x
T
3
T
h2 U| R|
x T h3 xT k U| R| U|
g = Sy a V + Sy
T
3
T
h 2 + y h 3 + y T k = g 0 + g1 + g1 + g
V| T
S| V| S| V|
|Tz a |W |Tz
T
3
T
h2 W Tz T
h W 3 Tz T
kW
3 2 3

where
1
a1 = 1 1 1 1 1 1
T
1 1
8

1
a2 = 1 1 1 1 1
T
1 1 1
8

1
a3 = 1 1 1 1
T
1 1 1 1
8

1
h1 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
T

1
h2 = 1 1 1 1 1
T
1 1 1
8

1
h3 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
T
1
8

1
k= 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
T
1
8
T
x = x1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 x8

T
y = y1 y 2 y 3 y 4 y 5 y 6 y 7 y8

T
z = z1 z 2 z3 z 4 z 5 z 6 z 7 z8

The enhanced covariant strains are given by


T
= 2 2 2

The enhanced strain field in isoparametric space can initially be expressed using 21-
parameter interpolation functions as follows

108
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements

R|d u, i g

T U|

||d u, i g

T ||

||d u, i g
T ||

=S
||d u, i g + d u, i g V||
i
T T

||d u, i g + du, i g ||

T

T


||d u, i g + d u, i g ||
T

T

T W

LM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OP
MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P
=M
MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 P
P i
e

P
MM00 00 00 00 0 0 00 0 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 2 2 PQ
P
N 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

= E i ie

An element stress field with 12- parameters is considered:


LM1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OP
MM0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0P
= MM0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0P
P 12

MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0P
MN0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1PQ
P
where the contravariant stresses are defined as

=
T

This stress field is similar to the assumed five stress field used by Pian [P2] for a
hybrid stress quadrilateral element. The field satisfies both equilibrium and symmetry
conditions.
The final enhanced strain interpolation matrix is assembled by enforcing the L2
orthogonality condition < , > L2

zzz 1

1 1 1
1 1
T ddd 0

109
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

The final interpolation matrix involving eighteen parameters is


LM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OP
MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PP
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
E =M P
18
MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 P
0 0 0 0 0 0 2
2
2 P
2
MM00 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
2
2
0

0
0
2
PQ
2 P
N 0 0 0

A further enhanced strain interpolation matrix is also derived which is similar to an


interpolation field defined in [S8] for planar elements. This matrix is based on nine a
parameters and is also orthogonal to the twelve stress field

LM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OP
MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PP
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
E
9
=M
MM0 0 0 0 0 0 0P
P
0 0 0 0 0 0P
MM00 0 0 0 0 0 0 PQ
P
N
Both the final interpolation functions E and E also allow condition III to be
9 18
satisfied. This is a requirement for passing the patch test [S8] and is implied in the
sense that

z z z
1
1 1
1
1
1
E ddd 0

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHV

The evaluation of stresses is identical to that described in section 7.4.1.2.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The comments made in section 7.4.1.3 regarding the nonlinear capability of the
standard isoparametric element are also applicable to this element. The nonlinear
formulation for the enhanced strain element involves enforcing orthogonality between
assumed Green-Lagrange strains and 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses. The geometrically
nonlinear performance of this element is much improved in comparison with HX8.

110
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements

'([SOLFLW'\QDPLFV(OHPHQWV +;(31(
7+(
Explicit time integration schemes have used simple linear elements rather than those
of a higher order by virtue of their computational efficiency. A number of further
advantages may also be obtained in explicit dynamic analyses

The use of higher order shape functions creates difficulties at the contact
interface in the form of uncontrolled overlap.
It has been shown that higher order continuum elements require a time step
reduced from that of linear elements.
The mass lumping formulations for higher order elements are currently
impractical for modelling shock wave propagation since the resulting
numerical noise pollutes or destroys the solution.
The combination of mass lumping with linear elements, when applied in
conjunction with the central difference operator, increases accuracy in
solutions by virtue of their respective compensatory spectral errors.
The linear explicit dynamics elements have been implemented to take advantage of
these benefits. They are for use only with the explicit central difference time
integration scheme.
The explicit dynamics elements are based upon the isoparametric approach in which
the same shape functions are used to interpolate both the displacements and geometry,
i.e.
n
displacement U= N b, gU
i =1
i i

n
geometry X = N i , X i
b g
i =1

b g
where N i , is the element shape function for node i and n is the number of nodes.
Fig.7.4.3-1 shows the nodal configurations available within LUSAS. The nodal
degrees of freedom are U, V and W at each node.

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI FXUUHQW VWUDLQ LQFUHPHQWV

The velocity strain rates e t+Dt/2are defined from the midpoint velocity ij gradients in
the global axis system. A rate relationship is used to define the strain-displacement
characteristics as
&
t U
t & x =
X
t

111
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

tV&
t & y =
Y
t

t W&
t & z =
Zt

& t V
t U &
t & XY = + t
Y X
t

t V& t W
&
t & YZ = +
t Z t Y
& t W
t U &
t & XZ = + t
Z X
t

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI PRGXOXV PDWULFHV

The isotropic and orthotropic elastic modulus matrices are as follows


Isotropic
LMb1 g 0 0 0 P
O
MM PP
MM b1 g 0 0 0 P
PP
E
M
M b1 g 0 0 0
PP
D=
b1 gb1 2g MM 0 0 0 b1 2g 0 0 P
MM 2
b1 2 g
PP
MM 0 0 0 0 0 P
2
MM 0 0 0 0 0
b1 2g PP
N 2 PQ

Orthotropic
LM 1 / E x yx E y zx E z 0 0 0 OP
MM / E xy x 1 / Ey zy / E z 0 0 0 PP
/ E yz / E y 1 / Ez 0 0 0
D=M
MM 0
xz x
0 0 1 / G xy 0 0
PP
MM 00 0 0 0 1 / G yz 0 PP
N 0 0 0 0 1 / G xz PQ
to maintain symmetry the following relations are utilised
yx = xy E y / E x zx = xz E z / E x zy = yz E z / E y

112
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements

Note that a valid material is obtained only if


1/ 2 1/ 2 1/2
xy < E x / E y
d i b
xz < E x / E z g yz < E y / E zy
d i
The initial thermal strain is defined by
T
Isotropic d i = T , , , 0, 0, 0
0 t

T
Orthotropic d i = T , , ,
0 t x y z xy , yz , xz

The lumped mass matrix is computed as each node i as


t
M x i = 1 /8 t t V

t
M y i = 1 /8 t t V

where t v is the current volume of an element.

 ,QWHJUDWLRQ UXOH IRU WKH HOHPHQWV

A one point quadrature integration rule is utilised. This provides elements that are
efficient and do not lock when incompressible behaviour is being modelled, e.g.
plastic straining with von Mises plasticity. The stresses are integrated at the most
accurate location.
The location of the integration point is given in Appendix I.

 (OHPHQW VWDELOLVDWLRQ

The utilisation of one point Gauss quadrature has a limitation in that zero energy
deformation or hourglass modes are generated (see Fig.7.3.3-5). The effects of such
modes are minimised by the viscous damping technique [H7].
The technique provides a damping force capable of preventing the formation of
spurious modes but which has negligible influence on the true structural modes. This
is possible since the spurious modes are orthogonal to the real deformations.
The rate of diagonal drifting is defined by the velocity at which the mid-points of the
element are separating. This is utilised as the basis for hourglass detection, giving the
hourglass velocities as
4
h ij = x& ik jk ai = 1,3f
j =1

The viscous hourglassing forces are

113
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

4 L 4 O
fik = Q hg v2e /3 c / 4 dh ij jk i MM1 + 100 Q hg dh ij jk iPP
j =1 N j =1 Q
in which v e is the current element volume, Q hg is a constant which is modified via the
SYSTEM command and is usually set to a value between 0.05 and 0.15, and x& ik is the
nodal velocity of the kth node in the ith direction. is the current element density,
while c, the material sound speed is defined from

c2 =
a f
E 1
a fa f
1 + 1 2

The hourglass base vectors ij for the 8 node solid elements are given as

LM1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 OP T

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PP
=M
1
ij
MM1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
PQ
N1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

these viscous forces are included directly into the element force vector.

 6KRFN ZDYH VPRRWKLQJ

The shock discontinuities that occur in impact problems may promote numerical
instabilities which must be smoothed out. This is achieved using an artificial bulk
viscosity method. The salient characteristic of the method is the augmentation of
element pressure with an artificial viscous term (q) prior to the evaluation of the
element internal force. This is zero in expanding elements and non-zero in contracting
elements. The algorithm has the effect of spreading the shock front over a small
number of elements.
The exact form of artificial viscosity is somewhat arbitrary and the method used is
based on the formulation originally proposed in [V1]

q = L c D kk Q1 L c D kk + Q 2 c

where Q1 and Q2 are dimensionless constants which default to 1.5 and 0.06
respectively, and may be modified as necessary via the SYSTEM command. D kk is
the trace of the velocity strain tensor and Lc is the characteristic length of the element
which is related to the smallest element diagonal as
V
Lc =
Af

114
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements

where V is the current element volume and A f the current largest face area of the
element. The face area is evaluated by considering each face in turn and using

a f
A f = 4 J 0,0

The surface Jacobian J may be evaluated from

x x
a f
J 0,0 = *

in which the differentials are evaluated explicitly.


The quadratic term in strain rate is chosen to be small except in regions of very large
gradients. The linear term, however, is included to control the small spurious
oscillations following the shock waves in which the gradients are insufficient to make
the quadratic term effective. Care should be taken with the linear term since there is a
danger of distorting the solution.
In converging geometries the centred strain rate term is negative and the q term is then
non-zero. This occurs even though no shocks are generated and results in a non-
physical generation of pressure. In view of the abundance of excellent results,
however, it is generally agreed that the effect is negligible.

The direct stresses at time t+t are modified by the addition of the artificial viscosity
pressure q as follows
ii = ii + q

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The 3-D explicit dynamics elements can be employed in

1. Materially nonlinear dynamic analysis (see note 1).


2. Geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in note I.
1RWHV
The 3D explicit dynamics elements may be used with nonlinear material
models 61 to 64, 72 and 75 (section 4.2).
Eulerian geometric nonlinearity is always invoked with the use of the explicit
elements in which the velocity strain measure is utilised. The Jaumann stress
rate formulation is used to eliminate rigid motion prior to stress integration.
The output is in terms of true Cauchy stresses and the strains approximate to
logarithmic strains. The loading is non-conservative.

115
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHV

The element output can be obtained at both the element nodes and Gauss points and
consists of

Stress Output
X , Y , Z , XY , YZ , XZ the direct and shear stresses

Strain Output
X , Y , Z , XY , YZ , XZ the direct and shear strains

Principal stresses and strains and the corresponding direction cosines may also be
output.
The sign convention for stress and strain output is shown in fig.7.4.3-3.
The Gauss point stress is usually more accurate than the nodal values.
The nodal values of stress and strain are obtained using the extrapolation procedures
detailed in section 6.1.

116
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements





 




HX8E

 


PN6E


TH4E

FIG.7.4.3-1 NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR 3D EXPLICIT DYNAMICS


ELEMENTS

117
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

HX8E Elements

PN6E Elements

FIG.7.4.3-2 COMPACT TENSION FRACTURE SPECIMEN

Y
Arrows indicate +ve
stress directions
X Y
Y Z
X Y
Y

Y Z
X
X Z
X Z
Z

FIG.7.4.3-3 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS/STRAIN OUTPUT

118
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements

&RPSRVLWH6ROLG(OHPHQWV +;&31&
If brick elements are used for an analysis of composite structures the number of
degrees of freedom even for small laminate structures rapidly becomes very large
leading to prohibitively excessive computer costs. To overcome this difficulty layered
brick elements were developed where several laminae are included in a single
element. For these elements the three degrees of freedom per node are used to
interpolate a displacement field that varies linearly over the thickness and
quadratically in-plane. Each layer is specified by an orthotropic material stiffness
matrix.
In order to speed up the computation, the elements are restricted to constant layer
thicknesses [H13]. This limitation requires the calculation of only a 2x2 Jacobian
matrix. For the integration of the element stiffness matrix, the material stiffnesses are
summed layerwise through the thickness, while the strain-displacement matrices can
be integrated using a plane 2x2 (or 3 corner point quadratic for PN12C) gauss
integration scheme outside the through thickness loop.
The shape functions for the top and bottom surfaces of the composite elements can be
considered to be single membrane element shape functions, see figure 7.4.4-1. The
shape functions N i ( top ) = N i ( bot ) = N i , are defined in terms of natural coordinates and
, for the HX16C element these are given by:
1
Ni =
4
b gb gb
1 + i 1 + i i + i 1 g for corner nodes

1
Ni =
2
jb
1 2i 2 2i 1 + i + i
e g for mid-side nodes

The PN12C element element uses the equivalent shape functions for a 6 noded
triangular membrane. To form the complete shape functions for the brick element N br ,
linear interpolation is used between the functions for the top and bottom surfaces:
1
N Tbr =
2
b g b g
+ 1 N Tia bot f ; + 1 N Ti b top g

The in-plane and through-thickness shape functions can then be separated to give:

N Tbr = T + T

where
1 T T
T = N ;N
2 i i
1
T = N Ti ; N Ti
2

119
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

The displacement field, U, can now be interpolated as:

LM T
+ T 0T 0T OPR u U
U=M
MM
0 T
+
T T
0T
PP|S v |V
0 T
0T T + P |Tw |W
T
N Q
U = Ha

with the displacement vectors in terms of the nodal degrees of freedom:


T
l q
u = u1 , u 2 ,.............. u n

T
v = lv , v ,.............. v q
1 2 n

T
w = lw , w ,........... w q
1 2 n

The three-dimensional strain vector is defined as

T =
RS u , v , w , u + v , v + w , u + w UV
T x y z y x z y z x W
The strain displacement relationship is given by:
= Ba

where B is the strain displacement matrix.

LM T T OP
MM x + x 0T 0T
PP
T T
MM 0 T
+ 0 T PP
y y
MM 2
PP
T
0T T

B=M
M 0 c PP
MM +
T T
T
+
T
0 T PP
MM y y x x
T
P T
P
2 T
MM 0 T
+ P
c y y P
MM 2 T
P T

MN c
T
0T
x
+
x PQ
P
B can be split into two matrices combining in-plane and through thickness terms:

B = B + B
1 2

120
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements

where

LM T OP LM T OP
0T 0T 0T 0T
MM x PP MM x PP
T T
MM 0 T
0 P T MM 0 T
0 P
T

MM y PP MM y PP
P 0 P
T 2
0T T T
0T T

B =M
M0 c PP B =M
M0 PP
1
MM T
T
0 P T P 2
MM T
T T
0 P
P
MM y x
P
PT
MM y x
P T
P
2 T
MM 0T
P MM 0
T
0T P
c y P y P
MM 2 P T
MM 0 P T

MN c
T
0T
x PQ
P T

MN 0T
x PQ
P
The restriction of constant layer thicknesses provides an uncoupling between the in-
plane coordinates and the through-thickness coordinate. Consequently for the
transformation of the cartesian derivatives into the natural derivatives only a 2
dimensional Jacobian matrix is required.

R| U| LM x y OPR U
S| V| = MM x
y
PP|S x |V
|T |W MN PQ||T y ||W
or inverted
1 1
= J11 + J12
x

1 1
= J 21 + J 22
y

and an integration constant for the thickness is computed from:


c 2
z= = .
2 z c

where c is the depth of the element see figure 7.4.4-1. The differential of the volume is
given by
c
dV = J dd
2

where |J| is the Jacobian determinant.

121
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

The element stiffness matrix in basic form may be defined as

K= zV
BT DB dV

where D is the modulus matrix for an orthotropic material.

LM 1 / E x yx E y zx E z 0 0 0 OP1
MM / Exy x 1 / Ey zy / E z 0 0 0 PP
/ E yz / E y 1 / Ez 0 0 0
D=M PP
xz x

MM 0 0 0 1 / G xy 0 0
PP
MM 00 0 0 0 1 / G yz 0
PQ
N 0 0 0 0 1 / G xz

where yx , zx and zy are defined by

yx = xy E y / E x zx = xz E z / E x zy = yz E z / E y

to maintain symmetry.

As the matrices B and B are independent of , only D varies from layer to layer.
1 2
Therefore the strain-displacement matrices can be left out of the integration through
the thickness:

F L nlay LM OP OP nlay I
GG B MM
T
1
GG N
zlay n MN
D d B + BT
PQ D
1
d
1PQB zlay n 2
JJ
K=
zz
n =1

L O
nlay L
n =1
nlay O 2
JJ c J dd
GG
H
+ B M
T
MN
2 PQ
n =1
z
D d P B + B M
MN
lay n 1
T
2
n =1
z
lay
D d P B J
2
n PQ JK 2

with B and B as:


1 2

122
7.4 Three-Dimensional Continuum Elements

LM 1
T 1
T OP
+ J 12 0T 0T
MMJ 11
PP
MM
T 1
T PP
0
T
J 211 + J 22 0
T

MM 2 T
PP
M 0T 0T PP
B =M
c
1 MMJ 1
T 1
+ J 22
T
J111
T 1
+ J12
T
0T
PP
MM 21
P

T 1
P T
MM 0T
2 T
c
J 211

+ J 22
P
P
MM T
P T
2 T
0T
1
J11
1
+ J12 P
MN c QP

LM 1
T 1
T OP
+ J 12 0T 0T
MMJ 11
PP
MM
T 1
T PP
0
T
J 211 + J 22 0
T

MM PP
M 0T 0T 0T PP
B =M
2 MMJ 1
T 1
+ J 22
T
J111
T 1
+ J12
T
0
T
PP
MM 21
P
T P T
MM 0T 0T

J 211

1
+ J 22
P
P
MM T P T
0T 0T
1
J 11
1
+ J12 P
MN PQ

The through thickness dependency is condensed in the integration of the material


modulus matrix which makes the assembly of the element stiffness matrix more
efficient. The strain displacement matrices only have to be computed in-plane. This is
possible by restricting the element to uniform thickness for a single layer. A
trapezoidal rule is applied for the through- thickness integration and for the in-plane
integration a 2x2 spatial scheme is used for HX16C and a 3 point corner rule for
PN12C.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The 3-D solid composite elements can be employed in


1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the elastoplastic constitutive laws [O1]
(section 4.2).

123
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis utilising the corotational formulation (section


3.5.2).
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.
4. Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5. Linear eigen-buckling analysis.
z, y,

15 14
13

16
12
10
9 11

x,
7 6 5
c

8 4
HX16C

1 2 3 9
10
11

12
8
z,

c y,
7
x,

3
4
5

2
6
PN12C

FIG.7.4.4-1 TOPOLOGY OF 3-D LAYERED ISOPARAMETRIC BRICK

124
7.5 Space Membrane Elements

6SDFH0HPEUDQH(OHPHQWV
$[LV\PPHWULF0HPEUDQH %;0%;0
 )RUPXODWLRQ

BXM2 and BXM3 elements are axisymmetric, isoparametric membrane elements.


They are defined in the XY-plane and symmetry may be specified about either the X
or Y axes. The nodal degrees of freedom are (fig.7.5.1-1)
U and V at each node
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is defined in the local Cartesian
system by
u
x =
x
U
z =
R

The elastic modulus matrix is defined by

E 1 LM OP
D=
1 2 1 N Q
The thermal strain is defined by

b g = T ,
o t
T

The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in (section 2.7).

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHV

The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of

Stress Output
x Meridional stress (+ve tension)

z Circumferential stress (+ve tension)

Strain Output
x Meridional strain (+ve tension)

z Meridional stress (+ve tension)

125
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

The element local x-axis lies along the element axis in the direction in which the
element nodes are specified. The local y and z axes form a right-hand set with the x-
axis such that the y-axis lies in the global XY-plane and the z-axis is parallel to the
global Z-axis (up out of page) (fig.7.5.1-4).
The Gauss point stresses are usually more accurate than the nodal values.
The nodal values of stress and strain are obtained using the extrapolation procedures
detailed in section 6.1.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The axisymmetric membrane elements can be employed in

1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the elasto-plastic constitutive laws [O1]


(section 4.2).
2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.
4. Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5. Linear eigen-buckling analysis.
1RWHV
The geometric nonlinearity utilises a Total Lagrangian formulation which
accounts for large displacements but small strains. The nonlinear strain-
displacement relationship is defined by
2 2
x =
LM OP
u 1 u
+ +
LM OP
1 u
x 2 x
N Q 2 x
N Q
2
U 1 LUO
= + M P
x
R 2 NRQ

The output is now in terms of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and Green-
Lagrange strains referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.

126
7.5 Space Membrane Elements

Y,V 1

2
1 BXM3

3
2
BXM2

X,U

FIG.7.5.1-1 NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR BXM2 AND BXM3 ELEMENTS

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

(b) Circular Plate

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

(b) Circular Pipe

FIG.7.5.1-2 'STAND-ALONE' APPLICATIONS FOR BXM2 AND BXM3


ELEMENTS

127
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

BXM3 elements

QAX8 elements

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

FIG.7.5.1-3 FIBRE REINFORCED CYLINDER ILLUSTRATING COUPLING


BETWEEN QAX8 AND BXM3 ELEMENTS

y
x
y
x
Y
y x 3
2

y 2
x
x
y
1
1

FIG.7.5.1-4 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BXM2 AND BXM3 ELEMENTS

'6SDFH0HPEUDQH 60,760
 )RUPXODWLRQ

SMI4 and TSM3 elements are membrane elements that function in 3-D. They are
formulated in 2-D, by forming a local Cartesian system in the plane of the element
(using a least squares fit through the element nodes). Once the element matrices have
been formed they are then transformed to the global Cartesian basis.
Their formulations are exactly equivalent to their 2-D conterparts given in table 7.5.2-
1

128
7.5 Space Membrane Elements

Space Membrane Plane Membrane

SMI4 PMI4
TSM3 TPM3

TABLE 7.5.2-1 SPACE MEMBRANE ELEMENTS AND EQUIVALENT PLANE


ELEMENTS

The nodal configurations are shown in fig.7.5.2-1. The nodal degrees of freedom are
U, V and W at each node
Only a lumped mass matrix is evaluated using the procedure defined in (section 2.7).

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHV

The element output obtained at the element nodes consists of

Stress Resultant Output


Nx , Ny , Nxy the direct and shear stress resultants/unit length
Nmax,Nmin the maximum and minimum principal stress resultants/ unit
length
b the angle between the maximum principal stress resultant and
the positive X-axis
Strain Output
x , y , xy
the direct and shear strains
max , min the maximum and minimum principal strains
the angle between the maximum principal strain and the
positive X-axis
The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.5.2-4. The
stress resultants are evaluated directly at the nodes.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The element has no nonlinear capability, but may be utilized in a nonlinear


environment. The element cannot be used for linear buckling analyses.

129
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

3
3 4
Y, V

1
TSM3 2
2 1 SMI4

X, U

Z, W

FIG.7.5.2-1 NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR SMI4 AND TSM3 ELEMENTS

Thin membrane SMI4 Elements

Stiffening members QSI4 elements

Problem definition Finite Element Mesh

FIG.7.5.2-2 BOX STRUCTURE ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF SPACE


MEMBRANE ELEMENTS

130
7.5 Space Membrane Elements

4
Y

z y

x
1
2
X

FIG.7.5.2-3 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR SMI4 AND TSM3 ELEMENTS

X, Y +ve tension
Y X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y

X Y

X X

X Y

Y
X

FIG.7.5.2-4 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS/STRAIN OUTPUT

131
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

132
7.6 Plate Elements

3ODWH(OHPHQWV
,VRIOH[7KLQ3ODWH 4)4)7)7)
 )RUPXODWLRQ

The Isoflex family of thin plate elements are formed by applying Kirchhoff constraints
within elements formulated using Mindlin plate assumptions. The displacements and
rotations are considered independent and the unconstrained nodal configurations are
(fig.7.6.1-1)
w, x , y at the corner

w, x , y at the mid side nodes of the quadrilateral,

x , y at the central node of the triangle.

where and re the relative (departure from linearity) and absolute rotations of the
through-thickness normals after deformation. These rotations include the transverse
shear deformations (fig.7.6.1-2). An element with thin plate performance is then
produced by constraining the shear strains to zero at discrete points within the
element. These constraints provide extra equations that permit certain nodal degrees
of freedom to be discarded. The final nodal configurations are (fig.7.6.1-3)
w, x , y at the corner

at the mid side nodes

where is the relative rotation about a tangent to the element edge. This removes 8
and 11 degrees of freedom for the 6 and 3 noded triangles and 11 and 15 degrees of
freedom for the 8 and 4 noded quadrilaterals respectively. This is achieved by using
the following constraints, originally proposed by Irons for the Semiloof shell [I1]
w
t = y = 0
x

At the points shown in fig.7.6.1-4, Where t is the through-thickness shear strain


tangential to the element edges. This provides 6 and 8 constraints respectively for the
triangles and quadrilaterals which are suitable for eliminating the mid-side translation
and normal rotation.

zA
XZdA = 0 ,
z
A
YZdA = 0

133
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Where the integral is performed using 2*2 Gauss quadrature. This provides 2
constraints for both the triangles and quadrilaterals, which are suitable for removing
the rotations at the central node.

zS
n dS = 0

Where n is the transverse shear strain normal to the element sides and the integral is
performed using 2-point quadrature along each side. This provides 1 constraint
suitable for removing the central translation of the quadrilaterals.
These constraints are sufficient for the higher order elements and the extra constraints
required for the lower order elements are provided by enforcing a linear variation of
tangential rotation along the element sides.
The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is derived from the 3-D continuum
relationship [Section 7.4] by neglecting Z which is zero in the Mindlin plate
assumptions, and XZ and YZ which have been constrained to zero, so that

U
X =
X

V
Y =
Y

U V
XY = +
Y X

The continuum displacements for plates of varying thickness are related to the original
degrees of freedom of the plate using

z n
U= N i , t i Yi
t i =1
b g
z n
V= N i , t i X i
t i =1
b g
n
W = N i , Wib g
i =1

where t and t i are the thicknesses of the plate at the integration and nodal points
respectively, and N(,) are the element shape functions. Therefore the discretised,
generalised, flexural strain-displacement relationship is

134
7.6 Plate Elements

LM 1 t N i
0
OP
t i N 1
LMX OP M 1t Xt NX
n
N1
t X PPLM W OP i

MM Y PP = MM t Y Y i
ti
t Y
0
P MM PP
Xi

NXY
i =1
Q MM1 t N + 1 t N
i i t
i
N1 t N P N Q
i
P1 Yi

N t Y X t X Y t Y t Y Q

where the terms involving t / X and t / Y are the small strain contributions due to
thickness variations. For flat plates
LM W OP
2

LM X OP MM XW PP
2
2

MM Y PP = MM Y PP
2
NXY Q M2 W P
2
MN XY PQ
The isotropic and orthotropic elastic resultant modulus or rigidity matrices are
d ( DT) T
Isotropic ey j0 t
=
dz
a , a , 0, 0, 0

d ( DT) T
Orthotropic ey j0 t
=
dz
a x , a y , a xy , a yz , a xz

where yx has been set to xy E y / E x to maintain symmetry.

Note. For a valid material xy < (E x / E y )1/ 2

The thermal strain is defined by

Isotropic e j = dbdzTg , , 0
0 t
T

Orthotropic e j = d a T f , ,
0 t dz
x y xy
T

Full details of the element formulation are given in [L1].


Both consistent and lumped mass matrices are available and are evaluated using the
procedures defined in (section 2.7).

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVVWUDLQV

The element output obtained at the element nodes or Gauss points consists of

Stress Resultant Output


M X , M Y , M XY the moments/unit width in the global Cartesian system.

135
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Strain Output
X , Y , XY the flexural strains in the global Cartesian system.

The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.5.2-6.
The Gauss point values are usually more accurate than the nodal values.
The nodal stress resultants are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.
Note. Approximate shear forces evaluated by differentiating the moments may also
be output.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The element has no nonlinear capability, but may be utilised in a nonlinear


environment. The element cannot be used for linear buckling analysis.
W W
W
y y
y
6 5
7 x W
x
x y

W W 5
W x
y y
y W
W
9 4 y
8 x x 6
x y
x 4
W W x
W
Y y y Y
y W
W W
2 y y
1 x x
3 y
x
2 3
X 1 x x
x

Quadrilateral Element Triangular Element

FIG.7.6.1-1 INITIAL NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR ISOFLEX PLATE


ELEMENT

136
7.6 Plate Elements

Displacement of any
W / X point a distance z
along normal is
Y U = z Y
Z where
X Z W
Y = XZ
X

Y
X

FIG.7.6.1-2 ROTATION OF THE THROUGH-THICKNESS NORMAL FOR A


THICK PLATE

W
x W
W y y
3
4 y
x x
x

W
W W W
y
y y y
2
1 x
x x x

QF4 TF3

W W
W
y 7 y
4 y
3
3
x x
x

8
6
6
5
W W
W
Z y y W
y
1 y
1 5 2
x x 4
x 2
x
Y QF8
TF6

FIG.7.6.1-3 FINAL NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR ISOFLEX THIN PLATE


ELEMENTS

137
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

1/ 3 1/ 3

2
1/ 3
1/ 3 1/ 3
2 2 1/ 3
1/ 3 1/ 3

1/ 3 1/ 3
2
2

FIG.7.6.1-4 LOCATIONS WHERE THE TRANSVERSE SHEAR STRAIN


TANGENTIAL TO THE ELEMENT EDGE IS CONSTRAINED TO ZERO

(a) Problem Definition

QF4 elements
Y

X
(b) Finite Element Mesh

FIG.7.6.1-5 THIN CANTILEVER PLATE ILLUSTRATING USE OF QF4


ELEMENT

138
7.6 Plate Elements

M XY

MY

MX
MX
M XY M XY

Y MY
Z

X
M XY

FIG.7.6.1-6 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS RESULTANT OUTPUT

,VRIOH[7KLFN3ODWH 46&
 )RUPXODWLRQ

The Isoflex thick plate element QSC4 is formed by imposing an assumed shear strain
field on the isoflex thin plate element QF4 [section 7.6.1]. This is accomplished by
first forming the constrained flexural strain-displacement relationship in exactly the
same manner as for the QF4 element, and then imposing a bilinear shear strain field
defined using nodeless degrees of freedom, i.e.
XZ = P1 XZ1 + P3 XZ 3 and YZ = P2 YZ 2 + P4 YZ4

where XZi and YZi are the transverse shear strains along the element sides and Pi are
linear interpolation functions defined in fig.7.6.2-1.
The extra higher order degrees of freedom are condensed out before assembly so that
the final nodal configuration is (fig.7.6.2-2)
w , X , Y at the corner nodes

The elastic resultant modulus or rigidity matrix is defined as

139
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

$ =
LMD$b
0 OP
D $
MN 0 D
s
PQ
where, for isotropic materials
LM1 0 OP
3
$ =
D
Et M 1 0 PP
12e1 j M
MN0 0 a1 2 f PQ
2

$ =
D
Et LM1 0OP
s2.4a1 + f N0 1 Q

and for orthotropic materials


1
L 1/ E xy / E x 0 OP
t M
3 x
$ =
D
b
M / E
12 M
yx y 1 / Ey 0 PP
N 0 0 1 / G xy Q
and $ = t G yz
D
LM 0 OP
s 1.2 0 N G xz Q
where yx has been set to xy E y / E x to maintain symmetry.

Note. For a valid material xy < (E x / E y )1/ 2

The thermal strain is defined by

Isotropic e j = dbdzTg , , 0, 0, 0
0 t
T

Orthotropic e j = dbTg , , ,
0 t dz
x y xy yz , xz
T

Full details of the element formulation are given in [C4].


Both consistent and lumped mass matrices are available and are evaluated using the
procedures defined in section 2.7.

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVVWUDLQV

The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of

Stress Resultant Output


M X , M Y , M XY the moments/unit width in the global Cartesian system,

140
7.6 Plate Elements

SYZ , S XZ the shear forces/unit width in the global Cartesian system.

Strain Output
X , Y , XY the flexural strains in the global Cartesian system,

YZ , XZ the shear strains in the global Cartesian system.

The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.6.2-4.
The Gauss point values are usually more accurate than the nodal values. The nodal
stress resultants are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures detailed in section
6.1.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The element has no nonlinear capability but may be utilised in a nonlinear


environment.
The element cannot be used for linear buckling analysis.

3 4 3

1 2 1 2
P5 P 66

4
3

1 2
1 2
P7 P8

FIG.7.6.2-1 INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS FOR NODELESS FREEDOMS OF


THE QSC4 ELEMENT

141
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

W
x
W
3 y

4 y
x
x

W
W
y
y
Z 2
1 x
x

FIG.7.6.2-2 NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR THE QSC4 ELEMENT

142
7.6 Plate Elements

FIG.7.6.2-3 PERFORATED THICK PLATE EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATING USE


OF QSC4 ELEMENT

M XY

MY

MX SY MX
M XY M XY

SX
SX MY
Y
Z

SY
X
M XY

FIG.7.6.2-4 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS RESULTANT OUTPUT

143
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

,VRSDUDPHWULF7KLFN0LQGOLQ3ODWH 47)77)
 )RUPXODWLRQ

The QTF8 and TTF6 elements are isoparametric plate elements formulated using
Mindlin plate theory [M3], which assumes that

Normal stress in the transverse stress is negligible in comparison with the in


plane stresses,
'normals' to the mid-surface remain straight but not necessarily normal to the
mid-surface after deformation (fig.7.6.3-1).
Thus the elements account for the transverse shear effects associated with thicker
plates and the elements are termed 'thick' plate elements. The theory also permits
treatment of lateral displacement and rotations as independent variables, producing
elements which only require C(0) continuity.
The nodal degrees of freedom are (fig.7.6.3-2)
W, X , Y at each node

where X and Y are the rotation of the normals to the mid-surface and include the
effects of shear deformations. The infinitesimal, generalized, flexural strain-
displacement relationship is derived from the 3-D continuum strain-displacement
relationship by neglecting the out of plane strain, so that
Y
X =
X

X
Y =
Y

Y Y
XY =
Y X

W
YZ = X
Y

W
XZ = + Y
Y

The elastic resultant modulus or rigidity matrix is defined as

$ =
LMD$b
0 OP
D $
MN 0 D
s
PQ
where, for isotropic materials

144
7.6 Plate Elements

Et 3
LM 1 0 OP1
$ =
D
b 12(1 2 ) MM 1 0 P
N 0 0 (1 ) / 2 PQ

and

$ = t G yz
D
LM 0 OP
s 1.2 0 N G xz Q
and for orthotropic materials

L 1/ E xy / E x 0 OP1
t M
3 x
$ =
D
b
M / E
12 M
xy x 1 / Ey 0 PP
N 0 0 1 / G xy Q
and

$ = t G yz
D
LM 0 OP
s 1.2 0 N G xz Q
where yx has been set to xy E y / E x to maintain symmetry.

Note. For a valid material xy < (E x / E y )1/ 2

The thermal strain is defined by

Isotropic e j = dbdzTg , , 0, 0, 0
0 t
T

Orthotropic e j = d a T f , , ,
0 t dz
x y xy yz , xz
T

Both consistent and lumped mass matrices are available and are evaluated using the
procedures defined in section 2.7.

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVVWUDLQV

The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of
Stress Resultant Output
M X , M Y , M XY - the moments/unit width in the global Cartesian system,

SYZ , S XZ - the shear forces/unit width in the global Cartesian


system.
Strain Output

145
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

X , Y , XY - the flexural strains in the global Cartesian system,

YZ , XZ - the bending strains in the global Cartesian system.

The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.6.3-4.
The Gauss point values are usually more accurate than the nodal values.
The nodal stress resultants are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The element has no nonlinear capability but may be utilised in a nonlinear


environment.
The elements cannot be used for linear buckling analysis.
Displacement of any
W / X point a distance z
along normal is
Y U = z Y
Z where
X Z W
Y = XZ
X

Y
X

FIG.7.6.3-1 ROTATION OF THE THROUGH-THICKNESS NORMAL FOR A


THICK PLATE

146
7.6 Plate Elements

W W
W
y y
y
6 5
7 x x
W
x y

5
W W x
y y W
W
8 4 y
x x 6 y

x 4
W W x
W
Y y y Y
y W
W W
2 y y
1 x x
3 y
x
2 3
X 1 x x
x

Z QTF8 TTF6

FIG.7.6.3-2 NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR QTF8 AND TTF6 ELEMENTS

FIG.7.6.3-3 PERFORATED THICK PLATE ILLUSTRATING USE OF THE TTF6


ELEMENT

147
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

M XY

MY

MX SY MX
M XY M XY

SX
SX MY
Y
Z

SY
X
M XY

FIG.7.6.3-4 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS RESULTANT OUTPUT

5LEEHG3ODWH 53,753
 )RUPXODWLRQ

The 2-D flat ribbed plate elements are formulated by superimposing standard
isoparametric plane stress elements (QPM4,TPM3,PMI4) on the isoflex thin plate
elements (QF4,TF3). The membrane and bending stiffnesses are formed
independently, and combined to give

LMK membrane
0 OPR|a membrane U|V = R|SRmembrane U|V
MN 0 K
bending PQS|T a bending |W |T R bending |W
The component elements are listed in table 7.6.4-1

Element Membrane Bending

RPI4 PMI4 QF4


TRP3 TPM3 TF3

TABLE 7.6.4-1 COMPONENT ELEMENTS USED TO FORM RIBBED PLATE


ELEMENTS

The element is formulated in a local Cartesian basis and then transformed to the
global Cartesian system. The final nodal variables are (fig.7.6.4-1)
U, V, W, X , Y at each node

148
7.6 Plate Elements

The strain-displacement relationship, resultant modulus matrix and thermal strains are
defined in section 7.3 (in-plane) and section 7.6 (bending).
For further details of the element formulation see Section 7.3, Section 7.6 and
[Z1,L1].
A lumped mass matrix is evaluated using the procedures presented in section 2.7.

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVVWUDLQV

The element output obtained at the element nodes consists of

Stress Output
x , y , xy
direct and shear stresses in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane stresses,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane stress and
the local x-axis.
Stress Resultant Output
N x , N y , N xy
the membrane stress resultants/unit width in the local Cartesian
system,
M x , M y , M xy
the moments/unit width in the local Cartesian system,
Strain Output
x , y , xy
the membrane strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane strains,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane strain and
the local x-axis,
x , y , xy
the flexural strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal bending strains,
the angle between the maximum principal bending strain and
the local x-axis
The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.6.4-3.
The local x-axis is defined as being a line joining the first and second element nodes.
The xy-plane is defined by the third element node and the local x-axis. The local y and
z-axes are defined by a right hand screw rule (fig.7.6.4-4).
The nodal stress resultants are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.
The stress resultants are most easily interpreted if the local Cartesian axes are all
parallel. Also, the presence of eccentricity requires that the forces and moments are
examined at the mid-points of the element sides by averaging the nodal values.

149
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The element has no nonlinear capability but may be utilised in a nonlinear


environment.
The elements cannot be used for linear buckling analysis.
W W
W y
x 3 y
y V 3
4 V
V U U x
U x

W W W W
y y y y
Z 1
V V V V
1 2 2
U x U x U x U x

RPI4 TRP3
Y

FIG.7.6.4-1 NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR RIBBED PLATE ELEMENTS

RPI4 elements

BRP2 elements
Z X
Y

X
Finite Element Mesh

FIG.7.6.4-2 RIBBED PLATE ILLUSTRATING USE OF RPI4 ELEMENT

150
7.6 Plate Elements

M XY

MY

Y X, Y +ve tension
X Y +ve into XY quadrant MX
MX
Y M XY M XY
X Y
X X
Y
MY
Z
X Y

Y
X X
M XY

Stresses Stress Resultants

FIG.7.6.4-3 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS AND STRESS RESULTANT


OUTPUT

4 y

3 1
x
z

z
y

Z x 2 2
3
Y

FIG.7.6.4-4 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR RIBBED PLATE ELEMENTS

151
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

152
7.7 Shell Elements

6KHOO(OHPHQWV
$[LV\PPHWULF7KLQ6KHOO %;6
 )RUPXODWLRQ

The BXS3 element is a thin, curved, non-conforming axisymmetric shell element


formulated using the constraint technique.
The global displacements and rotations are initially quadratic and are interpolated
independently using linear Lagrangian shape functions for the end nodes and a
hierarchical quadratic function for the central node. Therefore, the initial degrees of
freedom are (fig.7.7.1-1)

U, V, at the end nodes

and u, v, at the mid-length node.


The Kirchhoff condition of zero shear strain is applied at the two integration points by
forcing
v u v
+ = z = 0
x z x

and eliminating the local transverse translational and rotational degrees of freedom at
the central node. The final degrees of freedom for the element are (fig.7.7.1-1)
U, V, z at the end nodes,

and u at the mid-length node

where u is the local axial relative (departure from linearity) displacement.


The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationship is defined in the local cartesian
system as
u
x =
x
U V
z = cos sin
R R

2 v
x =
x 2
1 v
z = cos
R x

153
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

where R and are the radius and angle between the local and global Cartesian systems
(fig.7.7.1-2)
The elastic modulus and resultant modulus (or rigidity) matrices are defined as

$ =
LMD$m
0 OP
Explicit D $
MN 0 D
b
PQ
where
Isotropic $ =
D
Et 1 LM OP $ =
D
Et 3 LM 1 OP
m 1 2 1 N Q b
12e1 j N 1 Q
2

Orthotropic $ =
D
t LM E OPx xz $
D =
3
t LM E OP
x xz
m 1 2xz N E Q xz z
b
12e1 j N
2
xz xz E Q
z

Numerically Integrated

LM 1 y y OP
D= z E
t1 2
MM y 1
y
y
y2
y
y 2
dy PP
MNy y y 2 y2
PQ
The thermal strain vector is defined as

LM T OP
MM dbTTg PP
e j = M dy P
0 t
MM dbTg PP

Isotropic NM dy QP
LM T OP x

MM dbTTg PP z

e j = M dy P
0 t x
MM dbTg PP
Orthotropic
MN dy PQ z

Further information on the element formulation is given in [S1,C1,Z1].


The consistent and lumped mass matrices are evaluated using the procedures defined
in section 2.7.

154
7.7 Shell Elements

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVVWUDLQV

Element output is available at both the nodes and Gauss points and consists of
(fig.7.7.1-5)

Stress Resultants
N x , N z - the meridional and circumferential forces/unit width in the local
Cartesian system,
M x , M z - the meridional and circumferential moments/unit width in the
local Cartesian system.

Strains
x , z - the meridional and circumferential membrane strains,

x , z - the meridional and circumferential bending strains.

The forces and strains are output in the local Cartesian system, defined as having its x-
axis lying along the element axis in the direction in which the element nodes are
specified. The local y and z-axes form a right-hand set with the x-axis, such that the y-
axis lies in the global XY plane, and the z-axis is parallel to the global Z-axis (up out
of page) (fig.7.7.1-4).
The top fibre lies on the +ve local y side of the element and +ve values define tension.
The forces have greatest accuracy at the Gauss points.
Note Layer stress output is also available when the nonlinear continuum
plasticity model is utilised.
 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The axisymmetric shell element may be employed in

1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the elastoplastic constitutive laws [O1]


(section 4.2).
2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.
4. Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5. Linear and nonlinear buckling analysis.
1RWHV
The BXS3 element may be used in conjunction with the stress resultant
plasticity model (section 4.2).
Geometric nonlinearity utilises either

155
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

A Total Lagrangian formulation which accounts for large displacements but


small strains. The nonlinear strain-displacement relationship is defined by
2 2
x =
u 1 u
+
LM OP +
LM OP
1 v
x 2 x N Q 2 x
N Q
u v u2 v2 uv
z = cos sin + 2 cos
2
+ sin 2 sin 2
R R 2R 2R 2 2R 2

2 v u 2 v v 2 u
x = +
x 2 x x 2 x x 2

1 v u v v v
z = cos 2 cos2 + 2 cos sin
R x R x R x

where R is the radius and is the angle between the local and global
Cartesian systems.
The forces and strains output with the geometrically nonlinear analysis will
be the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff forces and Green-Lagrange strains
respectively, referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.

or
An Updated Lagrangian formulation which takes account of large
displacements and large rotations but small strains, provided that the
rotations are small within a load increment. The output now approximates
to the true Cauchy stresses and logarithmic strains. The loading
approximates to being non-conservative.
The initial assumptions used in deriving the BXS3 element limit the rotations
to one radian in a Total Lagrangian analysis and rotation increments of one
radian in an Updated Lagrangian analysis (section 3.5).

156
7.7 Shell Elements

V V

Z Z
U U
3 3
V
U

Z
U
2 2

V V
Y Y

Z Z
U U
1 1

X X

Initial Variables Final Variables

FIG.7.7.1-1 NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR THE BXS3 ELEMENT

Axis of
v, y
Revolution

u, x

FIG.7.7.1-2 DEFINITION OF R AND FOR THE AXISYMMETRIC SHELL


ELEMENT

157
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

A A

Plan

Section A - A

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

(a) Spherical Shell

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

(b) Circular Shell

FIG.7.7.1-3 EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF BXS3 ELEMENT

158
7.7 Shell Elements

y
x

y x

Y
x
y

FIG.7.7.1-4 DEFINITION OF LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR BXS3


ELEMENT

z
x

Y y

z
x

Mx Mz
Nz Nx

FIG.7.7.1-5 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS RESULTANT OUTPUT

159
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

)ODW7KLQ6KHOO 46,76
 )RUPXODWLRQ

These flat shell elements are formulated in a local Cartesian system by superimposing
standard isoparametric plane stress elements (QPM4,TPM3,PMI4) and the isoflex
thin plate elements (QF4,TF3). The xy-plane of the local Cartesian system is
evaluated using a least squares fit through the element nodes. The membrane and
bending stiffnesses are then formed independently, and combined to give

LMK 0 0 OPRa U| R|R U|


PP|Sa
membrane membrane membrane
MM 0 K 0 bending V| = S| R
bending V|
bending
|
MN 0 0 K
art QPT z W T M z W
where the component elements are listed in Table 7.7.2-1

Element Membrane Bending

QSI4 PMI4 QF4


TS3 TPM3 TF3

TABLE 7.7.2-1 PRIMARY ELEMENTS USED TO FORM FLAT THIN SHELL


ELEMENTS

Initially, the membrane stiffness is formed in terms of u and v, the in-plane


displacements. An artificial in-plane rotational stiffness K is then added to prevent
art
singularities occurring when elements are co-planar. K is defined as
art

LM 10. 0.5 0.5OP


Triangles = k d E + E itA M0.5 . 0.5
MN0.5 0.5 10. PPQ
K ip x y 10
art

LM 1.0 1 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3
OP
1 / 3 1.0 1 / 3 1 / 3
Quadrilaterals K
art
= k d E + E itA M
ip x y
MM1 / 3 1 / 3 1.0 1 / 3
PP
N1 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3 1.0 Q
P
The in-plane stiffness parameter k ip has a default value of 0.02 which may be changed
by using the SYSTEM command (variable STFINP).
Once the local element matrices have been evaluated they are transformed to the
global Cartesian system. The final nodal variables are (fig.7.7.2-1)
U, V, x , y , z at each node

160
7.7 Shell Elements

The strain-displacement relationship is defined in section 7.3 (in-plane) and section


7.6 (bending).

Note. The incompatible terms in the strain-displacement matrix are not used to
evaluate nodal loads due to initial Gauss point stresses, e.g. thermal loading, initial
stresses.
For further details of the element formulation see section 7.3, section 7.6, [Z1,L1]
A lumped mass matrix is evaluated using the procedures presented in section 2.7.

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVVWUDLQV

The element output obtained at the element nodes consists of

Stress Output
x , y , xy
direct and shear stresses in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane
stresses,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane
stress and the local x-axis.
Stress Resultant Output
N x , N y , N xy
the membrane stress resultants/unit width in the local
Cartesian system,
M x , M y , M xy
the moments/unit width in the local Cartesian system.
Strain Output
x , y , xy
the membrane strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane strains,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane
strain and the local x-axis,
x , y , xy
the flexural strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal bending strains,
the angle between the maximum principal bending strain
and the local x-axis

The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.7.2-3.
The xy-plane of the local Cartesian system is evaluated using a least squares fit
through the element nodes. The local x-axis is defined as being a line joining the first
and second element nodes, and the local y and z-axes are defined by a right hand
screw rule (fig.7.7.2-4)

161
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

The nodal stress resultants are evaluated by extrapolating the strain-displacement


relationship at the Gauss point to the nodes. The nodal stress is computed at each node
directly.
The stress resultants are most easily interpreted if the local Cartesian axes are all
parallel. Average nodal stresses are in the global Cartesian system.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The elements have no nonlinear capability but may be utilised in a nonlinear


environment.
The elements cannot be used for linear buckling analysis.
W
W z
z W
z
y x
x x y V
V 3 3 y
4 V U
U
U

W W W
z W z z
z
y y
Z y 1 V
V V
1 V y 2
U x 2 U x U x
U x
QS4/QSI4 TS3
Y

FIG.7.7.2-1 NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR FLAT THIN SHELL ELEMENTS

Problem Description Finite Element Model

FIG.7.7.2-2 CYLINDRICAL ROOF EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATING USE OF THIN


FLAT SHELL ELEMENTS

162
7.7 Shell Elements

M XY

MY

MX
MX
Stress Resultants M XY M XY

Y
MY
Z

X
M XY
X, Y +ve tension
X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y
Y

X Y
Stresses
X X

X Y

Y
X

FIG.7.7.2-3 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS AND STRESS RESULTANT


OUTPUT

4 y

3 1
x
z

z
y

Z x 2 2
3
Y

FIG.7.7.2-4 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR THIN FLAT SHELL


ELEMENTS

163
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

)ODW7KLQ6KHOO%R[ 6+,
 )RUPXODWLRQ

The flat shell box element is formulated in a local Cartesian system by superimposing
a non-standard isoparametric plane membrane element on the isoflex thin plate
element. The xy-plane of the local Cartesian system is evaluated using a least squares
fit through the element nodes. The membrane and bending stiffnesses are then formed
independently and combined to give the total element stiffness in the local Cartesian
system, i.e.

LMK membrane
0 OPR|a membrane U|V = R|SR
membrane U|V
MN 0 K
bending PQS|T a bending |W |T R bending |W
The component bending stiffness and force vector used for this element is from the
QF4 element [Section 7.6.1]. The elements use a non-standard plane membrane
formulation which is more effective for modelling the in-plane bending in the web of
box structures than the standard plane membrane formulation. The initial nodal
configuration (fig.7.7.3-1) has 4 nodes with 3 in-plane degrees of freedom at each
node
u, v and v / x

where v / x is the rotation of a line = constant at each node and approximates to


z .
In addition, incompatible displacement modes are utilised so that typically
n 2
U = N i , U i + Pi , a i
b g b g
i =1 i=1

where

b g b g
P1 , = 1 2 and P2 , = 1 2

and a i are nodeless degrees of freedom which are condensed out before element
assembly.
The extra incompatible modes are condensed out and the element matrices are then
transformed to the global Cartesian system. This provides an element with the
following nodal degrees of freedom (fig.7.7.3-2)
U, V, W, x , y , z - at the corner nodes

u - the relative (departure from linearity) local x-displacement for the mid-
side nodes

164
7.7 Shell Elements

The strain-displacement relationship is defined in section 7.3 (in-plane) and section


7.6 (bending).

Note. No artificial in-plane rotational stiffnesses are required for this element. For
further details of the element formulation see section 7.6, [L1,T2]. A lumped mass
matrix is evaluated using the procedures presented in section 2.7.

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVVWUDLQV

The element output obtained at the element nodes consists of

Stress Output
x , y , xy
direct and shear stresses in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane
stresses,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane
stress and the local x-axis.
Stress Resultant Output
N x , N y , N xy
the membrane stress resultants/unit width in the local
Cartesian system,
M x , M y , M xy
the moments/unit width in the local Cartesian system.
Strain Output
x , y , xy
the membrane strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane strains,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane
strain and the local x-axis,
x , y , xy
the flexural strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal bending strains,
the angle between the maximum principal bending strain
and the local x-axis.

The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.7.3-4.
The xy-plane of the local Cartesian system is evaluated using a least squares fit
through the element nodes. The local x-axis is defined as being a line joining the first
and second element nodes, the local y and z-axes are defined by a right hand screw
rule (fig.7.7.3-5).
The nodal stress resultants are evaluated by extrapolating the strain- displacement
relationship at the Gauss points to the nodes, and then computing the nodal stress at
each node directly.

165
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

The stress resultants are most easily interpreted if the local Cartesian axes are all
parallel.

Note. The averaged nodal stresses are output in the global Cartesian system.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The elements have no nonlinear capability but may be utilised in a nonlinear


environment.
The elements cannot be used for linear buckling analysis.
V V

z U z U
4 3

V
V
z U
Z z U 2
1

SHI4
Y

FIG.7.7.3-1 INITIAL IN-PLANE NODAL CONFIGURATION

W
W z
z
x
V V
x 3 Z
4 U y
U y

Y
W
z
W y X
z
V
V 2
U x
U x
1 y

SHI4

FIG.7.7.3-2 FINAL NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR FLAT THIN BOX SHELL


ELEMENTS

166
7.7 Shell Elements

Box Girder Box Girder Bridge

FIG.7.7.3-3 STRUCTURES SUITABLE FOR ANALYSIS WITH FLAT BOX


SHELL ELEMENTS

M XY

MY

MX
MX
Stress Resultants M XY M XY

Y
MY
Z

X
M XY
X , Y +ve tension
X Y +ve into XY quadrant
Y
Y

X Y
Stresses
X X

X Y

Y
X

FIG.7.7.3-4 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS AND STRESS RESULTANT


OUTPUT

167
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

z
y

Z x 2
Y

FIG.7.7.3-5 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM FOR THIN FLAT BOX SHELL


ELEMENTS

6HPLORRI7KLQ6KHOO 46/76/
 )RUPXODWLRQ

The Semiloof shell element is a thin, doubly curved, isoparametric element formed by
applying Kirchhoff constraints to a three dimensional degenerated thick shell element.
The displacements and rotations are considered independent and the unconstrained
nodal configurations are (fig.7.7.4-1)
U, V, W - at the corner and mid-side nodes,
x , y - at the loof nodes,

and w , x , y - at the central node,

where x and y are the rotations of the through-thickness normals. These rotations
include transverse shear deformations.
An element with thin shell performance is then produced by constraining the shear
strains to zero at discrete points within the element, i.e. by ensuring that [I1]
w
1. t = y = 0
x
at the points shown in fig.7.7.4-2. Where t is the through-thickness shear strain
tangential to the element edges. This provides 6 and 8 constraints respectively for
the triangles and quadrilaterals which are suitable for eliminating the tangential
rotations at the loof nodes.
2. z dA
A xz
= 0, z dA
A yz
=0

168
7.7 Shell Elements

where the integral is performed using 2*2 Gauss quadrature. This provides 2
constraints for both the triangles and quadrilaterals which are suitable for
removing the rotations at the central node.
3. z dS =
S n
0

where n is the transverse shear strain normal to the element sides and the integral
is performed using 2-point quadrature along each side. This provides 1 constraint
suitable for removing the central translation of the quadrilaterals.
These constraints provide extra equations that permit certain nodal degrees of freedom
to be discarded. The final nodal configurations are (fig.7.7.4-3)
U, V, W - at the corner and mid-side nodes,

and - at the loof nodes.


Using the assumptions of thin shell theory, the strain-displacement relationship is
written as
u
x =
x

v
y =
y

u v
xy = +
y x

2 w
x
x 2

2w
y
y 2

2w
xy 2
xy

The isotropic and orthotropic modulus and resultant modulus (rigidity) matrices are
defined as
Explicit

$ =
LMD$ membrane
0 OP
D $
MN 0 D
bending
PQ
where, for Isotropic materials

169
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

LM1 0 OP
0 P
$ E M
D = 1
1 M a1 f P
membrane 2
MN0 0 2 PQ
LM1 0 OP
3
$
D =
Et M 1 0 PP
12e1 j M
MN0 0 a1 2 f PQ
bending 2

and for Orthotropic materials


1
LM 1 / E x xy / E x 0 OP
$ = M / E
D
membrane xy
MN 0 x 1 / Ey 0 PP
0 1 / G xy Q
1
L 1/ E xy / E x 0 OP
t M
3 x
$ =
D
bending
M / E
12 M
xy x 1 / Ey 0 PP
N 0 0 1 / G xy Q
where yx has been set to xy E y / E x to maintain symmetry.

1RWHV
1/ 2
1. To obtain a valid material xy < E x / E y d i
2. A three dimensional orthotropic modulus matrix may be specified by using the
appropriate data input. This 6 by 6 modulus matrix is the same as that given in
section 7.4.1 and is reduced to the plane stress modulus matrix in the following
way:
a. remove the YZ and XZ shear strain rows and columns,
b. invert the matrix so that the stress-strain relationship is obtained,
c. remove the s Z row and column since this stress is assumed to be zero,
d. re-invert the matrix to obtain the stress-strain relationship (a 3 by 3 matrix).

1XPHULFDOO\ ,QWHJUDWHG

170
7.7 Shell Elements

LM 1 0 z z 0 OP
MM 1 0
a f
1
z z
a f PP
0
1 z

D= z E MM 0 0
2
0 0
2 PP dz
t1 2 z 2 z 2
MMzz z
0
0
z
z 2 z2
0
0
PP
MM 0 0
a1 fz 0 0
a1 fz PP2

N 2 2 Q
The thermal strain vector is defined as
LM T OP
MM T PP
0
M P
Isotropic e j = MM dbdzTg LMN + T ddT OPQPP
0 t

MM dbTg L + T d OPP
MM dz MN 0 dT PQPP
N Q
LM x T OP
MM y T PP
T
MM dbTg L xy
d O P
P
M + T x
P
e j = MM dz N dT Q P
x
Orthotropic
MM d T M + T OP PPP
0 t
b g L d y
y
MM dbdzTg LN dT Q
d OP
P
MN dz MN + T dT PQPQ
xy
xy

Full details of the element formulation are given in [I1].


Both consistent and lumped mass matrices are available and are evaluated using the
procedures defined in (section 2.7).

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVVWUDLQV

The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of

Stress Output
x , y , xy direct and shear stresses in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane stresses,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane stress
and the local x-axis.

171
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Stress Resultant Output


N x , N y , N xy the membrane stress resultants/unit width in the local
Cartesian system,
M x , M y , M xy the moments/unit width in the local Cartesian system,

Strain Output
x , y , xy
the membrane strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal membrane strains,
the angle between the maximum principal membrane strain
and the local x-axis,
x , y , xy the flexural strains in the local Cartesian system,
max , min the maximum and minimum principal bending strains,
the angle between the maximum principal bending strain
and the local x-axis.

The local Cartesian system varies over the element for curved elements. For the
quadrilateral element, the local y-axis, at any point within the element, coincides with
the curvilinear line = constant (fig.7.7.4-8). The local x-axis is perpendicular to the
local x-axis in the +ve x direction and is tangential to the shell mid-surface. For the
triangular element, the local Cartesian system is formed by orientating the local y-axis
parallel to a line joining the mid-point of the first side with the 5th node. The x-axis is
then formed perpendicular to the y-axis and tangential to the shell mid-surface, with
the +ve direction defined by the +ve x direction. The local z-axis forms a right-handed
set with the x and y-axes. The +ve z-axis defines the top surface.
The sign convention for stress resultant and strain output is shown in fig.7.7.4-9.
The nodal stress resultants are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures detailed in
section 6.1.

1RWHV
The Gauss point stresses are converted to the global Cartesian system before
extrapolation.
The average nodal stresses are in the global Cartesian system.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The Semiloof shell element may be employed in

1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the elastoplastic constitutive laws [O1]


(section 4.2) and the nonlinear concrete model (section 4.3).
2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.

172
7.7 Shell Elements

4. Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.


5. Linear and nonlinear buckling analysis.
1RWHV
Geometric nonlinearity may be represented with either
A Total Lagrangian formulation which accounts for large displacements but
small rotations and strains. The nonlinear strain-displacement relationship
is defined by
2 2 2
x =
LM OP
u 1 u
+ +
LM OP
1 v
+
LM OP
1 w
x 2 x
N Q 2 x
N Q 2 x
N Q
2 2 2
v 1 L u O 1 L v O 1 L w O
=
y + M P + M P + M P
y 2 N y Q 2 N y Q 2 N y Q

u v u u v v w w
xy = + + + +
y x x y x y x y

2 w
x =
x 2

2 w
x =
y 2

2 w
xy = 2
xy 2

The output is now in terms of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and Green-
Lagrange strains referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is
conservative.
or
An Updated Lagrangian formulation, which takes account of large
displacements and moderately large strains provided that the strain
increments are small. The output is now in terms of the True Cauchy
stresses and the strains approximate to logarithmic strains. The loading
approximates to being non-conservative.

The initial assumptions used in deriving the shell elements limit the rotations to
one radian in a Total Lagrangian analysis, and rotation increments of one
radian in an Updated Lagrangian analysis (section 3.5).

173
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

V V
V
7 x x 5
U U
6 U
W W
y y
W
x
y
y
x
W
V V
y
8
U U
W x W 4

y y
V x
V y V
U y
Y
U W 2 x U
x
W 1 W 3

X
(a) QTF8 V

Z 5
U
x W

y
y
V
x
V
6
U
W U
x 4
W

y
y
V x
V y V
U y
Y
2
U W x U
1
x 3
W W

X (b) TSL6

FIG.7.7.4-1 INITIAL NODAL CONFIGURATIONS FOR QSL8 AND TSL6


ELEMENTS

174
7.7 Shell Elements

1/ 3 1/ 3

1/ 3
2
1/ 3

(a) QSL8

2
1/ 3
1/ 3
2 1/ 3
1/ 3

1/ 3 1/ 3

(b) TSL6

FIG.7.7.4-2 LOCATIONS WHERE TRANSVERSE SHEAR STRAINS


TANGENTIAL TO THE ELEMENT EDGE ARE CONSTRAINED TO ZERO

175
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

V V
V
7 5
U U
6 U
W W
2 1
W
2
1

W
V V
y
8
U U
W x W 4

2 1
V
V 1 V
U 2
Y
U W 2 U
W 1 W 3

X
(a) QSL8 V

Z 5
U
W

2
1
V
V
6
U
W U
4
W
2
1
V
V V
U
Y
2
U 1 W 2 U
1 3
W W

X (b) TSL6

FIG.7.7.4-3 FINAL NODAL CONFIGURATION FOR QSL8 AND TSL6


ELEMENTS

176
7.7 Shell Elements

FIG.7.7.4-4 TUBULAR JOINT EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATING USE OF QSL8 AND


TSL6 ELEMENTS

FIG.7.7.4-5 PRESSURE VESSEL EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATING COUPLING OF


HX20 AND QSL8 ELEMENTS

177
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

QSL8 elements

BSL3 elements

Problem Definition Finite Element Mesh

FIG.7.7.4-6 STIFFENED SHELL ILLUSTRATING COUPLING BETWEEN QSL8


AND BSL3 ELEMENTS

FIG.7.7.4-7 BENDING MECHANISM FOR QSL8 ELEMENT

178
7.7 Shell Elements

z
4
x
6 y

7 2

(a) QSL8 Element

z
x

y 4
5
3

6 2

(b) TSL6 Element

FIG.7.7.4-8 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEM

179
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

X, Y +ve tension
X Y +ve into XY quadrant

Y
Y

X Y
X X

X Y

Y
X

Stresses

X, Y +ve tension
X Y +ve into XY quadrant

Y
Y

X Y

X X

X Y

Y
X

M XY

MY

MX
MX
M XY M XY

Y
MY
Z

X
M XY

Stress Resultants

FIG.7.7.4-9 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS AND STRESS RESULTANT


OUTPUT

180
7.7 Shell Elements

7KLFN6KHOOV 776776476476
 )RUPXODWLRQ

The formulation for this family of thick shell elements is based on the degeneration of
a three dimensional continuum. In this approach, the displacements at any point in the
shell are defined by the translation of the reference surface together with the rotation
of a director. The director is subsequently referred to as the normal, however, the
director need not be initially normal to the reference surface. The normal is considered
to remain straight during deformation for computation of displacements through the
element thickness. The triangular elements (TTS3, TTS6) are formulated using a
standard isoparametric approach. The quadrilateral elements (QTS4,QTS8) adopt an
assumed strain field for interpolation of the transverse shear strains. The inclusion of
an assumed strain field prevents the element from 'shear locking' when used as a thin
shell. The displacements and rotations are considered independent and the nodal
degrees of freedom are (fig.7.7.5-1)
U, V, W, , - at all nodes.

and are the rotations of the through-thickness normals. These rotations include
transverse shear deformations and relate to a set of 'local' axes set up at each node. To
avoid singularities, the direction of these axes is dictated by the direction of the nodal
normal. One of the global axes is chosen to define the rotation, the axis chosen
corresponds with the smallest component of the nodal vector. The cross product of
this axis and the nodal vector defines the second axis of rotation for (fig.7.7.5-1).
This definition of the rotations is used when a smooth surface configuration is to be
modelled (fig.7.7.5-2). In the event of a discontinuity, connection with a beam
element, or a branched shell junction, these rotations are transformed to relate to
global axes, x , y , z (fig.7.7.5-1).

The location of the transverse shear sampling points for defining the assumed strain
fields are shown in fig.7.7.5-3. For the four noded quadrilateral (QTS4) the factors for
interpolating from the sampling points to the gauss points are
1
R1 =
2
a f
1

1
R2 =
2
a f
1+

while for the eight noded element (QTS8) the factors are

R1 =
1LM
1
OPa f1
1 R5
4 N a Q 4

181
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

R2 =
LM OPa f
1
1
1
1 + R5
N Q
4 a 4

1 L O 1
R3 = M1 + Pa1 f R 5
4 N aQ 4

1 L O 1
R4 = M1 + Pa1 + f R 5
4 N aQ 4

1 LM L O OP

2
R5 = 1
MN MN PQ PQe1 j
2
4 a

where

a =1/ 3

and
Si ( , ) = R i (, )

The covariant transverse shear strains at the gauss points are then given by
n
= R i ,
b g
i

i =1

n
= Si , i
b g
i =1

where and are the covariant transverse shear strains at the gauss points and

i
, i are the transverse shears at the sampling points.

Using this representation of shear strains allows


Correct representation of the six rigid body modes.
Approximation of the Kirchhoff-Love thin shell hypothesis.
No spurious zero energy modes using full numerical integration.

It is necessary to express the transverse shear strains in terms of covariant components


so that interpolation can be carried out using the isoparametric map. The stress and
strain terms are ultimately transformed to relate to a local orthogonal set of axes at
each gauss point. The local axes are set up using

e$1 = G / G

e$ 3 = e$ 1 x G / e$ 1 x G
e j
182
7.7 Shell Elements

e$ 2 = e$ 3 x e$ 1

where G and G are the covariant base vectors at a gauss point.

b g
Strains in the curvilinear system lm may then be transformed to strains in the
$ ij by using the contravariant base vectors
orthogonal local system d i
d$ i =
ij lm dG e$ ieG
1
i
m e$ j j
The elements are formulated using the plane stress hypothesis so that zz in the
thickness direction is set to zero. The continuum strains are evaluated at integration
points through the thickness, and for the geometrically linear case these strains are
given by

$ xx = u

x


$ yy = v

y

u v
$ xy = +
y x

v w
$ yz = +
z y

u w
$ yz = +
z x

Material properties are specified in the local orthogonal axes. For a thick shell the
modulus matrix is condensed so that the plane stress hypothesis is observed.
The isotropic modulus matrix is given by [Z1]
LM 1 0 0 0 OP
MM 1 0
1
0 0 P
0 0 P
D=
E MM 2 PP
1 2 1
MM 0 P
1 PP
2.4

MNSymm. 2.4 Q

If orthotropic properties are specified the modulus matrix becomes

183
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

LM E x
E x xy
0 0 0
OP
MM d1 i d1 i
xy yx xy yx PP
MM E x E
xy y
0 0 0 P
PP
D=M
d1 i d1 i
xy yx xy yx

MM G xy 0 0 P

MM G xy
0 P
P
MMN Symm.
.
12
G Pxz
P
. PQ
12

Factors of 5/6 have been included in the transverse shear terms to take account of a
parabolic distribution through the thickness.
As the material properties are specified in local element directions and the element
formulation is based on covariant components of strain, the modulus matrix must be
transformed.
The required transformation of the modulus matrix is

C ijkl = G i e a G j e b G k e c G l e d D
d id id id i abcd

where G m m = , , are the contravariant base vectors.

Full details of the element formulations may be found in [D4],[H9] and [S7].
Both consistent and lumped mass matrices are available and are evaluated using the
procedures defined in (section 2.7).

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI VWUHVVHVVWUDLQV

The element output obtained at the element nodes and Gauss points consists of

Stress Output
x , y , xy
direct and shear stresses in the local Cartesian
yz , xz , e
system, together with von Mises equivalent stress
Three dimensional principal stresses and the corresponding direction cosines
may also be output
Stress Resultant Output
N x , N y , N xy
the membrane stress resultants/unit width in the local
Cartesian system,
M x , M y , M xy
the moments/unit width in the local Cartesian system,
Sx ,S y
the shear stress resultants/unit width in the local Cartesian
system

184
7.7 Shell Elements

Strain Output
x , y , xy ,
the direct and shear strains in the local Cartesian
yz , xz , e
system, together with von Mises equivalent strain

The local cartesian systems are set up at the element reference surface. For curved
elements, the local Cartesian system will vary over the reference surface. The local x-
axis, at any point within the element, coincides with the curvilinear line = constant
in the direction of increasing (fig.7.7.5-4). The direction of the local z-axis is
defined by the vector product of the local x-axis and the curvilinear line = constant
(in the direction of increasing ). The local y-axis is defined by the vector product of
the local z and local x-axes. The +ve z-axis defines the element top surface. The
position of the origin of the curvilinear system for each element together with the
directions of increasing values are shown in (fig.7.7.5-5).
The sign convention for stress and strain output is shown in fig.7.7.5-6 and fig.7.7.5-7.
The nodal stresses and strains are evaluated using the extrapolation procedures
detailed in section 6.1.
1RWHV
The Gauss point stresses are converted to the global Cartesian system before
extrapolation.
The average nodal stresses are in the global Cartesian system.

 1RQOLQHDU IRUPXODWLRQ

The thick shell elements may be employed in


1. Materially nonlinear analysis utilising the elastoplastic constitutive laws [O1]
(section 4.2) and the nonlinear concrete model (section 4.3).
2. Geometrically nonlinear analysis using a Total Lagrangian formulation.
3. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis utilising the nonlinear material
laws specified in 1.
4. Nonlinear dynamics utilising the nonlinear material laws specified in 1.
5. Linear and nonlinear buckling analysis.
6. Creep analysis
Note. The Total Lagrangian formulation used for these elements is valid for both
large displacements and large rotations. However, the formulation is only valid for
small strains. The nonlinear strain-displacement relationship is defined by

x =
LM OP
u 1 u
+
2
+
LM OP
1 v
2
+
LM OP
1 w
2

x 2 xN Q 2 x
N Q 2 x
N Q

185
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

y =
LM OP
v 1 u
+
2
+
LM OP
1 v
2
+
LM OP
1 w
2

y 2 y
N Q 2 y
N Q 2 y
N Q
u v u u v v w w
xy = + + + +
y x x y x y x y

v w u u v v w w
yz = + + + +
z y z y z y z y

u w u u v v w w
xz = + + + +
z x z x z x z x

The output is now in terms of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and Green-Lagrange
strains referred to the undeformed configuration. The loading is conservative.

186
7.7 Shell Elements

Z,w

(a) 5 degrees of freedom


Definition of nodal rotations
Y,v
when global X defines .


X,u

Z,w

Y,v

x
X,u

(b) 6 degrees of freedom

FIG.7.7.5-1 NODAL VARIABLES FOR THICK SHELL ELEMENTS

187
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

Default angle < 20 o


Averaged nodal vector

V2

V1 V3

1 3
Element 1 Element 2

(a) SMOOTH SURFACE (5 degrees of freedom)

Default angle > 20 o


Separate nodal vector

V 21 V 22

V1 V3
2

1 Element 1 Element 2 3

(b) DISCONTINUOUS SURFACE (5 degrees of freedom)

FIG.7.7.5-2 SMOOTH AND DISCONTINUOUS SURFACE

188
7.7 Shell Elements

2
4 3 4 3

1 2

1 2 1 2
1

Shear Shear

(a) QTS4

3 4
7 6 5 7 6 5

a a

3 4

a a
8 8 4
5 5
a a
1 2
a a

1 2 3 a = 3 -1/2 1 2 3
1 2
Shear Shear

(b) QTS8

FIG.7.7.5-3 SHEAR SAMPLING POINTS

189
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

4
z
3 = constant

y
5

= constant

(a) TTS6 (TTS3 axes coincide when element is flat)

5
= constant
= constant
6
z
4
y
x

7
3

8 2

(a) QTS8 (QTS4 axes coincide when element is flat)

FIG.7.7.5-4 LOCAL CARTESIAN SYSTEMS

190
7.7 Shell Elements

2 3

5 2
3

1 1

(a) TTS3 (b) TTS6

3 5


4 4
7

2 8 3

1 1
(c) QTS4 (d) QTS8

FIG.7.7.5-5 CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

191
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

y
y

xy

x x

xy

y
x

z z

x z yz

x z yz

x y

Direct stress (+ve) Tension


Shear stress (+ve) Shear into XY, YZ and ZX quadrants
Note: Positive values shown in figure

FIG.7.7.5-6 SIGN CONVENTION FOR CONTINUUM STRESS OUTPUT

192
7.7 Shell Elements

Y Y

Mxy
My Sx

Mx
Sy
Mxy

Mxy
Mx Sy

Sx
My Mxy

Y
X X

Nx

Nxy Ny

Nxy

Nxy

Ny
Nxy

Nx

Membrane stress (+ve) Direct tension


(+ve) In-plane shear into XY quadrant
Flexural stress (+ve) Hogging moment (producing +ve stresses on
the element top surface)
Shear stress (+ve) In-plane shear into YZ and XZ quadrants

Note: Positive values shown in figure

FIG.7.7.5-7 SIGN CONVENTION FOR STRESS RESULTANT OUTPUT

193
Chapter 7 Element Formulations

194
Quadrature Rules

$SSHQGL[$
4XDGUDWXUH5XOHV
The locations and weights of the quadrature points used in integrating the element
matrices are listed in table A1 to table A7 and are shown in fig. A1 to fig. A7.

ORDER LOCATION i WEIGHT WI

1 0.0000000000 2.0000000000
2 0.5773502692 1.0000000000
3 0.7745966692 0.5555555555
0.00000000000 0.8888888888
4 0.8611363116 0.3478548454
0.3399810436 0.6521451549

TABLE A1 SAMPLING POINTS AND WEIGHTS FOR BARS, BEAMS,


QUADRILATERAL 2-D SOLIDS, PLATES, SHELLS AND 3-D
HEXAHEDRA AND PENTAHEDRA

RULE LOCATION WEIGHT

5 point 0.592348877 0.592348877 0.95000000


0.000000000 0.000000000 0.20000000

TABLE A2 SAMPLING POINTS AND WEIGHTS FOR 5-POINT RULE FOR 2-D
QUADRILATERALS AND SHELLS

229
Appendix A

RULE LOCATION WEIGHT

A1 A2 A3

1-point 0.3333333333 0.3333333333 0.3333333333 1.0000000000


3-point 0.5000000000 0.0000000000 0.0000000000 0.3333333333
4-point 0.3333333333 0.3333333333 0.3333333333 -0.5625000000
0.6000000000 0.2000000000 0.2000000000 0.5208333333
7-point 0.3333333333 0.3333333333 0.3333333333 0.2250000000
0.0597158717 0.4701420641 0.4701420641 0.1323941527
0.7974269853 0.1012865073 0.1012865073 0.1259391805

TABLE A3 SAMPLING POINTS AND WEIGHTS FOR TRIANGULAR2-D


SOLIDS, PLATES, SHELLS AND 3-D PENTAHEDRA

RULE LOCATION WEIGHT

A1 A2 A3

3-Point 1.0000000000 0.0000000000 0.0000000000 0.3333333333

TABLE A4 SAMPLING POINTS AND WEIGHTS FOR TRIANGULAR


SEMILOOF SHELL

RULE LOCATION WEIGHT

V1 V2 V3 V4

1-Point 0.25000000 0.25000000 0.25000000 0.25000000 1.00000000


2-Point 0.58541020 0.13819660 0.13819660 0.13819660 0.25000000
3-Point 0.50000000 0.50000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.16666666

TABLE A5 SAMPLING POINTS AND WEIGHTS FOR 3-D TETRAHEDRA

230
Quadrature Rules

RULE LOCATION WEIGHT

i i i

13-Point 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 1.684210565


0.88030430 -0.49584802 -0.49584802 0.54498736
0.79562143 0.79562143 0.025293237 0.507644216
14-Point 0.795822426 0.000000000 0.000000000 0.355555556
-0.758786911 -0.758786911 -0.758786911 0.335180055
0.758786911 -0.758786911 -0.758786911 0.335180055
0.758786911 0.758786911 -0.758786911 0.335180055
0.758786911 0.758786911 0.758786911 0.335180055

TABLE A6 - SAMPLING POINTS AND WEIGHTS FOR SPECIAL RULES FOR


3-D SOLIDS

RULE LOCATION WEIGHT

1-Point 0.000000000 2.000000000


2-Point 1.000000000 1.000000000
3-Point 1.000000000 0.166666667
0.000000000 1.333333333
4-Point 1.000000000 0.250000000
0.333333333 0.750000000
5-Point 1.000000000 0.155555556
0.500000000 0.711111111
0.000000000 0.266666667

TABLE A7 - SAMPLING POINTS AND LOCATIONS FOR NEWTON-COTES


RULES

231
Appendix A

1
1 2

(a) 1-Point Rule

1 1 2 2

(b) 2-Point Rule

1 1 2 3 2

(c) 3-Point Rule

1 1 2 3 4 2

(d) 4-Point Rule

FIG. A1 GAUSS QUADRATURE RULES FOR BAR, BEAM AND


AXISYMMETRIC SHELL ELEMENTS

232
Quadrature Rules

4 3 7 6 5

4 3 9 8 7

6 5 4
8 4
1 2
1 2 3

1 2 1 2 3
(a) 2*2 Rule (b) 3*3 Rule

7 6 5 7 6 5

13 14 15 16 4 3

9 10 11 12 5
8 4 8 4
5 6 7 8
1 2
1 2 3 4

1 2 3 1 2 3

(a) 4*4 Rule (b) 5-Point Rule


FIG. A2 GAUSS QUADRATURE RULES FOR QUADRILATERAL 2-D
CONTINUUM, PLATE AND SHELL ELEMENTS

233
Appendix A

3 3

3 1

1 2 2 2
1
(a) 1-Point Rule (b) 3-Point Rule

3 3

1
5
7 4
4
3 2 3 1
6

1 2 1 2
(a) 4-Point Rule (b) 7-Point Rule

FIG. A3 GAUSS QUADRATURE RULES FOR TRIANGULAR 2-D


CONTINUUM, PLATE AND SHELL ELEMENTS

1 2

1 2

FIG. A4 SPECIAL 3-POINT RULE FOR TRIANGULAR SEMILOOF SHELL


ELEMENT

234
Quadrature Rules

1 3

(a) 1-Point Rule

4 2
1 3
1

2
(b) 4-Point Rule

6 2
3

5
3
1
4 1

2
(c) 6-Point Rule

FIG. A5 GAUSS QUADRATURE RULES FOR SOLID TETRAHEDRA


ELEMENTS

235
Appendix A

8 7
5

8 7

3 4 5
6
5 4
5 6
6

4 3
3
2 1
1 2
3

1 2 1 2

(a) 3*2 Rule (b) 2*2*2 Rule

8 7 8 7

16 17 25 26 27
18

5 13 14 15 5
6 19 6 18
10 11 12

7 8 9
10 11 12 9
3 3
4 5 6
4 5 6
1 2 3
1 2
3
1 2 1 2

(c) 3*3*2 Rule (d) 3*3*3 Rule

FIG. A6 QUADRATURE RULES FOR SOLID PENTAHEDRA AND


HEXAHEDRA ELEMENTS

236
Quadrature Rules

(a) 1-Point Rule

1 2

(b) 2-Point Rule

1 2 3

(c) 3-Point Rule

1 2 3 4

(d) 4-Point Rule

(e) 5-Point Rule

FIG. A7 NEWTON-COTES RULES

237
Appendix B

$SSHQGL[%
5HVWULFWLRQV2Q(OHPHQW7RSRORJ\
0LG/HQJWKDQG0LG6LGH1RGHV
The mid-length and mid-side nodes of elements should be equidistant from the two
end nodes, and the element curvature must satisfy the following requirements
(i) |a - b|/(a + b) < 0.05
(ii) (a + b)/c < 1.02
where a, b and c are defined in fig.B1.

c
a

Fig. B1 DEFINITION OF PARAMETERS FOR CURVATURE LIMITS

:DUSLQJRI)ODW(OHPHQWV
The four nodes defining a flat quadrilateral element in 3-D should be coplanar.
However, a small amount of warping is permitted provided that
z < 0.01 a
where z is the distance of the out of plane node from the plane
and a is the length of the side between the first and second nodes.

238
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$SSHQGL[&
5HIHUHQFHV

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249
Appendix C

250