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Chapter 7 problems

7.2. On August 10, 1972, a large meteorite skipped across the atmosphere above western United
States and Canada, much like a stone skipped across water. The accompanying fireball was so
bright that it could be seen in the daytime sky. The meteorites mass was about 4x106kg; its speed
was about 15 km/s. At it entered the atmosphere vertically, it would have hit the earths surface with
the same speed. (a) Calculate the meteorites loss of kinetic energy (in joules) that would have been
associated with the vertical impact. (b) Express the energy as a multiple of the explosive energy of
1 megaton of TNT, which is 4.2x1015J. (c) The energy associated with the atomic bomb
explosion over Hiroshima was equivalent to 13 kilotons of TNT. To how many Hiroshima
bombs would the meteorite impact have been equivalent?
a. The energy loss would be
1 2 1
K= mv = 4 106 kg (15, 000m / s)2
2 2
14
= 4.5 10 J

b. The equivalent loss in megatons of TNT

4.5 101 4 J
# MT = 15 = 0.107MT = 107kT
4.2 10 J / MT
c How many Hiroshima Bombs is this?
107kT
# Hiroshimas = = 8.23
13kT / Hiroshima

We were very lucky...


7.13 Figure 7-27 shows an overhead view of three horizontal force actin on a cargo canister that
was initially stationary but that now moves across a frictionless floor. The force magnitudes are
F1 = 3.00 N , F2 = 4.00 N , and F3 = 10.0 N . What is the net work done on the canister by the three
forces during the first 4.00m of displacement.

We begin by finding the net force. The net work will be done by the net force. The block will
accelerate
and move in the direction of the net force.
r
F1 = -3.00 i
r
F2 = -4.00sin50 i - 4.00cos50 j
r
F3 = 10.00cos 35 i + 10.00sin50 j
r
Fnet = (-3.00- 4.00sin50+ 10.00cos 35) i + (-4.00cos50 + 10.00sin50) j
= 2.13 i + 3.16 j
r
Fnet = 2.13 2+ 3.16 2 = 3.81N
r r
W net = Fnet d = 3.81N 4m = 15.24J


7.18 A cave rescue team lifts an injured spelunker directly upward and out of a sinkhole by means
of a motor driven cable. The lift is performed in three stages, each requiring a vertical distance of
10.0m: (a) the initially stationary spelunker is accelerated to a speed of 5.00 m/s; (b) he is then
lifted at the constant speed of 5.00 m/s; (c) finally he is decelerated to zero speed. How much work
is done on the rescuee by the force lifting him during each stage?
The easiest way to approach this problem is probably to find the tension in each segment of the
rescue and then use that tension to compute the work done by the tension.
(a) First we find the acceleration. We can then use the acceleration to find the Tension

vi = 0 m / s
ma = T - mg
vf = 5m / s
T = ma + mg
y f - y i = 10m
2 2
= 80kg 1.25m / s 2 + 80kg 9.8m / s 2
v f = v i + 2 a (x f - x i )
= 884N
2 2 2 2
v f - vi (5m / s) - 0
a= = = 1.25 m / s 2
2 (x f - x i ) 2 (10m)
Now that we know the tension, we can easily compute the work since the tension and the direction
of motion are the same...upward

W = T d = 884N 10m = 8840J

(b) We can proceed in the same way for the second segment. Here the velocity is constant, so the
acceleration is zero.

ma = T - mg
T = ma + mg
W = T d = 784 10 = 7840J
= 0 + 80kg 9.8m / s 2
= 784N
(c) In this last segment, we recompute theacceleration...

v i= 5 m / s
ma = T - mg
vf = 0m / s
T = ma + mg
y f - y i = 10m
2 2
= 80kg -1.25m / s 2 + 80kg 9.8m / s 2
v f = v i + 2 a (x f - x i )
= 684N
2 2 2 2
v f - vi 0 - (5.0m / s)
a= = = -1.25 m / s 2
2 (x f - x i ) 2 (10m)
Now that we know the tension, we can easily
compute the work since the tension and the direction
of motion are the same...upward

W = T d = 684N 10m = 6840J


7.22 A 250 g block is dropped onto a vertical spring with spring constant k=2.5N/cm. the block
becomes attached to the spring and the spring compresses 12cm before momentarily stopping.
While the spring is being compressed, what work is done on the block (a) by its weight, and (b) by
the spring force? (c) What is the speed of the block just before it hits the spring? (d) If the speed
is doubled,what is the maximum compression of the spring.
a. The work done by weight is positive. The force is downward and so is the motion.

Ww = mgy = 0.25kg 9.8m / s 2 0.12m


= 0.294J
b) The work done by the spring is negative. The force is upward but the motion is downward.
2.5N 100cm
k= = 250N / m
cm 1m
1 2 1 2
Ws = - k x = - 250N / m (0.12m)
2 2
= -1.8J
c) The net work done equals the change in Kinetic energy.
W = 0.294J - 1.8J = -1.506J
K f - Ki = W
1 2
0 - mv = W
2
-2W -2 (-1.506J)
v= = = 3.47m / s
m 0.25

d) Use work to determine the final compression. The velocity is twice the value found in part c.
We choose the negative solution, since we know that the mass drops below the zero starting value...
1
W = DK = 0 - mv 2
2
1
W = mgy + ky 2
2
1 1
mgy - ky 2 = - mv 2
2 2
1 2 1
ky - mgy - mv 2 = 0
2 2
1 1
+mg (mg) 2 - 4 k (- mv 2 )
y= 2 2
1
2 ( k)
2
+mg (mg)2 + kmv 2 )
=
k
+0.25kg 9.8m / s 2 (0.25kg 9.8m / s 2 ) 2 + 250N / m 0.25kg (6.94m / s) 2
=
250N / m
= 0.229m

7.39 A horse pulls a cart with a force of 40lb at an angle of 30 degrees above the horizontal and
moves along at a speed of 6mi/hr. (a) How much work does the force do in 10 min? (b) What is

the average power in horsepower of the force.


It is useful to do part b first.

F = 40 lbs
6 mi 5280 ft 1hr
v= = 8.8 ft / s
hr 1mi 3600s
r r
P = F v = F v cosq
= 40 lbs 8.8 ft / s cos 30
ft lbs
= 304.8
s
1.818 10-3 hp
P = 304.8 ft lbs / s = 0.55hp
1 ft lbs / s

Now that we know


the power, we can find the work done in 10 minutes
ft lbs
P = 304.8
s
t = 10min = 600s
W = Pt
ft lbs
= 304.8 600s
s
= 1.83 10 5 ft lbs