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Chapter 5 Problems

5.1 Only two horizontal forces act on a 3.0 kg body. One force is 9.0N, acting due east , and the
other is 8.0N act 62 degrees North of west. What is the magnitude of the bodys acceleration?
r
F1 = 9 i + 0 j
r
F2 = 8cos62 i + 8sin62 j
r
Fnet = (9 8cos62) i + (8sin62) j
= 5.244 i + 7.066 j
r
Fnet = 5.244 2 + 7.0662
= 8.8N
r
Fnet 8.8N
a = = = 2.93m / s2
m 3kg

5.4. Three astronauts, propelled by jet backpacks, push and a guide a 120 kg asteroid toward a
processing dock, exerting the forces shown in Fig. 5-30. What is the asteroids acceleration (a) in
unit vector notation and
as (b) a magnitude and (c) a direction.

32N

30 55N

60

41N

a) We begin this problem by writing out each force in component form and then writing the net
force.

r
F1 = 32cos30 i + 32sin 30 j
r
F2 = 55 i + 0 j
r
F3 = 41cos60i 41sin 60 j
r
Fnet = (32cos30 + 55 + 41cos60) i + (32 sin30 + 0 41sin 60) j
= 118.22 i 19.51 j

Now that we know the net force, we can find the acceleration.
r
r Fnet 118.22 i 19.51 j N
a= = = 0.985 i 0.163 j
m 120kg

The magnitude and direction are:


r
a = 0.985 2 + 0.1632 = 0.998m / s2
0.163
tan = = 9.4
0.985

5.9 (a) An 11.0 kg salami is supported by a cord that runs to a spring which is supported by a
cord hung from the ceiling (Fig 5.34a). What is the reading on the scale, which is marked in
weight units? (b) In Fig 5-34b the salami is supported by a cord that runs around a pulley to a
scale. The opposite end of the scale is attached by a cord to a wall. What is the reading on the
scale? (c) In Fig 5-34c the wall has been replaced by a second 11 kg salami and the assembly is
stationary. What is the reading on the scale?

The scale measures the tension in the cord. In each of these scenarios, the forces acting on the
right sausage are as shown below.

In all three cases, the sausage is not accelerating, which means that the net force is zero. We can
easily solve for the tension T.

0 = T W
T =W
= 11kg 9.8m / s2
= 107.8N
The tension is the same in each case because it is exactly balancing the weight. How the rope is
attached is not important.


5.20. A car traveling at 53 km/h hits a bridge abutment. A passenger in the care moves forward a
distance of 65 cm (with respect to the road) while being brought to rest by an inflated air bag.
What magnitude of force (assumed constant) acts on the passengers upper torso, which has a
mass of 41 kg.
To find the force, we need to know the acceleration that the passenger experienced.

x f xi = 0.65m v 2f = v2i + 2a(x f x i )


53km 1000m 1h v 2f vi2 0 2 14.72 2
vi = = 14.72m / s a= = = 166.7m / s2
h 1km 3600s 2(x f x i ) 2 0.65m
vf = 0
Fnet = ma = 41kg 166.7m / s2 = 6834.7N

...Ouch!

5.24. A 100 kg crate is pushed at constant speed up the frictionless 30 ramp as shown. What
horizontal force F is required? (b) What force is exerted by the ramp on the crate?

mg
We use a standard (not rotated) x-y cord system. Since the mass is moving with constant speed, we
know that the net force is zero. We write the forces in the vertical and horizontal directions.

0 = N cos mg
0 = F N sin
We now solve for F and N

mg
N=
cos
F = N sin
mg
= sin
cos
= mg tan
= 100kg 9.8m/ s2 tan 30 = 565.8N
mg 100kg 9.8m/ s2
N= = = 1131.6N
cos cos30
5.27 A 40 kg girl and an 8.4 kg sled are on the frictionless ice of a frozen lake, 15 m apart but
connected by a rope of negligible mass. The girl exerts a horizontal force of 5.2 n on the rope.
What are the accelerations magnitudes of (a) the sled and (b) the girl? (c) How far from the girls
initial position do they meet.

If the girl exerts a force or 5.2 N on the rope, then the rope exerts a force of 5.2 N on her. This
means that the tension in the rope is 5.2N. We can easily compute the magnitudes of the
accelerations

F 5.2N
aG = = = 0.13m / s2
mG 40kg
F 5.2N
aS = = = 0.63m / s2
mS 8.4kg

We can now find where they meet by finding when they meet. Note that one of the accelerations
has to be negative because they are accelerating in opposite directions (toward each other).

x fG = x fS
x iG = 0 x iS = 15m 1 1
aG t 2 = x iS + v iS t + aS t 2
x iG + v iG t +
x fG = ? x fS = ? 2 2
1 1
v iG = 0 v iS = 0 0 + 0 + aG t 2 = x iS + 0 + aS t 2
2 2
v fG = ? v fS = ? 1
(a a ) t 2 = x iS
aG = 0.13m / s2 aS = 0.63m / s2 2 G S
2x iS 215m
t= = = 6.28s
aG aS (0.13 (0.63))
Now that we knowwhen they meet, we can compute where.
1
x fG = x iG + v iG t + a t2
2 G
1
= 0 + 0 + 0.13 (6.28) 2
2
= 2.56m

5.29 A block is projected up a frictionless inclined plain with an initial speed v 0 = 3.5m / s . The
angle of incline is 32 degrees. (a) How far up the incline does the block go? (b) How long does it
take to get there? (c) What
is its speed when it gets back down to the bottom
We begin by drawing the free body diagram of the forces on the mass
as it slides up the incline.
N
N

mg
mg

We begin by computing the acceleration due to the forces that we have drawn.

m a = mgsin
0 = N mgcos
ma = mgsin
N = mgcos
a = gsin
We can now compute the distance from the givens

v i = 3.5m / s
vf = 0

a = gsin = 5.19m / s2
v f 2 = v i2 + 2a(x f x i )
v f 2 v i2 v i 2 (3.5m / s)2
x f xi = = =
2a 2 a 2 (5.19m / s2 )
= 1.18m
We can easily compute the time

v i = 3.5m / s
vf = 0
a = g sin = 5.19m / s2
v f = v i + at
0 = v i + at
v 3.5m / s
t= i = = 0.674s
a 5.19m / s2
The magnitude of the speed on the downward trip is 3.5 since the path is symmetric.


5.42 Figure 5-36 show four penguins that are being playfully pulled along very slippery
(frictionless) ice by a curator. The masses of three penguins and the tension in two of the cords
are given. Find the penguin mass that is not given.

m 20kg

15kg
12kg

111N 222N

In this problem, we need to think about what mass is being accelerated. We can break this system
of masses up in different ways. No matter how we break up our masses for calculation, all of them
must have the same acceleration.

We begin by considering the entire set of penguins as a single mass. In this case the 222 N is the
only external force that acts on the entire mass of penguins...

m 20kg

15kg
12kg

111N 222N

We can write ma, the net force.

(12kg + m + 15kg + 20kg) a = 222N

We now consider the force on just the two right most penguins...


m 20kg

15kg
12kg

111N 222N

We write the net force on these masses

(15kg + 20kg) a = 222N 111N

In this second case, we can solve for a. We then use that a to find the missing mass.

(12kg + m + 15kg + 20kg) a = 222N


(m + 47kg) a = 222N
(15kg + 20kg) a = 222N 111N ma = 222N 47kg a
111N 222N
m= 47kg
a= = 3.12m / s2 a
35kg
222N
= 47kg
a
= 24.15kg

5.47 Figure 5-51 shows tow blocks connected by a cord (of negligible mass) that passes over a
frictionless pulley (also of negligible mass).
The arrangement is known as Atwoods machine.
One block has a mass m1 = 1.3kg ; the other has a mass m2 = 2.8kg . What are (a) the magnitude
of the acceleration and (b) the tension in the cord.


+x

T
T T
T

m1g +x +x
m1g m2g
m2g

Now that we have drawn the free body diagrams, we can write the equations

mass1 mass 2
m1a = T m1 g m2 a = m2 g T

Now solve the left equation for T and plug in to solve for the acceleration in the right equation.

m1 a =T m1g
T = m1a + m1g
m2 a = m2 g T
= m2 g (m1 a + m1 g)
m1a + m2 a = m2 g m1g
m g m1g
a= 2
m1 + m2
m m1
a= 2 g
m2 + m1
2.8 kg 1.3kg
= g
2.8kg + 1.3kg
= 3.59m / s2

Now that we know the acceleration, we can compute the Tension.

T = m1a + m1g
= 1.3kg 3.59m / s2 + 1.3kg 9.8m / s2
= 17.41N


5.51 A block of mass m1 = 3.70kg on a frictionless inclined plane of angle 30is connected by a
cord over a massless frictionless pulley to a second block of mass m2 = 2.3kg hanging vertically.
What are (a) the magnitude of the acceleration of each block and (b) the direction of the
acceleration of m2 ? (c) What is the tension in the cord?

The free-body diagram and forces are shown below.


N
T

m1

m1g

m1
T
m2
m2

m2g

We will call forces that drive the pulley clockwise positive. First we compute the net force on m2 .

m2 a = m2 g T

We now write the forces on m1 in the vertical direction:

0 = N m1 gcos
N = m1 gcos

and in the horizontal direction...

m1 a = T m1 gsin

We now combine the equations to find the acceleration

T = m2 g m2 a
m1 a = (m2 g m2 a) m1gsin
m2 g m1 gsin
a=
m1 + m2
2.3kg 9.8m / s2 3.7kg 9.8m / s 2 sin30
=
2.3kg + 3.7kg
= 0.735m/ s2

The mass m2 is downward since downward was defined as positive in this case.
T = m2 g m2 a
= 2.3kg 9.8m / s2 3.7kg 0.735m / s2
= 19.82N

5.54 Fig. 5-56, shows a box m2 = 1.0kg on a frictionless plane inclined at an angle of 30 degrees
It is connected by a cord of negligible mass to a box of mass m1 = 3.0kg on a horizontal
frictionless surface. The pulley is frictionless and massless. (a) If the magnitude of the F is 2.3N,
what is the tension in the connecting cord? (b) What is the largest value that the magnitude of F
may have without the connecting cord becoming slack.

We begin by drawing all of the forces on the masses.

N1

N2
T
T
m1
F

m1g

m2

m2g

We draw free body diagrams...

N1
N2
T

T
+x
F
m1g

m2g +x
We can now resolve the forces into component directions and compute the net force.

For m1

y direction
x direction
0 = N1 m1g
m1 ax = T + F
N1 = m1 g

For m2
y direction
x direction
0 = N1 m1gcos
m2 ax = m2 gsin T
N2 = m2 gcos

We now solve one equation for ax and then use that expression to plug into the second equation

m1 ax = T + F
T+ F
ax =
m1
m2 ax = m1 gsin T
m2
(T + F) = m1 gsin T
m1
m
(1+ 2 )T = m1 gsin F
m1
m1 gsin F 3kg 9.8m / s2 sin 30 2.3N
T= =
m 1.33
(1+ 2 )
m1
= 9.32N
The largest F occurs when the tension T becomes 0. We can solve for F.

m1 gsin F
T=
m
(1+ 2 )
m1
m gsin F
0= 1
m1 gsin F
m
(1+ 2 )
m1
F = m1 gsin
= 1kg 9.8m / s2 sin 30
= 4.9N


5.67 Figure 5-63 shows a box of dirty money (mass m1 = 3.0kg ) on a frictionless plane inclined at
angle 1 = 30. The box is connected via a cord of neglibible mass to a box of laundered monney
( m2 = 2.0kg ) on a frictionless plane inclined at an angle 2 = 60. The pulley is frictionless and
has neglible mass. What is the tension in the cord.

N1

T T N2
m1

m2
m1g 2
1
m2g

N1
T
T
m1 N2

m2
1 2

m1g m2g

We write the net force in the x direction for each mass.

m1ax = T m1gsin m2 ax = m2 gsin 2 T

Now solve one of the equations for a and substitute into the second equation.


m1ax = T m1gsin1
T
ax = gsin1
m1
m2 ax = m2 gsin 2 T
T
m2 ( gsin 1 ) = m2 gsin 2 T
m1
m
T (1+ 2 ) = m2 gsin 2 + m2 gsin1
m1
m gsin 2 + m1gsin 1
T= 2
m
(1+ 2 )
m1
2.0 9.8 sin60+ 3.0 9.8 sin30
=
2.0
(1+ )
3.0
= 19.0N
Note: This does not match the book answer. I am looking to see if there is an error.....