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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER 7

Engr. Michael Vincent O. Laurio


CHE 180: Agro-Industrial Waste Management
STUDENT OUTCOMES
In this chapter, the student should be able to discuss the different principles
in solid waste management. Specifically, the student should be able to apply
this knowledge in order to:
1. Discuss the difference of solid waste management with wastewater
management and air pollution control;
2. Describe the key components of solid waste management systems;
3. Identify the objectives of solid waste management;
4. Discuss solid waste subsystems such as collection, transfer stations,
material recovery facilities, composting facilities, incinerators, and
landfill disposal;
5. Explain the concerns with landfill gas and leachate and how they are
addressed
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Varies greatly between cultures and countries and has


evolved over time (e.g. scrap looters to be found most likely
in developing countries than in developed ones)
Solid wastes differ from liquid or gaseous wastes because
they cannot be pumped or flow like fluids.
However, solid wastes can be placed into solid forms
(including soils) and thus can be contained more easily which
led to approaches different from those of liquid and gaseous
waste streams.
R.A. 9003: ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT ACT

Embodies the National legislation on the regulation of solid


wastes, including the creation of institutional mechanisms,
incentives, prohibition, and penal provisions
Primary objective is to adopt a systematic and comprehensive
ecological solid waste management program, thus mandating the
closure of ALL open dumpsites three years after its effectivity.
Works on a stakeholder approach that involves units coming
from both government and private sectors
Established the local solid waste management board for provincial
and municipal local government units (LGUs)
AVOID

GENERATORS/SOURCES
REDUCE

REUSE
BARANGAYS

RECYCLE

RECOVER
LGUs
PROVINCE/LGUs

TREATMENT
Direct Responsibility

RESIDUALS
MGT Influencing
Responsibility

National Solid Waste Management Hierarchy


Source: RA 9003, Ecological Solid Waste Management
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
1. PRE-PROCESSING

2. PROCESSING

3. DISPOSAL
GENERATION STORAGE COLLECTION/ PROCESSING/DISPOSAL
TRANSPORT

Residential Incineration
Waste

Materials
Commercial Recovery
Waste
Collection
C&D
Storage Composting
Waste

Institutional Transfer
Waste Station

Landfilling
Municipal PRODUCTS:
Waste Recycled materials
Compost
Solid Waste Management System Energy
Source: Mihelcic & Zimmerman, 2012
PRE-PROCESSING ACTIVITIES

ON-SITE STORAGE AND SEGREGATION AT SOURCE


the practice of separating at the point of origin, different
materials found in solid waste to promote recycling, and re-
use of resources and to reduce the volume of waste for
collection and disposal
COMPOSTABLES RECYCLABLES RESIDUAL SPECIAL
WASTES WASTES
Balat ng prutas Papel Hospital wastes
Tirang pagkain Scrap metals Sachets Sanitary napkin
Tuyong dahon Plastic Candy wrapper Battery
Tuyong halaman Glass Basahan Fluorescent
lamps
Lata
Electronic
wastes
PRE-PROCESSING ACTIVITIES

STORAGE, COLLECTION, AND TRANSPORT


removing of solid waste from a source or from a communal storage
point, to be taken to transfer stations
typically accounts 40 to 80% of the total cost of solid-waste management
(Mihelcic & Zimmerman, 2012)
PRE-PROCESSING ACTIVITIES

STORAGE, COLLECTION, AND TRANSPORT


Factors considered when designing a storage, collection, and transport
system
1. Which wastes should be collected from the generator, and which
should the generator transport to a processing facility?
2. To what extent should the generators be asked to separate
collected waste into different fractions?
3. Should waste be transported directly to a treatment/disposal
facility, or should boollection vehicles transfer wastes into a more
efficient vehicle first?
ISWMF
(Processing & Disposal)
LANDFILL

COMPOSTING
FACILITY
MATERIALS
RECOVERY STORAGE

WTE
INCINERATION
PLANT

SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY


Image Source: www.artistic-models.com
ECOPARK

MATLS
RECOVERY
FACILITY

INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITY


Image Source: Project Development Plan, Bay ISWMF
CENTRAL MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITY
Sorting, shredding & composting
Compost fertilizer processing
Plastic processing
Hollow block & paver production
Hazardous waste storage
Leachate treatment
PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTE
MATERIALS RECOVERY/RECYCLING
Involves separation of materials and
removal of low-quality wastes in
Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs)
MRFs consist of solid waste transfer
station or sorting station, drop-off
center, a composting facility, and a
recycling facility
Further separation/segregation of
materials is made to recover the value
of materials through recycling, reuse,
and energy conversion; as well as
ultimately diminish disposal costs
Mixed
Recyclables

FLOW DIAGRAM FOR AN Hopper


MRF OPERATION
Source: Mihelcic and Zimmerman, 2012 Visual check
for hazards

Recovered Magnet
Metal Baler
ferrous metal Separators

Recovered PET Screen


PET Granulator
Recovered HDPE
HDPE Granulator Manual
Recovered Picking
Baler
aluminum
Recovered Crusher and
clear glass Screen Waste for
treatment/
disposal
MAY PERA SA BASURA!!!

PLASTIC
PELLETS
MAY PERA SA BASURA!!!

CONCRETE
PRODUCTS
Tire houses
Buddhist temple,
Thailand
-one million beer bottles
Plastic Bottle School,
San Pablo, Philippines
PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTE

COMPOSTING
Microbial process that treats biodegradable wastes
The reactions are similar to those employed in aerobic wastewater
treatment
Wastes are processed down to a suitable size, water is added, air is
allowed to enter to transfer oxygen into the waste pile, and the waste is
mixed to ensure even degradation
Biomass produced as byproducts of biodegradation is called compost
BIODIGESTER

COMPOST

SHREDDER

WINDROW
MAY PERA SA BASURA!!!

COMPOST
FERTILIZER
PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTE

WASTE-TO-ENERGY CONVERSION
There are two ways to utilize waste-to-energy conversion:
1. Mass burn/thermal processes: incineration, gasification, pyrolytic cracking
Due to the ban on incineration in the Philippines (RA 8749), waste-
to-energy conversion is a highly regulated activity in the country
because of its potential negative impacts on air pollution
Preferable option: gasification
2. Anaerobic fermentation of solid wastes
Digestion of organic solid wastes in absence of oxygen to produce
biogas (methane and butane).
Commonly practiced in landfill facilities
DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES

LANDFILLING
Considered as the ultimate disposal (long-containment)
method for a wide range of wastes
Residual municipal solid wastes
Organic & inorganic waste sludge from
sewage/wastewater treatment plants
Stabilized hazardous wastes
DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES

SANITARY LANDFILL
A carefully engineered depression in the ground into which wastes are
contained with consideration of environmental protection systems such
as:
1. Appropriate siting
2. Engineered design that is carefully implemented during
construction and operation
3. Exclusion of inappropriate wastes
4. Short- and long-term monitoring
DAILY & FINAL
LANDFILL GAS COVER
COLLECTION

LEACHATE
COLLECTION
& TREATMENT

BOTTOM LINER

GROUNDWATER

CROSS-SECTION OF A SANITARY LANDFILL


DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES

DENR LANDFILL CATEGORIES


AND ESTIMATED COSTS
(derived from DAO 2006-10)
DISPOSAL CATEGORY 1
Daily and Gas Venting
intermediate soil
cover Leachate
Recirculation Perimeter
Pump Fence
Embankment
Pond System
Drainage Facility

60cm thick soil layer

Cell Separation System for inert and stable residual waste


Leachate collection pipes and re-circulation system be provided at the later
stage of operation
Soil liner/layer with permeability of 10-5 cm/sec
Estimated
Waste Approximate
Net Residual Area needed Basic Features
Disposal Investment
Disposal Rate for 10 Years Considered
Category Cost
Operation
Maximum Waste Soil liner with
1.5 has. PhP 7.5M
Disposal is 5 tpd maximum permeability
Maximum Waste of 10 -5 cm/sec;
2.5 has. PhP 12M thickness 0.60 m; 10
Disposal is 10 tpd
cm thick sand layer
100 mm perforated
HDPE pipes for
leachate collection
0.50 ha Facilities area
Category with 10 m2 guardhouse
1 and perimeter fence
Maximum Waste with 5-line barbed
3.0 has. PhP 16M wire on concrete post
Disposal is 15 tpd
leachate basin with
pump for leachate
recirculation
Manholes with
provision for flushing
Leachate collection
pipeline
DISPOSAL CATEGORY 2
Daily and Gas Venting
intermediate
soil cover Leachate
Recirculation Perimeter
Embankment Pump Fence

Drainage Facility Pond System

75cm thick soil layer

Cell Separation System for inert and stable residual waste


Leachate collection pipes and re-circulation system be provided at the later
stage of operation
Soil liner/layer with permeability no more than 10-6 cm/sec
Estimated
Waste Approximate
Net Residual Area needed
Disposal Investment Basic Features Considered
Disposal Rate for 10 Years
Category Cost
Operation
Maximum Waste Soil liner 10-6 cm/sec
5.0 has. PhP 30.0 M
Disposal is 30 tpd maximum permeability of
thickness of 0.75 m
Maximum Waste
6.5 has. PhP 41 M 15 cm thick sand layer
Disposal is 50 tpd
with 30 cm thick gravel
layer and 150 mm
perforated HDPE pipes for
leachate collection
1 ha. Facilities area with
Category
15 m2 guardhouse and
2
perimeter fence with
Maximum Waste 5-lines barbed on concrete
7.5 has. PhP 48.5 M
Disposal is 75 tpd post
Leachate basin with pump
for leachate recirculation
Manholes with provision
for flushing
Leachate collection
pipeline
DISPOSAL CATEGORY 3
Daily and Gas Venting
intermediate soil
cover Leachate
Recirculation Perimeter
Embankment Pump Fence

Pond System
Drainage Facility

75cm thick clay liner


Cell Separation System for inert and stable residual waste
Leachate collection pipes and re-circulation system be provided
at the later stage of operation
Soil liner/layer with permeability of no more than 10-7 cm/sec or
an HDPE Liner (1.5 mm thickness) over a 60cm thick clay layer with permeability of no
more than 10-6 cm/sec
Estimated
Waste Approximate
Net Residual Area needed
Disposal Investment Basic Features Considered
Disposal Rate for 10 Years
Category Cost
Operation
Soil liner with maximum
permeability of 10-7cm/sec
Thickness of 1.0 m
15 cm thick sand layer
with 30 cm thick gravel
layer and 150 mm
perforated HDPE pipes
PhP 60 M to for leachate collection
Waste Disposal is 225 M 2 ha. Facilities area with
Category 8.5 to 20
more than 75 tpd 15 m2 guardhouse and
3 has.
up to 200 tpd perimeter fence with
5-lines barbed on
concrete post
leachate basin with pump
for leachate recirculation
Manholes with provision
for flushing
Leachate collection
pipeline
DISPOSAL CATEGORY 4
Daily and Gas Venting
intermediate soil
cover Leachate
Recirculation Perimeter
Embankment Pump Fence

Drainage Facility Leachate


Treatment

75cm thick clay liner

Cell Separation System for inert and stable residual waste


Leachate treatment will be a combination of physical, biological and chemical
Synthetic liner at least 1.5 mm thick HDPE membrane over at least 60cm
thickness of compacted clay materials w/ permeability no more than 10-7 cm/sec.
Estimated
Waste Approximate
Net Residual Area needed
Disposal Investment Basic Features Considered
Disposal Rate for 10 Years
Category Cost
Operation
Composite liner
consisting of 1.5 mm
HDPE liner with 0.60
thick soil liner maximum
permeability of 10-7 m/sec
15 cm thick sand layer
with 30 cm thick gravel
layer and 150 mm
perforated HDPE pipes
Waste Disposal
Category for leachate collection
more than 200 > 20 has >PhP 225 M
4 3 has. Facilities area with
tpd 15 m2 guardhouse and
perimeter fence with 5-
lines barbed on concrete
post Leachate basin with
pump for leachate
recirculation Manholes
with provision for flushing
Leachate collection
pipeline