Você está na página 1de 17

WELCOME TO

HVAC SHORT COURSE


Facilitated by: Rohenio L. Pangilinan, PME
Past President, PSME-SA
Sr. Design Engineer ZAMIL Air Conditioners
1. Introduction
OBJECTIVES
To provide the attendee a basic understanding of heat
gain and loss calculations principles in Manual &
Computerized calculation, to enable to learn the
equipment selection, air distributions & hydronic
design.
1
1. Introduction
Air conditioning is the process of altering the
properties of air (primarily temperature and
humidity) to more favorable conditions. More
generally, air conditioning can refer to any form of
technological cooling, heating, ventilation, or
disinfection that modifies the condition of air.
1. Introduction
2
1. Introduction
1. Introduction
3
1. Introduction
1. Introduction
Thermal properties
Overall thermal transmittance (U-value).
A U value is a measure of heat loss in a building element such as a wall,
floor or roof. measures how well parts of a building transfer heat.
Thermal resistance (R) :is the ability of a material to resist the flow of heat.
Thermal conductivity (K): A measure of the ability of a material to
transfer heat
4
1. Introduction
Thermal properties
U-factor describes the
rate at which heat will be
transferred through the
structure.
summing the thermal
resistances (R-values) of
each of these layers and
then taking the inverse.
1. Introduction
Thermal properties
5
1. Introduction
Thermal properties
2. HVAC Terminology
Commonly used terms relative to heat transmission and load
calculations accordance with ASHRAE Standard 12-75.
Space is either a volume or a site without a partition or a
partitioned room or group of rooms.
Room is an enclosed or partitioned space that is usually
treated as single load.
Zone is a space or group of spaces within a building with
heating and/or cooling requirements sufficiently similar so that
comfort conditions can be maintained throughout by a single
controlling device.
drawing
6
2. HVAC Terminology
CLTD : Cooling Load temperature difference, this Factor is used to
represent Temperature difference between indoor and outdoor with the
inclusion of the heating effects of solar radiation.
CLF : Cooling Load factor , this coefficient accounts for the time lag
between outdoor and indoor temperature time peaks.
SC : Shading Coefficient, is used widely in the evaluation of heat gain thru
glass and window.
SCL : Solar Cooling Load, accounts for the variable associated with solar
heat load, These include the global coordinates of the site and the size of
the structure.
2. HVAC Terminology
Sensible heat Gain : Is the energy added to space By
conduction, convection & radiation.
Latent heat Gain : Is the energy added to space
When moisture is added to space by mean of vapor emitted by
the occupants, generated by a process or thru infiltration from
outside.
What is the difference between coil load and zone load ?
7
2. HVAC Terminology
3. Psychometrics
Psychrometry is the science dealing with the physical laws of
air water
mixtures.
When designing an air conditioning system, the temperature
and moisture content of the air to be conditioned, and the same
properties of the air needed to produce the desired air
conditioning effect, must be known.
Once these properties are known, the air conditioning task can
be determined.
8
3. Psychometrics
This skeleton chart shows the
arrangement of the various lines and/or
coordinates:
1. saturation temperature
2. dewpoint temperature
3. enthalpy
4. relative humidity
5. humidity ratio (moisture content)
6. wet bulb temperature
7. volume of mixture
8. dry bulb temperature.
Commonwealth of Australia 2010 | Licensed under AEShareNet Share and Return licence
3. Psychometrics
Properties of Air
Dry-bulb temperature
Wet-bulb temperature
Dew-point temperature
Relative humidity
Humidity ratio
9
3. Psychometrics
Thermometers
Dry Bulb
Measured in
degrees
Fahrenheit (oF)
Wet Bulb
3. Psychometrics
Fog
Saturation DP, WB, DB same
10
3. Psychometrics
Relative Humidity
Amount of moisture that a given amount of air is
holding
Relative =
Humidity Amount of moisture that a given amount of air
(percentage) can hold
100% RH -
50% RH Saturated
3. Psychometrics
Actual weight of water in an air water
vapor mixture
Pounds of moisture per pound of dry air
7000 grains of water in a pound
Humidity Ratio
at sea level one pound of 70F air occupies approximately 13.5 cubic feet, and one grain of
water in that air weighs about two-thousandths (0.002) of an ounce
11
3. Psychometrics
Air Conditions on the Psychrometric
220 Chart
200
Humidity Ratio (grains/lb of dry air)

180
160
140
120
100 dew point
80 humidity ratio
60
40 wet bulb
dry bulb
20 relative humidity
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110
Dry-Bulb Temperature (F)
3. Psychometrics
Specific Volume
220
Humidity Ratio (grains/lb of dry air)

200
180
160
specific volume lines
140
120
(cubic feet / pound of dry air)
100
80
60
40
20
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110
Dry-Bulb Temperature (F)
12
3. Psychometrics
Comfort Zone
humidity ratio

A
70F 80F
[21.2C] [26.7C]
dry-bulb temperature
3. Psychometrics
Effect of Adding Sensible Heat
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN
13
3. Psychometrics
Effect of Removing Sensible Heat
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN
3. Psychometrics
Adding Moisture
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN
14
3. Psychometrics
Removing Moisture
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN
3. Psychometrics
Removing Sensible Heat and
Moisture
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN
15
3. Psychometrics
Removing Sensible Heat and
Moisture
A
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN
3. Psychometrics
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN
16
3. Psychometrics
Sensible and Latent Coil Loads
latent
load B
C
sensible A
load
D
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC001-EN
END
OF
PRESENTATION
17