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ype of paper:

Research paper

Topic:

Disease Streptococcus Pyogenes

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5 pages / 1375 words

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APA

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Minimum of 5 pages about the disease Streptococcus Pyogenes, must include references

and works cited. Scientific format.

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Streptococcus pyogenes

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Streptococcus pyogenes.

This is one of the pathogenic diseases that are highly common among children and young

adolescents. It is also known as Group A streptococcus (GAS). This disease actually is a

tremendous challenge to the health sector of many countries. GAS infections only takes a

remarkably short duration, however, at times it can take a long time to an extent of causing

death. Researchers and scientists have since time memorial taken a good considerable amount of

time in analyzing and evaluating the occurrence of this disease and its associated characteristics

but still, the epidemiology of this disease is little known and the terminal control mechanisms are

still undefined (Mani et al, 2007).

Therefore, an understanding of this disease and the way it manifests itself is of paramount

importance because not only does the disease infect the upper respiratory tract and the skin but

also it causes a variety of infection system which includes: staphylococcus aureus, acute

rheumatic fever, toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing fasciitis (Carapetis, Steer, Mulholland

&Weber, 2005). This paper will consciously state, evaluate and analyze the pathophysiology,
etiology, epidemiology, prognosis as well as complications of the disease.

Pathophysiology of GAS.

GAS is a community of gram-positive that normally grows in chains or sometimes in pairs. They

most frequently affect the upper respiratory system and skin. It is crucial to note that the cell wall

of GAS is somehow complex and chemically varied. Antigens in the cell wall include,

lipoteichoic acid, capsular polysaccharide peptidoglycan, T and R proteins. There are also a

number of surface proteins such as protein F, M protein without forgetting streptokinase. The

capsular polysaccharide serves the particular role of invasive while the T and R proteins play no

role in virulence whatsoever. M protein is the most virulence factor; actually, it is a component

of fimbriae that is found on the cell membrane that is located on the bacterias cell wall. It serves

the purpose of causing the notorious antigenic shift and drift (Mayer &Van Ore, 1983).

Etiology of Streptococcus pyogenes.

Most diseases manifest themselves in a variety of ways. Some through waterborne, airborne or

food borne. This has contributed to the unending battle against diseases. It is evident that human

beings will continue the fight against various diseases that are appearing to be a long dream that

will never be achieved. The main reason as to this kind of dilemma is that most bacterial or

rather pathogens have developed resistance against the drugs used to eliminate them. Likewise,

GAS is an extremely communicable disease. It affects all people regardless of age. It can infect

anyone who lacks the immunity against the particular serotype that has the role of causing

infection (Rogers et al, 2007). Interesting to note is that GAS can infect the skin more than one

week before any notable lesions appears.

Transmission of Streptococcus pyogenes

Transmission of GAS is commonly through being in contact with any form of droplet of nasal
secretions from the infected individuals. It can also result due to being in contact with the

lesions. There is no particular rate of spread of the disease that is in the record, but studies have

indicated so far that, the rate of spread varies from one individual to another. However, it is

crucial to be aware that the disease transmission is relatively higher in symptomatic individual

and those who carry the bacteria in their nose instead of the throat. Yet still, transmission is also

extremely high in crowded areas (Wannamaker, 1953).

As stated mentioned above, GAS is a highly communicable disease and the time of

communicability is estimated to be within 10 -21 days in a case where the affected individual has

not been treated but once antibiotic treatment is applied the infections reduces. GAS can also

spread from one family member to another meaning that there is a high probability of infections

within a family given that one or more member family has had the disease.

Epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes

A number of diseases occur or rather spread and infect people differently all over the world. This

is the reason as to why there are still infectious diseases like chicken pox in Africa, as opposed to

European countries where such diseases were long time eliminated. Another example is the

spread of HIV which in fact has spread in all over the world causing numerous deaths. In

addition, there are other diseases that manifest themselves in both human beings and other hosts.

GAS manifests itself on a rather small host range mostly in human beings with a slight

manifestation in other species (Mayer &Van Ore, 1983).

Research by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has shown that approximately

10 000 cases of GAS are reported in the United States even though the rate is expected to be

higher in the indigenous population such as Asia, Africa and Pacific Islands ( Carapetis, Steer,

Mulholland &Weber, 2005). Furthermore, it is clear that upper respiratory tract infection occur
more in the northern parts of USA more specifically in periods of winter while on the other hand,

streptococcal infection crop up more during summer time, a period characterized by a warm

climate (Deutscher, Lewis, Zell, Taylor, Van & Schrag, 2011). This is because during the

summer, people tend to expose their skin more and as a result they may be bitten by insects more

particularly in Hawaii (Erdem et al, 2007). In the whole universe, it is estimated that over

700000 people that results to 200000 deaths each year.

There are also diseases which affect a certain age, race or sex, this is not the same with GAS

because it affects all people of different ages even though it is more prone to children of 3 years

than adults, also there is no ethnic group or race that is centrally infected or affected by the

disease. In addition, its distribution is uniform to either male or female sex (Erdem et al, 2007).

Diagnosis of GAS

Diagnosis of GAS is indicated by experiencing a lot of pain that is out of proportion and other

signs such as duskiness, tenseness, pallor as well as blistering. Other indications of GAS also

include, skin lesions, and blood from patients with sepsis. If in any case toxic shock syndrome is

suspected, then it must be associated with multorgan failure and thrombosis. Furthermore, if

necrotizing fasciitis is alleged, then resonance imaging is used to confirm the disease and

indicate the degree of infections.

Treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes.

`There are a number of therapies that are used clinically worldwide to control and eliminate GAS

syndromes. Once a child or an adolescent has been diagnosed with the disease, the immediate

actions to be taken are to administer antimicrobial therapy and hemodynamic stabilization. If

patients are diagnosed by necrotizing fasciitis, then surgical drainage should be done

immediately followed by skin grafting or physical therapy. Other methods of treatment include
the administering of penicillin even though clindamycin has proved to be more effective because

it prohibits protein synthesis and other virulence factors (Kaplan et al, 1970). Moreover, immune

globulin intravenous (IGIV) therapy may also be used on patients of severe invasion of GAS.

Prognosis and complications of Streptococcus pyogenes.

Normally people who have had this disease recover fully and they continue living their lives as

usual however, there are a few complications such as suppurative complications, sinusitis,

abscess, as well as acute hematogenous (Mani et al, 2007). Most important also is to note that

Streptococcus may also lead to failure of the organ system and hepatic dysfunction while

necrotizing fasciitis may lead to amputation.

In conclusion, having mentioned all the elements of GAS ranging from description to treatment,

it is exceptionally clear that, this is a dangerous disease that if not well treated and treated, it can

cause massive deaths, while on the other hand, if well diagnosed and treated it can be prevented

completely. Meanwhile, the good news is that once the infected people have received the right

medication, they cure completely and resume with their life as usual.
References.

Mani R, Mahadevan A, Pradhan S, Nagarathna S, Srikanth NS, Dias M, et al: . Apr 2007.Fatal

Group A Streptococcal meningitis in an adult. Indian J Med Microbiol

Kaplan EL, Anthony BF, Chapman SS et al: 1970.The influence of the site of infection on the

immune response to group a streptococci.

Erdem G, Mizumoto C, Esaki D, Reddy V, Kurahara D, Yamaga K, et al: Aug 1 2007Group A

streptococcal isolates temporally associated with acute rheumatic fever in Hawaii: differences

from the continental United States.

Deutscher M, Lewis M, Zell ER, Taylor TH Jr, Van Beneden C, Schrag S: Jul 15 2011

Incidence and severity of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae, group A Streptococcus, and group

B streptococcus infections among pregnant and postpartum women.

Carapetis JR, Steer AC, Mulholland EK, Weber M: 2005.The global burden of group A

streptococcal diseases.

Mayer G, Van Ore S: 1983.Recurrent pharyngitis in family of four: household pet as reservoir

group A streptococci. Postgrad Med.

Rogers S, Commons R, Danchin MH, Salvia G, Kelpie L, Curtis N et al: 2007. Strain

prevalence, rather than innate virulence potential, is the major factor responsible for an increase

in serious group A streptococcus infections. J Infect Dis

Wannamaker LW: 1953.The epidemiology of streptococcal infections. In: McCarty M, editor.

Streptococcal infections. New York: Columbia University Press.