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Clause Heading Page No.




C.3.1 Materials C.2
C.3.2 Storage of Materials C.3


C.4.1 General C.4
C.4.2 Batching Plant C.4
C.4.3 Mixing Plant C.4
C.4.4 Vibrators C.5


C.5.1 Bending and Fixing Reinforcement C.5
C.5.2 Formwork C.7
C.5.3 Formed Concrete Surface Finishes C.9
C.5.4 Concrete Upper Surface Finishes C.13
C.5.5 Concrete Supervision and Records C.14
C.5.6 Concrete Mixes C.14
C.5.7 Ready Mixed Concrete C.16
C.5.8 Batching C.17
C.5.9 Mixing C.18
C.5.10 Transporting C.18
C.5.11 Placing C.19
C.5.12 Compaction C.19
C.5.13 Curing C.20
C.5.14 Joints C.21
C.5.15 Construction Details C.22
C.5.16 No-Fines Concrete C.23
C.5.17 Honeycombing and Other Defects C.23


C.6.1 Basis of Measurement C.24
C.6.2 Reinforcement C.25
C.6.3 Formwork C.25
C.6.4 Mass and Reinforced Concrete Foundations C.25
C.6.5 Elements or Components above Foundations C.26


Clause Heading Page No.


C.7.1 General C.26
C.7.2 Compressive Strength Tests C.26
C.7.3 Other Tests C.28
C.7.4 Procedure in the Event of Failure of Compressive Strength Test C.28
C.7.5 Cost of Tests C.29


C.8.1 Concrete C.29
C.8.2 Steel Reinforcement C.29
C.8.3 Shuttering and Formwork C.30


1980 : Structural steel sections part 1 : hot-rolled sections.2 INTERPRETATION The following standards are referred to in this specification : S. rapid hardening and sulphate resisting). C.A.1985 : Steel bars for concrete reinforcement. 1024 .S. S. 82 .A. The clauses do not cover prestressing which is the subject of another Departmental Specification. compacting. 455 . transportation. bending and fixing of reinforcing steel. S.S.B. . 831 . as published in General Notice 6 dated 3 January 1986. 920 . all in accordance with this and other specification items relating hereto.1 .S.S.S.S.B. 471 . B.A.S.B. as published in General Notice 786 dated 14 October 1983. S.1945 : Expanded metal (steel) for general purposes.1983 : Ready-mixed concrete. S.A.B.C.B. curing and finishing off of concrete. S.B. grades and dimensions as shown on the drawings and to give the specified finish.1974 : Welded steel fabric for concrete reinforcement.S. placing.1983 : Covered electrodes for the manual arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steel. FEBRUARY 1987 . S.B. mixing.1984 : High alumina cement.1971 : Portland Cement 15 and Rapid Hardening Portland Cement 15. 405 . PART "C" : CONCRETE WORK C.A.B. 626 . 4461 .S.S. 878 .1971 : Portland Blast Furnace Cement.A.A.1976 : Bending dimensions of bars for concrete reinforcement. B. formwork to shape concrete to the required lines. 4 Part 1 .1971 : Portland Cement (ordinary. B.A.S. B. S.1 SCOPE The following clauses relate to materials for concrete.S.1984 : Cold worked steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete. 915 Part 2 . all as published in General Notice 463 dated 9 July 1982. as published in General Notice 355 dated 20 May 1983.

2 Water Water shall be clean.1985 : Hard drawn mild steel wire for the reinforcement of concrete.A.1984 : Process arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels.1 Materials C. 4482 . Where there is reason to suspect the presence of harmful impurities. Water shall be obtained from the City water supply where possible and shall be taken from any other source only on the approval of the Engineer.S. 1083. alkalis. only one particular brand and type shall be used for all exposed and visible surfaces.3. the Engineer may require the Contractor to submit the results of approved tests. fresh and free from injurious amounts of acids.1.C. Standard Specification C.C. B. No cements which do not comply with the requirements of the appropriate Standard Specifications will be approved.3.3. organic matter or other substances either in suspension or solution which may impair the strength or quality of the concrete.309 C.S.A. 1083 Table 1 for natural sand and Table 5 for stone.S. 5135 .2 .B. If required two or more aggregates may be mixed to achieve the requirements of S.1. American Society for : Liquid membrane-forming compounds curing Testing of Materials concrete. C.3 Aggregates for Concrete Fine and coarse aggregates shall conform with S. .1 Cement Unless otherwise specified.S.3 MATERIALS C.2 INTERPRETATION (CONT'D) B. As far as is possible.3.B.1. The coarse aggregates shall be natural unweathered crushed rock free from adherent coatings and impurities and shall have an abrasion resistance of not more than 40%. High Alumina Cement is to be used only when specified in Part "AA" : Project Specification. FEBRUARY 1987 . C. no cement other than ordinary Portland Cement or Portland Cement 15 shall be used without the written consent of the Engineer first being obtained.

C.6 Curing Compounds Curing compounds shall conform with the American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Specification C. and shall not be stacked against the walls. Bulk cement shall be stored in weather-proof bins or silos which will provide protection from dampness and contamination and will minimise air set. . 471. Bagged cement shall be stored in solidly constructed weatherproof sheds provided with damp-proof floors. MATERIALS (CONT'D) C. 831 or 626 and if the cement complies it may be used.3.S.1.Forming Compounds for Curing Concrete'. tests carried out on the proposed compound. After this period the Engineer may call for tests to be carried out in accordance with S.1. furnish the Engineer with certificates of tests showing that the materials do so conform. The admixture manufacturer shall provide proof of the experience and field service using the formulation for which approval is requested.A.1 Storage of Cement Different kinds of cement shall be stored separately and no cement shall be stored on the site for a longer period than 28 days. FEBRUARY 1987 . The cement sacks shall be closely stacked.A.1.A.3. the Contractor shall supply the Engineer with the results of recent S. The arrangements of stacking shall be such as to facilitate the cement being used in the same order in which it is received. 455.2. Lumpy cement.3. C. if called upon.B.C.S.2 Storage of Materials C.1.B. not more than 12 sacks high.4 Admixtures The use of admixtures in concrete shall be subject to the written approval of the Engineer. C. C. when using materials conforming to a Standard Specification shall.S.7 Electrodes All electrodes used for welding of mild steel structural members shall comply with S.1 Materials (Cont'd) C.C.1.B.3.3. Before using any proprietary curing compounds.5 Reinforcement Unless otherwise specified steel reinforcement shall comply in all respects with the requirements of the appropriate Standard Specifications. Admixtures containing chlorides shall not be used.309 'Liquid Membrane . broken pockets and sweepings shall not be used.3 . C.8 Certificate of Compliance The Contractor.

3 MATERIALS (CONT'D) C.4 PLANT C.3.C.3 Stacking of Reinforcement Reinforcement shall be stacked off the ground and.8. adequate protection against the weather shall be provided. C. FEBRUARY 1987 . The batching plant shall be capable of batching to an accuracy as specified in clause C. C.4 .4 General Any material which has deteriorated or which has been contaminated or otherwise damaged shall be immediately removed from the site if the Engineer so requires. Where discharge of materials in the hoppers is manually controlled.2 Batching Plant The Contractor shall ensure by regular examination.4. C.3.2 Storage of Aggregates Aggregates shall be stored on a hard.4.2. a spare mixer shall be held in readiness to run on 15 minutes notice in case of breakdown of the mixer.1 General All plant used for the work covered by this specification shall be approved by the Engineer and shall be maintained in good working order. so that a new batch of concrete materials cannot be delivered until the weighing hoppers have been completely emptied of the previous batch and the scales are in balance. a method of signalling shall be employed to ensure that ingredients are not omitted or added more than once to a single batch of concrete. In the case of an automatic plant the weighing scales shall be interlocked.3. .3. calibration and tests that the batching system functions efficiently and accurately and that the hoppers and cement containers are kept dry and clean. Different size aggregates shall be stored in separate compartments to avoid intermixing. Contamination of stockpiles by foreign matter shall be prevented.2. free-draining surface. When considered necessary by the Engineer. if required by the Engineer.3 Mixing Plant The type and capacity of mixing machines shall be such that the rate of output of concrete is suitable for the rate of concreting. When considered necessary by the Engineer. The machine shall be capable of producing a uniform distribution of the ingredients throughout the batch and shall generally comply with the specification to which the manufacturer claims it has been manufactured.2 Storage of Materials (Cont'd) C. C.4.5. C. stand-by equipment shall be available at short notice.2.C.

C. C. Bending shall be done slowly. C.4 Vibrators Vibrators shall be capable of fully compacting each layer of concrete where compaction by vibration is specified and at least one standby vibrator shall be available for every three or lesser number of vibrators necessary to maintain the rate of placing.2 Bending of Bars Reinforcing bars shall be bent in such a manner that.3 Fixing of Reinforcement Reinforcement shall be accurately positioned as shown on the drawings and securely tied with annealed soft iron wire or by suitable clips to prevent displacement.1 Bending Dimensions of Bars Reinforcing bars shall be bent in accordance with S.5.4. Reinforcement shall be supported or braced against displacement by means of steel stools. Suitable plastic spacers are permitted if approved by the Engineer.1 Bending and Fixing Reinforcement C. Mild steel may be welded but high tensile steel shall only be welded with the Engineer's permission.C. unless otherwise specified. The placing of bars on fresh layers of concrete as work progresses will not be permitted. using a steady even pressure and avoiding any jerk or impact.A. all hooks and bends shall be in the same plane.1.5 CONSTRUCTION C.5. . Unless hot bending is specifically authorised.B. 82 to the dimensions indicated on the drawings. chairs. all bars shall be bent cold. C. No concrete shall be placed until the Engineer or his representative has stated that he is satisfied that the reinforcement is correctly positioned as shown on the drawings.4 PLANT (CONT'D) C.S.1.5 .5.5.1. FEBRUARY 1987 . stirrups or clips which will be detailed on the drawings or in the bending schedule. The minimum clear cover of concrete over all reinforcement shall be as indicated in the following table unless otherwise specified on the drawings. Correct cover shall be maintained by concrete spacers whose strength is not less than that of the concrete specified.

the reinforcement shall be washed down immediately prior to concreting. Where required by the Engineer or his representative. be free from loose rust.1 Bending and Fixing Reinforcement (Cont'd) Type of Construction Min. Slabs and Walls a) Plastered and unplastered internal work the greater of 20 or d b) Exposed to water pressure 50 c) External walls 30 2. and the surface of the steel shall not be pitted. mm 1. All structures in sea water or in marine atmosphere 50 6. scale. Cover. Piles a) Precast piles and on faces poured against formwork 40 b) On unformed faces poured against ground 75 5. salt or other coatings that may reduce or destroy bond or accelerate the corrosion. FEBRUARY 1987 .6 . Structures in contact with backfilling or corrosive atmosphere 40 7. Footings a) Members cast on a blinding layer 50 b) Members cast in contact with the ground 75 Note: In the above table 'd' refers to the largest reinforcing bar diameter. Beams a) End cover beyond hooks the greater of 25 or 2d b) All other surfaces the greater of 25 or d 4. oil. All steel reinforcement shall.5.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C.C. at the time the concrete is placed. Columns the greater of 40 or d 3. paint. .C.

.7 .1.2 Formwork C.5. Where the concrete is to be prestressed.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C.5. if required by the special conditions of contract. Solid steel forms may be used for precast beams and circular columns. All timber shall be free from holes.S.1 Bending and Fixing Reinforcement (Cont'd) C. Chamfer strips shall be provided on all exposed edges. Joints in forms shall be sufficiently tight to prevent leakage of mortar. FEBRUARY 1987 . cracks. only wrought timber or approved shuttering boards shall be used for forms in contact with exposed concrete faces. The formwork for beams and slabs shall be constructed so that the forms on the sides of the beams and on the soffits of slabs can be removed independently of each other without disturbing the beam soffits. levels and dimensions of concrete as shown on the drawings.5. (See Clause C.5.C. The inner faces of forms shall be such as will impart the specified finish to the concrete. C. all joints shall be either horizontal or vertical. Forms shall be so constructed that they may be readily stripped without jarring or damaging the fresh concrete. The maximum deflection of any formwork component shall in no case exceed 1/360th of its span.3). except as otherwise specified. Elsewhere. except where otherwise specified or the written consent of the Engineer has been obtained. Forms shall be so designed as to support their self mass.C. where permitted.2.1 Design of Forms Forms shall conform accurately to the shape. the formwork shall be constructed in such a manner that the elastic compressive shortening of the concrete during the tensioning of the tendons is not unduly hindered. Form soffits shall be built to a camber corresponding to their probable deflection under load so that the finished concrete shall conform accurately with the lines and dimensions shown on the drawings. and unless otherwise specified.17. splits. shall be in accordance with B. the load exerted by the wet concrete and by the vibration. warps or other defects likely to affect the strength or appearance of the finished structure. loose knots.5135.4 Welding All welding of mild steel. and submitted for approval by the Engineer. Wedges and clamps shall be used in preference to nails for securing the form components and wire ties or tie bolts in reinforced concrete must be capable of complete removal after use. The design of the formwork and supports shall be the responsibility of the Contractor and shall be designed and detailed by a registered professional engineer. lines. construction or other loads to which they be subjected.5.

C. FEBRUARY 1987 .4 Cleaning before Concreting All dirt.C.0 m. sawdust.5.2 Preparation of Forms Form surfaces which are to be in contact with concrete shall be coated with non- staining mould oil or other approved material.2.2.5. be in accordance with the table hereunder.8 .S. unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer. .2. This shall be determined by means of cubes cast with the concrete and cured in accordance with the S. Wherever possible. false work shall be designed to span underlying road systems with a minimum headroom of 5.5.B.C. C.A. Where oil is used it shall be applied before any reinforcement is placed in position.5 Removal of Forms Forms shall not be removed until the concrete has attained sufficient strength to supports its own weight and any loads which may be imposed upon it. 863.5.3 Inspection Openings Temporary openings shall be provided where necessary to facilitate cleaning and inspection before depositing the concrete.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C.1 Design of Forms (Cont'd) In the cases where the accommodation of traffic during the construction period is required.5.2. such openings shall be least noticeable in the finished structure. The removal shall be carried out under the personal supervision of the Foreman only after the permission of the Engineer has been obtained and in such a manner that the concrete is not jarred.2 Formwork (Cont'd) C.5. C. unless otherwise specified. vibrated or otherwise damaged. C.2. where each day covers a full 24 hour period. the minimum periods which shall elapse between the time of the placing of the concrete and the time of removal of the forms shall. chips and other foreign matter shall be removed from between the forms before any concrete is deposited. Where test cubes to determine stripping times are not made.

Where heavier loads are to be carried.5.C.5.2. wall or columns 1 2 1 2 2 6 Removal of slab soffits 10 17 5 9 12 21 Removal of beam soffits 14 21 7 12 18 28 * Average daily temperature of the atmosphere adjacent to the concrete as measured be a maximum and minimum thermometer.9 . C.C.5. . all forms shall be reconditioned and all form surfaces which will be in contact with concrete shall be thoroughly cleaned.3 Formed Concrete Surface Finishes C. When the average daily temperature is between 5/C and 15/C the minimum stripping times shall be interpolated from the Table. 15 Portland Cement Furnace Cement Normal Cold Normal Cold Normal Cold Weather Weather Weather Weather Weather Weather (Above (Below (Above (Below (Above (Below 15/C)* 5/C)* 15/C)* 5/C)* 15/C)* 5/C)* Beamsides. no stripping of soffits shall be permitted until the concrete has attained its full strength.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. FEBRUARY 1987 .5. Any days during which the average temperature was below 2/C shall be complete disregarded.2 Formwork (Cont'd) C.5 Removal of Forms (Cont'd) Minimum Stripping Time in Days Form Normal Portland Rapid Hardening Portland Blast Cement or P. C.1 Classification Surface finishes to formed concrete faces shall be classified as hereunder - class 1: ordinary finish.2.6 Re-Use of Forms Before re-use. The table assumes that the member concerned is not subjected to any heavy construction loads and that the total force to be supported is not more than half the design load.3.C. class 2: rubbed finish.5.

class 4: exposed aggregate finishes.3. Surfaces to be finished shall be rubbed with a medium coarse carborundum stone. (d) aggregate transfer finishes. The surface shall be smoothed by being rubbed lightly with a fine carbonrundum stone. Sufficient time shall have elapsed before the wetting down to allow the mortar used in the pointing of the bolt holes and defects to set properly.3.5. (a) brushed and washed finishes.5.5. The paste produced by this rubbing shall be left in place for at least five days. The surface shall be true and even. C. all voids filled and a uniform surface has been obtained. FEBRUARY 1987 . C.2 Class 1 .Ordinary Surface Finish This is the finish left on a concrete surface after the removal of the forms and the filling of all holes left by shuttering bolts and the repairs of all defects. class 5: applied finishes.1 Classification (Cont'd) class 3: off the form finishes. .5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. (c) sand blasted finish. (a) rendered finishes. depressions and projections.10 . (b) board marked finishes. (b) tooled finishes. free from stone pockets. (b) painted finishes. (a) smooth finishes.Rubbed Finish Immediately after removal of the shuttering all defects shall be made good and the rubbed finish shall be applied within three days as follows: Before starting this work the concrete shall be kept thoroughly saturated with water for a minimum period of 3 hours. The mortar shall consist of cement and fine sand mixed in the proportions used in the concrete being finished. Rubbing shall be continued until all projections and irregularities have been removed. (c) special patterned finishes.C.C.3 Formed Concrete Surface Finishes (Cont'd) C.5. using a small amount of mortar on its face.3.3 Class 2 .

(c) Special patterned finishes are required to reflect without blemish the surface of patterned hardboard.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. The Engineer shall indicate if all boards are not to be horizontal and a patterned panel effect is required. formwork and technique. a solution of hydrochloric acid in the proportion of 1 part of acid to 4 parts of water shall be thoroughly and evenly scrubbed into the surface until the desired texture is obtained. or plastic faced board in new condition.Off the Form Finishes Off the form finishes require a very high standard in concrete quality.C. Reinforcement cover blocks shall be of semi-spherical shape to minimise their appearance on the finished surface. The intention is that no after treatment other than treatment of bolt-holes (which should be placed with regularity and precision) should be required. boards with a strong grain shall be mixed with boards with a less pronounced gain and not grouped together.C. Attention is directed to the necessity for allowing for the material to be removed and ensuring that the requisite cover to reinforcement is maintained. . thermoplastic or other lining as specified. The complete surface shall then be neutralised by washing thoroughly with water to which a small amount of ammonia has been added.Exposed Aggregate Finishes The purpose of these finishes is to relive the uniform colour and texture of the concrete by exposing the aggregate.3. Unless forms can be stripped at a very early age (approximately 16 hours at 20/C) this method cannot be used unless the formwork has been treated with a retarding agent.11 .4 Class 3 . Care shall be taken to ensure that concrete is not deposited against the face of treated forms which should be stripped as early as possible. shutterboard. which shall be the normal size concrete aggregate except where otherwise specified. When unplaned timber is specified. Forms shall be unblemished and panels regular. Joints shall be a feature of the pattern and shall be handled with care. special precautions shall be taken to protect workmen. from plywood. underlying materials and persons passing. Where scrubbing with water is not effective. (a) Brushed and washed finishes are obtained by stripping and scrubbing the concrete surface with a stiff wire brush. When acid is used.5 Class 4 . (a) Smooth finishes may be obtained from non-absorptive linings to forms.3 Formed Concrete Surface Finishes (Cont'd) C. rubber. C. (b) Boardmarked finishes shall be obtained from the use of timber planks which shall be dressed and thicknessed unless otherwise specified. FEBRUARY 1987 .

the surface so treated shall be scrubbed down with a stiff brush and washed with water. preferably mechanically operated. The final finish shall show a surface of evenly distributed coarse aggregate particles set in a matrix of mortar. (d) Aggregate transfer finishes may be effected by sticking a single layer of selected aggregate onto ply board or other suitable formliners which have been cut to size and coated with a layer of water soluble cellulose adhesive mixed with plaster sand.3.5 Class 4 . .C. fine.6 Class 5 .5.Exposed Aggregate Finishes (Cont'd) (b) Tooled finishes may be carried out by the use of bush-hammers. care being taken to protect the forms when placing and compacting. This shall be left untouched apart from curing. C. FEBRUARY 1987 . light mechanical chisels or other approved tools. After the tooling has been completed. Liners shall be stripped after at least 3 days and the adhesive and sand covering the aggregate removed by scrubbing and washing. or longer as may be necessary to prevent the aggregate particles from being dislodged.3.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. ½ part slaked lime. (a) Rendered finishes require a good key. clean and free of mould oil. each aggregate particle being in slight relief.5.Applied Finishes It is essential that all surfaces on which applied finishes are to be used shall be sound. The render coat shall consist of 1 part Portland cement. leaving the coarse aggregate exposed.5.12 . clean surface in which the mortar has been cut away. Unless otherwise specified this may be provided by flicking on to the previously soaked and still moist surface of 1 part cement to 2 parts of sharp sand.C. This layer should be just thinner than half the average least dimension of the aggregate. Defects shall first be made good. When the glue is set the liners are placed in the forms which are then concreted.3 Formed Concrete Surface Finishes (Cont'd) C. No tooling shall be done until the concrete has attained an age of at least 14 days after casting when normal Portland cement has been used and 7 days when rapid hardening cement has been used. or Portland cement 15. (c) Sand blasted finishes shall be obtained by sand blasting the thoroughly cured concrete surface of the same ages as given under (b) Tooled Finishes with hard sharp sand to produce an even. 4 to 4½ parts of sand by volume and shall not be less than 5 mm or more than 16 mm in thickness.

3 Formed Concrete Surface Finishes (Cont'd) C. the concrete shall be screeded with a true edged wooden board working between forms or other guides set accurately to line and level.4. Dust and loose particles shall be gently washed away once the desired relief has been obtained.5. FEBRUARY 1987 .broomed finish Class 3 . Very smooth surfaces shall be acid washed. All rendered finishes shall be cured.Screeded Finish Immediately after placing.5. No mortar shall be added and noticeable surface irregularities caused by the displacement of coarse aggregate shall be made good by re-screeding after removing or tamping down the interfering aggregate. It shall then be lightly brushed and washed to remove loose particles.6 Class 5 . the surface of the first coat shall be combed with uniform wavy lines to provide a key after it has begun to harden.5. after it has attained a biscuit like crispness. (b) Painted finishes of the type specified shall be applied strictly in accordance with the paint manufacturer's instructions. lightly sand blasted or rubbed with abrasive stones before being painted. If a scraped finish is specified the rendering shall be lightly scraped to achieve the desired effect with an old tenon saw blade or similar implement.2 Class 1 .C. Thereafter. . The second coat may be applied the next day.Broomed Finish Immediately after placing.4 Concrete Upper Surface Finishes C.screeded finish Class 2 .steel trowel finish C.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C.3. the surface shall be broomed with a stiff broom or brush to expose the aggregate.3 Class 2 .5. Painting shall be delayed as long as possible and two coats applied unless otherwise specified.1 Classification Surface finishes to exposed (non-formed) concrete faces shall be classified as hereunder - Class 1 .5.C.wood float finish Class 4 . C.Applied Finishes (Cont'd) If a second coat is required because of the irregularity of the concrete. C.13 . when the concrete has begun to dry. the concrete shall be screeded as in class

the concrete shall be screeded as in class 1.5.Wood Float Finish Immediately after placing.7.5 Concrete Supervision and Records C. the surface shall be brought to a smooth and even finish using a wood float and including any additional 4:1 sand and cement as necessary.5. the concreting operation shall be under the supervision of a suitably experienced person.C. when the concrete has begun to dry.Steel Float Finish Immediately after placing. C. C.5.5 Class 4 . of the protection given to the concrete while curing.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C.5. C. The main criterion for each grade shall be the 28 day compressive strength value in the structural design and determined by means of cube tests made as described in clause C.5.1 Properties The grades of concrete used in the various parts of the structure shall be as indicated on the plans and specifications. The required properties of the various grades are set out in the table hereunder and in other sections of this clause.4.2.C. .1 Supervision During the whole or any time that the placing of concrete is being carried out. These records shall be available at all times during the progress of the work for inspection by the Engineer or his representative.4 Class 3 . the placing of reinforcing steel and the results of all tests. when the concrete has begun to dry.5.6 Concrete Mixes C.5. and the position of all construction joints not shown on the drawings. Thereafter. the concrete shall be screeded as in class 1.5.4 Concrete Upper Surface Finishes (Cont'd) C. FEBRUARY 1987 .4.2 Records The Contractor shall keep a complete record of all concrete work which shall cover the quantity and quality of concrete.5. C.5.6. A daily record shall also be kept of the progress of the work.14 . the surface shall be brought to a smooth and even finish using a wood float and including any additional 4:1 sand and cement as necessary. Thereafter.

6.5.6 Concrete Mixes (Cont'd) C.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. With the approval of the Engineer. Note: The maximum cement content for all grades of concrete shall not exceed 450 kg per m³ without the express permission of the Engineer which shall be given in writing. due consideration being given to the methods of placing and compacting used. The Contractor shall select the slumps he proposes to use within the permitted maximum slumps set out in the table hereunder. the Contractor may adjust the proportions of cement and aggregate as may be necessary to produce a mixture which will be easily placeable at all times.3.2 Workability of Concrete The concrete shall be of such consistency and composition that it can be worked readily into the corners and angles of forms and around the reinforcement without permitting the materials to segregate. Type of Construction Slump in mm All reinforced and prestressed concrete 75 Pavements 50 Pumped concrete 75 Tremied concrete under water 150 .5. comply with the requirements of clause C.5. Second figure indicates the nominal maximum size of aggregate in mm. FEBRUARY 1987 .1 Properties (Cont'd) REQUIRED PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS GRADES OF CONCRETE 15/13 20/13 25/13 30/13 Grade * 15/26 20/26 25/26 30/26 15/37 20/37 25/37 30/37 Minimum 28 day cube strength in 15 20 25 30 MPa Grade * 35/13 40/13 45/13 50/13 35/26 40/26 45/26 50/26 35/37 40/37 45/37 50/37 Minimum 28 day cube strength in 35 40 45 50 MPa * First figure indicates the minimum 28 day cube strength in MPa.7. C.C.15 . The tolerance must. however.6.C.

The provision of this sub-clause shall not apply to ready-mixed concrete. In addition he shall state the minimum cement/water ratio in terms of total water in the mix for each grade of concrete. and no extra payment will be allowed by reason of such change. the materials from the sources originally approved change in characteristics. The Contractor shall be deemed to have satisfied himself.6.5.5. or if in the opinion of the Engineer or his representative. C.5. FEBRUARY 1987 . he shall provide evidence satisfactory to the Engineer that the new materials and/or new combination of materials will produce concrete meeting the requirements of the specification and will not bring about unacceptable changes in the appearance or other characteristics of the structure.16 .C.6. before tendering.5.3 Responsibility for Mixes The Contractor shall be the party responsible for design of the mixes to achieve the required properties with the materials which he proposes to use. the Contractor desires to use materials or proportions other than those originally approved. C.5. No structural concrete shall be placed on the job until the Contractor has satisfied the Engineer as to the suitability of the mixes concerned.6. they shall be made at the Contractor's expense. of his ability to produce concrete of the required quality with available materials conforming to the specification.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C.7 Ready Mixed Concrete Should the Contractor elect to use ready-mixed concrete from an approved supplier. C. If during the progress of the work.6 Concrete Mixes (Cont'd) C. he shall first obtain the approval of the Engineer.4 Samples and Trial Concrete Mixes At the earliest possible stage in the contract the Contractor shall submit samples of the aggregates which he proposes to use on the works. and the use of any admixtures.C.5 Change of Mix If the concrete produced fails to comply with the specification the Contractor shall make adjustments in order to meet the specified requirements. When any changes are made in terms of this subclause. He shall also submit for approval the proposed slumps and the proportions in which he proposes to use the materials for each grade of concrete in each type of construction. .

The accuracy of the measuring device provided shall be checked whenever required by the Engineer or his representative by allowing it to discharge into vessels of accurately known capacity. (v) the required slump at the time and place of delivery. C.5. (iv) the required compressive strength. (iii) the cement/water ratio.8.5. The use of ready-mixed concretes shall in no way relieve the Contractor of any of his responsibilities for providing concrete complying with the specifications. C.5.C.3 Aggregates Each size of aggregate shall be measured separately by weighing to an accuracy of 5% except where other methods are authorised or ordered by the Engineer.8.C.8 Batching C. the Engineer may require that the alternative means of supply shall commence if the disruption in the supply of ready-mixed concrete has lasted for an elapsed period in time of 1½ hours.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C.7 Ready Mixed Concrete (Cont'd) Before any ready-mixed concrete is used on the job. The moisture content of the fine aggregate shall be determined at the beginning and half way through each concreting shift.5. the Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with a copy of his letter to the suppliers in which he specified - (i) the type of cement.17 . . (ii) the nominal maximum size of aggregate.1 Cement Only whole standard 50 kg sacks of cement shall be used in each batch of concrete unless an accurate automatic weigh batcher with an accuracy of 2% of the mass of cement is used. All these properties shall be as specified in the contract documents. FEBRUARY 1987 .2 Water Dependable equipment shall be provided for measuring the mixing water either by mass or by volume to an accuracy within 3 per cent. C. When required the Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer that acceptable alternative means of supplying concrete have been arranged to be brought into operation in the event of disruption in the supply of concrete. after showers of rain or at such other intervals as may be required by the Engineer. In this connection.5. The total quantity of water allowed for shall include the free water present in the aggregates.8. and (vi) the type of additive.

Where hand-mixing is permitted. The first batch at the start of a concreting operation shall have approximately 25% of the coarse aggregate omitted.10 Transporting Concrete shall be transported from the mixer to its final position on the work in such a manner that segregation or loss of any of the ingredients or contamination by foreign materials is prevented. Distribution of concrete by pumping shall be agreed with the Engineer and the services of a concrete technologist shall be employed to design concrete mixes for pumping.8 Batching (Cont'd) C. . and shall take full account of bulking of the fine aggregate as delivered to the mixer. these shall be checked at regular intervals.18 . During transportation the concrete shall be protected from wind and sun.5.5. the quantities of cement used shall be increased by not less than 10% over those determined for the appropriate mix design. Containers for transporting concrete shall be cleaned of all hardened concrete and foreign material. The minimum period of mixing shall be not less than that recommended by the manufacturers at the recommended speed and not more than 30 minutes. FEBRUARY 1987 .C.9 Mixing Mixing shall continue until there is a uniform distribution of the materials and the mixture is uniform in colour. These methods shall be designed in such a manner that the consistency of the mix shall be as readily controlled as for mechanical batching.5. C. The design of the concrete shall be such as to minimise shrinkage and creep.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. the mixer shall be entirely cleaned out.8. Upon cessation of mixing for any period exceeding 30 minutes. C. The entire contents of the mixer shall be removed from the drum before the materials for the succeeding batch are loaded. The cost of this batch shall be included in the normal rates for concrete. Drying out may be prevented by the provision of covers and/or other protective devices. shall be prevented from drying out or losing moisture and shall not be subjected to excessive jarring or jolting. and no build-up of material on any part of the equipment shall be permitted.C.3 Aggregates (Cont'd) Where suitable volumetric methods of measuring proportions of aggregates are permitted. All measuring devices shall be maintained in good order and condition. The concrete shall be mixed on a clean and water-tight platform.5.

5.5. No concrete shall be placed in flowing water. Re-tempering by the addition of water or other material will not be permitted. in the opinion of the Engineer.19 . Where plums are permitted they shall be deposited by hand.11 Placing The Contractor shall give the Engineer adequate notice of his intention to place concrete. All excavations and other contract surfaces of an absorbent nature shall be left damp. when the placing of concrete under water is permitted it shall be placed by means of tremies. The concrete shall be placed within one hour from the time of discharge from the mixer. It shall be thoroughly worked against the formwork and around reinforcement and other embedded fittings without displacing them. in the opinion of the Engineer. Wherever possible the concrete shall be deposited vertically into its final position to avoid segregation or displacement of reinforcement and other embedded items. be any danger that such operations will interfere with the freshly- placed concrete before it has set and gained adequate strength. Each load shall be placed against the face of the previously deposited concrete and not away from it. FEBRUARY 1987 . No concrete shall be placed if the air temperature in the shade is falling and is below 8/C or is rising and is below 5/C.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. Concreting shall not commence if the air temperature in the shade is above 35/C.C. The concrete shall be free from honey-combing and planes of weakness. but no free water shall be permitted to remain on these surfaces. During and after concreting under water.12 Compaction The concrete shall be fully compacted by approved means during and immediately after placing. The temperature of the concrete at the point of placing shall not exceed 30/C unless otherwise specified. pumping or dewatering operations in the immediate vicinity shall be suspended should there. Full details of the method proposed and adjustment of concrete mix proportions. The forms to be filled shall be clean internally. .C. not practically feasible to dewater before placing. During placing the outlet of the tremie shall be continuously immersed in the concrete being deposited. Successive layers of the same lift shall be thoroughly worked together. Placing of concrete under water will be permitted only under exceptional circumstances where it is. Freshly placed concrete shall be protected from rain damage. to maintain the desired properties of the concrete shall be submitted to the Engineer for his approval before placing commences. which adjustment shall include for 20% extra cement. work shall proceed from one or more points on the periphery in opposite directions at the same time such that at completion of the circuit the junction is formed with freshly-placed concrete. When concreting closed circuits. C.

. (d) sprayed with water and covered with waterproof paper.15.20 . the surface being resprayed whenever any sign of drying out is evident.13 Curing C. (f) steam curing may be used on approval as specified by the Engineer. Over-vibration resulting in segregation. If required by the Engineer concrete shall be re-worked by re-vibration 1 to 3½ hours after placing.12 Compaction (Cont'd) Compaction shall be carried out by mechanical vibration.5.5.C.5. Humidity shall be kept between 90% and 100%.13. Steam curing at higher than atmospheric pressure shall not be permitted if the concrete contains limestone aggregate. polyethylene sheets or other impervious material free from rents and tears and lapping by not less than 150 mm. FEBRUARY 1987 . the ambient temperature and the workability of the concrete. (b) ponding of water on exposed surfaces.1 General Curing of concrete shall be commenced as soon as possible after the placing of the concrete and without damaging the surface of the concrete.2 Methods of Curing Curing shall be accomplished by one or more of the following methods: (a) retaining forms in place. provided that the rate of increase in temperature does not exceed more than 20/C per hour. C.13. The time shall be decided by the Engineer. C. The rate of concrete placing shall be commensurate with the available compaction equipment and only skilled operators shall be permitted to undertake compaction by vibration. strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions before the concrete has dried out.C. (e) application of an approved liquid membrane curing compound. taking cognisance of the mix. or leakage shall not be permitted. (c) covering with sand or other moisture retaining materials in contact with the concrete surface and kept CONTINUOUSLY wet.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. surface laitance.

all loose matter on the surface shall be removed. Before a new batch of concrete is poured against the joint. but surface-dry condition.5. with no puddles of free water laying on the surface. During periods of extremes of temperature.3 Period of Curing Curing of concrete made from various types of cement shall continue for the following minimum times from the date of casting: (a) Portland Cement used . used . (c) P. .14 Joints C. C. FEBRUARY 1987 .5.C. C.C.2 Construction Joints The method of preparing the construction joints shall be one of the following: (a) Construction joints when concrete is less than 3 days old The surface of the concrete shall be sand-blasted or chipped to remove all laitance and to expose the aggregate.1 Location of Joints Expansion and construction joints shall be located only where indicated on the drawings. (b) P.B. (e) Rapid Hardening Portland Cement 15 used .2 days. the first layer of concrete placed in walls over a depth of approximately 250 mm shall be made richer by reducing the amount of coarse aggregate by 25%.7 days.5. The Contractor shall allow in his pricing for any additional construction joints that he may require.14.5. The old concrete at the joint shall be in a saturated.14. In addition. Only those construction joints shown on the drawings shall be measured and paid for. 15 used . (d) Rapid Hardening Portland Cement used .F.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. joints shall be arranged to coincide with the edges of boards or panels wherever possible. these periods shall be varied at the discretion of the Engineer.5 days.5.21 .2 days.13.C.13 Curing (Cont'd) C. Any additional construction joints required by the Contractor shall be approved by the Engineer.C. Where "off the form" finishes are specified.5 days.

3 Pipes and Conduits Embedded in Concrete Except with the written approval of the Engineer no pipes other than those shown on the drawings shall be embedded in the concrete and the position of all services to be embedded shall be checked by the Engineer or his representative before concreting commences.15. or 5 mm plus the maximum size of coarse aggregate. C.5.1 Cutting of Holes The cutting of any holes or chases in the concrete other than those shown on the drawings or otherwise approved by the Engineer shall not be permitted. whichever is the greater. impaired thereby. where specified. .15 Construction Details C. The clear space between pipes of any kind embedded in reinforced concrete and the clear space between such pipes and reinforcement shall not at any point be less than 40 mm.14 Joints (Cont'd) C. Care shall be taken during concreting to ensure that waterstops are not displaced.5. shall be placed or kept in position as shown on the drawing. C.3 Waterstops Waterstops.5. bent over or punctured. except that the old surface shall be prepared and kept continuously wet for a minimum of 24 hours before the placing of the new concrete.15.22 . FEBRUARY 1987 .2 Fixing Blocks in Concrete Fixing blocks for the attachment of fixtures may be embedded in concrete provided that the strength and/or other desirable features of the member are not. C.2 Construction Joints (Cont'd) (b) Construction joints when concrete is more than 3 days old The procedure given in (a) above shall be followed. in the opinion of the Engineer. (c) Construction joints at tops of columns The procedure for preparing and cleaning given in (a) above shall be followed before the steel reinforcement of the floor to be cast on the columns is placed in position.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. C.

C.16.5.C. C.5.17.16. the Contractor shall remove and rebuild that portion in part or wholly.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. at his own expense.3 Mix Proportion No-fines concrete shall be mixed with one part of cement to 9 parts of aggregate.3 Patching Where defects do not warrant the removal of defective concrete. C.C.16. no-fines concrete shall only be used for non- structural work. Upon written notice from the Engineer or his representative that the concreting of a given portion of the structure has been rejected. C. by means of a suitable gun applied through nipples previously fixed in the concrete at appropriate intervals.5.17 Honeycombing and Other Defects C. In addition. repairs may be effected by the application of either pneumatically-placed mortar or of a mortar made of silica sand and an approved epoxy formulation mixed and applied in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. as specified.17. . if the Engineer deems it necessary. FEBRUARY 1987 .16 No-Fines Concrete C. C.5 mm square openings.1 General No patching of concrete surfaces after removal of the forms and no plastering or cement washing of these surfaces shall be permitted except with the approval of the Engineer. provided that all holes left by the extraction of ties may be made good without such approval.5.5.1 General Unless otherwise specified.23 . an approved epoxy type resin shall be injected into cracks or honeycombed areas.2 Rejection of Concrete The presence of areas of excessive honeycombing or other defects apparent on the finished concrete surface which may be considered sufficient to impair either the structural strength or the appearance of the work shall be cause for rejection of those portions of the structure so affected. after the surface has been sealed.2 Grading of Aggregate Aggregates for no-fines concrete shall be graded so that not more than 10 per cent (10%) by mass of aggregate is retained on a sieve having 19 mm square openings and not more than 5 per cent (5%) by mass passes a sieve having one or more of the following procedures shall be required by the Engineer: (a) Where the structural strength might be affected and must be restored.5.

The patch shall be neat and workmanlike in appearance and after completion it shall be kept wet over a period of at least three days.6 TOLERANCES C.6. FEBRUARY 1987 . The use of up to 30% white cement in place of the normal cement may be required to reduce the darker appearance of a patch. precast panels) are required to fit in position.g.17 Honeycombing and Other Defects (Cont'd) C. An interval of thirty minutes shall then elapse before a final surface tamping is given to the patch. all defective material shall be chipped away until a dense uniform surface of concrete exposing solid coarse aggregate is obtained.C. verticality.5. C. This may apply where prefabricated units (windows. e. The Contractor shall construct each of the various part of the works within the limits set out below for the degree of accuracy required by the project specification or shown on the drawings.5. All loose material shall be hosed away and the surface of the cavity shall be saturated with water for at least 3 hours. squareness and bow. The cavity then shall be filled with stiff mortar mixed in the same proportions of cement to sand as that used in the original concrete. after which the surface shall be treated to resemble the surrounding concrete as closely as possible.C. position. methods and/or materials are warranted despite the probability of higher costs than degree II. The degree of accuracy may be one of the following: (a) degree III accuracy for use where a high degree of accuracy is unnecessary. unless otherwise specified elsewhere.17. Seized shutter bolts shall be cut back to at least 35 mm into the concrete. Board marks may be reproduced by striking a suitable piece of timber held against the plastic concrete. level. Feathered edges shall be cut away to form surfaces perpendicular to the concrete face. after which a thin layer of neat cement mortar shall be applied to the surface. mass foundations. (b) degree II accuracy for what is commonly called 'good work'. . degree II will be applicable. The mortar shall be throughly tamped into place in layers. Where no direction is given. as opposed to normal.5 CONSTRUCTION (CONT'D) C. (c) degree I accuracy where the use of special.24 .3 Patching (Cont'd) (b) Where there are no fears as to structural strength.1 Basis of Measurement Tolerances will be measured as permissible deviations for linear dimensions.

20 . the minimum clear cover of concrete.10 .10 .50 +/.15 Dimensional position of bar +/.4 and 6. FEBRUARY 1987 .20 (vi) Surface level + 30 + 20 + 5 . shall always be maintained over all reinforcement.6.30 .5.10 .15 .20 (ii) Linear dimension on plan cast against + 60 + 40 + 20 excavation sides .10 (iv) Cross-section dimensions + 30 + 20 + 10 .10 .40 .6.20 Cover to reinforcement . as specified in clause C.30 +/.10 .C.4 Mass and Reinforced Concrete Foundation Permissible Deviation in mm Description Degree III II I (i) Position on plan of any edge or surface measured from the nearest grid line or agreed centre line +/. C. as applicable. C.6 TOLERANCES (CONT'D) C.20 +/.C.20 +/.5 (v) Formation level + 20 + 15 + 10 .5 hereof.25 .0 + 10 -0+5 Note: Notwithstanding the above-mentioned permissible deviations.6.15 .10 (iii) Linear dimension on plan cast against + 30 + 20 + 10 formwork .35 +/.2 Reinforcement Permissible Deviation in mm Description Degree III and II I Spacing between two adjacent bars +/.10 Longitudinal location of bends and ends of bars +/.3 Formwork Formwork shall be so constructed as to ensure that the position of the finished work will be within the permissible deviation required by clauses 6.10 .1.3 hereof.

10 (v) Verticality 5 mm/m 3 mm/m 2 mm/m of height of height of height with max.C.7 TESTING C. The Contractor shall co-operate in making such tests to the extent of allowing free access to the work for the selection of samples.15 +/.10 +/.26 . FEBRUARY 1987 . with max.7. of 30 of 20 of 15 (vi) Abrupt changes in a continuous in-situ surface 10 5 2 Tolerances for bow or camber.5 .5 (ii) Linear dimensions +/.30 +/. of the supply of the samples themselves. of providing storage for specimens and of affording protection to the specimens against injury or loss.15 +/. of any slab or other element or component) +/. with max.7.5 Elements or Components above Foundations Permissible Deviation in mm Description Degree III II I (i) Position on plan of any edge or surface measured from the nearest grid line or agreed centre line +/. prestressed concrete and precast concrete will be stated in Part "AA" : Project Specification wherever applicable.5 (iv) Level (deviation from designed level with reference to the nearest transferred datum (TD) of the upper or lower surface.10 (iii) Cross-section dimensions + 20 + 15 +/. squareness and for silos and slip form concrete.2 Compressive Strength Tests Within any period of the time during which one grade of concrete is being continuously placed the Contractor shall at his own expense - .10 . twist. C.1 General During the progress of construction the Engineer shall have the right to have the undermentioned tests carried out on the concrete. C.25 +/.20 +/.C. as may be specified.6.

2 Compressive Strength Tests (Cont'd) (a) provide the following number of sets of three standard metric 150 mm metal cube moulds.. 7 day. (b) the average of any group of 3 consecutive test results shall exceed the specified strength by not less than 2 MPa. The test results from any single source shall satisfy the appropriate criteria given below - (a) no test result shall fall below the specified strength by more than 3 MPa. . (c) make and cure all cubes on site under the supervision of the Engineer.C. etc. of sets 0 .7.7.e. etc.27 . as well as each major portion of a structure or type of structure as directed.25 1 25 .A.2. (d) transport all cubes to the required place of testing i. post-stressing cables. Durban Corporation Materials Testing Soils Laboratory or S. Laboratory as directed by the Engineer. not sooner than the last working day prior to the date of test.7 TESTING (CONT'D) C. Each class and source of concrete.200 4 200 + 5 or as required by the Engineer (b) provide sufficient extra cube moulds for 3 day.B. for shutter stripping.S.C. crushing tests to be made as he so requires for his own purposes i. Volume of pour m³ No.50 2 50 . FEBRUARY 1987 .S. (e) be represented at the crushing test if he so wishes.A. in accordance with the S. shall be dealt with separately when assessing compliance with clause C. Method 863.e.B.100 3 100 .

7. the Engineer may order - (a) that the materials or proportions of the remainder of the grade of concrete concerned shall be varied so that the strength is not less than the required strength. the average of the two tests is within 12 mm of the specified slump.7. Method 865 to determine the estimated actual strength and the estimated potential strength of the concrete.5. the structure shall be accepted.S. The slump of a batch of concrete at time of discharge shall be expressed as the average of two tests.7 TESTING (CONT'D) C.C.2 and carried out as specified in S.1.A.2 fail to meet the requirements of this specification. FEBRUARY 1987 . If necessary.4 Procedure in the Event of Failure of Compressive Strength Test Should the strength of test specimens made and tested in accordance with clause C.2. (b) that test cores shall be drilled from the concrete and tested in accordance with the S.1. Cover Tests Where the Engineer or his representative has reason to doubt whether the concrete cover over the reinforcement is not in accordance with the requirements of clause C.1. the Engineer or his representative shall then indicate to the Contractor where he must expose the reinfrocement to prove the depth of cover. one of concrete sampled at the one-quarter point of the batch volume and the other on concrete sampled at the three-quarter point. Slump as per Table C.5. 878. . The concrete shall be considered to comply with the specified slump if - (a) when the specified slump does not exceed 75 mm.B.1. If the results of the core tests show that the concrete meets the test requirements.3 Other Tests Materials Cement as per clause C. Water as per clause C.28 .C. the cover shall be tested with a cover meter.S. C.3. Aggregates as per clause C.B.3. (b) when the specified slump exceeds 75 mm the average of the two tests is within 25 mm of the specified slump.A.3.7.

C. bending.C.5 Cost of Tests The costs of all tests required by the Engineer or his representative shall be borne by the Council except that costs of tests as set out hereunder shall be borne by the Contractor - (a) preliminary tests on materials and of mix proportions.29 . hooked ends and binding at laps and intersections with and including annealed wire of suitable gauge and hoisting and maintaining in position in an approved manner whilst concreting. or where the portions of the structure subjected to such test fail to pass the test specified. for any protective works against rain and hot weather.7. C. (c) such tests. curing and for hacking.5. . If load tests are.7. C.5.7 TESTING (CONT'D) C.2 Steel Reinforcement The measurement and payment for each ton (1 000 kg) of reinforcement is to include for all supply. he shall have the right to require strengthening or replacement of the portions of the structure concerned. Unless specifically indicated to the contrary. The unit of measurement shall be cubic meters unless otherwise specified. impracticable. may be applied on the structure containing the defective concrete. (b) all tests as may be made necessary by reason of the provisions of clause C.4 Procedure in the Event of Failure of Compressive Strength Test (Cont'd) If the core tests show that the concrete does not meet the strength requirements. an appropriate full scale load test. all horizontal concrete surfaces are to be finished with a wooden float. cleaning and bonding.8. cutting.8.1 Concrete The quantities for concrete in the schedule of quantities represent the net amount of concrete cast into the forms and the prices shall include for all necessary materials. in the opinion of the Engineer. labour and use of plant and for compacting and bringing to the required finish. including concrete coring and load tests. as may in the opinion of the Engineer be made necessary by failure on the part of the Contractor to meet the requirements of this specification. FEBRUARY 1987 . as determined by the Engineer.6. C.8 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT C. The weights given are net and do not include for rolling margins or binding wire for which allowance must be made in pricing.

C.8.30 . labour and plant used for the erection thereof and shall include keyed joints and chamfers.3 Shuttering and Formwork The quantities for shuttering and formwork are measured by the square metre of surface area of concrete work in contact with the forms and prices are to include for all necessary falsework materials.C.8 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT (CONT'D) C. FEBRUARY 1987 . .