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1 ~

Grammar
Stay cool
Past simple and present perfect simple
you yet
4B you the new
>
1 Use the words in the circles with the verb in film Brad Pitt Brad Pitt
the box to make two sentences, one in the past the new yesterday film
simple and one in the present perfect simple.

They
a recently
9 ................................. ............................................... ..

............................................................................... ?

last night Icome I several They 10 ................................................................................. .

here here times


............................................................................... ?

.!.~.~Y.~~!!!~.~~!'.~.~l!.~.!!!!l.~.~: .........................................

The definite article and zero article


2 .~~Y:~~ .~~~~.~~~~ .~~~~l!.~ .~~!!!~. ~~~~!!~I!I:...................

2 >Complete the sentences with the


where necessary.
dinner Do you play .... !~~ .... guilar?

already o'clock at Do you play .... ::-..... tennis?

dinner seven
Have you ever been to ........... Caribbean?

3 ............... ...... ....................... ... .................................. ...


2 It was li ght at four ' o'clock in ........... morn in g.

4 ......................................................................... .......... .
3 We spoke ........... English most of the time.

4 Did you go by ........... train?


(
Leone
e'- She
5 Let's go to ........... Plaza Cinema. It's more

comfortable than ........... Empire.

yesterday 1,500 m
1,000 m just 6 Do you ever watch ........... foreign Al ms?

7 Why di d she leave ........... home?

5 ....................................................................................
8 Did you visit ........... Pyramid when you were

6 ................................................................................... .
in Egypt?

9 00 yo u study ........... music at sch ool?

Q 10 ........... landslide which followed the stonn did

I not the never I a lot of damage.

school trip on a school trip


11 We had ........... vegetable curry and ........... rice.

last year on
........... curry was good but ........... rice

was cold.

7 ....................................... ............................................ .

12 ........... North Star was really bright last night.

lt was ........... brightest star in ........... sky.

8 .................................................................................. ..

10
Go for it )
Past simple and present perfect simple Marco: Then 8 ...................................... (1 /go down)

a Sleep hill in top gear. And


3;- Complete the conversation, putting the verbs
9 ....................................... (there/be) a sharp

into the past simple or present perfect simple.


bend at the bottom.
Marco: .!)'.~.i.I!!.!.~!!!!.. O/just/have) a driving lesson. Tracey: 10 ..................................................................... .

Tracey: How I ....... (you/get on)? (you/slow dow n)?


Marco: Terriblel 2 . . . . . . . Marco: No, 11 ...................................... (l/not have)

(l /never/felt) 0 embarra ed in my enough time.


whole lifel Tracey: Erm, Marco, how many lessons 12............... .

Tracey: Why? Whal J .. (you/do)? ................................... (you/have) so far?


Marco: Well," ................................................................. . Marco: Ten.
(the lesson/not start) very well. 1 turned left Tracey: Why don't you try a different instructor?
instead of right and 5..................... (hit) the Marco: I'll have to. 13 .... ........ ..................................... .

pavement. (Dan /just/refuse) to teach me any more.


Tracey: 6 ........................................ (you/have) problems He said it was too stressful!
with your right and left ever since
7......... . ......... ............. . ......... .. (I/know) you.

Definite, indefinite and zero articles

4/ Complete the newspaper article with the or a/an where necessary.

Mobile phone
saves girl
ATEP.tlAGE DRIVER called 999 on her
m hilt- pbonl' as h lay injured after ... e....
car occident. , ......... cnll saved her Ufe.
On nlesday, eighteen-year-oltl Rachel
Edward.~ went out for 2......... drive in
......... I!arly evening after 4......... row with

I1cr ooy Iriend. She losll'onlTOlllf ' ......... car

un ......... CUtist road at Whitesand Bay in

Suuth C mwal l and wenl uver 7 ......... edge

I ......... diff.

llt
A 'J ......... car r !led do", n 10 ......... cliff,
Rarhlt managed to jump uuL Somehow, she
.till had her handbag with her. and inside
It......... handbag was her mobih: phone. She
,llletll)49 [l[JtI very soon 11 ........ helicopter fast. We didn't have much time. When we 'We knew nothing untd 25,........ police

II~. no il~ \\ ay to rescue her lifted Rachel to 20......... nfety.21 ......... contacted us: aid Rachel" father. 'She has

1 ......... lirsl llung we aw was 14 ......... water w~ about a metre from her car.' had 26 ......... luckiest escape of anyone

\.'llI ut 15......... bOl1um of 1".. _ ..... cliff. 22......... helicopter flew Lo :'J ........ . I've ver known.' Mr Edwards wa... full

saId 17 ......... helicopter pilot. 'We then saw Roborough Airport. From there, 24....... .. 01'2 7 .. ....... admiration for 28 .........

Miss Edwards further up IR......... cliff, ambulance took Rachel to Derriford emergency services.

unahle 10 move. I') ......... se~ wa~ coming in Ho.pita!, where she is now recovering.

11
Vocabular
Stay cool Across

5 To return to your house: to go ............... (4)

5> Solve the crossword. 7 .............. all trains stop at Charing Cross? (2)

8 To continue a journey: to go ............... (2)

9 The door was open, but we didn't go ............... (2)

10 The people on a bus. (10)

14 They dOll' t have to change plane. They're flying

.............. to Katmandu. (6)


15 A plane journey. (6)
18 Abbreviation for European Union. (2)
20 Form of transporl found in Nepal. (8)
Down
1 Sorry, there are .............. seats left. (2)
2 Five tickets at two pounds ea h - that's ..............
pounds, please. (3)

3 Does this bus go .............. Piccadilly? (2)

4 1 waited half ...........:... hoUT ror a bu . (2)

" .
6 Why are you so late? Did you ............. the train? (4)

7 We walked .............. the hill to he beach. (4)

8 Could you just go .............. tI e directions

once more? (4)


to You wail on this for a train. (8)
Go for it 11 The third planet from the SUIl . (5)
12 If you want to travel firc; t class. you'll have La
6> Complete the account of this journey in pay ............... (5)
your notebook using the pictures 1 to 7. 13 What time do we .............. sail? (3)
14 The person driving a car. (6)
last month, , went to Kosice in Slovakia to see my
16 An organised long walk. (4)
friend Gabriel. It was a real adventure because it was 17 'Did you take the trai n from London to Brussels?'
the first time I'd travelled on my own. This is how I got 'No, I .............. .' (4)

there. I went to the airport by taxi. , arrived at 7.30. 19 She's American, so she ha a .............. passport (2)

I 9.30 I
5 6

Kosice 22.00

12
Communication

Go for it
7 ) Complete the conversations. 9> Write the conversations. Use a different
expression each time.
A: .E'!.'!........ you give John a message?

B: .Pf.... course.

A: Do ............................... if 1 use your computer?

B: No, ......................... all.

2 A: ..................................... if 1 have the day


off tomorrow?
B: I'd ......................... you didnt. We're very Joe: [I] .. P.C!.!l.c!'~ .'.':!!!!~. if.L~!th.~r.~? ..........................

busy at the moment. Usa: IKJ ):!!!.~~r.r;Y.:.M!l.fr.!.~~~~~.~~~!!!!l.!~.~r.~: ..........

3 A: ......................... 1 close the window?

B: Of course you may. B


ffil Ipay phone I
Io:.~
What's wrong? -=.,j~J~~
8 / Correct the mistakes.
Man: [I] ...................................................................

W wenl by #te- train .


I n 'ver been there.
Receptionist: IKJ .....................................................

2 I don't like going in his car. lie's a


terrible conductor.
J l' en Joanna yesterday.
4 Its just over there.

5 W' went to Adriatic Coast last year.

() Do you mind that 1 leave now?

7 I'd rather drive than be a pasenger.

2 Una: [I] ...................................................................

Marco: [i2J ................................................................

Va bulary 0):
Predicting situations
IU pr pare our II' for specific situations by
LI
Ipuncture I
p d, thlf1 k 'Y vo auulaTY. For example, at the
"1 d at al1 airport words and phra e
hi h y u may h ar r n ed are passport. hand
baggag aisle/window seat. boarding card, gate
m mb r. boarding time.
Y W nl to btl <I 11 li k ~l from London to
J Tom: rn ...................................................................

r1mburgh for the WI: k"nd. Write six words or


phm
Sean: IKJ ...................................................................

13
Reading

-=rf
An interview with J
r


la Liam Neeson was born in Northern Ireland .
He has appeared in many well-known
films. including Sch mo/E'r's List and

son
Star Wars - The Phantom Menace

Interviewer: Liam Neesm1 jOll


gn'\\< t1p III a h use lull uf women
You had thr"l: dd~r slSLers and
you IV rc I he baby brat her
I b} W~re you very .spoih?
...... ~~ f t I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I " . . . . . . . ..

Liam Neeson: No, T wasn't. My


. IStcrS "('em to think I was, bu t I
Lertainl} WllSll'l! We all hau Ill..lr
chor' It) do. l\1ine were
swel.:plllg the back yard, hringmg
ill th I,;V:1lll1r the fire and geLLing
the groceries.

Interviewer. l .................. ?

Uam Neeson: Abso]mely. yes. Interviewer: 4 ................... ?

And I love doin T it. 1L's the most Liam Neeson: Very much so.
Liam Neeson: 1 suppa e its true
natural thing m Lhe wo rld . J thitlk Absolutely. I'm \ ery C<)ll d O llS of
III a C llain 'Xlent There was a
lIS ImportanL to remember that the problem of \ ioience in m ms
gullll my _cllllo1. Elizab th, who
children grow up so quickly, you and on television. My fluh r's
wa the Lar aLlress in our school
know ! I was reading the other day generaLion was worned about the
piny:; On It: rill, our English
about a wnter who was lyping a influence of (h(' Rolhng Slones
teacher was uoing a play whi h
story <lnd his kid was outside and the Beatlcs. Nnw il'S violent
elizabeth was tn. () 1 wenl all ng
saying, 'Dad, ome and play nJm . ml awful violent video
to the .1tIdition and got a part.
baseball' He said , 'Yes, I'll be there games vhere if yotl ill someone
Thul'.. where my interest in
in a minute . I have Lo finis h thi.., .' YOLI get 300 points and rhen
acting beg;m.
And of course The hours passed move on to the nex i game . IL'S
Interviewer: You're the ralher ilnd he gOl the tOT) finished 0 j l lCITIfying 5 yes, flU very
no\\ of two young sons. There's lime but the kid was in bed. T hats aware of the image that I m
a big ucb:'llc in Britain allhe a moment thai he'll never gel back involve in on Lhe screen.
moment aboul how lillIe lime again. And that truck a chord
falh r pend wnh lheir children. with me, so Ilry to play wiLh my
I Ihinl It\ an a\ erage of flfLeen kids when they ac;k. It doesn't
mmutes a day J ..... .............. ? matter what fm doing.

14
Co mprehension Communication

4 / Use the information in the factfile and the


expressions below it to continue the interview
1 Read th e text and write the letters of the
with Liam Neeson. Write at least five quest ions
interviewer's questions in the correct places.

and answers.
<I) Arc you trying to be the sort of father who

5pends quite a lot of lime with hi children?

(b) Wcre you very spoilt? ) L1AM NEESON


cJ Does that make you look at a pan maybe 7 June 1952 in Ballymena,
(,ifferently ... thinking about the images and the Northern Ireland
-.~,""';'......." ......................... .... .. .....................................................

i lfluences that children ha e as hey grow up?


ti) Is 11 true that you only got interested in being in
chool productions because you fancied a girl
;~llr~-" ~ " G~i:~~;;;-2r:':if~~'t ' . . ..... . . . . ..... . ..

(Physics and Computer science)


"""'~-,...--~ ........................................... .................

who was in the play? Wife: Natasha Richardson (actress)


Children: Michael. Daniel
2 / Mat ch the words and phrases with thei r
.~ ..........;...-.--.- .... .................................................................... .. .

Schindler'S List (1993), Star Wars


meanings. The Phantom Menace (1999) ,
t spoilt III a) age group Gun Shy (1999)
2 chor o b) allowed to do
J 'weeping o whatever you want
Real ly? That's interesting.
4qroceries D c) aware
Did you ? / Were you? / ls she? / Have you?
5 udil,on 0 d) very frightening
6 truck a chord 0 e) food which is bought
7 'OTI cious o f) household jobs
Interviewer:

H t'rrifying D g) test for a part in a play Liam Neeson:


gencration o h) had personal meaning
i) cleaning with a brush

o for it
3) Correct the statements.

Liam Neeson comes from the USA.

..IJ.~..~~m~fr.~!!!. ~~r:!.~.t;~.~r.t;!~.'!.~:..............................

He was the eldest of four children.

2 His interest in acting began when he left school.

3 His sons are grown up.

4 H doesn't spend much time with his children.


Writing

5 > In your notebook, write a 1SO- word article


5 lie worrie about lhe effect which pop music has about Liam Neeson for a school magazine. Use
on young people. t he information in the text and the fa ctfile.

Uam Neeson was born in Ballymena, Northern


Ireland. He has three elder sisters. ...
15
u y day_

Vocabular
~__
St_a~y_co_o_J/~______~)
1 >Complete the article with the correct form of the words in brackets.

I h;n c III say that 1find the idea of two men punching Don't get me wrong. I like W;ttdling .port. r find it
each uthc:r fOT peoplt s .. ~~~~~~~~m~~L (emertain) 10................................ excite) toee people achieving
truly I................................ (shock), Wb.1t':\ new records in am/eties and I'm ruwavs
1 . ............................... (entertain) about il? Wl1ere's dle
, ! ................................ (amaze) al rhe skill of football
J ................................ (excite) or 4 ............................... .
and rugby player' But boxing is not a port, m
(plc-.....e) in watching twO men fight C'Jtb other unUl one my opinion.
of them ....................._... (give +preposition) or is I feel slrongl), abolll this, and I won't
lell uncon i()u '? Do people get a 6............................... . 12 ................................ (give +preposition) protesting
(Will) JUt of w:uching something like this? If they do, I about it. Recently, while 1 ' )........................................ .
find it \Cr; 7................................ (worry). (give + preposttiatt) antiboxing /e;U1et..'i in mr local
What'~ more, if not jUst mrn who are involved. I was ~bopping centre, a lot of people came up to me LO say
fl . ................ ............... (shock) when I read recently they were I.' ................................ (plea e) mill I was
about boxing mald) b'twecn two women. How can doing it. So don l be 15................................ (surprise)
the d( It? Surely they've c::en lle 9.............................. .. if you see me on a streeL comer near you l
(horrif ,) mjurie that male boxers get
stacy Pearsoll, Manchester

16

Past simple and continuous Past simple and past perfect simple
2/ Complete the sentences with the correct >
3 From each pair of sentences, make one
form of the verbs in brackets. Then write a sentence containing a verb in the past simple
sui able question. and a verb in the past perfect simple.
1 was in a state of shock at nine o'clock.

1 read the letter at eight o'clock. (after)

J.~!!~ .~'!..'!..~~!~ .C?bh~~~. #..~r. te!..~~!!~. ~~.~~~r.'..........

My brother borrowed my leather jacket.

1 couldn 't wear it to the party. (so)

2 1 phoned you after dinner.


You went out before dinner. (but)

didn't answer
(not answer) the phone
A: 1 ............................
because 1 ..~f!~.~.'!.'!.t!.~'!9.. (stand) on my head. 3 She took him to hospital this afternoon.
He fell down the stairs this morning. (because)
B: Why .. ~~r~y.C?l!..~!!.'!.t!.~'!9..'?'.'.~~~r..~~.'!.c!.? ...........

A: Because 1 was doing my yoga .


A: We .................................................. (walk) into

4 1 saw a programme on first aid last night.


town when my brother .................................... I knew what to do today. (so)
(grnb) my arm.
B: Why ................................................................ ?

A: Because he'd just seen Britney Spears drive by.


5 They didn't wan t to see the film on Tuesday.
A: 1 ........................................... (not disturb) you
They sa w it on Monday. (because)
when Pete ........................................... (phone)

because you ......................................... (sleep).

B: Why ................................................................ ?

A: I don 't know. He didn 't say.


The letter e in verbs
A: He ................................................. (shook) with

In many past simple endings, the e is SIlent.


frigh t when he ......................... ....... ................... 1n verb forms ending in -ing. you usually
(come) out of the building. delete the f' before adding -ing.
B: Why ................................................................ ?

A: Because he thought he'd seen a ghost! 4> Underline the words in which the e is silent.
A: We .................................................. (talk) when
wanted laughed returned divided
suddenly he ........................................... (get) Write the -ing form of the following verbs.
really miserable. take .................... ... live ...................... .
B: Why ................................................................ ?
drive ........... ....... ..... make
A: Because he'd just split up with his girlfriend. surprise ....................... amaze

17
60 for it
Past simple. past continuous and
past perfect simple
5> Complete the story with the correct form of
the verbs in brackets.

It wa a C 01 evening in September 1895. John


Markham .. ~!!.c!..~.f!.~ ...... (had) a hard day at work,
and he ..~~~.~f!.f!.~!'.'.9.fo.~!!.~~J~.... (look forward to)
gettmg home. uddenly, a woman ... !:':'.~~~~ .. (rush)
out of the oftice next door. Sbe I .... . ........

(shake) with fTlght because she 2

(hear) someone screaming in the cellar. She was ure


it was a ghost.
John J . (not believe) in
ghost so he ., ............................... (go) into the
above his head. He 14............................... (exami ne)
building to investigate. It was very quiet. But just as the piece of paper arefully. It was the death
he 5...................................... (think) Lhat it was all the
cerUficale of a fi fteen-year-old girl called Alice Pick.
woman's imaginaUon, he ii . . .................... ......... (hear)
She 15............................... (die) of tal'vation.
screams. The next day, John 16 ............................... (tell) his
"Who are you? What do you want?" cried John. neighbour about the evening's extraordin ryevents.
The screaming ,............................... (not stop) so he Apparently, the building 17 ..... ...................... ..

n................................. (hurry) towards the place ................., .................. (not alwayslbe) an office. It
where it 'I .... ....................................... .. .. (come from ). I~ ..................................................... (oncelbelong) to a
He 10 ............................... (reach) the door leading to rich woman called Eva Tyndale who had shut Alice,
the cellar, II .............................. .
(take) a candle and her servant, in the cellar. One of the oLher servants
IJ. .............., ................ (go) down the cellar stairs.
told the police. but by the ti me they discovered Alice,
Suddenly, the uoor 13 ............................... (slam)
she was dead and Mrs TyndaJe [<el ................................ ..

behmd him. making a piece of paper fall from a shelf ................................ (disappear).

3 ................................................................................. ?
6> Write the questions or answers.
To investigate .
.~~.Y..~~)~~.~..~f!.f!.~~'.'9.f~~!!r.~.!~.9~rr!~9..~.f!.'!!:~.? ... 4 ................................................................................ ?
Because he'd had a hard day at work. Scr ams.
How did he know the woman was frightened? 5 Wha t ha ppened when the cellar door slammed?
.~h~.'!'!.l!!..~.~.C!.~.~~9.~ ................................. ..................... .

Why was the woman frightened?

6 ................................................................................. ?
She'd died of starva tion.

2 Did John Markham believe in ghosts? 7 Why did n't the police arrest Mrs Tyndale?

18
7> Complete the phrases. Then match them with
the categories below.

...... !.~~rL ...... awrul!


1. I've gol .................... good n w .
cl ........................ done! You ............. ............ be
r ally pi ased.
dl I've ......................... heard some bad llews.
rI ......................... terrific!
n What ......................... hamel

3 Kate:
g} I'm arraid l've got ...................................... ..
I don 't know. Tell me !
Friend:
11) ........................ . what!
Kate:
Friend:
i Announcing good news DD
2 Responding to good news DD _. :'1
1 Announcing bad news DD SUBJECT Histo~ 1'1

1 Responding to bad news


PASS/FAIL RJjI I!

MARKS ~O/'OO ,1:1


Go for it
COMMENTS &me. ~ood/ ~I
a / Write the conversations. ---

t
+hi~s, ~+ j \:1
London _I
W43QB
4 Neil :
14th October
Friend: Oh? What's happened?
Neil :
[ It ar M r Harris,
Friend:
YIlU have w()n [\ ,OOO! We howe pleasure ill

Mr Harris: .!):~9.f!.~.~l!.'!!.~.9.'!.C?c!..'!.~.~~:.......................
Friend: Really? Tell me! What's wrong?)
Mr Harris:
Friend: 9> Correct the mistakes.
wo..........ie.d

Are you W&~ about your test?


THE FOLLOWI G PEOPLE ALL LOST
15 it difficult to give in smoking?
THEIR OBS YESTERDAY

2 Imagine my surprisement when she walked in!


5arat.. P-OS'S'
J"alYlC-S' P-i,./-t.ardS' 3 1 couldn't answer the door because I had
.Marl-i." TI/frne-r a shower.
4 When I found out about the concert.
2 Sarah: I phoned immediately. Luckily, they didn't
Friend: What's happened? sell all the tickets.
Sarah:
5 I phoned her as soon I heard the news.
Friend:
19
1
' ...

Grammar
~ Stay coo )
The fut ure 2 ) Complete the messages with will/won't, may, might,
going to ~r the present continuous. In some cases, there
1 '/ Circle t he correct response, are two possibilities.
1'm off now.

a) OK. I'm going to see you later.

( b) OK. I'll see you later. )

1 was wondering if you would like to

go out tonight.

lLAesday
a) l'm afraid 1 can't. l'm meeting Karim.
MMtut -KkaAeJ. pkol1~ ~jttA~
b) l'm afraid I can't. I'll meet Karim.
fl.tD.se. 1......... . ............................. .

(vou/nng) kim uMe+1 ~


2 Have you decided yert
~e.t W\'?
a) Yes. l'm going to have a pizza.

Jo11~
b) Yes. 1 have a pizza.

~:~~l\'.~'" ~~1.~~~H f'5. I'~ Mt SlAre ~ek, but


l ........ . ............................... (I/go)

3 What do you fancy' for de ert?

to betA W'I~ . 'Dmt't mllke.


r':,.a... ~_:~~!:;::~~Ia"iAil!l'lI!UI {oo ~ch "oise ~
a) 1 don't have anything, thanks.
W~~~~ ~~~~~
b) I won't have anythmg, thanks.
~ar-tiv\ - V(.H'\ess~ phOl1etA.
.. ......................................... (you/go)

4 There's someone at the door.


to KkaA~'~ pa(~?

a) OK. I go.

1 toi~ he.<" 4........................................... ..

............................ (you/probably/not go).


b) OK. I'll go.
'1111A're ObulO1Asly -hlo busy.
"VOl1r\
5 I'm wearing jeans so I might nol get
P.S. What- time- "....................................

into the dub.


................... (you/be) Pe\ck. tumorfOW?

a) Don't worry. You'll get in.


b) Don 't worry. You 're gelling in.
~~m~alM 1lwr5~
M~I'\ -~e (('\rI~ .
6 Does he know you're going ou t with Joe? t ..................... . ..................... lyou f ll~ )

~OU( Y'oUe..-bu..t,(es this el/eI\'I~"


a) No. l'm going to tell him th is evening.
R~ wa.,.ts ib bonaw -tkem.
b) No. I tell him this evenmg.
J"okV\
-:tYicio.y

MMflt1. - See y~ flm.1orfaw.

(I /m eet)

f ........... .... .. ... .. .............. ...... ..

VtAt1essa. arret" CO~e t111t,(

II.. .......... .. .. .... .. ................ . ...... (we/go)

to Kka1et('!) paf~ .

20 Jo~

The future
3/ Write what the students are saying.
US!! the correct form of will, may, might or going to.
e- work in Spain
for a few months
What are you going to do 1 - - - - - - - - - - - 1r:-...!
- definitely not
when you leave school?
get a job
- study to
immediately
become a vel
- definitely!

What are you going to do when you leave school? 4'/ Write sentences which are true for you, using
the prompts.
I don't really know. .!..,!:!~9.~~.!l.'!..~?.~~!!~!J.~! ..............
.. ~r L!!!!9~t~~~~..,!.JI.~~r..~~!; ....................................... (present can tinuous)
After school today .................................................. .
2 I'v already decided.................................................

2 (might)
li d like to go to university. The trouble is, .......... . Next weekend .......................................................... .

t1 TIl one thing 1 know is. ........................................ 3 (may)


Next summer ........................................................... .

'i I think ...................................................................... .


4 (will/probably)
When 1 leave school, ...............................................

I'm not sure. .......................................................... ..

5 (going to)
To celebrate my eighteenth birthday, ....................

21
Vocabular

~) Go for it )
5;' Match each adjective with one or 7> Use the words in the box to write a profile of the
more prepositions. two sisters and their mother.

about by from in of on with

angry "~~!?!!~"'~'i!.~ ....................................

different ................................................... .

2 excited ..................................................... .

3 fed up ....................................................... .

4 frightened .................................................

5 interested ..................................................

6 keen ..........................................................

7 proud ....................................................... .

8 rired ......................................................... .

9 worried ............................ " ...................... .

>
6 Complete each sentence with a
phrase from Exercise 5.
tfe likes classical music but he isn't
...~~~~.~!'! ... opera.
Lucy Anna
Laura looks pale. She's got an audition
very good /languages brillia nt/sport
I
keen/French keen/basketball
tomorrow and she's really ......................

not interested/sport nervous/exams


...................... it.
not jealous/Lucy
2 Hearing a band play live is tOlally mother
.................................. listening Lo a pleased/Lucy's exa m results
excited /Anna's basketball cup
recording.
proud/both of them
3 She's given up learning the piano.
She's had lessons for two year, but J~9J..~.~~.~~~.f!..f!.r:~.~!~.~~!:~!.~~~.!~~~r:~.'f.~rYAifI.e.r:~'),!fr..f!,f!:I. ...........
she 's just 110t .................................. it. .~':'.~h..f!.~~~!::.~~~.':S.X~r:y.9.C!.C!.t!..':'.t!~!'!!I!!~9~:...................................
4 The conductor was ................................ .
the singer because she didn ', go to
rehea rsaIs.
5 She got a place at the Royal Academy
of Music! She's really ............................ .
studying lhere.
Co mmunication
~'--_G_o_f_or_i_t_ )
B/ Fill in the gaps. Then put the conversation in 9'; Write the conversation using the prompts.
the correct order.
pizza tonight?

Anton: .} .~~.l!.'!!J.~~.~~..f!!.;!J.~~.9.~ for. .~.P'!~.~~~!9.~~:...

Lorna:
o ...................................................................... .

Ci; pizza fo r lunch )

Callum: 2 . ................. . ................................. . ................ ..

Roller Cafe?

Anton: J ...................................................................... .

Lorna: 4 ...................................................................... .

C!!..;. too expensive)


Callum: 5 ...................................................................... .

0
~
1 Are you? Well, how .................... meeting
nna and Errol in town?
Anton: 6 ............ ............. .. . .. ........................................ .

o Yes. An evening in sounds great! ~ ~


lorna: ' ....( ..............................................................

o 1m seeing them tomorrow evening. Look,


.................... rather stay in this evening.
Callum:
o 8 ..................................................................... ..

I feel a bit tired.


What's wrong?
10> Correct the mistakes.
ill I thought we ..!!!!P.~~.... go clubbing Lonight. I'll
+have an oran ge juice, please.
1 can't come now. I'll leave for
o I'd .................... not, if you .................... mind.
Brussels in an hour's time.
l'm fed .................... with dubbing. 2 Are you intereste on old cars?
1..---"7j/
3 'Do you fancy going clubbing?'

o So do 1, actually. Do you .................... getting


'Great! I love to!'
video and a takeaway? 4 It's a really exiting fi lm.
L---'j/
S I wont be there until eleven.
23
il s developm nt

Reading

Voyage to St Kilda

Some environmentalist groups Thi afternoon, omeone


f>potled a minke whale. The
believe that drilling for oil off the
wildlife in tru-: region ili so
coast of Scotland is going to rich. Drilling for oi l will
endanger wildlife. The actress destroy It and will affect the
Julia Sawalha recen1Jy went to climate.
the region by boat wtth one of MONDAY

these groups to monitor the FEELING GUILlY


I woke at nine, later than
wildlife. She kept a diary of <!verybody else. The olher'
her week. had done all the chores. r relt
terribly guilty.
FRIDAY We have reached the
i land of SI KiJda. II' a
THE CREW
['m n Ihe Island of Islay ill hundred miles off the west
coa~t of Scotland, in the
Ihe Inner Hebrides. We're
, uing ~ail tomorrow, ~o I'm northeast Atlantic Ocean.
going to spend today getting Only twemy-eight people live
to know the other crew here. We're gOing to camp on
members . the island tonight. At last r II
be able to lie on a bed that
SATURDAY J ~pent most of the afternoon , cOllund . T felt a bit sad . I' m
doesn't move!
MEETING THE SEALS cleaning. Before I came on going to miss everyom:
TUESDAY
1 slept . urprisingly well on thi!) trip. my last job was terribly. As the ship was
the boat. This morning J DIVING IN making a fil m w ith Mel commg into dock I looked at
isited II eal anctuary . It was difficult to wake up thi Gib on. If he ould See me the pile' of industrial rubbish .
After I'd held Ihe eals in my morning so I decided to go for now! It's a horrible sight after the
u.rms, my cloth~~ smelt very a swim. As soon as I'd dived THURSDAY beauty of SI Kilda.
fibhy. Worse sull, I've ot a mto the icy water, I felt as if
my head was going to e plode COMtNGHOME
whole week on the ship and
not mnny clothe to change from the cold . Back on . hip, 1 This morning we arrived in
helped clean. Glasgow. on the wet coast of
into,
We're setting sail for the Later on. 1 returned to the
ibland of St J{jld.-l at 10 p.m. island. sat on a rock 3Lld
SUNDAY
watcbed the eat and the
seabirds. Some of the
FEELING SEASICK seabirds have a wingspan
I didn't want lunch because I of five met.res!
felt so eastel<, but my cabin
mates ndvl~ed me to eat, so J
tried 10 [orte om food down. FEELING BETTER
One of my companions , Kate, We set sail again this
a murine bioI gi t, is going morning. The sea was
to take part in the first-ever incredibly calm and J
underwater survey near didn't feel seasick any
St Kilda. more .

24
Com prehension Communication

tay cool 4> A member of an environmental group (A) asks


you (B) and your friend (e) to help on a ship for a
, >Find the words in the text which mean: week. You are really interested, but your friend isn't
making a hole ..t!.r!!!!~9..................... keen. Write the conversation in your notebook .
1 LO check Frequently
2 people who work on a ship ................................ ..
Writing
) a place of saFety ..................................
4 feeling ill on a boat ........ ..........................
5 noticed ................................ ..
6 to blow up like a bomb ................................ ..
Writing (1): Planning
7 unbelievably
It's usually a good idea to plan what you arc
B waste material going to wrile and to make notes lor each
paragraph. Look at the notes below about a boat
2 ) Put the events in order. trip. Put the events in each paragraph in thl:
aID One of the crew saw a whale. correct ord r.
b) 0 She went for a swim.
I D The boat left lslay. Paragraph I:
d) D She got back to mainland Scotland.
e) [!] Julia met the other members of the crew. o stayed in a small town on Vancouver lsland
n D She helped with the cleaning. [I] went to Canada with a group of friends
g) D Julia stayed on St Kilda. last year
hJ 0 Julia began to feel unwell. o sun was shining; sea was calm
o took a boat trip to see whales
o for it Paragraph 2:
.
o coming back, the wind became very strong
3> Answer the questions. [IJ set sail and 30 mi nutes later saw the whales
What might endanger wildlif in the area around o one wave li fted the boa t out of the water
5l Kilda?
o children were cryi ng
..P.r.~~~~f)9.f~!'. .f!.~~"'" .......................................................
o weather changed - had to leave quite quickly
Why did Julia Sawalha and the other crew
members go to 5t l<ilda? Paragraph 3 :
o managed to reach Vancouver lsland
2 What did Julia do on the first day? [I] difficult to get back
D very frigh teni ng experience
"3 Why did her clothes smell?
5> Now use the notes and some of the phrases in
the box to write a 150-word account of the trip
4 How many underwater surveys at 5t Kilda had
to Vancouver Island in your notebook.
there been before this one?
soon su ddenly to my horror
5 Why did Julia feel guilty? then not surprisingly finally

I went to Canada with a group offriends last year.


6 How did Julia get on with the crew? We stayed ...

25
dinburgh

Vocabular

~~------------~y

1 / look at the map on the left.


4/ Complete Sara's description of Melbray using

Write the names of the places.


the map and your own ideas.

I rgi!.~!lJL .......... s Y!!.~CJ.1). ................ .

SMALL TOWNS IN FOCUS


2 c ................................................. .

J c ................................................ ..

4 s....................... p. ......................... .
MELBRAV
5 h .................................................. ..

6 mu ...................................................

7 rna .......................................................

8 s ........................ s.......................... .

9 p ................................................... ..

10 p............... ......... 0 .... .. ...... .. ..... ..... . .

~ SpOrts and entertainment

11 c ..................................................... .

I'm fairly sporty. I playa lot of tennis, so .. !.!l~.~~.~~~......................

12 b....................... s .......................... ..

13 I ...................................................... .

..~~!!!!!~.~~~.!!'..~~~.p.~~~.~!.!~~ .~!~~.~.~~~~: ..... I also I ........... .

................................................................ . Although our sports


14 s..................................................... ..

fadlitles are quite good, there's not much other entertainment.


15 t ..................................................... ..

At weekends, I usually go to the <.................... I particularly like

romantic flIms. There 's also a ................................. but that's all,


2> look at the picture on the left. Label
the clothes. really. However, trav elli ng to other places s quite easy because
4

J / Complete the sentences with the


rect uncountable nouns. .. Shopping for food and clothes
Let's just drop off our 1 .':'99.~9.~..... at the J go shopping with my mum or my dad on Saturdays. We get
hotel and go straight out.
most things at the 5.......................................... but we buy fruit and
l'd like some i... ............................ about
vegetable from stalls on the ()... ........... ............................. ............ .
the town .
I also buy most of my clothes 7 ........................................ ........ .
2 Here's a list of the a.............................. ,
from campsites to Ave-star hotels. You can get some great bargains there. I buy my shoes 8... .. .......... . ..

3 Don't go into town by car. The


t.................... is awful.
4 I ycled to the station and took the train .. Public buildings
,
into town. Thanks for your a.................. . One of my A level subjects is History. I'm particularly interested in
5 If the w.................... is fine, we'll go for local history so I spend a lot of time ............. .................................. .
a walk. When I need reference books, 10 ........................................................

6 There are rolling hills and valleys. l'm

sur you'll love the sc .................... .


.. Scenery
7 Your kn............................... of the local
The countryside near the town is beautiful. In the northeast,
area i very good .
11 .......................... . ..................... .... ....................................................

S You'll have to get p.................................... .


from the farmer to camp here.

27

Stay cool Go for it


Clauses and linkers of contrast Clauses and linkers of contrast
5'; Complete the sentences with although, 6> Rewrite sentences 1 to 7 in Exercise 5 using
however or in spite of the words in brackets.

(although) .T~.e.!l.~!~f!:!..~!~~~.~~I ..~.~~~'!.9~.!~.e.!l:~ ......


..p.r9.'!J.~S;~t!..~~.~9.'!J.t::.................................................... .

2 (despite) .................................................................. ..

3 (although) .................................................................

..~!~~.l!,,!9.~ ......... they're best friends, they're

very competitive.
4 (in spite of) ..............................................................

They didn't visit us, ................................ .

promising to come.

2 ................................ . she's a very talented 5 (however) ................................................................. .

pianist. she finds it difficult to play in public.

J There was nothing suspicious in his behaviour.


.................................. I didn't really trust him.

4 were only in Chicago for on day. 6 (although) ................................................................ .

................................. , we had a great time!


,
........................................................................................

S ................................. he'd told her the

relationship was over, she still thought


7 (although) .................................................................

they could get back together again.

6 I wanted to play football this morning .

................................., I didn't wake up


What's wrong?
till midday.

7> Correct the mistakes.


7 They recognised him ................................. atthoUjh
his disguise. 1 like living here despite there
isn't much to do in the evening.
8 ................................. her strong northern accent,
I'm afraid the skirt's a bit to tigh t.
1 understand everything she say .
2 Dublin's a beautiful city however it's
9 He's a very gentle person, ................................ . quite expensive.
his appearance.
3 OUT accommodations were awful.
10 I really liked The Thirty-Nine Steps ...................... . 4 In spite of it is a beautiful place, it' not
the story was quite complicated. really a tourist destination.
S I buy all my books fro m th e local library.

28
8) Complete the dialogue.

You: l.:~.~~~~..~,!..~.. this sweatshirt on, please.

Assistant: Here you are. I ...........................................

good?
You: Well, it's a bit baggy. 1 ..............................

. 7

........................................................... sIze.
Assistant: Yes, we have. Here's a medium. 1 ............ .

............................................................. on?

You: H's Ane. 41 ................................................. .

Assistant: How 5 ................ . ..... .. .. . .................. .. ..... ... ?

You: By credit card.

9;, Write a conversation in your notebook using the pictures. b

29
VI ow you gu:

Vocabular
~ Stay cool)
1 '; Label the parts of the car.

1 W~!!~~~r~~.r:t........................ .

2 b ....................................... .

3 s ....................................... .

4 g....................................... .

5 m ......................................

6 s ....................................... .

7 e ...................................... ..

8 b ...................................... ..

9 h ......................................... .

10 s................... w.................. .

11 f .................... t.................. .

12 b ........~ ..................................... .

13 b ................. 1.................. ..

14 i ................. 1................... ..

15 t ...................................... ..

. Go for it
2) Complete the conversation. B: It's OK. here's enough petrol in the
3 . .. ........................ ............ We'll be fine.

A: You should always wear a .~~~~~~~... ' you know,


A: The car in front is going very slowly. You could
even if you're only going a short distance.
overtake on the next bit of straight road. Just
B: Yes, 1 know. change down a 4...................... for more power
A: It's quite foggy. 1 think you should pUl your and we'll soon be past him.
I . ............................. on.

B: Uh, huh.
8: I was just going to. A: Look ou t! There's a hairpin ben d coming up.
A: Now it's started to rain. Perhaps you'd belter Don't go so 5..................... .

put your 2...................................................... on.


B: You know, you're really getting on my nerves.
8: Yes. Perhaps you ought to drive.
A: The petTol gauge is low. A: But 1 haven't passed my driving test.
30
Grammar

must
5 1'm so thirsty. 1 ..................................... som eth ing
to drink.
3'/ Give advice using the words in brackets and a 6 His behaviour is appall ing! You ............................ .
main verb. ............................. him lTeat you like that.
He looks very tired. (ought) needn't
7 He phoned Lo say he's arriv d afely, so you
He .~~9.~~:~.~~.~~~~. so hard .
I've got a bad headache and 1 fee l sick. (should) ................................................................. any more.
S l've got a spare pair of sunglasses, so you
You ............................................ a doctor.
................................................................ any.
2 Oh no, it's raining and I haven't brought an
umbrella! (had better) Comparison of adjectives and adverbs
You ............................................. mine.
5 > Complete sentence b} so that it means the
] I was stopped by the police last night for riding same as sentence a) in each case.
my bik without lights. (should)
You ............................................ without light . a) Jo hn's far m re serious than Jamie.

4 l'm not sure about going up into the mountains. b) Jamie's .f~r..~~.~~r.~~'!.~.. than John.
TIley say the driving conditions are qui1e a) My marks in Biology were better than my
dangerous. (had better) marks in Chemistry.
In that case, we ............................................. . b) My marks in Chemistry weren't ................ ..
there today. .................................... my marks in Biology.
I) Anna seems a bit depressed. (ought) 2 a) Riding a mo torbike is more da ngerous th an
drivin g a car.
Perhaps we ............................................. her to
ome to the cinema with us. b) Driving a ca r isn 't .........;......................... .
.. ................ riding a motorbike.
Obligation and prohibition with 3 a} Is it true that gi rls are much better at
verbs must, have (got) to and needn't languages than boys?

4/ Complete the sentences with the modal verbs b} Is it true that boys are ....................................
and the verbs in the box. at langua ges th an girls?
4 a} He drives more carefu lly tha n she does.
heat worry have ~ do
let clean buy take b} Sh e drives ................................ than he does.

have to/don 't have to 6> Complete the sentences.


Sorry, 1 can't stay. I really ....~~~~.!~.9.~.... now. All Blur's albu ms are good, but th ir latest is

It's OK for you. You ................................................ .m.*:.k~~.. of all.

...................... your room every Saturday morning. It's a very strange book. In fact, it's ............... .

2 Can we eat this pie cold or ................................... .


............................. book I've ever read .

....................................................... it first?
2 The new Harley bike comes in several models.
Thi is the most expensiv , at 15,000. This is

have go t to ........................................ expenstve, at 8,000.

3 Kate, I don 't understand the homework. What


3 You did wen. In fact you did ....................... tha n

................................................................................ ?
anybody else.
4 1 can't come out just yet. 1 ................................... ..
4 We see all our cousins quite frequ ently. But we
.................................. some shopping round to my see An ita ..................................................... of all.
grandmother's.
31
should(n't), ought(n't} to and had
better (not)
7> Give advice using the modal verbs.

A: 1 can't see the number.


What is it? (ought)
B: It' a six. You .. ~~g~~ ...
..~~.~~~~.!!.f!..l':Y~.!m: ....... 5 A: Stop! The dog's loose! (had better)
B: 1 ...........................................................................

Comparison of adjectives and adverbs


8> Complete the dialogue using the words in
brackets. The shows that you should also use an
intensifier such as much, a lot or far.

A: He's put on weight, hasn't he? (should) A: Aren't you going thro ugh the Channel Tunnel
to France?
B: You ................................... ...................................

B: No, the ferry's .!JC!.t .'!!.C?r~ P~~!!!.~~t (*pleasant).


A: Maybe, but it isn 't I............. ..........................

............. (q uick) the train. And are you taking


the car?
B: Yes.
A: What abou t going on the motorbike? 1t would
be 2............. ......................... . ("'cheap) than
2 A: He always seems to have a cold. (should)
going by car.
B: He ....................................................................... .

B: Do you thi nk so?


A: Of course. A bike i J ................................. ..
.......................... (*econo mical) than a car, and
it's only 10 to take the bike on the
ferry so it isn't 4........... ..

(expensive).

B: Mmm.
3 A: Anna nearly fell off her bike last night. (ough t) A: And you don't have to wait in traffic jams on a
B: She .................................................................... ..
bike, so travelling is 5............. ..........................
(stressfu l). 1t's 6......... .. .............. . ...................... ..

(*practical) when you get there, too. 1t really


7
IS ........................................................... ..

(convenient) way to travel. Listen! 1 go to


france B............. ............. ..........................
(*frequent) tha n you do, and 1 always go on
4 A: The fuel tank is almost empty. (had better)
my bike.

B: We ..................................................................... ..
B: Well, that's wha t l'd better do then.

32

Communication
~ Go for it )
9/ Write the conversation between you and Mark 10> Give advice for each situation. Then accept or
using the prompts. refuse the advice, giving a reason where possible.
o == Mark accepts your advice.
A: l'm fed up taking the bus all the time.
IKl = He refuses your advice, with a reason.
s: .r~~.~~g.~.~.~~.~.~.~'!.~..t;I.~f!.l:!tgm!!!g..'!..'!'.f!.~~r.~~~~:.
II: = He questions your advice.
A: 00 L~~!!.'~.t!.f!J~~:..Th~:!.~..~~t;I.~/y. .~~'!.~!r.~:.......

~ M!'.!l~~Jl.f?'!.:r~.r.igh.~..~.!!!.C!.~f?rk!~~~.!l~!~~~r.~.
A: 1 keep getting headaches.
s: .............................................................................

A: ~ .. ................................................................... ..

2 A: My dog died last week and 1 really miss him .


s: .............................................................................

A: 00 .......................................................................

3 A: 1 saw my boyfriend with Mandy Tucker on


lhe way home from school.
s: .............................................................................

A: ~ ...................................................................... .

Mark: 1 can't get on with my work at home. 4 A: 1 asked Kelly out for a pizza tomorrow night
My parent argue a lo t and it's hard to but 1 can'l really afford it.
concentrate. s: .............................................................................

You: .r.~~~~P.~.Y.~~ .~~!l~~.~~. work it, the library.


Mark: 00 . ~.~.~.~.~'!.'.1.:~ . It closes at six oclock. A: 00 .......................................................................

You:
your teacher that you 're having problems
at home.
Mark: 00 2 ................................................................. .

l'd feel embarrassed.


Vocabulary (2):
You: Well, 3 .............................................................. ..

Personalising vocabulary
your parents about it.
Mark: [I] 4 .................................................................. .

It is helpful to learn new vocabuJal)' by noting


how it is used in a colltext relevanl to you. This
is especially true of vocabulal)' items like phrasal
You: Well, 1 think you should. Otherwise, they verbs, e.g. look forward: I'm looking forward to the
aren't going to realise there's a problem. summer holidays.
Mark: ~ 'i ................................................................... Write eight entences Wl1ich are true for you
Thanks, 111 do that. using phra al verbs wiLh get, go, give and look.
33
IllS aevelopment extra

Reading

INTERNATIONAL Focus

Hi heroes are ~ton Senna and When he was fifteen, Antonio Wh n he isn't racing, Antonio fi nds
Nelson Piquet. He's from Brazil, moved from karting to racing caTS time for other sports, especially
he's eighteen, and he already has a and spent seven or eight months water sports like water-skiing and
successful career in motor racing. in the USA, at the Formula Barber jet-skiing. He's from Manaus in th
ANTONIO PIZZONIA was recently Dodge Racing School in Florida. Amazon region, where ther are a
at the Brand Hatch racetrack in Out of the ten races in which he lot of ri vers a nd lakes, so it was
the south of England. When we competed, he won seven. very easy for him to do water ports
met him, he was smiling and as a young teenager.
lIe's raced in many different
oking very relaxed, in spite of
tbe fac t that he was about to drive
countries, including Spain, Antoni hope to q a Fonnul One
New Zealand, France, Engla d driver e entually. '1 think I can get
in the British Formula Renault
Sport Championship. and Germany. He says the most lh re in two or three years' time,' he
important race for him so far says, as he g ts into his ear to take
Although he's from Brazil, Antonio has been the Brazilian Karting part in the race.
now lives in Cambridge, in England Championship because it gave
He' lived there for two yeal's. lIe him the confidence to become a
misses his family, but he's got a lot r acing <inver. Antonio won the race and test
of friends in England. drove a Formula One car as part of
Danger doesn't worry him. His the prize. He also won a road car
H tarted racing at the age of nine father, who was also a racing for a year. And although he isn't old
when he won his first karting driver, has always given him a lot enough to be a Formula One racing
championship, the Amazonian of encouragement, although his drivel', he won a cake in the shape
Championship. He won his first mother i. n'l so sure about his of a Formula One car!
Brazilian Championship III Sao choice of career. Ther are times
Paulo at the age of thirteen . when he thinks he shouldn't do it.

34

Co mprehension Communication

tay cool 4> Write the conversation in your notebook.

1 / Read the text and complete the factfile. Gina wants to be a racing driver. Her father
encourages her, but her mo ther doesn't like the idea.
Father: (gives advice: con tact the British Racing
Antonio Pizzonia
Federation) 1 thi nk .. .
Gina: (accepts his advice)
Country of birth: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Mother: (gives advice: go to college)

Gina: (ques tions her advice)

Country he lives in now:


Mother: (gives advice: do a secretarial course)

Training: where?
Gina: (refuses her advice)

how long? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Father: Mum's right, Gina. You should take her

Favourite leisure activities: ________ advice and perhaps get a Saturday job at
the racetrack.

Writing

2/ Put the events in order. 5> In your notebook, write a descriptive


<I)D He went to live in Cambridge. comparison of these two racing circuits. Use some
b) D lie went to the USA. of the words in the box and your own ideas.
cl [I) He won the Amazonian Champion hip.
<.I) 0 He test-drove a Formula One car.
eI D He won the British Formula Renault Sport
Championship.
f D He won his first race in Sa Paulo.

60 for it
3/ Answer the questions.
Where did the interviewer meet Antonio?
..1t.~r:~mM..ff.q.~~~,.l~..~n~.~~H'.~..~f.f.~.9!~r!~: .................
Did the interviewer meet Antonio before or after
th race at Brands Hatch?

'2 How do we know that Antonio wasn ' t nervous


about the race?

3 Which countries has he lived ill, apart from Brazil?

4 What do s he do in his spare time?


aUra tive beautiful setting city
countryside dangerous forest
I) Why is Manalls good ror water. port? mountains narrow streets old
view or the harbour
6 Why can't Antonio drive a Formula One car yet? The Monaco circuit is older than the Monza circuit.
The Monaco circuit ;s in the city. whereas ...
35
ea y for lift off

Vocabular
Stay cool ~_~o_fo_r_i_t~)
G_
1 ;> Categorise the jobs; C for cars, H for health, 4> Use the adjectives from Exercise 2 to describe
and R/TV for Radionv. the people.

sales manager [TI mechanic c=J


doctor DO optician c=J
presenter IRlTVI sound engineer c=J
physiolherapisl [=:J producer [=:J
script editor [=:J driving instructor [=:J
garage owner CJ dentist [=:J

2'/ Complete the adjectives describing personality.


Then write the opposites.
Opposite
pl~gsanl .. .'!.1JP.~t:~~~lJ.t .....................

Ion e t

2 ef _ ecti e
'My papers are in such a mess. I can never lind
30_g _n ised

anything: .. !!.i~?~fI~~.i~~!!...
eI bIe
'I'm in love and it feels great !: ....................... ..
5_ardwo_king

2 'I know l'm right and tha t's that: ..................... ..


6so bl e

3 'I have to tell the truth. 1 can't lie: ...................... .


7d ci iv e

4 'rve got lots of friends. 1 j ust don't have


Bh_pp y

9 r l a ed
time to see them all: ........................ .
lOcom i t ed 5 'Sony 1 fo rgot to post your let er. rve got a
II um Ie terrible memory.' .........................
12 s abe 6 'I like watchi ng sport on lV, but I hate doing
physical exercise myself.' ........................ .
7 'l'm always at the mon thly meetings of OUT
voluntary wo rk group. They're really
Words with silent letters
important.' ........................ .
Manv words in Engli h have silent letter, e.g.

8 '1 usual ly manage to stay calm, whatever


II lei ter h in honest.

happens.' ........................ .
3) Underline the letters which are silent in
9 'I've spent ages tryi ng to choose a colour
these words.
for my room . I just can't mak up my
I cam paign 2 knee 3 listen 4 psychological mind.' ........................ .
5 climbing 6 hour 7 lhumb 8 wrong

36

Stay cool
First conditional: if/unless clause + 6> Use the prompts to write the advice a father
'/I (will)/won't is giving his son.
First conditional: clause with
will/won't
conjunction or
you /be/pleasant
5> Rewrite the sentences in the first condjtional.
you /make friends easily
.!f!l.f!.'!.:~~R.~~.l!~f!.'.".~! .N.'!.I!:!!.!!!.l!.~.~fr..~~.'!.~.~~f!!.Y.: ...........
Stop fooling around or you'll hurt yourself.
you /lose friends quickly
..If~~.!!.C!.'!:.t'9P..tl!.l!.~~rJ9..t;J.r9.1!.'!.t!,.y.f?':'.:~~ ...................
you /be/ unreliable
..~~!1Y.f?':'.~t;!f:.............................................................
................................................................................ if

Give him time and he'll change his mind.

If .............................................................................. ..
2 you/be/ organised
you/not do a good day's work
Un less ...................................................................... .

~ You must book in advance, otherwise you won't


get a seat.
might/migh t not
Unless .......................................................................

3 you /be/too sociabl


people/take advan tage of you
3 If you don't send in your application form today,
If ............................................................................... .

they won't consider you for the job .


............................................................................... or
4 people/not take you seriously
you /be/committed to your work
4 We'd betler not disturb him. He'll get really ............... :........................................................ unless

bad-tempered. ....... . ............................ ... . ..... 1.................................... .

If ............................................................................... . or
5 be vain
I) You'd
better go now, otherwise you'll miss the you/be/unpopular
last bus . Don't ........................................................................ .

............................................................................... or
6 get behind with yo ur work
you /get depressed
6 Call me if there's a problem, otherwise I'll see
you at eight. Never ........................................................................ .

Unless .......................................................................

37
Go for it
Time clauses in the future Time clauses in the future with when/as soon as
with when/as soon as First conditional: if/unless clause + will/won't
7 ./ Cross out the incorrect sentences. First conditional: clause with conjunction or
a) ),6Je'll fl8've a f3a~ wl-1el~ yo 1:1 'II 8> Complete the letter with suitable words and phrases.
get yom exam resul ts.
b) We'll have a party when you get
your exa m results.
c) We ha've a ~aft} wi'lefl yeu !'Jet
your exam results.

a) I'll give you the keys as soon as


I'll see you.
b) I give you the keys as soon as I
see you.
c) I'll give you the keys as SOOI1 as
1see you.

2 a) I may go away for a few days


when I'll gel my results.
b) I may go away for a few days
when I get my results.
c) 1 may go away ror a few day
when 1 got my results.

J a) They'll pick the candidate '


hen all the application forms
are in.
b) They pick the cand idates when
all the application fonTIS will
be in.
c) TIley'lI pick the candidates
when all the application forms
will be in.

4 a) Do you tak a packed lunch


when you'll go on the outing?
b) Will you take a packed lunch
when you go on the outing?
c) Will you take a packed lunch
when you'll go on the outing?

5 a) We make up our minds as oon


as we know all the fact.
b) We'll make up our minds as
Don as we know all the facts.
c) We'll make up our minds as
soon as we'll know all the racts.

38
Communi cation

Stay cool
~, Go for it )
9/ Complete the responses to these statements.

A: Drivers should retake their driving test every


two years.
Parents of young
children shouldn't both

B: 1 take your .... R.~!~~.....' but 1 don't think it


would reduce the number of accidents.
A: You have to be twenty-five to drive a car.
B: I don't ................................ thaI's true.
2 A: We have more freedom lhan our
parent had.
Teachers' pay should
B: I agree ................................ you .
be the same as doctors'
1 A: Life's easier now than it was fifty years ago . an d lawyers'.
B: Oh , I don't ................................ about that.
4 A: Painting is more creative than photography.
B: I'm no t ................................ 1 agree.
S A: To be a successful politician. you have to be
dishonest.
e
B: I'm sorry but 1 think you 're ................ ........... . secretaries than men.
6 A: 1 don't Lhink it's right La spend all that
money on going to the moon.
B: You ................................ be right, hut don 't
you think it's exciting to find out more
abou t outer space?

What's wrong?
>
11 Agree or disagree with the students above,
giving your reasons.
10/ Correct the mistakes.
Agree: .T~~!.'~.~~~~:.~~:~.!?f!~JC!!r..~~.~~~.~~!~~~~~.if........
a.mLv1cl

Stop fooling rouAd!


.~~~ P..~.~~'!.f:s.. ~~~. ~~~~. ~!. ~~p.~: ................................... .
I You have to be comitted to succeed in this job. Disagree: .r'!!.. '!.t?~.~~r.~.!.!!9r.~~...1f.!~~~~.'~.~~~~'?~.~.~ ..
"2 I call you as soon as 1 know he result. .~~t?~ .tff.t.~.~ .!~~.~~!{~~~~~.!!:~fl.~~'..~~~.~~p..~f~!!!!!!~ ......
J I'll be really happy if I'll get an interview. .~~.~~.!~~.~~~~: ..........................................................

4 He's sociable reliable and efficient. 2

5 Don'L stay too late or you miss the la t bus.


G My brother works in compu ler.

39
ta uality

Vocabular

Stay cool
1 / Replace the words in italics 3> First, fill in the blank spaces in 1 to 12 with the endings
with the correct form of a phrasal of the adjectives. Then match the clues to the numbers.
verb with take.

after back @ off


1 A R 1 S T 0 C R A T I I I
2 A M B 1 T I
on over up
3 R E L E V
There was too much information to
absorb all at once. .............................
take in

4 1 N T E L L 1 G 1J
5 W 1 T T
Can you start learning the piano at 6 1 M P 0 R T
any age? ................................. .
7 F U S S
2 Have you returned the books to the 8 U S E
library? ................................. .
9 R 0 M A N T
3 Will his job be safe when the new
company takes control?
10 A T T R A C T J
II J E A L
12 E X C E L L
4 Will you have to accept more
r onsibility in your new job? 13 C A R T 0 0 N
14
15 M U S
H 0 R R 0 R
1 C A L
.
5 Would you mind removing your
shoes? ........................................ .
a)
~ A film or play with songs.
6 Who do you resemble?
b) 0 Beautiful.

c) D Belonging to the upper classes.

d) 0 It doesn't matter if your T-shirt's a bit dirty. Stop

2> Complete the words with the being so ..................... .


endings in the box.
e) 0 Listen carefully. This is ......................... .
-ant -ic -ent -ive f1 0 A type of film which can be frightening.
-rul -y -OliS
g} 0 My new dictionary helps me a lot. It's really ..................... ..
beautifoL....

h) 0 So you saw him with ano ther gi rl. There's no


need to get .................... .
I differ............ 6 wonder.......... ..

i) 0 This sort of person is good at making jokes.


2 fam............ 7 dirt........... .
j) Very, very good.
3 creat............ 8 expen ........... .
k) 0 You're always writing love letters, you ......................... fool !
4 pleas............ 9 eleg ........... .
I) D You try to do too much. You're too ......................... .
5 impress............ 10 dramat............
m) D Clever.
nl 0 A film which relies on graphics and animation.
0) 0 Take out this paragraph. It isn't ......................... to
your argument.
40
Grammar
tay cool
Defining and non-defining relative clauses
4; Complete the sentences with who{mj, which,
where or whose.

Is this the jumper ..... }!~~!~~...... shrank in 5 Would you recognise the man .....................
lhe wash?
sold you the tickets?
Glasgow, ..................... 1 pent last summer, is a
6 Our accommodation, ..................... the tourist
great place to go clubbing.
office reco mmended, was absolutely terrible.
2 H took on a job ..................... was too difficull. 7 We went to Scotland with my mother, ................. .
3 Kale, ..................... you've already met, is coming family originally came from Edinburgh.
with us. 8 My grandmother often goes back to the
4 Would the person ..................... ar is blocking village ..................... she was born.
the exit please move it?

Present perfect simple and continuous


5> Circle the correct forms.
Una: Hi, Sean.Q haven't seeii)! I haven't been seeing
you for ages.
Sean: 1 know.
ina: You look tired. Are you OK.
~ean: I'm fine. 1 I've been working! I've worked
quite hard, that's all.
Una: Oh? 2 What have you done?! What have you
been doing?
Sean: J I've got together ! I've been getting together
some photos for my portfolio. 4 I've taken up !
I've been taking up photography, you see.
Una: Really?
Sean: Yes. l'm quite serious about it. r, I've joined /
I've been joining a photography dub.
Una: 6 How long have you gone? ! How long have
you been going?
Sean: Oh, only a few weeks.
Una: And how many photos 7 have you taken / have Una: 9You haven't spent ! You haven't been
you been taking so far? spending 200 on a camera, have you? With
Sean: Quite a lot. a camera like that you can take my photo
Una: Have you got a good camera? if yo u like!
Sean: Yes. It 's not bad. 8 I've just bought / I've just Sean: Sorry! 10 I haven't taken on / Ihaven't been
been buying a new one for 200. taking on any professional work yet!

41
for it
Relative clauses 1 We're going to a vill age n ar "Pamplona.
My gra ndm ther was born there.
6/ Write a letter to Penny in your notebook by
2 We're staying in a farm house.
joining the sentences together with who(ml. which,
It belongs to my uncle.
where or whose.
3 My grandmo ther is arriving tomorrow afternoon.
This summer we're going to Spain. She now lives in Barcelona.
It's my favourite place to spend a holiday.
4 We're having a big birthday party for my
My American cousins are going 10 be there. grandmother. She's seventy on Saturday.
I've never met them.
5 On Sunday we all plan to go to a restaurant
Dear Penny. in Pamplona .
This summer we're 90;n9 to Spain , which ;s my My grandmother used to work there.
favourite place to spend a holiday. 6 The owner is related to our family.
My Amer;ca~ cousins. whom I've never met, are His name is Felipe.
90in9 to be there. 7 Felipe is a fanta stic chef.
He's just taken over the res taurant.

Present perfect simple and continuous


7 > Write the questions and answers, using the
present perfect simple or continuous as appropriate.

what / he / eat / ? (ice cream)

..w.h!!t~ .~~..~.t;~~.~~.~!l..!l? ............................................ .

..~~~.~~!!.~~!f!!9.!!!L~li~.lir.t;!!m:...................................

2 e / she / swim / ? (Jake)

3 what / they / play / ? (volleyball)

4 what / he / do / all morning / ? (ride/horse)

5 why / he / fall over backwards / ? Uump over/


fence)

6 what / he / do / '! (twist/knee)


Commu nication

S ay cool
9 > Complete the questions and responses.
What do yo u .................... of Gwyneth PaJtTow?
8'; Put the conversation in the correct order.

1 think she's .................... .

I'm not that .................... on her.

J like her a .................... .

I can't .................... her.

Have you seen her .................... film?

No, I haven't.

I I've seen it twice.

Did you .................... it?

1 .................... it was wonderful.

I wasn't v ry .................... .

1 though t it was a bit .................... .

PJ 60 for it )
10> In your notebook, write a conversation
between you and a friend discussing a film star
about whom you have different opinions.

o What's wrong?)
A 11 :> Correct the mistakes.
a) D l'm not that keen 011 him.

'Where have you been all afternoon?'


b) D Did you? I thought it was a waste of time.
been .s wjfT)fT)jn~
'I've SWl:H'R- in tne river:
c) ill Have you seen Ewan McGregor's latest film?

Is this the book what you told me about?


d) D You wish!

2 I've seen already the film.


eJ 0 Do you? WeI!, I suppose he' quite attractive

3 It's an exceJentfilrn .
in a funny sort of way.
S 4 1 though t the film was a loss of time.

n0 Y u can'l say that! It was really exciting 5 That's the boy who's moth er teaches at
and Ewan McGregor wa brilliant in it. our school.

g) D Yes. I thought it was fantasti . 6 Her mother who wa a fa mous actTeSS,


wanted her to go to university.
h) DOh, 1 am. 1 think he's really good-looking.
i) D Maybe he'll walk in here right now.

43
1 13 UCYCIUtJ I crl

Reading

The hot ticket

The future of fo tbaU is feminine, according to


Sepp Blatter Pre ident of FIFA. the game's
governing body. Tbi afternoon, 90,000 people will
watch the Women' World Cup final in Los AngeJe
between the United State and China, whose team
has been playing so we]] in the tournament.
Thre weeks ago, when [Ook them to the front
[he women' roumamenr pages throughout the
began, DO one paid much country and even onto
arreDtlOO ro it. This week, prime-time television.
chc: Presidem 0 the United Everyone loves a winner.
tutes changed his schedule Americ:ms more than most, esrablished it as a world probably th greatest
[0 make sure that he could but the way in which this class women's event in display of football in the
attend. Even he was lucky team has taken over the sportS,' said Marla Messing, history of the competition;
to get in; the gam IS a seU public imagination has been the President and Chief and in Sun Wen, their
. When the organisers remarkable. The whole Executive Officer of th captain, lhey have the star
covered they had 3,000 country has been following Women's World Cup. of the murnamenc. There
extra tickets on Tuesday. the tournament. If che US The Chinese, who have is even a Barbie-do li
mey w e sold within hours. team wins this afternoon. a fu!l~dme league of ten ve ion of her availa Ie in
Women's fo mbal I is the country will go wild. teams, will start as toy shops.
suddenly the ho ridet. 'I thought this favourites this afternoon.
When the United tares rournament ould be big, When they took on
ream beat Brazil in the bUl it' been bigger than I Norway, the cup holders,
emi6nals, their success imagined. We have in the semifinals, they gave

pa sionate fans, including President


footuall Scelle
Clinton and his daughter, Ch_e lsea.
By Dave Allsop
The three-week tournament
attracted more than 650,000 fans in
Victory for the USA total. 'It's the biggest sp0l1ing even t
It has been a thrilling week in for us in the last ten years,' said
women's football . [he American President Clinton. 'It's not just
dream bas finally come nue. The soccer. We are lalking about
ho I nation beat China 5-4 on women's soccer. I think it will have
penalti to claim the third Women's a far-reaching impact across the
World Cup in fronl of 90,000 world.'

44

5 the game has international status

6 the Chinese team i the preferred team to win


he till . headings and any pictures
o h Ip YOLI guess what a te t is going to
be boul.
can til t t to und rstand the principal Go for it )
poiT1ts. Fo u on number, nam and fact.
( e Exerci > 11 3 >Answer the questions.
) III lltify th phra \:: which are difficult and Article A
work oul what they mean or look them up m
How long has this year's tournament been
a dictIOnary. (_ ee ExeTcise 2)
going on?
4 fiillally read th xl again t make SUTe you
understand he d tails and opinions ill the
l. (See E 'erei e 3) 2 How do we know that th Americans were very
interested in the World Cup?

Comprehension
3 Why has the Women's World Cup surprised
Stay cool Marla Messing?
1; Read the text and answer the questions.
4 How do we know that the Chinese aptain has
In which country is the cup final? .. !~~.Y.~~: .......
become famous?
1 Which article was written before the match?

2 Which four countries are mentioned? Article B

5 Why has the American dream 'finally come true'?

Who won lhe game betwe n China and Norway?


6 How ma ny Women's World Cup tournaments
have there been?
4 Which teams played in the Anal?

5 How many people were at the Anal?


Writing
6 How many attended the whole tournament?
4> In your notebook. write a letter to an English
friend to confirm arrangements for the
2> Write the expressions which show that:
following situation.
You're going to see a football match with your
there are no tickets left rOT the final

friend, who is coming to visit you next week.


These are the details:
2 women's football is now very popular

Coach leaves 3.30. Arrives at ground 5.30.

Buy tickets. Go for a pizza.

3 the US leam is now headline news


Malch starts 7.30.

Coach leaves 9.45. Arrives home 11.45.

Weather - may rain - bring an umbrella.

4 everybody in the US will celebrate

45
WI~fl

Vocabular
Stay cool
/ Com plete the labels.

5 rad io .......................... .

sound ....Sll~~~..............

6 video ...........................

I ....................... .... computer

7 video .......................... .

2> Match the phrasal verbs in Column A to the


items in Column B. (Some of the items in Column
B can be used more than once.)
A B
2 ........................... phone

turn up ~ a) a wanted man


2 tum down D b) a problem in your mind
J tum on D c) th e volume
4 tum off D d) in time ror lunch
5 tum in D e) an offer of help
6 turn away D f1 people from the door
3 personal .......................... . 7 turn over D g) the computer
h) the ligh t

~ . Go for it )
3>In your notebook, write four sentences, each
containing a phrasal verb with turn and an item
4 CO .......................... . of electrical equipment.
46
Stay cool
Causative have (have something done) Second conditional: if/unless clause
+ 'd (would)/wouldn't
4; What are they having done? Write sentences
with have. 5> Complete the second conditional sentences
with the correct form of the words in brackets .

... .r.~.'!.J4.~~.~~ ... (Yo u/ have) more money jf .. Y.9.'!. ...


.!!f!!!!.'!..w.!!,r:';t!. (you/not spend) so much on CDs.
What sort of computer .......................................... .
(y u/buy) jf ........................................... (you /have)
..~~~} .~f!.,!j.~!1..~f!!..~.'!!..~.~~~!!~~: ....................................
[2,000 to spend?
2 I'm sure .................................................................... .
(the camera /work) if .............................................. ..
(y u/p ul) new batteries in il.
3 .......................................................... (l /not change)
my Id sou nd system for a new one unless
.......................................................... (it/be broken).
4 ................................................................ (l /not buy)

o a sound system unless ............................. (it/have)


a record deck.
S ..... .......................................... (I /not have) a mobile
ph one if ........................................... (you /pay) me!

Verb need + gerund/passive infinitive


6> Complete the sentences with (not) need and
the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Gerund

The car's dirty. It ...~~.~!!:SA~~~!~.!l: ... (clean)

Yo ur hair's long. It ........................................... .

3 ..................................................................................

(cut)

2 The fax is fine. It .................................................. .


(repair)
3 The volume is low. ................................................ ..
......................... ? (b tteries/replace)

Infinitive
4 ................................................................................... .

These plates are clean. They .. A~~:t!"!~~c!. .........


.JC!..~!..~!!~I:r.~.t!:.. (wash)
4 The video recorder is sh owing the wrong time.
It ................................................................... (r set)
5 Your aT is making a terrible noise...................... ..
.............................................................. ? (it/service)
5 ....................................................................................

47
I wish/If only + past tense
7 / Write what they are saying using If only and I wish.

1 1 wish ... !"~~~'~.~~~P.'!.fr.!?~ ..~.~r.t;; ............................. .


Second conditional: if/unless clause
2 1f only .. !..~.~~ .!':.r.,?p..t;: .................................................
+ 'd (would)/wouldn't
3 I wish .........................................................................

4 If only ........................................................................

9> Rewrite the sentences using the words


in brackets.
5 I wish .........................................................................

6 If only ...................................................................... ..

I don't have any money so 1 don't go out. (it)

7 I wish ....................................................................... ..
..If.!.h.~.~.~~~~/..~~~.2~.~~r: ........................................

They're leaving the party early. Something must

Go for it be wrong. (unless)

.. !.~!!Y. .~!?!!!.t!.~:.~ J'!!!~~ .~~~ p.~r:!Y. .t;~r.1JI. .~~!~...............

Causative have (have something done)


..~~~~!!!!!g..~~~!.~~r~.~~!?!!g: .................................... .

8/ C mplete the conversations with have and the


I haven't got a mobile phone, ~o you can't ring

correct form of the verbs in the box.


me. (if)
develop (. colour) look at not mark
lest clean
A: Your hair looks different.
2 We can't play a computer game before dinner
B: I've had it coloured, tha t's why.
.................................... because we don't have ti me. (if)
A: You need glasses.
B: No, I don't. I ..................................................... .
last week, and the optician said they were OK.
J I tell you I love you be ause 1 mean it. (unless)
2 A: Is your laptop computer working?
B: No, but I ......................................... tomorrow.
3 A: That jacket's a bit dirty, isn 't it?
4 1 swim out a long way, but l'm a good swimmer.
B: You're right. I .................................................. .. (unless)
when 1 next go into town.
4 A: .................. you .................. your holiday
photos ..................................... yet?
5 This personal stereo isn't under guarantee, so I
B: No. I haven't finished the film yet.
can't take it back to the shop. (if)
5 A: Have you handed in your project?
B: Yes, but I ...........................................................
yet.
48

Stay cool ~ 60 f or it )
10) Put the conversation in order. >
11 In your notebook, write conversations for

the following situations.

a) 0 Batteries?

bl mCan I help you?


1 Your parents have bought you a video camera.
There's a problem: it doesn' t record sound. You
c) 0 Certainly. Have you checked the batteries?
take it back to the shop.
dJ DOh, 1 didn't know that. Do you sell them?
You: Explain th at the video camera doesn't
e) o Thanks.
work. Show the receipt.
n0 The microphone. Could you have a look at
Assistant: Ask what the problem is.
You: Explain the problem. Ask the assistant
it, please?
to test it.
g] 0 What doesn't work exactly? Assistant: Agree that there is a problem,
h) 0 Yes, we do. You need a couple. Here you are. You: Ask wha t they will do.
i) 0 Yes. I bought this cassette recorder here last Assistant: Offer to rep lace it or to give a refund.
week and it doesn' t work.
You: Say what you want.
J) 0 Yes. It needs batteries.
You: My parents bought me this video

camera, but ...

2 You bough t a sweatshirt yesterday. When y u


got it ho me, you found a hole in the leeve.
Using a dictionary (1): Although you've lost the receipt, you go to the
Selecting what !o
look up customer services desk in the shop. There's a
sign which says 'No rerllnds or exchanges
Wh '11 you reLJd (J text. try to [ucs' th meaning withou t a receipt'.
of new words and phras . Use a dictionary only
wh n you annot guess tile meaning. You: Explain wha t the problem is. Say you
R d the extra L below, underlining the words wan t a refund.
r phra e5 which are new. How many words do Assistant: Ask for the receipt.
you need to 10 up? You: Explain.
Assistant: Apologise, and explain why you cannot
do anything.
The new rich You: Expl ain that the label shows that you
Over the last five years, the income of bou ght th e sweatshirt from that shop.
Briti h sixteen- to nineteen-year-old . has Assistant: Offer to replace it but not to refund
shot up by iXly per enl. And it seems the money.
that they will not be squandering their You: Ace pt the offer.
new-found wealth becau c the rna t j?)
popular New Year' resolution among
What's wrong? 0 "

~rrff
British teenage is to look after their
money. 12> Correct the mistakes.
h~
I fliwe my computer repaired yesterday. '\
1 I wish 1 have a car,
2 The tape needs to be rewind.
3 If 1 were seventeen, 1 learn to drive.
4 1 wouldn t go out in this weather unless I had to.
5 We've had repaired the car.
6 You haven't turn ed in their job offer, have you?
49
9 ts

Vocabular
Stay cool make a fuss make a mistake (. make an effort) make do
make iL make money make up your mind
>
1 Replace the words in italics
with the expressions in the box. 3 For goodness' sake, decide!

You could at least try!


4 Most people only get rich if they work hard .
...P.i!.~f!..'!.fJ..~rJ.'1..........................................................
1 don't want to complain. The food isn 't so bad.
5 This isn't a prop r paella pan but we can manage.

2 1 ran for the bus but 1 didn't get there in time.


6 Did you get something wrong in that question?

Go for it
2> Write what the people are saying using an
expression or a phrasal verb with make.

That's the third time you've


been late this week! r-----'-----------.

4 Oh , no ! 1 ........................................................... .

50

Stay cool
Verbs should have/ought to have
3/ Comment on each of these situations using
the verbs in the box.
leave ~ go bring
swim ~ eat slap
should have/shouldn't have

4 .................................................................................. .
at the crossroads.

He should have worn warm clothes.

5 ....................................................................................
some water with hem .

............................................................. a larger size.

6 .....................................................................................

where the urren t was strong.

2 ................................................................... so Inuch.

7 ... ............................................................................... ..
3 ........................................................... into the field.
the dog in th e car.
51
Verbs make, let and be allowed to Go for it
4/ Complete the sentences with make, let or Verbs should have/ought to have
be allowed to.
6> Advise and criticise these people.
Please don 't ......'!!.l!.~...... me go to the dentist! ~
' . "~~~ ~":
c- /

Jake always manages to .................................... . // /0 '.. "Ad~


/j'I,fP./VH'
~ ,~
,."., 'IItIl'
' _;
i~ -~
me laugh when rve got a moulh full of food.
2 Did they ..................................... you use a
calculator in the maths exam?
3 We ..................................... bring drinks to school.
but we ............................................. drink them in
the classrooms.
4 When my grandmother was a teenager. her
mother wouldn't ..................................... her go should have/shouldn't have
out with boys until she was eighteen.
A: 1wanted to see him again, but 1 felt a bit shy.
S You won't ..................................... buy a ticket for
that film because you're too young. B: ..r~M.!.~~~~~.h~~~.~~~f:l.f~~..~.~~.p.h~!!~.!!M~.~.~r....

6 Do they ..................................... you wear a B: ..r~M.!.~~~~~!!:r..~.~x~.~~.~!!.~'?..~hy: ........................

uniform at all schools in Britain? A: My brother asked me to help him with his
7 .................................. me see what you've bought! homework. 1 told him to do it himself. l-le
couldn't. 1 feel bad about it.
B: ............................................................................
5) Express the sentences differently using the
correct form of be allowed to.
B: ............................................................................
My parents didn't let me go to the concert .
.. ,1 .~~~~:!.~!!~~~!!..~l!.,g~.~!l.rh~.fl!.r:r.t;!!:!1........................

TIl lospita l lets you visit patients between two 2 A: I was out late last night. My parents didn't
and five in the afternoon. know where 1 was. They were worried.
You ........................................................................... . B: ...... ......................................................................

2 They don't let you smoke in their house. s: ............................................................................


You ........................................................................... .
ought to have/oughtn 't to have
3 They don't let children over the age of eleven 3 A: I took my broth er's jacket without asking
play in the minipark. him. He made a big fuss about it.
Children over the age of eleven ............................ . s: ............................................................................

4 Old your teacher let you go home early? B: .......................................................................... ..

.................... you ...................................................... .


................................................................................ ?
4 A: 1 was thirsty and 1 drank all the milk last
5 Why didn't her mum let her stay at Sarah's house? night. There was none left for breakfast.
Why .................... she ............................................. .. B: ............................................................................

................................................................................. ?

s: ............................................................................

52
--

Communic ation .

tay cool 9> Write a conversation for the following situation.

7) Write in the missing words. Then put the

conversations in order.

Conversation 1:
o I couldn't r........................ your phone number.

o Why ........................ you phone me? I had my

mobile with me, and it was sw...................... on.

D I'm T.......... .. ............ sorry.

o Never mind. It doesn't m........................ .


mYou're late. You sh .f!.'!.~t!. ... have been here at six.
Conversation 2:
o I've s........................ I'm sorry!

o It's OK Don't w........................ about it. You borrow your friend's white jacket to go to a
[] You sh.~'!.~~~~L .. have been so rude to me. party. When you get back home, you realise that
someone has spil t a drink down the back. The stain
01 know it isn't. Look, I've been feeling a bit
has dried and won't come out. You go round to
stressed recently. I'll m........................ up for it.
your friend's house to return the jacket.
o Sometimes it isn't en ........................ just to
Friend: ..w..~.~:~.h~p.p.~IJ~cJ.J~.!?l..Yj~~~~l ......................
say sony.

You:

Go for it
) Write the conversation.
.............................................................................

Friend: ......................................................................... ..

You:

Friend: .......................................................................... .

A: Here you are at last! We were supposed to


catch the eight thirty train and it's now nine
thirty. Why are you so late?
B: [ap%gises) ........................................................... ..
o What's wrong?)
10> Correct the mistakes.
A: What happened? st~ect
1 know 1 shoul d have-5t-ay;
B: (gives an excuse and ap%gises again) ..................

You made me to drop the glass.


2 You shouldve Ii ened to him.

3 You really must make effort.

A: (accepts the apology) .............................................


4 ls it allowed to drive when you're seventeen?

5 I'm sony. 1 been really busy.

B: There's another train at nine forty-five. 6 Will he make a lot of many?

53
s s dey o ment extra

Reading

A
If you asked Simon Taylor
what had made him a 'bad
boy'. he would probably tell
you that ir all started when
his father was unemployed.
His father was at home all the
time, Simon got on his nerves
and they argued. Simon didn't
feel loved.

Teenage criminal
Schoo ls cou ldn't cope with
'imon, He stole (rom car and
from hop . And then he tole
from hi!'> part"nt . When be wa
twelve, a .. \\fCcks after his
mother had gIven birth to his
, i~ter, he set fire co hi bed and Holidays aren't always good 'In priso n [ learned everything I
LliTtc1Uu. and to two cars in the
for you needed to know for a Ilfe of
treer. At that poinr, he parents In an attempt to help him , the crime,' he says. He describes
louldo 't cope with h1m anymore staff at Conway Place sent imon lessons from other prisoners in
and he wa<; take.n into care. He on an incredible serIes of exotic how to stca I ca rs and how to
WCfl[ int chilJren' h mes, then
holidays. He went scuba clivi g in use credit cards illegally.
illto an in tirution for young the Caribbean, cruiseJ thro ugh t he
offenders and finally to a pecial Florida Everglades, visited A new outlook on life
school ca.Ucd .noway Place, Disneyworld and Sea World, rode N o w twen ty-two, imon is
which was run by a charity. through the Mexican jungle, skied going out wit h a girl and say
i.n Scotland and Norway, toured that he has give n up crime.
Italy, went horse riding in 'Someone rea lly cares for me for
Denmark, camped in Spain and the first time in In)' life ... I jUt
went on safari in Zimbabwe. The w a nt to be boring and )rdinlry.
people who ran Conway Place I w ant to be normal,' he 'iay .
thought the rrips would do him He wishes he had some
good. According to Simon, th y quali fications. L1 ills opinion,
Ulad him worse. tht: schoo l Sh Ollldn '( have sent
h im o n expe nsive ho lIdays; they
A prison education sho uld have ed ucated him. If he
When he left care at the age of had some q ua lLfi atlons, he
eighteen, Simon was soon put in might be able to ger a job. If he
prison for robbery. In tact, he had a jo b, he'd have some scLf
spent three of the ne t four years respect, w hi h is probably what
in prison. he needs more tha n anything.

54
Comprehension Communication

Stay cool 3> Imagine that Simon goes back to Conway


Place to talk to the head teacher there. Write
1/ Read the text and put the events in order.
the conversation in your notebook,
aJ D He met a girl who cared for him.

Simon: 1 feel an gry when 1 think back to the time


b) ill Simon took money from his parents.

d D He visited several countries.


1 spent here. (criticises) .J'.(n!.~~~!!!~~~L .....
ill D H went to a school caned Conway Place.
.h.~.l!~J~~tm~.!m.~!!.~~.9.K~~U~!Wf:................
e) D He went to prison.
Head : (responds) We thought ...
nD He went into a children's home.
Simon: (questions them) Why di dn't you ...
Head: (adm its they were wrong and says what they
should have done) 1t was a mistake ...
Go for it
We ought to have ...
2 / Correct the statements. Simon: (agrees) Yes, ...
Head: (asks about his life now)
Simon's father was never at home when Simon
was young. Simon: (responds)

Simon's fa ther . ~!!~..I!.'.'.~!!!p'.I.f!!I.~~. f!!'!!!..~f!~ .~.~'!!.l!Y~ ...


at home. Writing
1 Simon's parents had him taken inlO care when
his father became unemployed. 4> In your notebook, write a summary of Simon's
story. Follow the plan below and use the words
1l1ey had him taken into care when .................... .
and phrases given.
Say what Simon th inks made him a 'bad boy'.
consequently
I Simon thought the -programme organised by
Simon Taylor says he didn't feel loved as a child.
Conway House was good for him.
Consequently, he got into troub~e at an early age.
He thought it .......................................................... .
Give two examples of the things he did when he
was young.
what's more
] When he left Conway Place, he gave up crime. Say wha t he did at age twelve and what the
He ............................................................................. . consequence was.
as a result
Say what Conway Pla ce's idea was ; compare it
4 He spent four years in prison.
with what he really needed.
He ............................................................................. . whereas
5 He learned nothing while he was in prison. Say what happened and what the effect was.
however
He ............................................................................. .
Say what his plans are now, and what lhe
conditi ons are for success.
6 It will be easy for him to get a job now.
provided that
It would ....................................................................

55
Guess who?

Vocabular
tay cool
1 >Complete the words and phrases.
Age Hair Face
1 QJ ab ~ ~.!. twenty 9 0 medium -I _ _ __ _ shape
2 0 in his thirt 10 D ponyt __ _ 18 D Ion
3 CD middle-a 11 D sh _ v _ _ head 19 D th n
Height and build 120fr __ 9 _ 20 D T __ nd

40 t _ 1l Special features 21 D ov I
5D __ort 13 D e _ rrings eyes
60 med __ _ heighl 14 D gl _ sses 22 D b_9
70s1 m 15 D freck _ _ _ 23 D sm
8 D plu __ 16 0 sideb __ _ _ eyebrows
17 D double _ _ _ 24 D arch __
25 D bush _

nose
26 D 1__ _
27 D str ___ _ _
28 D sn _ b

2'; look at the pictures of Barry, Justine and louise. Write


the correct initials B, J and L by the words in Exercise 1.

Barry Justine Louise


56

3/ Write the personality adjectives under the {jo f or it )


correct headings.
4> Read the description of Barry. Then.
C aggressive) C amusing) boring enthusiastic in your notebook. write descriptions of
upset warm distant interesting happy Justine and Louise.
easy-going dull good fun bad-tempered
moody relaxed good-tempered tense cold

Positive qualities Negative qualities

..................CJ.IJJH~j!!9................. . .................C!gg.r:~J.'!~ ............... .

Communication
Stay cool ~,--_Go____~
_ ~or it )
/ Match the questions to the responses. 6> Complete the conversation with the words in
the box.
Questions
1 How do you get on with Bruno? W up go 1 ud quite C sort)
2 What do you think of Peter? D get easy-goin g
3 What's Emma like? D
4 What's the matter with Jo and Andy? D A: What .. ~.?'! .. of person is Justin?
5 What sort of mood is Nick in today? D B: He's a bit serio us at times, but he's basicany an
1............................... sort of guy.

Responses
A: So what's 2............................... with him at the
a} He seems quite outspoken but actually
he's really shy. moment? He had a J............................... at
b) Worse than yesterday - bad-tempered Harry and Paul last night.
and aggressive. B: I don' t know. 1 think they 4...............................

I(c) Really well. He's outgoing, amusing and


I" good fun to be with. on his nerves because they're 5............................ .

d) She's a bit moody sometimes, but she's and sometimes 6............................... aggressive.

never dull.
e) They're a bit quiet today. 1 don't know Why.

57
Grammar
tay cool
Verbs must/can't for drawing conclusions
7) Charlotte and Jamie are playing a quiz game.
Complete the conversation.

@!ucstion ~uestion

~( In the 1950s1

l~ He's 0 young

British pop star.

he hod hits on bolb sides

He's gol cropped dark hoir.

of the Atlantic.

He's well-built ond he used

His glosses were one of his

to be overweight.

trademarks.

~uestion ~uestion
She's a film slar.
She's gal dark hoir, beautiful
+~ In 1999,
big eyes and awide mouth.
Ihis bond of five hod
She played the masl fomous
ohuge hit wilh Ihe
film slar in the world in a
Bee Gees song, Tragedy.
film with Hugh Granl.

Charlotte: ..~~.~~~.~~ ... Elvis Pre ley. He was Adjective word order
really popular in the 1950s. 8) Choose three suitable adjectives from the box
Jamie: No, it can't be him . He didn't wear to complete each of the descriptions.
glas~~~"it"';;;~;t be B~ddy"i:ioiiY.""""
...............

beautiful blond Briti h cotton


2 Jamie: ...................................................... Liam
curly dark duvet (. Fanta tic)
Gallagher.
fashion French interesting Italian
Charlotte: No, ............................................... him.
large leather (e leisure) long
He ............................................... short
modem (. n ew) nice old
hair....................................................... .
patterned red riding short silk
Robbie Williams. The description fits
straight Swiss tall wavy white
him perfeclly.
wooden writing young
3 Charlotte : ........................................... Elizabe th
Hurley. She's Hugh Grant's partner.
A ...t~'!.~~~~.... .......'!.~.'!.............~~!~'!.~~...... centre

Jamie: No, ................................................. her.


1 ............................................................... hair

................................................... a wide
mouth. It ............................................. . 2 A ............................................................... sofa

Julia Roberts. 3 A .......................................... .............. _..... jacket

4 Jamie: ............................................. All Saint .


4 ........................................................... architecture

Charlotte: No, ............................................. them .

5 A ............................................................ designer

.............................................. only four

of them . It ...........................................
6 A ............................................................... desk

Steps.
7 A ............................................................... cover

58

Verbs seem, look, sound + adjective


or like/as if 5 You ...................................... worried. Is
9 / Complete the sentences with the correct form anything wrong?
of seem, look or sound and like/as if where necessary. 6 Although I've only just met him, he

I heard you rehearsing your new sony earlier.


...................................... a really nice guy.
1t ... ~~~!'!~~~ .. . great!
7 They've both got short blond hair and bl ue
The sky's very dark. It ..................................... .
eyes. They ...................................... sisters.
it's going to rain.
8 Did you hear a car oUlside? It ............................ .
2 Listen! 1t ...................................... th und er.
...................... Sarah and Phil ha ve arrived.
3 Hay y u been on holiday? You
9 When 1 think about that time in my life, it just
...................................... tanned.
...................................... a bad dream.
4 It ...................................... we haven't seen each
other for ages.

Go for it
Adjective word order
Verbs seem, look, sound + adjective
or like/as if
10/ Complete the article. putting the adjectives
in brackets into the correct order, and the verbs in
brackets into the correct form with like or as if
where necessary.

Last summer, I W nI on a walking holiday in the


mountain, with a grollp )f friends. Walking through
,... fq~~!!'!~~!.'!g..f!.~~ ...... ( ttl/fas inating) viUagc:. 1m He 7............................. (look) an athlete.
Ih 'Ir I .............................................. (slone!beautiflll)
He had 8.................................. . (curly/. hort) hair.
hUlIses under a l ............................. (clear/blue) a 9....... . ........................... (strong! quare) face and
ky was absolutely wonderful. In some places, il broatJ shoulder~ .
.................................... (~cem) time had stood 'I think it', a statue of an Olympic runner,' said lukt:.
,Iill filf hundreds 'If 'ear~. 'No, it can'l be,' I Said.
One Ja.y, ",1":0 we W!re OU[ walking in tbe hills, 'The Olympic G-.une: [Ook
Luke ~'allctl me ovcr to look:u omething. He 'eemed place in Greece.'
rc.-alh xciled. We phonetJ the Local JUlI, eum,
l)n the ~round in tr(ml of him was a The woman we spoke to
I................................... (meral/small) 0 jecl. 10................................... (sound)
l! 'j............................. (10k) part of a tarue. very intere ted, so we look Ihe
It iliUM he really old' ~d Luke::. larue:: ro the mll~eum . Luke was
II \va" it 6.............................................................. .. right. It was an Olympic r unner.
(bron7 '/b .. ullfully Ilude. ~taLUe of a man. And it was nearly 2,000 years old.

59
I r CI

to the USA.

Communication
Stay cool
>
1 Complete the conversations below and match
them to the pictures. (There are six pictures but
only four conversations.)

,1

A: ..w..~~!~............. you mind ........................ . 4 A: l'm feeli ng a bit tired. Could .........................
your bike? take over?
B: Of ......................... not. Picture D
B: ......................... , but I'm nervous about

2 A: ......................... you help me?

drM ng strange cars. Picture D


B: l'm afra id .......................... There' a queue
of people here. Picture D
~'----_G_o_fo_r_i_t~)
3 A: ......................... you think you could

........................ the phone? l'm in the shower.


2> In your notebook, write conversations for
B: Sure. Picture D the remaining two pictures in Exercise 1.

60

- -
Grammar
Stay cool

Clauses of purpose with to, in order

(not) to, so that

3> Complete the sentences with to, in order (not) to or so that.


Where two options are possible. write both.
3 He took his camera ......................................... get
it repaired.
4 I went round to Fay's house ............................... ..
we could work on OUT project together.
5 We wen t back .........................................................
find Jo 's watch.
6 Put sun cream on every hour .............................. .
you don't get burnt.
7 She hid th e photo of her ex-boyfriend
.................................... cause any embarrassment.
8 He saved 5 e ery week ........................................

He had to climb a tree .......~~(~~.~~!!!:!:.~~ ...... get he could afford to go to the USA.
away from the bull. 9 They left early ........................................ they

1 used a knife ............................................... . open would be home in time for their fa vourite

the parcel. soap opera.

2 She came in quietly .............................................. . 10 He decided not to talk about his own problems
disturb her parents. ........................................ upset her any more.

Verbs used to/be used to/get used to


4> Rewrite these sentences using used to, be used to or get used to.
At one time, we Itved on a farm in Scotland.
W .. M~~!!. y? .~~~~.~!!. ~J'!.~'1!. f!!..~.~~!!~!!!!: .................... 4 l've been in Brazil for ten years, so I've become
When we were young, we alway went to Spain accustomed to the Brazilia n way of life.
for the summer. 1 ................................................................................ .
W ............................................................................ .

5 My grandparents sti ll have their farm. They've


2 When you were a child, were you often fussy always worked hard.
about your food? My grandparents ..................................................... .
................... you ....................................................... .
................................................................................. ? 6 Did you become accustomed to t'h traffic noise
J Wearing a uniform in England is really strange when you lived in London?
for me. In Spain, we don't wear one to school. ................... you ....................................................... .
I .................................................................................

. ................................................................................ ?

61
Verbs used to/be used to
5/ Read the text. Then answer the questions
using used to or be used to.

The early cinema


One of tbe most Important clJa7lges to
people's lives at the beginning of the
twentieth Ce7ltury was tbe bltroducti01l
of the clttema.
The early cinema w a place for ordinary people.
In India the cinema W:l<; a tent TIlere was sand 011 the
They went lO watdl films of many kinds: ~omedia;.
floor where people could it and there were aJso
fumasi .~, informati n films and dr'.uruts. In 1927 AI Jolson
benches.The films were romantic but the actor didn't
surpri ed the audience by peaking in his film
kis .When people in fndia aw films from the USA wim
The Jazz Sitlger. Before that. all th films had been silent.
people kiSSing, mey were shock d .
Although tb films w re silent, the LinetIL'l wasn't. In the United States, the fir t cinemas sold ticket for
Wh '0 Doe of Lhe actors did somedling particularly good only five cents. TIley were usually in the poor or
or bad, people shouted 1-TurrAh! or 'Boa.' 111ere was also immigrant areas, and many of the cinema owners wt:re
music [0 accompany tbe ftlm . ill those days there WdS a immigrants from Europe. When the dn mas became
pmuoat the front in every cinema. more luxurious, peopJe bad to pay more ,Lnd they
II was truly family entertainment. Children didn't complained.
usually go to places of entertainmelll like the theatre Today w see .films with funrastic spe ial effects all tht:
r the music haIL bur Lheir parents took Lhem to timt:. But some of the magic of the early cL'l}'S of dnema
the cinema. has gone.

-..w Twenl,JeO,Century Cinema

What ort of films were popular in the early days 4 Why wa a trip to the cinema unusual for children?
or Cinema? Because ....... ............................................................. .
People ....'!.~f!.~..~~ .~~~~h..~~!!!~~!f!~,.f~!!~l!~!f!~~ ............. .

.. .i.lJfo.r:!!!.'!~~9./);fUm~.~m~.~mm.t;I.~: ................................

5 1n lndia did everybody sit on benches?


Why were people StJrprised when they heard AI
No. Some people ..................................................... .
Jolon speak in The Jazz Singer?

6 Why were people in India shocked by som


Because Lhey ... ~~~~.~:.~.~~~~.~!!.~.~~r.~'!fJ..p.~,!p..~~.........

American fi lms?
...sP.~.l!.~..~fJ.fU~~:.......................................................... .
Because they ............................................................ .

Before 1927 were the audience quiet during


films?
7 Why did people in the USA co mplain when they
No. They .................................................................. .
wen t to the new cinemas?
2 Where did the music for the early films come from? Because they ............................................................ .
TIlere ....................................................................... ..

8 Why has some of t he magic or the early


3 Wa it only adults who went to the cinema? inema gone?
No Everybody ......................................................... . Because nowaday people ...................................... .

62
Stay cool
6/ Write the nouns from these words using the 8',; Complete these conversations with words
endings in the box. from Exercise 6, Use a verb, a noun (with the
I -ing -ion -menl -ance -ence -ness
where necessary) or an adjective.

Verbs
What's ...~~~.~!II~!~!!~~... between a Scottish and
an English 10 note?
improve .......... .i~p..r:!?~~.'!!.~~~..... .. ....

You can'l ...................................... to Australia


meet

unless you've go t a job there.


2 diFfer

3 refer
2 My ather says he used to get a lot of
4 agree
...................................... fronl simple toys.
5 emigrate
3 Why do you th ink someone stole your watch?
6 hunl
You've just got a ...................................... nature.
7 encourage
4 I tTied but I just cou ldn't .....................................
8 suspect
eating all the chocolate.
9 resist
S They tried to persuade him but he wouldn't
10 enjoy
...................................... to go with them.
II organise
6 Migration is .............................................. of
12 move
people From on pia e to another.
13 live

7 It's an inter ting idea, but I don't see


14 oppre

...................................... of it to this discus ion.


Adjectives
8 He' findin g the work hard, but iF you give him
kind kindness
a bit of ...................................... , 1'm sure he'll
1 important
do very wel l.
2 onvenient
9 You've done so much better at school this
shy
month . .................................................... in your
4 sil nt
work is terrific.
5 relevant
10 It's hard enou gh for children to be quiet, but
6 lazy
ror them to be completely .................................. .
is aim st impossible.
~
J.~
What's wrong? Using a dictionary (2):
Small and large dictionaries
fi-~I
.' . ..
7 /- Correct the mistakes.
cl.iffeY' r l C. A small die .onary is llseful for a quick translation

1 don't understand the dilThranc@. of a word ut a larger dIctionary - prererably

Would you mind to help me? monolingual - will give you more information.

Look up the word suspect in a very small ,

2 I'm not used to drive on the left- hand side. 'pock t' dictionary and thell in a large dIc tionary

3 Don't spoil his enjoying. For ach dictionary, note:

1 which grammatica l categories (e.g. lIoun,

4 Their living ondition's are 0 much better now.


verb) are listed

5 I'll never get use to this climate. 2 the way in which the meanin s are hown

( ,g. in whole senlences)

6 I got home early that I wouldn't ge t into

To improve your writing skills, which dictionary

trouble again .

would you prefer to u e?


63
Ski s deve opment

Reading

W at makes a

good mummy?

Seven thousand years ago in


South America, on what is now
the Peruvian- Chllean border, the
indigenous tribe known as the
Chinchorro began mummifying Atchmofogists
their dead. working 00 the
When omeone died, the Chlnchorro
Chindl()rro used LO flJl the bod)' with artificial
a h or earth in order (0 preserve it mummies
The result was a very rigid form of
mummy hich nowadays appe:us
solid under X-mys, rn later ye.Lrs, the
Chinchorro used to cover lhe bodies Across the world, in China's XInjiang
AI some POlor around 1500 BC,
with a layer of mud, instead of filling province, archa:ologists have found
the Chinchorro gave up making
them with ash or C'.tnh . The mud more than a hundred natural
mununie~. However, bodles were
wdened to fonn a protective shell. mummies up to 4,000 years old
still presen'ed by nature because
the area where the tribe lived was wh.ich all appear to originate from
one of the driest regions Europe.The dry de crt heat
on earth preserved rbeir CalJcas.ian
Archa:ologistS have so features - lJell as I og nose ,
fur found 282 Chinehorro deep- ct eye and
mummies. One hundred blond hair. Bits of their
and tOfty-nine of them are clothes look as if Lbey
':trtifici:ll ' mummies, have come from
reated by the Germa ny, Austria and
ChindlOrro themselves; ScandJnavta. China., it
133 of them are seems, had C otlel w ith
'natural' mummies, Europe long before
preserved by natur . any ne bad imagined.
These natural It i de-dr lhat e can
mummies are a kind of learn a lot from our
biological time ancestors. it . eems
cap "uJe.We can find that dead men, and
our from them, for WOmen, do telltales.
example, what
people ate, how long
they Lived lI1d what
disea es they had before
the Europeam arrived .
Left and above:
Natural mummies from X1nJllng

64

3 What sort of things can we find out from


Compre he nsion
studying mummies?
tay cool
1 ) Match the words and phrases with
4 How did the archCEologists know that some
their meanings.
of the Xinjiang mummies were not Chinese?
1 ash [1J a) administra tive region
2 preserve D b) keep in good condition
3 rigid D c) story
5 Did Europeans go to China earlier or later tha n
4 disease D d) serious illness historia ns thought?
5 province 0 e) stiff, hard
6 tale D f) a grey substance remaining
a fter wood is burned

2> Complete the summary.


Communication
.I~~ .. types of mummy are described in this article,

1 mummies and 2
4> You are studying archceology. You telephone
the museum and ask to see the mummies. Write
mummies.
the conversation in your notebook.
The first part of the article gives details of how
You: (make a polite request) Do you
the J made mummies. Seven think 1 ...
thousand years ago, they used 4 or Reception ist: (refuse politely, giving a reason)
You : (ask to speak to one of the
s..................... . to IiJl the bodies. Later, they simply
arch~ologists)
put 6 . .. . . .. . . ..... on the bodies. Even when they Receptionist: Of co urse.
stopped making mummies. bodies were preserved You: (make your request again in a
by the forces or 7 . different way; giving a reason)
Archreologist: (agree to the request)
The second part of the article deals with
You: That's very kind. Th an k you.
mummies round in the 8....................... of Xinjiang
in China. Th ese ar 9 ....................... . mummies.
preserved by the dry heat or the 10......................... .
Writing
The surprising thing about some of the Xinjiang
mummies is that they seem to have originated 5/ Imagine that, 4000 years ago, a Chinese man
from 11........................ . and a European man see each other for the first
time. In your notebook. write the Chinese man's
description of the European man.
, Go for it
I have just seen someone quite extraordinary as I was
J ) Answer the questions. coming home. let me describe him. ...

Where did the Chinchorro live?


.!.~..$.9.~m.~.~.~!.~% ..C!.~..~~~.f!.~!.'!;r.~~.r!::.~~~~~g!!..~.C!.~~~r:.
Why do Chinchorro mummies appear solid?

2 What is special about the region in which the


Chinchorro lived?

65

Struggle for surv"val

Vocabular

Stay cool! ' Go for it 25 To continue to live in spite of danger. (7)


26 Abbreviation ror chlorofluorocarbon - a type of gas
1 / Solve the crossword. which is used in fridges and some aerosols. (3)
27 A ramous extraterrestrial. (2)
28 The ................ effect is caused by Lhe pollution of
the atmosphere. ( 10)
Down
1 The opposite o f in crease. (8)
2 We want to preserve the ................ of animal and
plant life. (7)
3 Too many people use their ................ cars to get
Lo work rather than public transport. (3)
5 Global warming is a serious ................ to the
environment. (6)
7 They work as volu nteers for an environmental
................. . (12)

8 I'm not used ................ livi ng in a city. (2)

9 The turtle lays her eggs ................ the beach. (2)

10 Abbreviation for United Nations. (2)

16 A good sun cream ................ your skin from the sun. (8)

17 People ought to recycle their rubbish, but you can't

................ them to do it. (5)

18 A wizard in a Hollywood fil m ca m from this land. (2)

Across 19 We must try to ................ the level of CO 2 in the air. (6)

1 The turtles' nesting sites are being destroyed 22 CO 2 is a ................. (3)

by the ................ of hotels. (11)


24 Each ................ in this forest is home to severa)

6 CO 2 = ................ dioxide. (6)


animals. (4)
8 We went on a ................ of Central America. (4)
27 Abbreviation for European Union. (2)
11 A measurement of weight equal to 1,000 kilos. (5)
12 The sun and the wind are two sources of 2> Complete the sentences using expressions with do.
................. (6)
You can eat the bones in sardines. They .. ~~~~~.~~ ..
13 Abbreviation for United States. (2)
you any ...~.~rm.... In fact, they'll ........................ you
14 I've said it once and I'll ................ it again. (3)
15 There must be ................ more hunting of
2 I know your marks weren't very good, but
elephanls. (2)
16 Abbreviation for Prime Minister. (2) never mind - you ............................................ .
17 The turtles sometimes mistake plastic rubbish That's all that matt ers.
................ food. (3)
You got Grade As in all your te t 1 That's fantastic .
20 Destroy - destruction; 10 e - ._.............. (4)
You ........................ .
21 n1t'~ ................ layer protects life on earth from
4 When you were at primary <;chool, ........................ you
harmful radiation. (5)
....................... . all your subjects with lhe sal e teacher?
23 The quality of the ................ we breathe is
5 Can you ........................ me ........................ and look after
threatened by pollution. (3)
Ben for five minutes?
66
Grammar

Stay cool
The passive: all tenses
3> Rewrite the sentences in the passive,
Present simple
How do you write it? ..~~w..(~.it.1:'(r.~~~~? .......................................................................
You write it like this. .. !.~~~.w.r:!1!.t;!!.J.i.~.~. ~!!#.: ....................................................................
Where do they keep the key?
2 They keep it in the cupboard.

Past simple
3 Did they chao e you for the parL
after an audition?
4 No. The drama teacher asked me to
be in the play.
Past continuous
5 Was someone following you?
6 1 don't think anyone wa following me,
but l'm sure someone was watchmg me.

Present perfect simple


'1 Have they repaired the phone yet?
8 Yes, but we haven't paid the bill.
Past perfect simple
9 Had they told him abouL the party?
10 Yes, but they hadn't invited him.
Modals
11 They mu t do the work properly.
12 Ye . Th y can't rush it.

Gerund
13 They were worried about people seeing
Lhem together.
Infinitives
14 "Everyone wants someone to love them.

61
4 ' Complete the article, putting the verbs in
brackets into the passive.

Ten minutes after this picture .....................


had been taken ............

(take), it I ...... ...................................... (receive) by

newspapers around the world. With the latest


digital technology, pictures
2...................................................... (can/publish)

only minutes after a press photographer has


arrived at a scene and the photographs J .............. .

.............................................. (take). It means that

a photographer can take, choose and send a photo to


~ 0 Go for it )
accompany a newspaper article while the article
The passive: all tenses
4............................................ .. (write) by a journalist.

5> In your notebook, rewrite the passages


Thi i how it works in the passive.
Today It only takes minutes to get
the picture of a scene onto the In the mid.nineties,
the world had very
front page of a newspaper.
strange weather ...
Photographs 5.................................. .

In 1995 in Britain, for

........................ (take) with a digital example the hottest

camera. Up to 120 pictures summer since I 59

followed the wettest

6...................................................... .

.pring on record.
(can/store) on a disk. Tn 1996 in New York,
snow storms stopped

The pictures on the disk the traffic and made

7...................................................... .
life extremely difficult.

(put) onto a laptop computer.

The best picture


'n Britain, for example, the wettest spring
B.............................
on record was followed by the hottest
.................................... (choose) and
summer since 1659.
9.............................. ...... .................. .

2
(transmit) from the laptop back to SwL<;s scie ntists have sugg ,ted lhaL global
wa rming could force people l leave big
the office.
cities: 'We must control the amount f
carbon dioxide in [he a tmosphcr '. And
The picture which 10.........................
we must fin d more en ironmcnLally
.................................. (take) just ten
[riendl ays of rod ucing energy.'

minutes ago II ...... ........... ................. .

........................ (now/put) onto the


In BriL in, people are always discus Lng the
finished page. weather. It is J subject vvhich we will talk
about more and ma r frequ ' nll T.

68
Communication

Go for it

6> Match the sentence halves. 9> Write a similar conversation to that in
1 Couldn't [kJ a) about he trains. Exercise 8 arranging an evening out with a friend.
1 How about D b) we go on a boat trip? Reject the first two suggestions yOUI friend
3 We could D c) don't we go on a makes. Then make a suggestion which your friend
4 Why D camping holiday? accepts. Use a variety of expressions.
5 Let's find out D d) going riding? You:
e) go for a picnic.

7> Agree or disagree with the suggestions above. Friend: (theatre?) ........................................................
1 That's a good .}t!.t;~ ... . I like boat trips.
2 rm not so .................... . I haven 't been on a You:
horse for ages.
3 Yes, we .................... , 1 suppose. But it might rain. Friend: (cinema?) .......................................................
4 l'd .................... not. Sleeping outside isn't really
my .................... .
You:
5 That's .................... a bad idea.

(club ?) .............................................................
8> Put the conversation in order.
a) D lee-skating isn't really my thing. How Friend:
about going for a bike ride?
b) D We could, 1 suppose, but l'm a bit fed up

c) 0
with rollerblading.
Great! I'll phone you 011 Friday to arrange Q What's wrong?) 1.
a time to meet.
d) [JJ What shall we do on Saturday?
10/ Correct the mistakes.
explorin:J
~r~
C t)
What about explore the coastal area? '".\J~
0
e) Well, how about ice-skating?
n0 Why don't we go rollerblading? I've been bit by a mosq uito.

g) D OK. Talk La you on Friday. 2 Do me favour.


11) 0 Thal's not a bad idea . We could cycle 3 Have you seen the new hotel deveJopement?
round Loch Lomond. 4 CouJdnt we do an overnight trek?
5 Why we don't go and work in a summer camp?
6 Is the greenhouse effect cause by CO 2?

69
on' panic!

Vocabular
Stay cool ~~_Go_t_o_r_
it~)
1 ) Complete the chart. 4 > Complete the Players' Code of Behaviour with
the words in the box.
Sport Location Person
manager game players referee rules) ce
fooLball ........p.f!~~......... .......P.~f!.Y.lfr: ........ team competitive opponent umpire
lennis
2 athletic
3 gymnastics
International
4 motor racing Sports Commission
5 swimming
6 golf
PL1\.YERS' CODE OF
BEllAlTJOUR
2> Circle twelve more verbs to do with sport.
S P R I N T M R B
L 0 S E P A S S L
T C C G C T C H
I-
11 V 0 S 0 R A W I
R 1 R E K I C K T
0 V E R T A K E L
W 0 S V 0 L L E Y
L T S E C R E U N

3:" Complete the sentences with an Keep Lo the ...... ~.'!.~~ ...... of the game.
appropriate preposition. Treat all players as you wo uld like 0 be
She runs really fast. I couldn't keep .~p.. with her.
treated. Never be unfair to an I ....................... .

'1 feel like giving up wind urling, but I suppose


Ev n if you disagr with a deci ion, tlo not
1 oughl to keep .................... trying:
argue with an 2....................... or a
'If you keep .................... it, you'll do it:
J ....................... . Ask your 4 ....................... to

2 TIle spectators were asked to keep .................. .. talk to them after the ....................... .

the pitch during the game.


Remember you are part of a 6....................... .
3 Can I remind you Ihat the goalkeeper's job is
to ke p the ball .................... of the goa I! Work equally hard for y urself and for the
4 We didn' t use all the money to buy new other .,....................... .
equipment. We kept some .................... . Sport are Il....................... but it is important
5 Keep .................... the rules during the game. Lo keep your temper at all ti mes.

70
Grammar .'

2 You were in a bad mood 0 people left early.


Stay cool
I wish/If only + past perfect
5;- Rewrite the sentences using I wish and If only.

c:J 3 She tripped so she lost the race.


CJ

4 You didn'l tum up at the trainin g sessions.


That's why you wer dropped from the tea m.
ClD
t::.\

5 He did n't ask For money so I didn 't give him any.
1 didn't ask her for her phone number.
J.~~~~.!.'~.~~~~!!.!!.~fo.r..~~r.p.~~~~.~~~~~::.............

1 didn't get her a drink.


7 ) Write third conditional questions.
If only ...................................................................... .
2 I stepped on her toes when we danced. ..W.~HN..~~~.~~y.~.~~~~~~ .... (she/beat) the record if

1 wish ....................................................................... . .h{~l~~p.~t! ..... (sh /jum p) a centimetre higher?

J I talked about computers all night. (she/compete) if ...................................................... .


If only ...................................................................... . .................................. (the prize money/be) higher?
2 ............................................... (he/win) the match if
4 I didn't tell her 1 liked her. ............................................................ (he/not serve)
I wish ........................................................................ so brill iantly?
3 .................................................... ... ............................ .

5 1 went away when lhat other guy ame up to (he/be selected) if ................................................... .
talk to her. (he/not b injured)?

If only ...................................................................... . 4 What .........................................................................

(they/do) if ............................................................. ..

........................... (Ronald a/tum down ) their offer?

5 ............. ............................ .......................................... .

Third conditional
(he/be sent off) if ....................................................

6) Join the pairs of sentences using if clauses. ............... (the refe ree/see) the foul?

1 didn't know your number so 1 didn't

phone you .

..lff:~.~~.~.~~.y~~!..~~p..~~:!..~:~.~~y.~.ph.~.~.~~.y~~:.....
You didn't tell me abouL the match so I
didn't come.

11
Third conditional sprint arrive @ffi
find bring
8> Complete the third conditional sentences with
C cycle) win C
drive) feel leave have
go to bed stay out low down come
the correct form of the verb phrases in the box.

2 I felt really tired during that game. I'm sorry I


played so badly.
If you ........................................................ all night.

l'm late.
you ............................................................. so tired.

..
If I ..~~~~:!.~r.~~~~ here. I :~.~~~~.~~~'!..... on time.
If you ....................................................... early, you

If 1 .:~..9l~!~~....... here. I ..~~~~~!?:~..~.'!.~~.~~~!?..... late.


............................................................. more energy.

3 Smith seemed to have problems at the end of


We're lost.
the race.
If we ........................................... the map with us.
If Smith ................................................. the last 10

we .......................................................... the village.


metres, he ................................................. the race.

If we .......................................... the map at home,


If he .................................................................... he

we ............................................................... by now.
...................................................................... second.

72

Com munication
Stay cool
- - -'

9/ Put the conversation in order.


A
a) 0 How can you be so sure?

b) 0 But do you think she'd accept an apology?

c) W 1 wish 1 hadn't lost my temper with

Martina in that last game.


d) 0 But she's my regular tennis partner. 1 really
ought to make it up to her somehow.
e) D OK. I'll do it. Thanks.
B
~ D l'm certain she would.
g) 0 Because she's lost her temper in the past.
She knows how it feels.
h} D Yes, perhaps you should. Why don't you
phone her and apologise?
i) D Don't wony. It happens to all of us.
Plurals
- Most nouns imply add s to make the plural:
game games
60 for it referee referees
10> Write conversations in your notebook - Nouns which end in ch, sh, 55 or x add an e
for the situations below using some of the phrases before 1he s:
in e box. match matches
success successes
-I wish rd/! hadn't ... box boxes
-If only rd /1 hadn't .. . - To make plurals of nouns which nd in a
Never mind.
consonant + y, change the y to Ie and add 5:
I know what you mean.
raJly rallies
- There's not much you can do about it now.
I f there is a vowel before the y, just add s:
- Why don't you ... ?
volley volleys
Maybe you could ...

- Perhaps you should ...

11 >Write the plurals of these words.


Situation 1
athlete ..~rh.~flt~...............................
You were very bad-tempered at home this morning.
coach
You upset your mOlher/father. You didn 't apologise
2 party
before you left. Talk to your best friend about it.

3 journey
Situation 2
4 injury
You didn't do enough revision for a recent Science
5 loss
exam and you got a bad mark. It's too late to do
6 wish
anything about it, but you regret it. Talk to your

Science leacher.
7 distance
B player
9 fax

73
Ski Is develo m t extra

Reading

1 .~) W.!!!!.~.~~.!! ..~.~{~!9h..~p.~.c!.i.f;l.i?').? ...........................


have taken part in expeditions. We recruit f rom abroad
A Raleigh expedition brings together 120 young people, and from the host expedition count ry. Ven t urers come
called Vent urers. from around the world to work an from a wide range of social backg rounds and include
ironmental, community and adventure proJects. Ten graduates, gap-year st udents, employees and young
expeditions, each with twelve Venturers, are run every people in diffi cult socia l, f inancial or personal
year In Africa, South America and the Far East. Each circumstances.
expedition starts with a week's training, when you wiil
learn all the necessary skills for your expedition - such Ii ................. . ....................... ................. .................... ?
as using long-distance radio equipment, navigation, You don't need any special qualification . You need to
setting up a campsite and first aid. be able to swim, understand English and have
enthusiasm and commitment. Close involvement with
.............................................................................. ?
local peop le means you might be conducting an English
You then join a group of eleven other Venturers and lesson at a local school one day and testing you r
set off on your first project. Project sites are remote footba ll skills t he next. A Raleigh expedition isn't a
and just getting to them is all part of the adventure. holiday: project work can be t ough and demanding,
On every project site there are qualified staff members requirtng teamwork and imaginative problem-solving
such a5 civil engineers or outdoor Instructors. However,
it's up to you and your group to decide how you want
to rUn things and to organise your project work .

............................ ................................................ ?
Most of the t ime you will be living in tents close to
your project site Everyone in the project group gets
Involved in the day-to-day running of their campsite
and every Venturer takes a turn as Group Leader for
the day, giving out tasks and organising project work.

.............................................................................. ?
Venturers come from all over the globe - a total of
seventy nationalities from a wide range of cultures

74

Comprehension Communication

3 >Write the conversation in your notebook.


1> Read the text and write the correct heading You are choosing wh ich Ra leigh 1nternational
expedi tion to go on with your friend . You've made
above each paragraph.

notes on one expedition. Your friend has made


a) Who takes part?
notes on another. Discuss which expedition you
b) What particular skills will I need?
will go on.
c) What happens next?

( d) What is a Raleigh expedition? ) t-1on.9o/j~. M~n:::h. 'Pr oje.c::t: -huildif1,!3 0::::1

e) What abou t accommodation? rt1edical clinic. Activitiee: rncu",~jl'11Yelo:kiYl91


E!><plor;".9 ' C Iimate ; cote4.

Go for it 'Belize. Tune. 1hj~d: proteding the eqral reel:


2> Write questions for these answers. Acbv7tie$ : tmderweder suruey;; lIdlunteer.s fral'f1 :for
'5pcrts "P;ver' qual/{;catitm. Ci;mo.t~ : subtrop;caL .
.. w.~.~~.~!"~Jh~.m~m~~':~..'!1.~.~.~.~~fg~.........................

..~P.~~~~!~n. ~~.~~I!~t .................................................... .


You: (m ake yo ur suggestion)

Venturers. Friend: (reject the suggestion, giving a reason)

(m ake your suggestion)


You: (hesitate)
................................................................................. ?
Friend: (give another reason for your suggestion)
Ten.
You: (agree)
2 ............................ ............................. ........................ ?
A week.
Writing
3 ................................................................................... .

............ ........................... ............................. ............. ?


There are twelve in each.
4> In your notebook. write a letter of application
to Raleigh International for one of the expeditions
4 .................................................................................. .. in Exercise 3.
................................................................................. ? Say where you found out about Raleigh
No, they don't. You and your group decide what lnternational (an arti Ie in a magazine).
you are going to do. Tell them about yourself.
Say why you'd like to participate in the
5 .................................................................................. .. expeditio n.
........... ...................................................................... ?
They have to give out tasks and organise project
work.
6 ................. ............. ..................................................... . Writing (2): Checking
................................................................................. ? It is easy to make c r less mistakes so always

Yes, they do. They come rrom many different check your writing. heck the letter you wrote

countries. in Exercise 4:

1 Check spell ings ill a dictionary.

7 ................................................................................ ?
2 Check the tenses of the verbs.

It can be hard work, and it can be quite


3 Check t he punctua tio n.

challenging.
4 If several sentences b gin wilh the same word

(e.g . I) , change 0 e or two o f them.


5 Im agine that y rec ive this leller. Does it
contain all the information tha t is needed?
't believ I-t .l

Vocabular

4 A: Why did you leave the meeting?


Stay cool ! Go for it
B: Because it was boring and no one
1 )' Complete the conversations using the correct ........................................ anything new.
form of the verbs say, tell, talk and speak.
S A: We lived in Brazil when I was a child.
A: Why couldn't you hear what she was saying?
B: Did you learn to ....................................... .
B: Because .... ~~~..~~..~p.~l!.~~'!.9. .... so quietly. Portuguese?
A: So you didn'! hear her speech? 6 A: You shouldn't have kept quiet about
B: No. What ........................................................ ?
the problem.
B: 1 did n't want to ....................................... .
2 A: What did your teacher do when the fire

anyone about it.


broke out in the classroom?

B: She ........................................ us to leave as 7 A: She's a bit upset.


quickly as possible. B: OK. I'l l ........................................ to her.

3 A: He's really funny. 8 A: rve been looking for you . Where have
B: 1 know. He's good at ....................................... . you been?
jokes. B: 1 ................ ........................................ to Kate.

Grammar
Stay cool
Assistant: Oh, don't say that. (He/have an accident)
Verbs must have, might have, can't
have for drawing conclusions
>
2 Complete the conversation using the prompts Director: And Catheri ne? At least I've seen heT
in brackets. th is morn ing. Where is she?
Director: Where's Oliver? This is an important
Assistant: 1 don't know. She said she needed
rehearsal.
something to wake her trp so (she/go for
Assistant: (He/gel/your message)
a cof~ e)
..~~.~.rJ.t~t;J;~*!.gg.~y.f!.':'.r:..'!!.~!.'!.9.~:................. .

Director: And where are Claudia and Jeremy? Director: Gone for a coffee! (She/go for a coffee)
Assistant: They phoned to say lhey'd left but lhal .................................................................. !
the traffic was heavy. (They/be held up in She know there's a rehearsal. Oh, here
a traffic jam) she is no w. But she's not in costume!
Assistant: (She/forget that it's a dress rehear aJ)
5

Director: And what about Patrick? He drives like a


madman, so he ought to be here by now. Director: Typical!

76

Grammar
Reported speech:
statements and questions 6 'Matt went off on a walking trip; said lan .

3> Rewrite the statements and questions in


reported speech.
7 'Why hasn' t Matt phoned?' asked Adam.

Verbs of reporting: various structures


4> Complete the sentences with the past tense of
the verbs in the box.
promise C
ex plain ) invite order
persuade pologise agree
offer recom mend

'1 won't be able to make it to t he meeting

by eight:

He ... ~~{l!.~I).~!!... . that he wouldn't be able to

make it to th e meeti ng by eig ht.

'I'm sorry I was so bad- tempered.'

'We're going by oach,' said Matt. He .............................. for being so bad-tempered .

..~~.~!!!.4..~~~..~~r~.!l~!!I.9.kY.~f!.'!:~~:............................
2 'Wou ld you li ke to go bowling a t the weekend?'
When does it leave?' Zoe asked Matt. She .............................. hi m to go bowling at
..$.~~..~~~~4. .~.~~.~~~!J.!'~.~if!.: .......................... ............. the weekend. '
Tm not very keen on climbing; said Ian . 3 'Get out of the pool!'
He .............................. them to get out of
the pool.

2 'What's the matter?' Matt asked Sarah. 4 '1'11 help with th e prepara ti ons for the parly if
you like:
He .............................. to help with the
preparations for the party.
3 'They'll send out a search party; said Matt.
5 '1'11 write t o you every week:
She ............................ to write to him every week.
6 ' It wou ld be a good idea to take a taxi to
4 'How can you be so sure?' Kelly asked Malt. the airport:
She .............................. taking a taxi to lhe
airport.
5 'We're going lo miss the rehearsal,' said Zoe. 7 'Let's stay in tonigh t. We won't know anyone
at the party: 'OK'
He .............................. her to stay in.
8 'OK I'll go with yo u:
She .............................. to go with him.
77
Reported speech: statements and questions

5> In your notebook. report what the people in the article below said.

Ten-year-old Ashley Burton said that the next day would be

just like any other school day for him, even thou9h ...

Whatever happened to childhood?

EvelY ummel'" over 30,000 children in England

and Wafes attend 5ummer schools to improve

tlr ir reading, writing and Maths.

What do people think of

summer schools?

'Tomorrow will be just like any other

school day for me, even though I'm

on holiday,' said ten-year-old Ashley

Burton. 'Why do I have to give up

my olidays]'

'I've had time off this term because


I've been ill but I think I'm doing OK
at schoo!. I don't want to spend
the summer doing Maths,' said 'Children have a busy school
eleven-yea r-old Flora Briggs. curriculum and they're constantly
using computers and wat hing
'How will they cope at secondary television,' said a parent who
school jf they're having problems at disagrees with summer schools.
primary school?' asked twenty-one 'It's essential that they can switch
year-old William Tyler. '1 think summer off, relax and play outside during
schools are a good idea: the holidays.'

Verbs of reporting: various structures


6/ Report these statements and questions using 3 '1'11 be more caref ul with money: (he)
the words in brackets and a variety of verbs.

'I think you ought to go to the doctor: (she/him)


..~.~.~~~!~~.~!p'.~C!.9.f!..~~.~~.~.~~~~!':.........................
4 'Would you like to go for a mea l?' (he/her)

'Why don't we go to the Edinburgh Festival?' (they)

5 '1 feel terrible about making such a fuss. I'm


2 'Don't forget to check the battery: (she/them) really sorry: (she)

78
Stay cool What's wrong?
7 / Match the sentences to the responses. 9 > Correct the mistakes.
I 1 wonder why they haven't arrived yet. [bJ
'Perhaps she didn't receive your e-mail.'
2 Why didn't she phone? 0 c.DWc).
'You -Efffi be right.'

3 They probably left without us. D


'I can't And the cheque you gave me.'

4 He might be angry because you


'You mustn't have lost it already.'

didn't send him birthday card. 0

5 He might have been jealou '. 0


2 1 said you to relax.

6 You should have made your mind


3 She apologi ed for to be impatient.

up arlier. 0 4 They perswaded me to stay.

Responses 5 He asked me when was I going to see him.

a) That an'[ be the reason. I never send 6 She suggested to go out this evening.

him one.
b) Perhaps they gol lost.
e) 1 don't believe ill We're nOllate,
d) 1 uppose so. It's a difAcult decision, though.
e) You could be right. He can'l stand me Grammar: Hot spots
talking to other boy.
Try Lo identl!y the grammar 'hot spot:> which
n She must have been [00 busy.
often cause problems. Keep lists to Illustrate
what can go wro ng, e.g, Reponed que liOllS:
They asked him when he was getting married
o for it (not They asked him when W~ he getting marriett)
nle verb tell: The y told me to go (not The}' reid to
8/ In your notebook, write a conversation for the
me to go.)
following situation.

Your friend is fed up. Sh has been in contact by

e-mail with omeone she met on holiday. At first,

the replies came immediately. 111en they came after

three or four days. Her last e-mail


hasn't received a reply. Talk to her
about the situation.

Possible reasons for no reply:

-not checked mail?

-away?

-busy?

-not keen any more?

friend: , can't undemand why I


haven't had a reply. We
seemed to be getting 011

so well.

You: Perhaps ...


79

Cau ht the et

Vocabular
Down
Stay cool I 60 for it 1 The screen is part of this piece of computer
1 >Solve the crossword. equipment. (7)
2 Do you still .................... floppy disks to transfer
files from one computer to an other? (3)
3 The list of .................... includes computers as
well as gambling, drugs and alcohol. (10)
4 From twelve till twelve: fro m .................... till
midnigh t. (4)
5 My sister's a real fa n of Boyzone. She's even
designed her own .................... on the Net. (7)
6 Abbreviation for Information Technology. (2)
7 When she gets ho me, she .................... the Net. (5)
12 I've got so much computer equipmen t in my
room. I'm .................... out of space. (7)
14 There's nothi ng on the screen. Is the monitor
switched .................... ? (2)
18 I've just had my computer repaired, so it
shouldn't .................... any more. (5)
Across 20 Twelve months = a .................... (4)
1 1 point to parts of the compuLer screen with 22 .................... -ROM. (2)
it. (5)
3 He runs .................... on-line support group. (2) >
2 Complete the sentences with the prepositions
5 You open them to let fresh air in, and you in the box.
also find them on a computer. (7)
8 Long form of the word Net. (8) up over away on out of
9 What software .................... you use? (2) into (. through )
10 The opposite of major. (5)
I'll just ru n . ~~~~!!N~.. the instructions once mar .
11 You can buy a computer at a specialist shop
or at a department ..................... (5) My computer ran .............................. memory, so
13 I suppose ..................... (2) 1 installed some more.
15 Does the disk go ................... here? (2) 2 He ran .............................. huge telephone bills
16 Connect the printer .................. the processor. (2) using the lntemet.
17 1f you can't read it on the screen, use the printer 3 We ran .............................. some glass and the
to .................... it out. (5) tyreburst.
19 ]t's mostly made up ofletters and numbers
4 We've got fi ftee n minutes to present our project,
and you type on it. (8)
21 1t's so much easier to communicate by but the teacher said we can run ............................ ..
.................... than by letter. (1,4) for an extra five minut s if there are any questions.
22 Another word for lessons. (7) 5 rve got so much to do that 1 just want to run
23 rYe been on the omputer for ten hours. It's .............................. and fo rget all about it!
now seven o'dock and 1 .................... on at
nine this morning. (6) 6 I ran .............................. a friend of yours the
other day.
80
Grammar
tay cool
Future perfect
Future continuous
4> Respond to these predictions about what will
have happened by the year 2050.
3/ Complete the description of iife in 2020.
By the year 2050 ...
putting the verbs into the future continuous.

Extraterrestrials make contact

Women become the dominant sex


3 ~ The PI" nel ! QS(l
A computer is elected
Prime Minister
4
Genetic Engineers
What . :~!!!.. I .~~.~~~~..!l. (d o) at this time in 202 0?
Design a New Animal
we ll . I .. ~~.~:t~~9.~~~.9. .... (not go) out t o work.
5
I J/..I?~.~~~!~g.... (sit) in my off ice at home
1 I ................................................. ( do) everyt hlng

fro m my com puter.


6
I 2.............................................. (not s1 t) i h t. I) ...

Traffic police to be replaced


a meeti ng. I J.............................................. ( have)
by ROBOTS
.........~ =---,~ .

a vide o conference with my colleagues.


r ., ................................................... (not type) on
Yes I think that extraterrestrials will have
..... 1......................... ................................................... .

my comp uter . 1 ' ...................................................


made contact.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t

(talk) to it
or ..N.l!!..~.~!?r.~~..'!9.~~t;:.~~!.~~~~!.~~!tM~.~.~.r(~.~!!r.~....
I ................................................... (e - mai 1)
................................
made contact. ,", ... , .............. ,...............................

the fri dge to see if we've run out of mi lk .


2 ,...................................................................................

I 7................................................... (go) on
a vi rtual shopping tour of the supermarket .
3 .................................................................................. ..

An d in the 5 mmer, I B....................................

.......................... . (no spend ) hours queuing at


4 ....................................................................................

the alr por t to go on holid ay .


I ~ ........................................................................

(not suffe r fronl) jet1ag . I 10............................ .. 5 .................................................................................. ..

........................ (vi sit places all over the wor ld


on the I nternet from the comfort of my desk . 6 .. ........................... .......................................................

Wha a l ife !

81
Short answers with verb Go for it
+ so/not Future continuous and future perfect
5"/ Respond to the questions using
the expressions in the box with
6> Make predictions about your life in 2020 using some of
the verbs in the box.
so or not.
be afraid (. expect)
hope suppose
not think think

A: Do you think you'll be doing


mo t of your work on a
computer when you start a job?
B: Yes, ... .!..~p.~f:!.~.l!:.....................
A: Do you think computers will take
over the world?
B: Oh no, .......................................... .
That's just science fiction.
2 A: Would you let me harrow your
laptop to take to the beach?
B: No, I'm sorry,
........................................... You
might get sand in it.
3 A: Will you become a computer
addict?
B: .......................................... !

wouldn't want to be addicted


lJ anything!
4 A: In ten years' time, will most live go work study wear
people be using computers to earn travel drive spend
buy tickets and shop?
B: Oh, yes, ........................................ . .. !~.~g~g!J~~~p.'1!.~!!.~!!I..~.~.~!r.~~.::....................................................
It's just so easy. 2 1 expect 1'11 ................................................................................... ..
5 A: Children at school can learn a lot 3 I might ....................................................... .. ................................. .
from a computer, can't they? 4 1'm sure I'll .................................................................................. ..
B: Well, 1 .......................................... . 5 I'm sure I won't .......................................................................... ..
But they can learn a lot more
from a good teacher. 6 I don't think I'll ................................. .......................................... ..

Say what you will and won't have achieved by 2020, using
verbs of your choice.
Think about your studies, yo ur career, the qualifications you've
gained, your achievements and your personal 1i e.
. eu.~~~~. ~.t;f.9m.~.!!..~~r.{~-fo.mg.'!.~fo.~t~.~.~~~r:......................................

82
- -

Communication
Stay cool ~, Go for it )
7> Use a variety of expressions to thank people in 9> Complete the conversation with suitable
the following situations. phrases.

Your friend's elder sister lend you her camera Your pen friend's parents have taken you to a

for a project you're doing . Chinese resta urant on the last night of your stay.

... .r.IJ.l;m~JfJx.!~~~!~.!l.m~Jl~~r..~~~.~r.'!:..I~~r~...........
You: 1 really enjoyed this evening. Thank you
ror taking me out.
... !.~~.~/Y..~.~'!.t!..'!fJl~~: ...................................................

Parents:
2 You'v always wantecl a particular type of wat h,
and your boyfriend/girlfriend gives it Lo you
You: I've had a great time here.

for your birthday.


Parents:

You: I've got a little present for you from my


3 You've been staying at your friend's house for country.
the weekend. You're saying goodbye to Parents:
his/her parents.
You: Not at al l. Well, thanks for everything.
Parents:

4 You've been having problems with your computer.


Your best friend has come round and spent two
hours working on it, finally getting it to work . What's wrong?)
10> Correct the mistakes.

5 YO.Jr grandmother's neighbour have been


Just think, you'~1n the beach
looking after her during a recent iIlne .
while J'm workin g hard at school.
Don't mention it. It was pleasure.
2 Surely Lhey will arrive by now.
8> Match the responses to the sentences you
3 'Will you be coming later? '
wrote in Exercise 7.
'Yes, I think.'
a) D It was a pleasure to have you here.
4 Be careful not to run on a bi g bill.
b) D I'm glad you like it.
S Thank's for everything.
c} D That's OK. l'm sure she'd do the same

for us.
A final note on phrasal verbs:

Make sure you use the correct prepositions!

d) [II You're welcome, Just give it back wilen

you've finished with it.

e) D Don 't mention it. It was nothing.

I ran into an old friend on th e way home.

1 ran over an old friend 011 the way home, 83


n

Reading

HOME NEWS

Twenty-first century Britons

Today a New Hippy; tomorrow a Post-Punk Oudaw living


life on the edge; the day after, a Nomadic Networker .,.
you can be what you want in twenty-first century Britain.
According to a recent report, the ~ocial groups
which people are u ed to in Britain are going to
be replaced by a whole new range in the new
mill nnium .
Post-Punk Outlaws
Look out for Barbie Babes and Ken Clones,
who 11 be spending lars of money on physical
perfection and designer clothes, and Post-Punk
Outlaws, who won't be taking any notice of
rules. We'll also meet Nomadic Net.vorkers,
will be travelling all 0 er the world,
. carrying their 'office' (a portable computer) Nomadic Networkers

with them and New Hippies or Global


Villagers, who will be committed to equality, o New Hippies
freedom and looking after tlle environment.
Alex McKie, the author of the report, says.
'Life IS becoming Ie predictable. In the future ,
people may become parents at sixty years old.
Adole. cence and nriddle age I113Y bee me l es~
di<;tJ.ncl. More arId more middle-aged men will
be buying themselves the mororbikes which
they could not afford in their youth. The
traditional tages which a person was expected Barbie Babes and Ken Clones Global Villagers

to go through will be Ie s relevant.'


';;ocial groups arc also becoming more fluid .
During her research, Ms McKie asked young grou ps of friends . W hereas social groups over
British people about their group f friends . the past for , years have cansi t d of people
Mo t did not think that they belonged to one who dres ed alike, danced alike and tho ught
group only. alike - whether they were Mods, Punk
People often belong to a wide range of Rockers or Teddy Boys - people now want
group, acb with it own identity. This the freedom to bI t a dif rent people all
means dl at they go out with contrasring at the same time .

84

..

Stay cool 3> Complete the conversation in your notebook.

>
1 Read the text and match the words and Ted: Society's falling apart, you know. And
we're run ning out of time to do anything
phrases with their meanings.
about it.
1 networker @] 5 middle age 0 Alice: (disagrees strongly and supports her opinion)
2 outlaw 0 6 youth 0
3 predictable 0 7 contrasting D .fJ'!.1).~~l).~~~.r.~p.{~.~m.h~I.P..!h~~r.!!.~!9~~!?~.~.....
4 adolescence D .~~~!!..tJ:!.~:.r:~ .~l)..!r.'!.~~~~; ....................................
Ted: People don't ta lk to each other any more.
a) someone who commits crimes
They just send e-mails. Computers can be
b) the period of time when someone is young
quite dangerous in my opinion.
c) differing, varied
Alice: (agrees, and gives the example of compu ter
d) somebody who uses personal contacts to
. addiction)
get work
Ted: 1n fact, all technology is a load of rubbish.

e) happening in the way you expect


Alice: (disagrees strongly, and gives a reason)

1') the period in a person's life between about


Ted: Then there's the environment. People are

twelve and eighteen


always tal ki ng about it, but they never do
g) the period in a person's life between about forty
anything.
and sixty
Alice: (disagrees gently, and gives the example of the
wo rk of wildlife organ isations)
Go for it Come on. Stop reading these depressing
newspaper articles I Let's go out and get
2; Complete the sentences using information some fresh air!
from the text. Ted: Fresh air? There's no fresh air!
1n the twentieth century, we were used to
certain social groups. Now, in the twenty Writing
first century, they ~~~.!!~!f!!U?.~~..~~P..~l!.~~~.~~.
4> In your notebook, write a report summarising
.~. ~~?'~~..'!.~.~C!.~!J.~..C!f!.f}.~.~c!.~!I.~~~P.~.................. the opinions of your friends an'd members of your
The author of the article calls people who: family concerning social life in the future.
a) are materialistic and very concerned about I First, ask them the followillg questions and note
how they look ..................................................: their answers.
b) brea k society's rules .........................................: - Do you thin k that in twen ty years' time we'll be
living in the same way as we are ITYing now?
c) move From ountry to country with their
work '...............................................: - What will the effect of compu ter technology be
in the next twen ty years?
2 a) In the twenty-first century, there will be less
- What other changes do you think we will see in
difference between ........................................... society in the next twenty yea rs?
2 Then write your report in 300 words or fewer.
b) For example, Use some of th e phrases in the box to link
your ideas.
J a) Young people in the twenty-Arst century on the whole in addition to this
won't stay in one social group. They ............. not only ... but also
however although in spite of
as a result to sum up

b) By contrast, social groups in the last century

85
The Gram ar Builder

Wei orne to the Grammar Builder!

The Grammar Builder gives extensive and more detailed practice


of the grammar points in the Snapshot course.

The units in this section can be used alongside the units in the
Workbook section, or for extra revision at a later stage.

Each unit begins with a grammar reference section called


Grammar highlights. This gives further examples of the structures
which are presented in the Students' Book.

.. The practice exercises which follow the Grammar highlights are


dearly labelled so that you know exactly which grammar poi nt
you are practising in each exercise.

87
Unit 1

routines and perma nen t sit uations, e.g.


v ry Friday.
He plays the guitar in a band. She

sometimes rides her bike to schoal.

We also use the presen t simple to ta lk


n't watch videos very often. about general statements of t ruth, e.g.
on play basketball a our school. Th esun rises in the east, and about
schedu les, e.g. The bus leaves at 7 p.m.
go [0 the merna at weekends? Adverbs of frequency, e.g. often,
play In a team? sometimes, co me before the main verb
except if the ma in verb is to be, e.g.
I always get up late on Saturdays.
Negative He 's often late for school.
No, he doesn't.
No, they aon'l. Adverbia l ph rases of frequency come
after the verb and the object, e.g. She
washes her hair twice a week.
To form t he third person sing ular positive,
we usually add -s to t he infinit ive, e.g.
wants, makes, drops. When the infin itive
ends in ch, sh, ss or x, we add - es, e.g.
watches, wishes. Wh en the infi nitive ends
in a conson an t + y, we delete the7'and
add - ;es, e.g. worries, cries, flies. The third
person sing ul ar of do and go is does and
goes.

89
Grammar highlights

Present continuous

We use the present cont in uous to talk


Positive statements

abo ut activities which are happeni ng at


I'm working in the shop today.

the t ime of speak ing or in t he current


She's wearing her new j ans.

period, e.g. He's sitting in the garden


They're writing a new song for the band.

right now. She's living in Ireland for


Negative statements
six months.
I'm not studying today.
The fo llowin g verbs are not norma lly
She Isn't wearing a dre
used in the prese nt con t inuous: agree,
They aren't doing anything.
be, believe, belong, contain, cost,
Questions depend. expect, feel, forget, hate, hear,
Am I doing this right?

hope, imagine, know, Ii e, look, !ove,


Is she wea ring make-up?
matter, mean, need, not ice, own, prefi r,
Are they playing tennis?
realise, recognise, remember, seem,
smell, suppose, taste, understand,
Short answers
want, wish.
Positive Negative
Have, see, think ca n be us d in the
Y ,you are. No, you aren't.

prese nt continuou s bu t the meaning is


Yes, she is. No, she isn't.

not th e sam e as in the present simple.


Yes, hey are. No, they aren't

Having ca n mean eating, drinking,


taking, giving, e.g. He's having lunch / a
drink / a shower! a party. Seeing means
going out with or meeting, e.g. Are you
seeing Lydia on So turday? Th inking about
means giving attention to, e.g. I'm
thinking about the holidays.
Th ere are certain ru les fo r spe ll ing th e
-ing fo rm. In many cases, we add - ing to
the infinitive, e.g. 90/99in9, work/working.
If th e infi ni tive ends in one e, we delete
t he -t'; and add -ing, e.g. make/making,
write/writing. If the in finitiv ends in a
stressed syllable of on e vo wel and one
consona nt (not y or w), we dou bl the
consonant, e.g. begin/beginning.
get/getting, stop/stopping, but
say/saying, grow/gro wing.

Present perfect simple with for and since


We use th e present p rfect si mple with
I' b en here sin eleven o'clock.
How long?, for and since to ta lk about
How long have you k own her?
events that started in the past and st ill
H ha n't seen his parents for three years.
continue in the prese nt, e.g. How long
Ha h lived in Britain for a long tIme? have you known each other? We've been
Y 5,h has, I No, he hasn't.
friends for three months / since July.
Th y'v had that car since March.

90
Pra ctice

Present simple or present continuous Present simple or present continuous

1 / Complete the conversation, putting the verbs 2 > Write the letter, putting the verbs into the
into the present simple or present continuous. present simple or present continuous.
I (write) this letter at the beach .
The sun (sh ine) and th e water (l ook) like blue glass.
2 We (stay) in an exce llent hotel. It (have got) three
tennis courts.
3 My parents (p lay) tennis at the moment.
4 They (get) very hea lthy with all this sport!
5 (you/remember) my cousin Ann ie? She's here, too.
6 Annie and I (not believe) in exercise!
7 We both (prefer) lying in t he sun and relaxing.
8 (you/have) fun with your sister?
Kim' Why .':':~~,'I.~.~.~!!~~~~'!!' .. (you/switch) on the N?
Tina: Because I , ......................................................................
(always/watch) lV on Thursdays at four o'clock. "Dec.r ,,,,,,el\ie. ,
There's this great programme about twin .J.'m .~r:~tjp.9. .t!1~ .I.e.tJ.e.r: .(J.t. rh~.~.e.t?~h: ............. .
sisters called Double Trouble. Now ssh I
........... -............ , .....................................

Kim: But you 2 ......................................................... (watch)


.......... "' ...................................................................... " .......................... .

an advert at the moment. aren't you?


Tina' No. This is Double Trouble. Please be quiet. 2 ................................ ..................... ..... .

Kim 0 this is Double Trouble, is it. Everyone ............................. " ......................................... I .................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

................................................. (say) It's brilliant. ..................................... r .. ..........

Tina: It is. 3 .. ................................. """" ." . .............................................................. .

Kim: What time 4............................................... (it/finish)? ..............................................................................................................

Tina: At fou r forty-five. Please ssh I ................................................................................................................

4
Kim' Why 5................................................................................
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

(the twins/put on) wetsuits?


Tina. Wait and see .
Kim: Where 6 ....................................................... (they/go)? 5 ...... , .......................... ........ ................ .................................................. ........ ..

Tina: To the beach, of course!


KIm: Who's that man who 7............................. .. ... . ........... .. .. ......................................................................................................... .

(wave) at them? 6 ................... ............................................................. .

.... ~ ~

Tina: I 8................................................................ (not know). ........................... ,. ........................... .................................. . .


~ ~

It isn't im po rtant. 7 ......................................................................... , .......... I

Kim: 9 ............................................................. (the twins/go) .................................................................................................

to the beach in every programme?


8
Tina: Ssh!
.......... , .. O' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Kim. look, the twins 10 .........................................................


. .................................................................................................. .

(not wave) back


Lots 0(:' \aue.
Tina: Bye. See you later. I " ................................................. "tTAI\ ea. OIl
(go) to Carol's to watch lV. She 12........................ ..

.................................. (not talk) as much as you!

91
Practice

Present simple or present continuous Present perfect simple with for and since

3> Complete the sentences. putting the verbs 4> Match the activities with the time phrases.
into the present simple or present continuous. Then write sentences in the present perfect with
for or since.
I (grow) two cent imetres [hJ
My best friend an d I (know) each other 0
2 The United States (exist) 0
3 Josh (have) a driving licence 0
4 There (be) life on earth 0
5 That N (be) on 0
6 He (be) in bed with a co ld 0
7 She says she (not see) a good fi lm 0
a) she saw Titan ic.
Cb) July.)
c) three days.
d) he was eighteen.
e) we we re at prima ry school.
f) millio ns of yea rs.
This cereal contains
.~ u , u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
g) over 200 years.
(conta in) all the important vitamins. h) at least three ho urs !

Jane isn't here. She ..........................................................


(see) the dentist about her bad tooth.

') His uncle .............................................................................


(own) a jewellery shop in Kenya. ,
04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Who ......................................................................................
(that motorbike/belong) to?
2 ...................................................................................................

4 What ....................................................................................
(we/have) for lunch today?
3 .................................................................................................. .

5 ................................................................................................
(you/think) the swimming pool is open today?

6 What exactly ..................................................................... 4 .................................................................................................. .

(telepathy/mean)?

7 What ....................................................................................
5 ................................................................................................. ..

(you/think) about a the moment?

8 I ..............................................................................................
(not see) the difference between these two 6 ...................................................................................................

mobil e phones.

9 She ........................................................................................
(not bel ieve) his story about missing the bus. 7 .................................................................................................. .

10 It ............................................................................................
(not matter) if we arrive early.
92
Pr~ent perfect simple with for and since Present simple, present continuous or
present perfect simple
51 Complete the second sentence so that it has a
similar meaning to the first sentence, putting the 6> Complete the text, putting the verbs into the
verbs in brackets into the present perfect simple. present simple, present continuous or present
perfect simple.

I've known (kno w) Ma be l Wise since I was six.


Mabel, wh o is ninety-four years old, 1...............................

(live) above the shop at the end of my street The


shop 2................................................. (belong) to Mabel's
family for over 150 years.
Mabel 3..................................... (not work) in the shop

very often now. Her granddaugh ter, Kyli e, 4.....................

............................ (manage) the shop since she returned

from Australia in 1989. But Mabel usua lly

5.................................. ... (co me) downsta irs in the

afternoon and 6..................................... (sit) behind the

counter with Kylie. She 7 ..................................... (not

take) the custom ers' money but she 8 .............................. ..


I last wore th is hat in 1992. (wear/since)
(enj oy) tal king to th m and givin g advice.
I haven't worn this hat since 1992.
There 9 ..................................... (be) quite a few
They arrived here an hour ago. {be/for}
changes since Kylie ca me to the shop. For the past
........................................................................ an hour.
year, t he shop 10..................................... (sell) cheeses
2 The last time I ate there was in July. (eat/since) from al l over the world, as well as fruit, flowers and
I ....................................................................................... JUly. vegetables.
'Business 11 ..................................... (g o) really well

3 They got married two years ago. (be/for)


now; Kylie told me recen tly, 'and we 12.............................

They .................................................................... two years.


.................................. (make)
4 He started to work there in 1997. (work/since)
quite a lot of money at
He ................................................................................ 1997.
the moment. People
5 We first met them last summer. (know/since) 13 .....................................

We ................................................................. last summer. (come) here regu larly


beca use they
6 The last time she wrote was last year. (write/since)
I~
She ................................................................................ year.
(li ke) Ma bel so much:
7 You got that jacket ages ago. (have/for)
You ............................................................................... ages.

8 I last saw her at Julie's birthday party. {see/since}


I ................................................................. _............ Julie's
birthday party.
93
Past simple
Positive statements We use the past si mpl e to ta lk about com pl ete
I went to Nepa l In July. actions or event s in the past, e.g. The Egyptians built
the Pyramids. We often use it with past time
Negative statements
adverb ia Is such as ago, yesterda y, last month, in
We didn't like the food very much.
1997, to ta lk about even t s which occurred at a
Questions definite po int of ti me in the past, e.g. He bought his
Old you take lots of photos? motorbike last week. We also use t he pa st simple to
narrate past event s, e.g. She packed her bag, walked
Short answers to the station an d got on the train.
Positive Negative
To form t he positive past si mp le of regular verbs,
Yes, r did. No, J dldn' .
we often add - ed t o the infinitive, e.g. walk/walked.
If the verb ends in e, we add - d, e.g. love/ loved. If the
infinitive ends in a con sonant + y, we delete the -yan d
add -;ed, e.g. study/studied. If t he infi nitive ends in
a stressed syllabl e of one vowel and one consonan t
(not yor w), we double the consonant, e.g. clap/clapped.
There is a list of irreg ular verbs on page 151 .

Present perfect simple


We use the presen t perfect simp le to talk about
Positive statements events whic h are li nked to the prese nt, e.g. Tim has
I'v (have) had lunch.
lost his keys (= He still doesn't know where they are.)
She's (ha~J just arrived from Paris.

The presen t perfect is often used wi t h t he following


Negative statements phrases, which are li nked to the present, e.g. just,
I haven't IIn ished my homework. alreadv, yet, ever, never, so for, up till now, recently.
Sh hasn't come back from the shops. We also use it to tal k about actions which are repeated
up to the present, e.g. She 's seen that film five times,
Questions and with a su perla tive to talk abou t expe rience, e.g.
Have you been to China?
It's the fastes t motorbike he 's ever ridden.
Ha she ever worked in Italy?

The verb go ha s tw o present perfect f orms : have/ has


Short answers gone and have/h as been. We use have/ has been when
Positive Negative the person has made a visit and come back, e.g. He has
Yes. I have. No. I haven't. been to the USA a few times. We use have/h as gone
Y s. sne has. No, she hasn't. when the person has not returned, e.g. He has gone
to the USA (= He's in th e USA. He isn't her .J

94

Grammar highlights

The definite article The num bers below match t he examples


in the colum n on the I ft.
We use the definite article :
You have to do a test. The est takes an hour. 1 to refer again to somethi ng which has
already been mentioned .
2 Sh went to the Netherlands and the USA last year. 2 with plural states and countries.
3 Ind the Alps, the Medllerran an Sea and the Loire 3 wi t h mou ntain ranges, ocea ns, seas
River on he map. an d rivers.
4 Ar you staying at the Srr ge Hotel? 4 with names of theatres, inemas
and hotels.
5 Did h Y arrive in the morning or the afternoon?
5 with parts of the day.
6 I w s th best holiday ever.
6 with superl atives.
7 Where has the sun gone?
7 when only one such thin g exists.

8 Sh plays the guitar and the piano.


8 with musi cal inst ruments.

The zero article We use no (zero) arti cle :


1 They went by train. 1 wi th by + a form of t ransport.
2 He' leavin school next year. 2 with the words school, college,

university, hospital. home, church

whe n we do n't mean a parti cu la r one.


3 We. had a piua for lunch. 3 with mea ls.
4 She's 5 udYlng French and Geography. 4 w ith languages and su bj ects.
They play football every Saturday. 5 w ith gam es and sports.
W live in Alfred Street in Dundee. Dundee is in Scotland. 6 with streets, towns and countri es.
7 lov is more important than fame. 7 with abstract no uns.
S Do take sugar in her coffee? 8 with uncountable nouns.
9 She likes animals. 9 with general plurals.

95
Practice
Present perfect simple with yet and so for Past simple or present perfect simple

1 >Write questions in the present perfect with >


2 Complete the sentences, putting the verbs
yet. Then write what each person has done so far into the past simple or present perfect simple.
and what each person still needs to do.

~"NTpOW -m {He SOUTH AMcf(ICA TKIP


Farid write #Ie leiters 30ufof7
IT; tire CPlffpsites

Tim k ~ue buy /he maps ZotIt tJf5

2 qoraya clred fife fents 1 (JUf of#He .. !!.~!!.'.~.~~~.t;~.!JJI. ....... (not take off) his cap
3 Adam have his injections (ouroF3 since he . J~~!1~.t (buy) it.
Don't bu y any j uice. Mark .............................................
4 ,uel< 10 btn1k 1he plane fickel's 6/JUf 011
........................... (already/buy) some.

2 She ...................................................... (not speak) since


Q: .~~~.~!:if!..w.mt~!'!.'-~!:.r~~.rJ.J~..~~~.~~mp~~~~'y'~? .. she ............................................... (arrive) this morning.
A: . ~~).w.rirr~.~.~.~QJ~.r::..ff~.~~~~~..~~..lf!:'t.~..~Q ..........
3 I ................................... (wake up) at four th irty
.!!~J~fh.~r:fo..~!:: ..................................................................
t his morning.
Q: ...........................................................................................
4 When ....................................................................................
(you /l earn) to waterski?

A: .......................................................................................... .
5 ............................................................................................._.

(Dave/ever/go) on a sponsored wa lk?

6 We ................................... (fly) to Sydney last


September to visi t my brother.
2 Q: ...........................................................................................

7 She ................................... (get) a camera for her

A: .......................................................................................... .
birthday and she ...............................................................
Oust/take) som e am azing photos.

8 I ....................................... (take) my cousins on a boat


trip on Saturday.
3 Q: ...........................................................................................

9 We ................................................ (not see) her since

she ................................... (get back) from Nepa l.

A: ...........................................................................................

10 He ................................... (write) to me last week but

I ......................................................................... (not write


back) yet.
4 Q: ...........................................................................................

11 I .................................................... (last/speak) to Maria


about three days ago.
A: ...........................................................................................

12 She ........................................ (fall) off her horse


qu ite a few ti mes but so far she .................................
.................................... (not break) any bones.
96
Practice

The definite and zero article The definite. indefi nite and zero article

3 ;- If a line is correct, put a tick (11') in the box. 4 > Circle the correct option for each gap. Then
If a line has a definite article which should not be write the words in the gaps.
there. underline it and put a cross (X) in the box.

SHARK AT I

A BritIsh tourist on .... ~.~'!.~~JI. .... in Auslralia


thoughl his life was over when a hark attacked him
. I
In .................................... .

But whde lhe shark was biting hi arm~ and cbesl,


~ ................................... swam up to him and saved him.
They made 1 ......... .......................... around twenty-three
year-old Pblllip Vellemler and 'cared away
4 . .. ................................. .

heard Phillip screaming and

5....................................

u)'nD.n ~ -to.tntr \.\laS I1t tk uru.~(stLj. 00 rc cued him by 6.................................... . He then gave

~ ~nt to fu Nei\w-\.o.nd.s an ~ PhillIp tir 'l aid on 7........................ ............ before taking

&t halld.ruj. "~ o.no. /1 t-Lrnd. ~nt b'j D hlln La hospital by 8.................................... .

2 ~ te.rr~ h-am Daver to a. port collM 0 Speaking from hi ho piLal bed. Phillip Laid
reporters .IL was 'l.... .. ..... .. ....................... r ightening
3 l\u. H~~ . Then ~ h1tchlu~d. to D
moment of my lIfe. The. hark nearly had me for
4 Amstud.am.~ 5~ea in tru. c.entre D 10 .................................... But the dolphins saved me.
5 oi fuR. POJ"ruliSo How. At: 2 0. rU9ht I D thank goodness:
6 it tunS tru. chR.a.pest plAC4 to stAtj. 0
7 ThA.re l.IJ'ef~ tru. tum h.u<3E r~ I.IJd:.h 0 a) th e holid ay (b) hol iday) cl a holiday
8 f.~ moil:rthse6 an tht flour. Euer~cm,,- D a) the Tasma n Sea b) Ta sman Sea c) a Tasman Sea
9 heu!. fu'lf own s~ bru.3s.1n tk m.arrUn9. D 2 a) the dolphins b) dolphins c) dolphin
euu~CJruI, h.ad. to u,o..ue th..t ~\.a.~
3 a) the ci rcl e b) circl e c) a circle
10 D 4 a) the shark b) shark c) a shark
b'j n.w. o'dack. M'1 to..thu and. hAs 5 a) The friend b) Friend c) A fri end
.11 ~d. rented. thi bi.kts to 90 around. D 6 a) the boa t b) boat c) a boat
12 t.h... Countr~. ~ ~ lots of hunds. D 7 a) the beach b) beach c) a beach
8 a) the car b) car c) a car
13 E~~d\'\Q. stud.iv.. th.t EnSlish at D 9 a) the most b) most c) a most
14 the school thu~ o..nd. th.t~ all spolu it wti1. 0 10 a) the lunch b) lunch c) a lunch

97
nit 3

Past continuous
Po it,ve statements
We use th e past con ti nuous to talk about
Sh was reading a book.
background detail s to events, e.g. I was
They were making a nOise.
looking at some old letters yesterday.
I found on e fro m my oid girlfriend, Lucy.
Negative statements

We also use it to ta lk about in terru pted


Shl" wasn't watching N.

events in t he past, e.g. They were playing


They weren't tudying

cards when the ligh ts suddenly went out.


Questions
It is also used to talk about events which
Was he writing a letter?
were in progress in the past when another
W they annoYing you?
event occurred, e.g. We were sitting in oLir
tent ane evening when Sheila told us
Short answers
about th e ghost.
Positive Negative

Time cl auses in t he past continuous are


Yes, she was. No, she wasn't.

often in troduc d by when, while and as,


Yes, they wer >. No, they weren't.

e.g. A bird flew in through the window


while I was watching TV The t ime clause
and th e ma in clause can be reversed. If
the time clause begins t he sentence, the
clause must be fol lowed by a comma, e.g.
While I was watching TV. a bird flew in
Past perfect through the window.
Positive statements

He'd (had) seen the film before.

Negative statements

Th y hadn't been there before.


We use the past perfect to ta lk about
events which happen ed (or didn't ha ppen)
Questions
before other even ts in the past, e.g. Jane
I ad you met them before?
gave me back my bike yesterday. She had
borrowed it the week before. I ate snails at
Short answers

Positive
a French res taurant last week. I had never
Negative

eaten them before.


Yes, we had. No, we hadn't.

Time clauses with when, while, as,


In time clauses with ofter and before,
as soon as, before, after
we can use t he geru nd (- ing form) if
1 was standing at the bus stop when Jane drove past.
the subject of both clauses is the sam e,
W~tle we were ealing supper, the phone rang.
e.g. After talking to Jim, I decided to
As I was leaving the house, Tom came round.
buy rollerblades. He tidied his room
Th y rov here as soon as they got my message.
before going out.
I ft belore/after Naomi arrived.
Af er working as a waitress for two months, she got a
Job in a !>hop.

98
Practice
Past perfect with when, us soon as, ofter Past simple or past continuous

1 / Complete the second sentence so that it has 2> Match the pairs of sentences to their meanings.
a similar meaning to the first sentence. using
the words in brackets.

I took my exams and then I got a holiday job. (after)

....M~~.~.. ~.I:'.~.~I:'.~.~."!...~.~~~~!.. !..$..~~ .... a holiday job.


I earned so me money before I booked some driving
lessons. (after)

......................................................... some driving lessons.

2 First I passed my driving test and then I bought an


old car. (as soon as)
i) [II When my sister left, Jim and I had

an argument.

............................................................................. an old car.

ii) ~ When my siste r left, Jim and I were

3 I had the car for three weeks and then the lights having an argument.

stopped working. (after) a) She left during t he argument.

b) She left before t he argument

............................................. the lights stopped working.


il D When Ann sa w the snake, she ran up
the stairs.
4 I fixed the lig hts and then somebody drove into ii} D When Ann saw t he snake, she was runn ing
the back of my car. (as soon as) up t he stairs.
a) She was on the groun d floor when she
................................................... into the back of my car.
sa w the snake.
b) She was on the stairs when she saw t he snake.
5 I repaired t he back of my car and then I decided to
sell it (when) 2 i) D When Tim arrived , th ey were watching
Titanic on video.
ii) D
When Tim arrived , t hey watched Titanic
...................................................................................... sell it. on video.

a) He watched the whole Fi lm with them.

6 I sold my car and then I bought a bike. (as soon as)


b) He did n't see t he start of the f ilm.

..................................................................................... a bike.

3 i) DI was wearing my sunglasses when my


eyes started t o hurt.
ii) DWh en my eyes started to hurt, I wore
my sunglasses.
a) Whi le I was wearing my sunglasses, I go t
sore eyes.
b) My eyes hurt so I pu t on my sung lasses.
4 i) DWhen I spoke to John, he looked at his
newspaper.
ii) D When I spoke to John , he was looking at
his newspaper.

a) He didn't want to speak to me.

b) I interrupted his read i ng.

99
Practice

Past perli ct or past simpl~ Past simple. past continuous or past perfect

3/' Use the prompts to complete the pairs of 4> Complete the texts,
sentences. Use the past perfect in one sentence putting the verbs in brackets
and the past simple in the other. into the past simple,
past continuous or past perfect.
When I got to Victoria station,
a) the nine o'clock tra in (already/leave).
.J~.~.~!.~~.~.~~!~J~.rr.~.~~..~~.t!..~.k.~!!.~.Y..~~~ .................
b) I (wait) for the nine thirty tra in.
.J.w.~!~~J9.r..t~~.~.,~~.*~r:.tJl..~r.~!~.: ...........................
I didn't phone Libby to tell her I'd be late

because ...

a] I (cannot] remember her phone number.

When il ....... 9.~~ ....... (get) hom e yesterday, my father

1..................................... (lie) on the sofa. There

b) I (forget) to bring my address book with me.


2........ ........................ ..... (be) a newspaper in his lap but

he J .................................................. (not read) it. A man on

the TV 4..................................... (talk) about football, but

2 When the train arrived at Brighton station,


Dad 5.............................................. ........................ (not watch)

a) Libby (already/drive) home.


the program me. He 6..................................... (fa ll) asleep.

b) I (take) a taxi to Libby's house. After I 7.................................................. (turn off) the TV,

I 8..................................... (wake) him up.

3 Luckily, I remembered the way to her house Woul d you like to come to ~
because ... the park with us for a picnic? ~~~
a) I (know) it was near the hospital.

b) I (be) there before.

4 I got out of the taxi and found Libby holding a


ladder. .
a) She (lose) her front door keys.
I 9..................................... (mee t) Martha and Kate

b) She (look) extremely annoyed . yesterday as I 10.. .......... .. ... ... ... .. ..... ....... (walk) home from

the sw imming pool. They had j ust come out of the

5 She climbed through her bedroom window ... supermarket. They 11.... .................................................... (go)

a) which luckily she (leave) open . to the park fo r a picnic and t hey 12....................................

(ask) me to go with th em. I 13............................................. ..

b) and she (open) the front door for me. (want) to go bu t I 14.................................................................

(arrange) to meet Vicky at th e cinema so I


15..................................... (sa y) no.

100
Practice
Past simple. past continuous or past perfect

5 / Circle the correct option for each gap. Then


write the words in the gaps.

When ra ig Myers .....~~.':'.~~~..... his re taurant, he


g I II lor a v ry go d price becau'e it
I ...................................... empty for lw years. Nobody
w. nt d to buy the pia 'e because people said that it
had a gho t. The ghost was a lady in a long green
dr 'S~ who 1. ........................... .......... a singer in the
restaurant years before People said that one night,
on l1"f way home from the restaurant, the singer
I ...................................... her car off the road, over some

liif~ .lf1d into the ea II w. Nobody had ever seen


He woke up in hosp ital. Two polic officers
the ing r live again . I eaple said they had seen her
12..................................... in the room with him
gh ) t, but Cra ig 4.................................................... in
'We need t ask you sam q uestions, ' hey suid .
ghosts 5 he wasn'l worried.
'who was the woman in the ar with y u ? We
Three man hs ait r he ~ ...................................... the haven't been able to fi nd her since the .led enl. '
re L.lurilnl, Cr ig op ned it again. He called it
'1 13 ...................................... anyone w ith ITIe in
The Green Lady.
the car,' Craig answered.
r taurant b...................................... open for six
'Yes, you did,' the you nger p lic offi er sai
munths when J trange thing happened. It was a
'We 14 . ..................................... behind you and we both
turciay night. Everybody had left and Craig
saw her. She 15...................................... a green dress.'
7....................... no . . . . . . . . . up the restaurant

Suddenly he h ilrd a woman inging in the


dinlllg room. She II...................................... a
a) was buying b) had bought ecl bought)
traditional !long ailed 'Gr ensleeves' . Craig
1 a) was being b) had been c) was
went inlo Ih dintng fOum. The voice was 2 a) was b) has been c) had been
louder there, bu t the ro m was mpty. Craig 3 a) was driving b) had driven c) has driven
fj ...................... ............... the re lauranL tape
4 a) doesn't believe b) didn't believe c) wasn't bel ieving
5 a) didn't buy b) was buying c) had bought
record ~r nd th radio in the kitchen, but they
6 a) had been b) has been c) was
wer both switched off. He ouldn'l stop the 7 a) tidied b) had ti died c) was tidying
strange Singing but he didn't teel very worried. 8 a) was si nging b) sang c} had sung
9 a) was checking b) had ch ecked c) checked
H IU ...................... w .......... . up the restaurant,
10 a) locked b) was locking c) had locked
got Into hi car and tarted to drive hom . On 11 a) was falling b) fe ll c) had fallen
the way home, he II ......................................
12 a) had sat b) sat c) were sitting
13 a) didn't have b) hadn't had c) wasn't having
d leep and cra~hed hi:. l:ar into a tree.
14 a} drove b} had driven c) were driving
15 a) wore b) was wearing c} had worn
101
4

Future with will/won't


Positive statemen
We use will:
I'll (will) meet you at six o'clock.
- to make predictions, e.g. Dinner will be
ready at seven o'clock,
Negative statements
- to make a decision or choice, e.g. I'll have
She won't (wil l not) be late,
an egg sandwich, please.
Questions - to rna ke prom ises, e,g. We'll be very quiet.
Will you call me later? - to make threats, e.g. Yo u'll be sorry.
We also use will/ won't to give opinions
Short answers
after verbs such as be sure, think, know
Positive Negative
and hope, e.g . I know you 'll enjoy this book.
Yes, I wi ll . No, I won't.
We do not use will to talk about
arrangements, e.g. What are you doin g
tonight? (not Viila t will YOti do teRifjW)

Future with may/might


We use may an d might to ta lk about
Take your key. I might/may be out when you get back.
possible futu re events. Th ere is no difference
You can borrow my sleeping bag but It might/may not
between may and might in t his case.
b very clean.

Future with going to


Itive statements We use going to + ve rb:
I'm going to see Judy soon.
- to make predicti ons about t he immediate
You're gO ing to be late.
future, parti cularly when we already
She's going t walch the football match.
have evide nce of what is going to
happen, e.g . Look at those clouds. It's
Negative statements

going to rain.
I'm not going 0 see Tim for some time,

- to talk about fi xed plans and fu ture


You aren't going to get there by three.

intentio ns, e.g. I'm going to buy a camera


She isn't going to do her homework.

before the trip.


Questions
Going to go is not very comm on. The
Am I going Lo need a bigger suitcase?
present contin uous is more common, e.g.
Are you going to take her a present?
We're going swimming in th e lake (not
Is she going to wear her helmet?
We 're going to go 5wimming in the lakc.)

Short answers
Positive Negative
Yes, you are. No, you aren't
Yes, I am. No, I'm not.
Yes, she is. No, she isn't.

Future with present continuous We use the presen t conti nuous to talk
Dave's meeting me at the ci nema at seven thirty. about definite fu t ure arrangements. Th is
What are you doing on Friday evening? ten se is common with t ime phrases.

102
Practice

Will/won't or (not) going to Going to or present continuous

1 / Circle the appropriate form t o complete 2>Put the conversation in order. Then rewrite
the responses. it, putting the verbs in brackets into the present
continuous where possible. Where it isn't possible,
use going to.
o Nothing yet. (I/get) her som ethin g in New York.

D I am, too. By the way, what (you/give) her?

[II Hi, Maria. (you/walk) to the bus stop?

o Lucky you. Now let's wal k a bit faster.


(We/miss) our bus.
o N ext week.
D Yes. It's Kate's birthd ay and (I/get) the bus
to her house.
o Si lver earrings. What abou t you?
D When (you/go) to New York?

Maria: 2 .................................................. ........................ ...........

David: 3 ....................... ............................................. .................

Maria: 4 ................................................. ................. ...... ........... ..

A: What are you doing with that bucket?

/'/I ~'m going to)give the dog a bath.


David: 5 ... ................... ...... ................. ................. .......................

A: How are you feeling now?


B: I th ink I'll / I'm going to be sick. Maria: 6 ....... . .. ... .. ............. ........... . ... .. .. ... .................................. .

2 A: Liz and Andy are always together these days.


B: Yes. They'll/ They're going to get married. David: 7 ............... . ......................................... .. ..................... ... ..

3 A: Let's get the seven o'clock bus. Maria: 0 .............. ................................................................... .. ..


B: OK. I'll/I'm going to meet you at the bus
station at quarter to seven.
4 A: Can you give me a lift to Lucy's party?
B: No problem. I'll/I'm going to pick you up
at eight.
5 A: I ca n't tell you the latest news about Eddie and
Rose. It's a secret.
B: Please tell me. I promise I'm not going to /
I won't tell anyone else.
6 A: Why can't you come to the match tomorrow?
B: I told you. We'll / We're going to have lunch
with my cousins in Cambridge.
7 A: Have a fantastic weekend!
B: Same to you. And /'I( / I'm going to see you
on Monday.

103
- --- --- -

. Practi:ce - -

'ff/will/won t or present continuous 'II/will/won't or might/might not

3 ,/ Complete the sentences with a verb from the 4> Match the statements with the responses.
box, using 'II/ will/won't or the present continuous. Then write the responses out in full. using
'/I/wifl/won't or might/might not
win be pass happen hurt
do go cost have G stay Did you phone Keith? 1II
..... ~~r.!'Y,.JiC!.r9.fJJ: ..e!!.p.h~~.~..~f.'!! ..r}!?'!:...........................

1 Have you seen my rollerblades? o

2 Where are you going in the summer holidays? D

3 Could you post this letter for me? D

4 Do you think she'll win the 100 metres? 0

You can borrow my rollerblades if you like.


5 What time is the rehearsa l on Monday? 0
I ~p..!.'.~~.!!.~!!.l9....... them for the next few days.
, He ................................. to Brighton next weekend to
visit his uncle.
2 The forecast says it .............................. cold and win dy
tomorrow with rain in the afternoon. 6 How about some choco late cake with cream? 0
3 ' ................................ you ............................... anything
next weekend?'

'Yes. I ............................................. at home and


7 How will we get to the station tomorrow
watching videos:
morn ing? D
4 She's worried about her driving test She's sure
she .............................................. .
5 I'm going to X-ray your foot. Don't worry, a) We haven't really decided yet. We (go) to
it .............................................. . the US.
6 This jacket needs cleaning. How much (bJ Sorry, I f orgot I (phone) him now.)
.............................. it .............................. ? c) Act ually, I! t hink th e director is ill. There (be)
7 Who do you th ink ...................... ........ the next one on Monday.
World Cup? d) Sure. I (do) it on my way to school.
e) No problem. My parents (t ake) us on their
8 'What would you like to drink?'
way to work.
'I .............................. an orange juice, please: f) No, t hanks. I (have) a dessert. I'm fu ll.
9 I'm sorry about being late yesterday. I promise g) No. I'm sure she (win). Sh e isn't very fit.
h) No, bu t they (be) in t he hall cupboard.
it ......................................................... again.

104
Practice

, I'm going to take my mum on a


fabulous holiday to the Seychelles
this summer.'

A eventeen-year-old London schoolgirl,


Su anna Lownde , won the Face of the
Year award in London last night.

Tomorrow, usanna will collect weekends. It'U be fun and hopefuUy I next year. I might not ha\'t! the right I ok
her $25.000 prize in New York and sign 10 lots of money: I 12....................................................

a year's conlfHct with Ihe ag.ency Suoanna has aLread decided what. to young and beautiful so ['\Ie Jel'idt:J that
Top Models do Wilh her prize money. 'J m going to r IJ ................................................... sum.:
'J m ~ll e ited. Susanna told our lake my mum on a fabulous holiday to of my prize money for a rainY dllY.'
reflurtcT 'I'm missing three day. of the SeycheUes this summer and ['m going Susanna's mOlher i. delighted with
~cho I tlli week. I I.................................. to buy myself some new clothes. I'm also her daughter's succe s. ' uccess
t New York by Com::orde tomorrow going to give some to charity. BUl I'm 14..................................... heT chanu;ter:
Yo ilh my mum. The priL.e-giving dinner going 10 'ave most of It. J "...................... Mrs Lowndes says. ' usanna will always
15 on Thursday. Lots of t'amous people ............................ any modelling work be. en.1ble and hard-working:
'................................. to il On Friday.
I ..................................... clothe at the
top of the Empire tale buiiUing for
/"/lIIr magazine.' Might, will/won 'f, going to or present

Next month, usanna 4..................... ..


continuous

..................... the deSIgner Karl Lorrin In


5> Circle the correct option for each gap. Then
Pari!;. 'I 5.................................... sign a
write the words in the gaps.
~lIrurat:1 with him: she says. 'but I'm nol
a) won't ( b) will ) c) might
ure. t agent b....... " ...........................
1 a) 'II fly b) 'm flyin g c) might fly
dC\;id~ I'm l;ulI n w t.1I Ibis bw ioess:
2 a) are coming b) wi ll come c) won 't come
Susanna j" g lOt,! It) .:ontinue with
3 a) 'II model b) 'm modelling c) 'II have modell ed
her ,IU lie~ at Kingston Pllrk School next
4 a) met b) has met c) will meet
\!at' I ..................................................

5 a) might b) migh tn't c) won't


leave school yet. I'm definitely going 6 a) mightn't b) might c) will
t I takl: my levels next year and I 7 a) 'm not going to b) will c) mightn't
I..................................... go t.o university 8 a} might b) 'II c) won't
.!Ir~r Ihot - it' ll depend 011 my exam 9 a) 'm not doing b) won't do c) 'm going to do
rc.!~ulLs . While I'm slill at school, 10 a) 'm earning b) 'II earn c) won't earn
I!)........................._................. .. 11 a) might not get b) 'm not getting c) might get
IIlI.dclling in the holiduys Olnd al the 12 a) 'm not always b) won' t always be c) 'II always be
13 a) won't keep b) might keep c) 'm going to keep
14 a) won't change b) mightn't change c) will change

105
Unit 6

Cl auses and linkers of contrast:


although, however, in spite of/despite Although introduces a clause and is
follo wed by a su bject and a verb.
Although that shop IS a bit expensive, I like it.

I like thal shop allhough it's a bit expensive.


When t he Although cl ause comes fi rst,
it is followed by a comma .
It's a wonderful city for shops and nigh life. However, the

The lin ke r However starts a new


pub lic transport is very expensive.

sentence and is followed by a comma.


In spite of having very little money, he had a brilliant
However is much more common in
time in dmburgk
wri tten Engl ish t ha n in spoken Eng lish.
Despite haVing very little money, he had a brilliant
In spoke n English, it is very forma l.
time in Edinburgh.

. The lin kers in spite of and despite are


He had a brilliant time in Edinburgh in spite of
foll owed by a gerund (- ing form) or by
havfn g ve.ry little money.
a noun.
He had a bril liant time in Edinburgh despite having
When the In spite of/Despite phrase
very li ttle money.
com es first in a sentence, it is fo llowed
by a co mma.
I ilke Scotland In spite of the weath r.

I like Scotland despite the weather.


In spite of is more common tha n Despite.

106
Practice

linker: aft/l0ugh linkers: in spite of and despite + noun

I >Complete the sentences using 2> Complete the sentences with the phrases in
llthough and a sentenc.e from the box. the box.
)se capital letters and commas
her doctor's advice her ag e (. t he noise)
",here necessary.
the number the rubb ish th e weather
the traffic the time th eir disa greement

My parents slept well in spite of .... ~~~.~2!!.~.... we


were making dow nst airs with our elect ric guitars.
We arrived in time for th e fl ig ht desp ite
............................................... on the road to t he ai rport.

2 We decided to queue for tickets fo r t he Texas


concert despite .................................................. of
people in the queue at the ticket office.

(she'd known him a long time) 3 She woke up at four o'clock this morni ng bu t
Rob had only seen Linda in a photo
decided to get up despite .............................................. .
(I don't have any money to spend)
I hadn't invited him to mine 4 One ra iny weekend in Novem ber. we decide d to
I don't usually read the articles go camping in spi t e of .................................................... .
she was very tired
he'd had a breakfast at seven 5 Despite ......................................................................... last
the train was about to leave weekend, Tim and Dominic are still good frien ds.

6 It's a fascina ting and co lourful city in spite of


She didn't re<:ognise him in his hat and sung lasses
.................................................. and dirt in t he streets.
..~!.~~~.':!9.~.~~.t;.'~.~~~!'!~.~.~'E..~ ..~~~9..~~.~:.......................

7 She continued to drink ten cups of coffee a day


A#.I:!f!.':!9.~.!.. ~.C!.!!1.~.~~~.~t:'1l..'!!.t?,~~..!!!..~p.~~.~~ .. I d like
to look around this CD shop. despite ................................... .............................................. .

Peter was hungry by ten o'clock ....................................


8 My grandmother goes everywh ere by bi cycle in
spite of ................................................................................ .
2 .................................................................................................. .

she couldn't get to sleep .

................._... _.............................................. he recogn ised


her as soon as she got off the train.
1- I always look at the photos in sports magazines

.......................... he stopped to buy a magazine for

the journey.

) Sam invited me to his party ............................................

107

Practice

linkers: in spite of and despite + gerund linkers: although, in spite of

J,/ Rewrite the sentences using the words in 4> Complete the sentences in the explorer's
brackets. Make sure the second sentence has notebook using although or in spite of.
a similar meaning to the first sentence.
I waved and shouted but I couldn't attract the Moxd~ Sf'&< M(MI
waiter's attention. (in spite of) We've tiedrAeA to hearJ....jrrrfhe -top of
.J~..~P'!~~..9f.W.~.~!.'.'.9..f!m.t!.. ~~!!'~~!~9A.!..~~~l4~.:t.@.;r.~~t .. Mor..nt A~plArna ........ ~.~~h9.H9.~....... JtfCk
~v(t foelAttj l)e..(y wetA.. at the momettt.
.
Jh~..w.~rr~r.:~ ~n~~~(9.~:.........................................................
Although she has a swimm ing pool in her garDen. rrid~ 7tYt M~
she doesn' t know how to swim. (despite) 1. ser-ious ~iffi"aA.U;iesI

we..
reacJted. the pak aJ 2 p.wt. flnAay r ~tt( a
pit wurried about JP.ck l ...................

he says he i5 jeelArtg b~fmia.Jf'

2 I went to bed early last night but I still feel tired ~"ttda.y. q+h M~

today. (in spite of) We. are. now Ol't. tJU.f ~y ~QWYt..

1................................... the SlUt ;6 5MU~. ~ck.


htl~ comp~iMed about the C01t?-. ~u. tAay.

3 She has an exam tomorrow morning but she's W~ne?dtw. 12th M~


going to a party tonight. (in spite of) In the. 1/i,(kAge, of k'amtlA(() 4...................................
my IAmited lGfI(JWled.je of t{ep~leseJ r
~aA1~9u( to PlAy same JuurA' We tAte tJU('
w.mcn bi{ ~ deep rod<. pout. I dAv-ed.. i..fl.
4 We know the city well but we got lost on the way
to the castle. (despite)
~fteMm.rds 5.................................. ttle. ternper~tMre.

oj tJre, ~ter .................................. r ~id. my

"e~t tlJ get Ja,c.k. fa come itt) he 5~t OK..


the 51de loohYl3 rn6et'~ble.

5 Although he plays in a band three nights a week. ThMr~d(p( 13th Me;ty _


he still gets good grades at school. (in spite of) We are. Ct(mpin.J tMtside the. ~~ of
'PaurM.. 7................................. the. vr,t,(a.9e.t"'s afe
vexy fr'~dly, Hte,y wiU rtot lek lAS take-.

photos of them. ::rack has e{ proplem with

hAs ~h1wt~ch nOW) 8 .................................. I.1f...

6 I wrote down the rehearsal time but I completely htlAle. ~rlAnk QYt1Jy Pail.M ~tM dlArlA19 0(
forgot to go. (despite) ti.ttte. ttM'e..

Fri~ 14#\ M~y


'1- -
...... ~
r
5hou/~ft't 5Q.y trllS, ~dt..
u r ...........

7 He does a lot of sport but he doesn't look very fit. is gettttt,9 tm my nIMYeS. 10..................................

(i n spite of) ifte, beaiAty Of the. place he compit-rts t<1.A. J

the -tirne.. 11.................................. we ka.ve ha.c(


some 9tJUd. t\.+tt(!s to~ltrel; r wtU NeVeR
trave{ wittt hAM ~gatrt I
108
Unit 7

Verbs should{n't), ought(n't} to,


had better (not) We use should and ought to when we give advice,
Positive statements criticise or make a stro ng suggestion. Should and
fht:y should work harder. ought to mean t he same, but should is more
She ought to ~o to bed earlier. common. The question forms of ought to, e.g.
You'd better tell them the news. Ought I to phone? are very uncomm on.
N gative statements
We use had better to give advice in an immed iate
They shouldn't play loud music late at night.
or particular sit uation, e.g. 'I feel very weak: 'You 'd
51 oughtn't to go to bed 50 late.
better sit do wn:
You'd better not drlve in this weather.
We don 't use had better to express general advice
or obl igat ion: I thiRk the govcfflfflent hBd better do
Questions

50fflethiRg Beout !JeHu tio R fA this eOt:J Atf):


Should they try to get holiday jobs?

Ought she to lend J,m some money?

Had I better go hom now?

Snort answers
Positive Negative
Y they shou ld, No, they shouldn't.
he ought to. No, she oughtn't to.
es, you'd better. No, you'd better not.

Comparison of adjectives and adverbs


The rules for form ing t he com parative an d superla tive
Comparative adjectives form of adjectives are as follo ws:
Cars are safer than motorbikes. - We form the comparative of one-syllable adjectives by
love is more important than money. adding -er or -r, and the su perlative by add ing -est
Money IS less important than love. or -st, e.g. worm/ wormer/warmest; pale/paler/palest.
Money n't as impor ant as love.
- When a short adj ective (one or two syll ables) ends
Superlative adjectives in y, we form th e com para tive an d superlative by
T Jaguar is the fas st animal in the world.
deleting t he -y-an d ad ding -ier/-jest, e.g.
Motor racing is one of th most drmgerous sports.
eas y/easier/easiest.
Ka e is th sportiest of the three sisters.
- When an adject ive has one sylla bl e and ends in one
Rita is the least sporty of the three sisters.
vowel and one consonant (not war yJ. we doub le
the fina l consona nt in t he comparative and
Irregular adjectives
superlat ive and add -er/-est, e.g. big/bigger/biggest.
adjective comparative superlative
To form the comparative and superla t ive of long
ood bet er best
adjectives, we put more or (the) most in front of the
bad war e worst
adject ive, e.g. more expensive, (the) most expensive.
ar t rther farthest
much/many more most We can use almost, nearly or just with as ... as,
It tie less least e.g. She's almost as tall as her mother.
Some forms are irreg ula r. See t he list on the left.

109
--

Grammar highlights
Comparative adverbs
Most adverbs end in -Iy. To fo rm the
Women drive more/Ie s dangerously than men.
comparative and superlative of these
M n drive faster than women.
adverbs, we pu t more/less or (the)
Women don't tJrfve as fast as men.
most/(th e) least in front of t he adverb.
I work bel er/worse in th~ morning than in the evening.

In the case of adverbs which do no t end


Superlative adverbs in -Iy, we make the comparati ve and
Who works (the) hardest in your family?
superlative forms by addi ng -er/-est, e.g.
Who cooks (the) most egularly in your family?
faster/fastest, harder/ha rdest; -r/-st, e.g.
later/latest; or -ier/-iest, e.g.
Irregular adverbs earlier/earliest.
adverb comparative superlative For some irregular forms, see the list on
badly worse worst the left.
well bIter best
We ca n use almost, nearly or just wi th
much more most
as ... as, e.g. He drives nearly as well as
I lie less least
his father.
far arther farthest

Comparatives with much/a lot/far/a bit We can use the intensifiers much, a lot,
Jane IS a much safer driver than Tom. far and a bit to ma ke a comparative
J n~ drives far better than Tom. adjective or adverb stro nger.

igation and prohibition with verbs . 'n positive statements, if we are talking
must, have (got) to, don't need to about obligations which come from
Obligation
other peopl e, we use have (got) to, e.g.
You must bring a photO for your student card.
Ihave to I I've got to finish this
You have (got) to bring a photo for your s udenl card.
homework. We use have to to talk about
No obligation
routines, e.g. He has to cook dinner once
Y u don't have to wear a cycle helmet but it's safer If you do.
a week (not J-Ic must cook dinf'lcr ORce
You haven't got to wear a cycle helmet but it's safer if you do.
a wcck.)

You don't need a wear a cycle helmet but it's safer if you do,
. In the first person, we use must to
lU needn't wea r a cycle helmet but it's safer if you do. express strong fee lings and wi shes of
the speaker, e.g. I must buy some new
Prohibition

jeans soon.
You mustn't eat or drink in the classroom.

In positive statem en ts, have to and must


are very close in meaning . If you aren't
su re wh ich to use, it's safest to use
have to.
We ca n't use must to talk about past
obli gations. We use had to.
We use don't/doesn't have to,
haven't/hasn't got to, needn't,
don 't/doesn't need to to express a
lack of obli gati on.
We use mustn 't to express prohibition .

110
Practice
Verbs shoLlld{n't}. ought(n'tj to, had
Com pa rat ive adjectives and adverbs with
better (not)
n't (...) as ... as

1 / Complete the second sentence so that it has 2,) Complete the second sentence so that it has
a similar meaning to the first sentence. using a similar meaning to the first sentence. using
the correct form of the words in brackets. n't (...J as ... as.

Cars are safer than motorcycles.

..M~~~r.9l~.~~..'!.r.~.~~t.~~.~tY.~..~~.~~~:...............................

Naom i is more bea utiful t han Jodie.

Jodie .....................................................................................

2 The Edinburgh accent is cleare r than the Glasgow


accent.
The Glasgow accent ........................................................

3 Your car is much better than mine.

It's a bad idea to leave valuables in your car


My car ..................................................................... yours.
overnight. (should)
4 My jeans were cheape r t han Harry's.

You .... ~~.'?'!.~~'1:.~............... leave valuables in your car Harry's jeans ........................................................... mine.
overnigh t.
1 the police's job to do something about crime in My grandfath er drives more da ngerously than
this area. (should) my grandmother.

The police ..................................... do something about My grandmot her ..~!!.~~.:~Ar.~~~.~!..!!.~~9.~r!i'.!-!~,Y. ...... .


crime in this area. ..~~.mJl.9.r.~~y!fC!J~.f!.'::..........................................................
2 It causes problems when people park on these 5 Sa lly drove much fa ster t han Kevin.
double ye llow lines. (ought) Kevin ....................................................................................
People ..................................... park on these double 6 Rachid got up earlier than Carlo.
yellow lines.
Carlo .....................................................................................
3 It's dangerous to drive long distances without
regular breaks. (should)
7 Ma le drivers take risks more freque ntly than
People ..................................... drive long distances
fema le drivers.
without regu lar breaks.
Female drivers ...................................................................
4 Stop and have a break now. (had better)
You ................................... stop and have a break now.
8 Maria was dancing more energet ical ly than the
S The speed limit of 120 kilometres per hour is too
other girls.
fast on this small road. (ought)
The other gi rls ...................................................................
They ..................................... reduce the speed limit
on this small road.
6 It's a bad idea to go clubbing tonight We've got 9 Jake's jacket fi ts me better than Nancy's.
school tomorrow. (had better) Nancy's j acket ..................;................................................
We .. go clubbing tonight.

TOo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

We've got school tomorrow.

111
Comparative adje.ctives and adverbs with Comparative and superlative adjectives
mu hla bi r and adverbs
as ... as
3> Use the chart and the prompts to write
com parative sentences with much or a bit. 4>Complete the letter with as + adjective/

adverb, or the comparative/superlative fo rm.

1Jear emily)
I hope /JtJU're hQuing 0 nice time In Spain. 1m on holir.hJj in
Scot/and near l.txh Fi.Jne.(Loch meons /.alre, by the wag) I
Mink lJ,is is one of .~~!:.."E~~.~~~~ifi.!.~ .. (beautiful)
or
places in Britain. amrse the weather isn't ....~~.~.~L ..
(hot) as in Spain but the water in the loch is much
Age 36 34 ~ ~~Xp.~r. . (warm) 'mel I ............... ............ . . .. ... ... . .. ........ .. (easy)
Accidents 6 12
to get intxJ than I expected.
1 Top speed 320kph 314kph
Don't be Jealous but 1m stoying in q castle. YES.~II' II
2 Crashes 2 10
mal co~i. My uncle Steve} who is une of 2 ..... .... .. .. .. .............

3 Cost of car $4m $7m


..................................................... (lucky) pet7p~ In the wurld,
4 Car breakdowns 3 2
Wtm 15 miUiqn ill the lott.ery and Ixvght it tiS 0 holiday ht11Tle!.~1
5 Prize money $10m $2m
MIJ f'tXJrn is ................................................ (high) one in the
lo ld) castle and ii has 4 .. . .. .. .. . .... ...... ..... ... .... .... ... ........... .. ... ......... .
Sochmacher is a bit older than Kikkonen . (spectacular) view I've ever seen. I get up
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04

(have accidents/freque nt)


Kikkonen .. ~.~~.~!:~~~~~.~~.p..~!:~..p..~r.~fr.~q!:'.~~~w. ..........
than Sochmacher. 5 .................................................... (early) than everyone elst.
(d rive/fast)
and go fur a jag euvy mqrning.
Sochmacher ..........................................................................
Haw's the summer Job going? fire you wurking
6 .. ................................................. (hard) as last fji!4r?Or have

you 11M time to go tD d'/t~t club C4iJed Whispers? Is the


2 (drive/dan gerous)
beach 7 ......... .... .... ,............ .. .................. (crowded) as lost
Kikkonen ................................................................................ year? Does that Californian guy called UJI(e jec-ski
II..... ...... ............ ......... ... .. .............. (dangerously) os last !JetV.'

3 (have/a n expensive car) My COUSin Tim is 9............ .................................... (boring)


Kikkonen ................................................................................ i:his fjetlr thtln last year: He isn't 10.... . .. .. ........... .. ......................

(relaxed) as he WQS last summer dnd he seems to be

4 (car/perfo rm we ll) Wing his sWdies much


II ................................. ... ..... ............. .

(seriously) than befure.

Kikkonen's .............................................................................
See you Sm .

Lots ot ltwe,

5 (be/rich) SerentJ
Sochma ch er ..........................................................................

112
Practice
Must{n't) or don't have to Obligation, prohibition, need or advice

5/ Complete the teacher's rules about safety in 6> Complete the sentences with the words in
the laboratory, using must{n't} or don't have to. the box.

mustn't mustn't had better shouldn't


You .......~~~:~...... enter the laboratory

without permission.
don't have to C
shou ld) have to

You .................................................. eat or drink in


the lab.
2 You .................................................. bring your own
lab coat. There are some In the cupboard.
3 You .................................................. wear safety

glasses during ALL experiments.

4 You .................................................. play around in



Pure Wool

.'
the lab.
S If you have long hair, you ........................................ 3

tie it back.
6 You ........................................... ....... never walk

away from an experiment that you have

started.

7 You .................................................. bring your own


ca lculators. We can provide them.
8 If you spill or break anything, you

.................................................. tell me.

5 r-------------~
6
9 You .................................................. clean all your
equipment after use.
NO
10 You .................................................. write the
results of your experiments In th e lab. You can
do that in the library if you prefer.
11 You .................................................. behave safely
and sensibly at all times. SMOKING
12 You .................................................. leave at three

thirty if you haven't finished. The technician For best resu Its, you .............~.~~~!!!. ................ wash
will be here until five o'clock. this sweater by hand.
2 You .......................................... take a handkerchief
because it will make you cry.
3 You .......................................... be at least eighteen
years old to see this horror film. You probably
.......................................... see it on your own if you
are the nervous type.

4 You .......................................... pay before eleven.

5 You .......................................... smoke in this building.

6 You ................................. park here.

113
Practice
Time clauses wi h wilen, as soon as If or when

3:;" Combine the sentences using the given 4> Complete the sentences, circling when or if
time phrases. and putting the verbs in brackets into the present
tense or the future tense with 'II/won't.
You'll arrive in India soon. You must send me your
address immediately.

.. X~~.. ~.~~.~~~.~.p.~.y.~~!:..~~~~~~ .............. as soon as

.. JI.~'l..~r.r.~r.~. fn. ~rJ.~!!!.: ...........................................................

He's going to phone louise. He'll ask her about


the computer.
When .................................................................................... ..

2 I'm leaving school soon . Then I'm going to Australia.


As soon as .............................................................................

3 I'm going on holiday next week. Can you look


I .'~~ ...... (dream) about you (when)'if I .. fl.'!... (go)
after my cat? to bed tonigh t.

I'm goi ng to Canada next wee k. Wh en/If I


when .................................................................................... ?

................................... (be) t here, I ...................................


4 Jack will arrive soon. Please call me immediately. (visit) my frien d Sue.

2 When/If t he weather ................................... (get)


as soon as .............................................................................
wo rse later, she probabl y ...........................................
(not take) us to the swimming pool.
5 We're moving to Edinburgh soon. I won't know
anyone. 3 Nei l might co me rou nd this evening. When/lfhe
....................................................................................... when ............................ (come). we ...........................................
(not be able) to go to the ci nema.

4 Andy is goi ng to send me a postca rd when/If


6 She's goi ng to arrive in a minute. Let's all sing he ................................... (arrive) in New York.
Happy Birthday.
5 Wh en/If he ................................... (have) to work

late, he ................................... (miss) t he party.

as soon as .............................................................................

6 I ................................... (make) t he tea when/If

7 She'll be seventeen soon. She's going to take


the wa ter ................................... (boil).

driving lessons.
When ...................................................................................... 7 Wh en/ If you ................................... (pay) for my
coffee today, I ..................................... (pay) for
yours tomorrow.
8 I'm nearly eighteen. Then I'll be able to vote.
8 Wh en/If I ..................................... (go) to
San Francisco next t ime, I ...................................
when .......................................................................................
(not stay) at t hat hote l aga in.

116
Unit 9

Relative clauses wIth who{m}, which,


that, where; whose Defini ng relative clauses gi ve essential
Defining information. They do not have co mmas.
They're looking for omeone who can speak French .
In defin in g re lative clauses, we use who(m),
The man (who/whom) I wanted to see wasn 't there
whose or that to refer to people, which or that to
I don't like books which/that have sad endings
refer to t hings and where to refer to places.
Th hotel Iwhich/tha ) we stayed at had a view of the sea.

Prepositions can be placed in front of the definin g


The cupboard in which the videos are kept is

relative pronou ns whom and which or at the end


a ways locked.

of the re la tive clause. It is more formal to put t he


The cupboard (which) the videos are kept in is

preposition in front of the pron oun. The room


always locked.

which I slept in had a wonderful view is less


The club where I met Roberro was called Dr Sound

forma l than The room in which I slept had a


The ,I wI ose flat I'm staying In is on holiday in Mexico.

wonderful view. The man whom I gave the letter to


had a strange face, is less formal th an The man
to whom { gave the letter had a stra nge face.
When that and who are used with prepositions,
the prepositio n must be placed at the end of the
defi ning re lative cl au se, e.g. Th e room that I slept
in had a wonderful view. The man that/ who I gave
the letter to had a strange face.
Whom, that or which can be omi tted if they are
the object in a defining relat ive clause.

Non-defining

Non -defi ning rela tive cla uses, which give ext ra
My Sister Anlla, who lives," New York, is a photographer.

informatio n and which can be left out, have a


Peter, whose fa ther works for a record company, often gets

comma before the relat ive cl ause an d a comma


fft concert lckets.

or fu ll stop after it.


Jim told us about hiS holiday job, which he's enjoYing

v ry much.
We can not use that in non- defin ing relative
Th match, in which I played very badly, lasted an hour..
clau ses. We have to use who, whom, whose
I'd like 0 visit Perlh, where one of my cousins lives.
or which.
We ca n never om it th e re lative prono un in a
non-definin g relative clause.

Whom can be used instead of who as t he


object of the verb in a relative clause. It is more
forma l tha n who.
Whose is used mostly fo r people and sometimes
fo t" an imals. It is never used fo r objects.

117
Grammar highlights

Present perfect simple and continuous


We use the present perfect simple wi t h
Present perfect simple j ust, already, yet, ever, never, so for.

Positive statements We use th e present perfect simple to


You've been to India three times.
ta lk about how many tim es someth ing
She's hved in Paris for SIX months.
has happened, e.g. He's been there lots
He's had a motorbike for year.
of times.
I 's the best film I've ever seen.
We use the present perfect simple
with superlatives.
Negative statements
You haven't visited China yet. We use the present perfect ontinuous
~ hasn't used it much recently. with How long, fora nd since and some
other time expressi ons to talk about
Questions events t hat started in the past and are
Have you had your photos developed yet? still going on, e.g. I've been reading this
Has he. decided to buy a car instead? book fo r six hours / since ten o'clock.

Short answers We can use the present perfect


Positive Negative con tinuous or simple with How long, for
Ye , I have. No, I haven'L and since and the verbs live, work and
Yes, he has, No, he hasn't study, e.g. I've been working in France for
three months, or I've worked in France
Present perfect continuous since August / for th ree months.

Positive statements We have to use the present perfect


You've been drawing and painting a lot recently. simple with How long, fo r and since an d
's been ta lking on lhe phone for ages now. certain verbs not norm ally used in the
co ntinuous tenses such as know, like,
N yative statements love, hate, have, e.g. I've known Lucy for
ou haven 't be n reading much recently.
three years. I've had t his tennis racket
He hasn't been watching the film with us. for two years.
Questions We use the present perfect continuous
lav you been taking many photographs? to descri be an action in the past that
Has he been chatting to hiS new girlfriend? has co ntributed to a situation in the
present, e.g. She's very tired. She hasn't
Short answers
been sleeping well lately.
Positive Negative
y ~, have. No, I haven'l In general, we use th e present perfect
es, he has. No, he hasn't. simple when we are in terested in the
result of an activity. We use the presen t
perfect continuous when we are
interested in the activity not the resu lt,
e.g. I've made three cakes this afternoon
(= present perfect), and I've been making
cakes this afternoon (= presen t perfect
co nt inuous) .

11 a
Practice
Non-defining relative clauses

1 / Match the incomplete sentences to the Extra Facts.


Check your answers. Then complete each sentence with
a relative clause. Use where, who, whose or which.


THE SNAPSHOT FILM, FACTFILE

a) It starred Gwyneth Palt row.


(b) Many American fi lms are made here. )
c) He died in a car crash in 1955 aged twenty-four.
d) He received almost $20 million fo! Rambo III.
e) Her rea l name was Norma Jean Mortenson.
fl His fi lms include Jaws, IT an d Jurassic Park.
g) He was created by Wa lt Disney in 1928.
h) Many fi lm stars have thei r homes here.
i) They are prizes in t he film in dustry.

fbl Hol lywood ..~~~r.~.~~~y..A~.f!!.~~~.~fi..~m~............


5 D James Dean, ...............................................................

... ~~.'!..'!:!~.~~....... is in California.

D Academy Awards, .....................................................


.................., was th e star of Rebel Without A Cause.

.......... ............................................................................, are 15 0 Marilyn Monroe, .......................................................

some Imes called Oscars.


~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. -. u u u . , ....... t ................. ,

2 D Shakespeare in Love, ................................................


died in 1961.
.......~ .............................................., won seven Oscars.
7 0 Sylvester Sta ll one, ....................................................
3 0 Steven Spielberg, ......................................................
.......... ..... ............................ .. .............................. .........,

".,., , ,." , ,.-

is one of the world's best-paid actors.


................................................, started making films at 8 D Mickey Mouse, .......................................,...................
high s.chool.
. ..................................... , ....................................... n.' _ ........ ,

4 0 Beverly Hills, .............................................................. is the world's most popu lar cartoon character.
..............................................................................., is right
next to Los Angeles. 58 'PL ';)9 'J') '41> '1 'ez 'I l :SJaMsu\f

119
Practice

Present perfect SImple or present perfect


continuous
2/' Combine the sentences using a relative
pronoun each time. If it is possible to omit the 3/ Use the prompts to write questions and
relative pronoun, write it in brackets. answers with How manV? and How long?

We stayed at a hotel in Tanzania. It had a view of


films/she/act in? six; seven years

Lake Manyara.

How many .. fi..~'E~.!!.~~.~~~..'!:~~~J']!.. ..............................

.r.~~.~.'?f.~!..f.~I.!!f~!~!J.~J. ..W.~.~9Y.~t!..~..~IJ.T~~~.~~.~~ ......


She's aded in six
.~.9.t!...~.~~..9fJg~~.Mg~!l~.r:~~ ...........,....... .......................
How long ....~~.~.~~.~.~~~~..~~!.~9.? ....................................
We drove down a road to get to the hotel. It was
..!!.~:~..~~~~ ..'!:~!~!Jfo.r..~~~!!.Jl.~.'!.r.~:...................................
rocky.
books/she/write? th ree ; ten years
The road .................................................................................

How many .............................................................................

2 A man owned the hotel. He was very interested In


wi ldlife. How long ...............................................................................

The man .................................................................................


2 pizzas/he/cook? fou r; one hour

3 The hotel had a restaurant. You could eat How many .............................................................................
Tanzanian food there.
The hotel had a restaurant .... .......................................... How long ...............................................................................

4 Some rooms didn't have air conditioning. They got 3 kilometres/they/cycle? thirty; B a.m.
very hot at night. How many .............................................................................
The rooms ............,.................................................................
How lon g ...............................................................................

5 We saw wild animals in the Serengeti Park. These 4 games/they/play? five; four thi rty
were elephants, zebras and giraffes.
How man y .............................................................................
The wild animals ................................................................ .

How long ...............................................................................

5 shirts/he/iron? ten ; he got up


How many .............................................................................

How long ...............................................................................

6 pictures/he/pa int ? t hree; four hours


How many .............................................................................

How long ...............................................................................

120
Present perfect simple and present Relative pronouns
perfect continuous Present perfect simple or present perfect
continuous
4> Match the interview questions and the

actor's answers. Then complete the answers,


5 >
Complete the sentences with who, whom,
putting the verbs into the present perfect
whose, where or which, and the present perfect
simple or continuous.
simple or continuous of the verbs in brackets.

~uest\ans
Skiing is one sport ... I (never/be) good at
III ~ou tDDk di~re(\~-roAa~. W~ is *,,,\?
2 0 How do ~ Ije~ on un", Ju\io. 'RDnins? ~~H~9..!~.~.~~.~p.~.'1..~h.~f.~ ..~:r.~.r!.~.'!.'!!:..~~~I)..9.9.~.c!.~: ......
3 D w'nen an~ ~ou 9"inq -\0 s~rl- wcr\c.. on 'Aoo,,",e.t What's the name of the boy ... Oust/move in) upstai rs?
l...UeJdAng'
~ When diel ~u meet lit h.tr\e'j~
5 D ls lit ',U at ~e mcM\a\t ~
2 I (lose) t he book ... I was read ing this morning.
6 D "lou're lao\ci~ summer. \t"ve ~ OW'lllm'\:A,,'l O'\If?

-
R"SWe.<'5

hoe W ............................................. (make) ~~ ~Ims


bl~e.",er 1M *~~ .................................................. (a ll/be)
3 I Oust/see) the film ... everybody (talk) about for ages.

a Su.cce.ss .
~e.f~ps irs be.c4M5e.L ~.~f:j~~.t.~~~.~~!!......... Oust/wash) 4 I went to see him at t he cafe ... he (work).
~'j ~a,r.
~. but $he's ex'MusteA.She. ................................................
(work) nanshlp fur ""e ~"st- si:x: n\01\-ths.
e ~e.s.l ................................................ (take) mare a:ercis~
5 The man ... telephone number I Uust/give) you
might help.
1'e.ce..fIt~ and 1 ........................................................................
(not eat) ~5 ~ choco\ah.\
G Ten ty!IlfS ago. Wt. ..._........................................... (not be)
atwt fur mare 4han ~ week S\f'1C.4. -\he". 6 I don't like t he boy ... sh e (g o out) with recently.

We. ..........................._.................................. (already/start).

I .................................................... (film) ',n \..onGkm t01"


the ~ast month.
7 Australia is one place ... she (always/want) to go.

121

nl 11

Causative have (hove something done)


Where are you going to have your hair cut?
We use causative have when we arrange
Don't you need to have a passport photo taken?
fo r someone else to do something for us,
I ad my eyes tested yesterday,
e.g. My father has his car washed once
Why hasn't he had the bike repaired yet?
a week.
She doesn't have her ha ir cut at the hajrdresser'~. She cuts
We can replace have by ge t in more
it herself.
inform al speech, e.g. My father gets his
car washed once a wee k.

Second conditional: if/unless clause


We use the se cond cond itional to tal k
+ 'd (would)/wouldn't about unli ke ly sit uati ons in the prese nt
If I had lots of money, I'd buy a huge motorbike
or the futu re. Anothe r use is to talk
I'd buy a huge motorbike if I had lots of monty.
about imag inary situ at ions. We also use
I I were you, I wouldn't hitchhike to Edinburgh.
it to give advice, e.g. If I were YOll, I'd see
If he didn' t lIVe so far away, I'd see him more often.
a doctor about th at cough.
I wouldn' t eat snails unless I was extremely hungry.

. In second conditional sentences, we


always use the si mple past in the if or
unless cl ause. We use would/wou ldn't
in the main clause. We can al so use
could(n't) or might (not) in t he
main clause.
We usua lly use the phrase If I were ...
{not if{ WfJ5 ... J when we give advi ce.
Unless means if ... no t.

I wi hllf only + past tense


We use th e verb phra se I wish or the
I wish I had longer legs.
ph rase If only, ea ch followed by a verb in
If only I had longer legs.
t he simple past tense, to talk about
I WIsh I could fly.
wishes or regrets in a presen t situation .
If only I could fly.

I wish I didn't have to revise this weekend.

If only I didn'l have to revise th is weekend.

need + gerund (-ing form)


The ve rb need + passive infin itive means
Thes cards ne d posting.

the same as need + gerund H ng form).


Do tile battery need replacing?

need + passive infinitive


These cards need to be posted

Does the battery need Lo be replaced?

122
Practice
Causative hove (have something done)

1 / Complete the adverts with the correct form of 2> Use the prompts to write questions and
have and the past participle of the verbs in the box. answers with the present simple, present
continuous, present perfect or past simple of have.
test deve lop cut (. print) make read
Q: (you /your bike/re pair) yet?

..IJ.~~~!1~.':'..'""~!!.!1.t?':'.r..!?~~~.!.~p..~!r.~~.y.~!.. .................

A: No, I (it/repair) t om orrow.

..ryf?~ ..~:P.~.~~!~!1.!~.r.~p.~.~r.~.~.~~!!.'.~r.!P.~: ...................

If you want ...!~..~~~~ ... Q: (Bob/hi s eyes/t est) yet?


cards or invitations
...p.r!.r.!!.~!!.~.. come to
What does the future
hold for you? A: No, he (them /test) next week.
flasy Print
Find out when you
.................... your palm
CHEAPEST PRICES .................... by
IN TOWN! Madame Zingara.
2 Q: What's that smell?
A: My parents (t he house/paint) at the momen t.

Three million people


.................... their photos
3 Q: Where (you/th is passport photo/take)?
... M ..................... by us last year.

Snappers

G--- ...... ----- . . A: I (i t/take) at Farrell Photos last week.

TOP~~@D~I

If you need .........................


4 Q: How ofte n (you/ usua lly/your ha ir/cut)?
colour photocopies
......................... come to us
for the cheapest
photocopies in London. A: I (usuall y/it/cut) every t hree months.
Have you lost your keys?
We can help you.
Twenty thousand people
5 Q: Is your foot still painfu l?
............... new keys
A: Yes. I (an X- ray/tak ) to morrow.
.................... by us last year.

.1.------------.1

-( H ~
6 Q: Why aren't you wea ri ng yo u new trousers?
A: Because I (not/th em/shorten /yet).
opticare
Everyone should .................... their eyes ...................
regularly. Phone us now for an appointment. 123
Practice

Second conditional I wish/If only + past simple

3> Complete the survey questions in the second 4 > Rewrite Dave's thoughts using I wish and
conditional using the verbs in brackets. Then If only.
answer the questions with Y (Yes) or N (No).
I don't have time to thin k.
I feel so nervous.
1 I have to write an essay on European politics.
2 I don't know th e answer to question 3.
3 I can't concentrate.
4 This exam is so im portan t.
5 The questions are so difficult.
6 I can't remember what I revised yesterday.
7 They don't al low us to bring in ou r textbooks.
8 This room is so hot.

.. If.1I9.':~fo.!.!.'J4. .... (youlfind) 100 in the street,


.. ~~.,!;~~M~.'!;.!!.~!!.~..~~.!.'!. ..... (you/hand it in) to the police? [Y]
1 ...................................................._.........................................
(0 shop assistant/give) you 20 too much change,
................_............................................... (you/keep) quiet? 0
2 ..... ....................._................... (you/see) someone cheating
in an exa ................................................. (you/report) them
to the teacher? 0
3 ................................................. (you/crash) your motorbike into

on expensive cor and ............................................ (nobody/see)

you. _............................................. (you/telL) the poUce? D

4 ............................................................................................... I wish 'had time to think.

(your rich fnend/forget) she had lent you 30, If on ly .. L~!4.'.!:~f~~!..~~.'.!.~!!~.~~: ......................................

................................................................. (you/remind) her? 0 If only .....................................................................................

5 ...............................................................................................
(the waiter/forget) to charge you for your drinks, 2 I wish ......................................................................................

............................................................. (you/teU) him? 0


6 ........ ...................................... (youlfind) your sister's love
3 I wish ......................................................................................

letters, .................._..................................... (you/read) them? D


4 If only .....................................................................................

7 .... ........................................................................... (you/not want)


5 If only .....................................................................................

to upset someone, .................._................... (you/teU) a Ue? D

6 I wish ......................................................................................

8 .........................~ .......................................... (you/hand in) a wallet


you'd found In the street, ................................................................
(you/expect) a reward? 0 7 If only .....................................................................................

8 I wish ......................................................................................

1'lA
Practice
Verb need + gerund (-/ ng form)! need + Revision
passive infinitive
6> Complete the second sentence so that it has a
5:" Use the fashion designer's notes to write pairs similar meaning to the first sentence, using the
of sentences with need. words in brackets.

Jim needs to ask someone to mend his watch. (have)


II ~.]: IIX.]: I li13: I[.]: I','J 44:11 .. 1'm.~.~t;.rJ~.~Q.h.~y.~.h!.~..~~*!J..m~m!.t;.rJ: ...........................
KARL WINEFELD'S SPRING COLlECTION We're going to ask someone to bu ild a swimming

pool in our gard en. (have)

"/hin5s to do

dec.ide on iJ...e orde- of the sJ...ow


We're go ing to .....................................................................

I set lAp the 1'~I..;ts


..............................,....................................... in our garden.

2- dress tJ...e Models

2 Nina is very sad because her camera is broken.


'3 do tJ...eir Mak-e-I.'p

(wishes)
~ cJ...oose tJ...e sJ...oes

5 repair the MIc.ropJ...one


Nina ........................................................................................

o replac.e the batteries in


MI.] c.aMera

3 You're tired becau se you go to bed so late every


7 rec:J...ar5e M~ Mabile pJ...one

night. (wou ldn't)


If you did n't ..........................................................................
..Th~..~r.~~r..pjJ~~.~~Q~.~.f!.~~~..rg..~~..t!.~~l~~~..9.~:............

..~.~..~~~~~.~f.~~~.~~~~.~~~.~~.~~~~~!.':'.!!..?~:.....................
4 Unfortun ately, I live in a bori ng little vi ll age. (wish)
I .........................................................;......................................

" ....................... ............................................................................

, {.
5 Somebody should clean this room. (needs)
This room ...............................................................................
6 Unfort unately we don't have a dishwasher. (wish)
3 .................................................................................................. .

I ................................................................................................

4 ...................................................................................................
7 You don't like Tim beca use you don 't really know
him. (if)
You'd .......................................................................................

5 ...................................................................................................

8 She's going to ask someone to take some


6 ...................................................................................................
photos. (h ave)
She's goi ng ............................................................................

9 They really ought to do somet hing about the


traffic in this to wn. (n eed s)
7 ...................................................................................................

Something .............................................................................

125
Verbs should have/ought to have
Positive statements We use should have/ought to have to
You should have been more careful.
criticise people's past actio ns, e.g. You
You ought to have been more careful.
shouldn't have driven 50 fast (= You
drove fast an d it was the wrong th in g to
Negative statements
do.) Yo u should have slowed do wn at the
They shou ldn't have riven so fast.
corner(= You di dn't sl ow down atth e
They oughtn't to h ve driven 50 fast
corner and t ha t was a mist ake.}
Questions
Ought to have is more form al and less
Should we have helped him'
freq uently used th an should have. In
Ought we to have helped him?
question forms it is very uncommon.
Do you think we should have helped him'
We often use the verb think to ask a
Do you lhink we ought to have helped him?
questi on with should have/ought to have.

Short answers
Positive Negative
Yes, we should have. No, we shouldn't have.
Yes, ough[ to have No, we oughtn't to have.

Verbs make, let and be aI/owed to


Th e verbs make and let are followe d by
Our coach made us practise every day.
an object and an infinitive without to.
He dic1n't let me play in the first half of the match.
But when make is used in th e passive,
00 your parents let you have parties whi le lhey're away?
we use the infinitive with to, e.g. She
W ar n'l allowed to w ar make-lip at my school.
was made to work very hard.
We cannot use let in the passive form.
Instea d, we must use allowed to.

126
Practice

Verb should have


.X~~..~.~~.'!.!~..~~.~~fi!.~~.~.!.f!..~.fC!.~p. ..~~..~!:~~p.~~~~.......
when you arrived.
1 '/ The manager of the campsite asked Bob to
leave because he disobeyed the rules. Read the 2 ............................................................................................

rules and complete the manager's words,


using should(n 't) have each time. 3 ........................................................................................... .

4 ............................................................................................

Pine Hill Campsite 5 ............................................................................................

Rules
6 ............................................................................................

1 Fill in a form at reception when you arrive.


2 Use the barbecue provided.
3 Do not light fires. 7 ............................................................................................

4 Put all your litter in the bins.

5 Do not play loud music.

8 ............................................................................................

8 Do not damage the trees.

1 Leave the showers clean and tidy. ......................................... your cat to this campsite.

8 Do not bring any animals to this campsite. 9 ............................................................................................

9 Do not break the speed limit of 10 kph.


10 Do not waste water.
10 ............................................................................................

~ ................... ....... ...... ..... . u ...... u .. J-....... u ....... u ......... u u

127
Practice
Verb ought to have Verbs make, let and be allowed /'0

2/- Complete the sentences with ought{n'tj to have 3 >Complete the second sentence so that it has a
and the past participle of the verbs in the box. similar meaning to the first sentence. using the
correct form of the words in brackets.
go ~ get give pack fail
stop train visit miss The rules say that students must not chew gum
anywhere in the schoo l. (allow)

Students .....~r.~':'.~~.!!!.~f!.~~~..~~ .~~~~.9.':!.'!.! .... anywhere


in the school.
She has to get home before midn ight. (allow)
She ..........................................................................................
stay out after midnigh t.

2 My parents' rule is that I have to do the washing


up every night. (make)
My parents ............................................................................
every night.

3 In the army we had t o get up at f ive o'clock every


moming. (ma ke)
I'm not surprised you're feeling sick.
In t he army they .................................................................
You ..~~9.~.~.~~.~~.~.~~~.~~.~~,}... so much cake
at five o'clock every morn ing.
We had a brill iant time last night. You .......................
4 My parents won't allow me to borrow the car
..... .................................................................... home early.
tonight. (let)
2 Tha raffic light was red. You ........................................
My parents ...........................................,................................
tonight.
3 The director was angry that you didn' t come. You

5 Do not play football in thi s park. (al low)


....................................................................... the rehearsal.

You ..........................................................................................
4 They lost the match. They ................................................
in this park.
.................................................................................... harder.

6 At my last schoo l t hey let us wear make-up and


5 Why didn't she pass after all her work? She ..............
jewellery. (allow)
At my last school we ......................................:..................
6 Come on! We're leaving in fifteen minutes. You make- up an d jewellery.
really ..................................................................... your bag 7 Th e ru le was that we ha d to eat everythi ng on our
by now. plates. (m ake)
7 I'm not surprised t hey're getting divorced. They ....... They .........................................................................................
................................................................................... married everything on our plates.
at seventeen.
8 You won't be all owed t o leave early. (let)
8 It's raining now. Do you think we ................................ ..
They ............................................................................. early.

............................................................ a lift to that poor


hitchhiker tha t we saw at the petrol station?
9 Those tourists missed the best bit of the tour.
They .........................................................................................
the old city.
128
Practice

Verbs make, ler and be aJ/owed to


Sunnybank Camp
4> Read Rebecca's notes below. Then complete by Rebecca Wa re
her essay on the right with made us/let us or [ went to Sunnybank, a summer camp on the coa'it of D
~ ~f ,
weren't' allowed. t . summer. llwas a great experience and [ made lots of new
[nends. There were quite a few rules although [ thought that
most of them were quite reasonable.

made us td
They .................... ,
I ) our rooms every day. But I! did n't

take Chloe and me very long because we're both quite ti y. The
best thmg was that they .)~.I!.~... leave the camp in the

evellIngs and go into the nearest town, Lyme RegiS. Of cou~.

we had to ask permission first and we weren't allowed .

......... _............ to

stay out after eleven o'clock. .....

We 1.......................................... . to have pani . in our


rooms generally, but they 2........................ _ ............... have
parties for special occasions if we asked pennission first. or
example, Chloe had her binhday while we were at summer
We~t# ... camp and they 3.......................................... . have a
litlle party for her. But it ended quite early because we

:::rk~~~~
4
........................................... to play any music after
eleven o'clock.
~t1.~
I..J.p witt tk. ~ cma ~ ~ In some summer camps you can't choose who you
-~~~tiL~ want to share you r room \\~ th but at Sunnybank they
.IJ:.w .in.:tJ..... ~f'IAT1l1..d 5.......................................... choose our roommates.

~ 4.I.fJ d ~ (if ~ WDAti:.U That was great because Chloe and [ already knew each other and
~tUI;) wanted to share. We did lots of things together. 'C I)'one had to
h lp on the camp and there was a list of names and things we had
Wt~lt ... to do each day. For example, they 6................................ ........
~ tnd a./tu ~ ()'~
organise games for the younger kids in the afternoons and Chloe
.~~u..tNr~
and I always did that together. Once a week the)'

~~ 7 ........................................... help with the cooking and we

usually asked to do that together, too.


M~4tu~td~
.wu J:k JnmI;s ~ ~ Every day they 8........................................... choose
for ourselves the sports and activities we wanted to do. One day
W~ couU. ... we made a raft 1 But we 9................................... ........ to go
~tk.~iAtk.~
out on the raft or boats without asking permission first.

a/-tu~~
One thing that I didn't like at Sunnybank was thaI they

~ wIt..o we ~ k .s.ke 10................... ....... ................. lay the table and wash the
a. t't1'I:m\.-wiiA dishes twice a week. [ have to do that at home e cry da~ and I
.~~~.we~ don't like doing it on my holid3)'. Probably the worst rule was that
;l;orJ"., they " ........................................... get up at eight 111 the
morning [or breakfast. We complained a lot and in the end they
~.in..kJ, ~ ~ 'I ~

changed the rule and they 1/. ...................................... stay


~t~~a.d

in bed until ten if we didn't want breakfast.

129
Uni 13

Verbs must/can't for drawing


conclusions We can use must / can't + the verb be, or another
YOU\i been playing football all day. You must be verb, to make logical deduct ions about th present,
tired and hungry. e.g. She's on ly j ust moved to our area. She must be
It can't be an Ir1sect. It's ot eighr legs. I must be lonely. She can't have many new friends yet.
spid r.

Adjective word order Adjectives used together usua lly occu r in the

Mana IS the one with short spiky hair. following order:

She's weanng a long black leather coa .

Opinion Size Age Style Colour Origin Material Purpose Noun


I'v got a beautiful 010 Chinese jewellery box.

sh ort spiky hair


long black leath coat
beautiful old Ch inese jewellery box

Verbs seem, look, 50und + adjective


or I'ke/as if The verbs seem, look and soun d ca n be followed by:

POSlbv statements - an adjective, e.g. She sounds American.


,
He ms{Jooks/sounds cl vcr. - like + a noun phrase, e.g. He looks like an Australian
He ems/looks/sounds like an Interesting person. surfer.
It s ems/looks/sounds as if she's working very hard. - as if + a clause, e.g. They look as if they've just had
a fight.
Negative statements

Th y on't eem/look/sound friendly.


Some people use like + a clause after the verbs
S doesn't seem/look/sound like a student.
seem, look and sound, e.g. They look like they've just
H doesn't seem/look! ound a5 if he IS enjoying himself.
had a fight. However, it is best to avoid t his form in
written English. Use as if instead.
Gu ions
Do I 100 good in this jar et?
Does sh,. sound like a nice person?
Did h 5 em happy?
Old th Ylook as i they were haVing fun?

no

Practice
Verbs must!can't for drawing conclusions Verbs must/can't for drawing conclusions

>
1 Complete the second sentence so that it has 2> Match the responses to the statements.
a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use must be Then complete the responses with must or can't.
or can't be.
I'm sure you aren't hungry after eating all that cake.

......y.~!!..~.~!?:.t~.~...... hungry after eating all that cake.

Their car is here so I'm sure they're at home.

Their car is here so they ................................. at home.

2 It hasn 't got eight legs so I'm sure it isn't a spider.


It hasn't got eight legs so It .................................
a spider.

3 I'm sure there are some biscuits in the packet I


bought yesterday.

There ................................. some biscuits in the packet

I bought yesterday.

4 I'm sure she isn't Australian. She doesn't have an


I didn't go to bed until fou r o'clock
Australian accent
this morn ing. [kJ
She ................................. Australian. She doesn't have
an Australian accent.
1 I haven't had anythi ng to eat all day. D
2 He says he's got your key. D
5 I'm sure you're j oking. I haven't got ',000 to lend
you .

3 Are John and Tessa the same age? 0


You ................................. joking. I haven't got ',000

4 I'm afraid I can't see a way through this forest. D


to lend you.
5 Mr Lavender is in Aust ralia. o
6 The lig hts are on in his bedroom so I'm sure he
6 She says she lives in Chestnut Avenue. D
isn't asleep. 7 That restaura nt is nearly always empty. o
The lights are on in his bedroom so he 8 The plane is about t o land. o
................................. asleep.
a) It ......................... be very good.
7 I'm sure she's tired after driving all night.
She ................................. tired after driving all night.
eb) Yo u ........~.~~........ be exhausted.)
c) It ......................... be mine. Mine is in
8 I'm sure she doesn't have room in her flat for all my pocket.
six of us.
d) You ......................... be hu ng ry.
There ................................. room in her flat for all six
e) There ......................... be a path somewhere.
of us.

f) Then she ......................... be a neighbour of


9 I'm sure she's wearing make-up. Her skin looks mine. That's where I live.
smoother than usual.
g) That ......................... be right. I saw him at the
She ................................. wearing make-up. Her skin
bus stop this morn ing.
looks smoother than usual.
h) It ......................... be. We've only just taken off.
i) Th ey ......................... be. They've always been in
the same class at sc:hool.

13 1
Adjective word order 6 a / We lsh I bri efcase I cheap I middle-aged I ma n
I He's I plasti c I with a
He's .........................................................................................
3> Write sentences by putting the words in the
correct order and adding punctuation.
7 blue / bowls / chicken I delicio us I gave I in /Iarge
I She I soup I us
She ..........................................................................................

Verbs seem, look, sound + adjective or


like/os if

4 > Complete the sentences


with like or as if
where necessary.

Australian / denim / man / in / jacket / tall/the

/ the / Who's

Who's ..~~~..~~~!..~.~~~~!f!.~ ..~f!.'.'..!.'.'..~~~.~~.'.'.~~j~.~~~!' ..

and / big I blond I blue / eyes / got long / hair

I Lucy's

Lu( ;) ......................................................................................

2 and a / Irish accent / the man / hair / is / Jim / red My feet feel .. F~~ ... blocks of ice.
/ strong / with short That si nger sounds ........................ a dying cat.
Jim ...........................................................................................
2 She looks ........................ about eighteen.
3 You look ........................ tired. Didn't you sl eep
3 an / blue / expensive / Italian / She's / suit last ni ght?
/ wearing 4 It looks ........................ summer has arrived.
She's ........................................................................................
5 She seemed ........................ totally miserabl e.
6 They look ........................ they have just ha d a fi gh t.
4 antique / beautifu l /bought / earrings 7 Those tourists sounded ........................ Scan dinavi an
/ for her birthd ay /1/ silver / some to me.
I ................................................................................................ 8 This cheese tastes ........................ soap.
9 You loo k .. ...................... you have just seen a ghost.
5 brown I Do I in I know / leath er I Span ish 10 I spoke to her on the phone and she so unded
/ student I t he / the / trousers / you / young ........................ she had a bad cold.
Do ............................................................................................ 11 He ph oned up and started shouting. He seemed
........................ very an gry.
12 You loo k ........................ a doctor in that whi t e coat.
132
unl

Verb used to
Positive statements With used to we refer to habits or situations
I used to walk to school but now I take the bus. wh ich were true in the past but are not true now.

Negative statements Used to refers to the past There is no present or


My sister didn't use to like jazz but she does now future form.
Used to is followed by an infinitive.
Questions
In the question and negative forms, we delete
Did he us to W ar glasses?
the fi; e.g. Did you use to live in Australia? He
Short answers didn 't use to wear glasses.
Pos ttve Negative
Yes, he did. No, he didn't.

Verb be used to
With be used to we refer to an activity or
Positive statements situation which is (or was) someth ing familiar
I'm used to wearing a uniform.
to us.
She's used to living in a big city.

They're used to looking after younger children.

Be used to can refer to the present or the past,


e.g. I'm used to driving on the left now. I wasn't
Negative statements used to driving on the left when I first came
I'm flOt used to dOing homework every night. to Britain.
She Isn't used to living on h r own. Be used to is followed by a noun or a gerund
ey aren't used to studying at weekends. (-ing form).
Questions We use get used to when we want to talk about
Are you used to weartng a uniform to school?
the process of becom ing used to something, e.g.
Is she used to ge mg up early?
When I went to Arizona, I couldn't get used to
Are h y used to worKing hard?
the heat.
Short answers
We genera lly use get used to (not ae used ta)
when we refer to the future, e.g. You'll soon
POSit v Negative

(es, I m No, I'm not.

get used to the Scottish accent.


Yes, she IS. No, she isn't.
Get used to is fo ll owed by a noun or a gerund
Yes, they are. No, they aren't
(-ing form).

Clauses of purpose with to, in order We can use to and in order {not} to + the
(not) to, 50 that infinitive on ly when the subject of the main
I shut th window to stop the flIes coming In.
clause and the clause of purpose are the same.
In ord r to shu Ihe Window, I had to stand on a chair.

In order to is more formal th an to.


I had to stand on a chair in order to shut the window.

look my ho 0 f in order no to dirty the chair,


We ca n use so that when the subject of the
I hu the wmdow 0 that the flies couldn't/wouldn't
main clause an d t he clause of purpose are the
come m,
same and when t hey are different, e.g. I took my
I stood on a chair so that I could reach the Window.

biology book so that I could revise on the train.


10k my sho off so that the chair wouldn't get dirty.
She wore her sunglasses so that nobody would
recognise her.

133
Practice

Verb be used to

>
1 Complete Miranda's letter to a teacher

at Kingswood School. where she used to be a

student. Use I'm (not) used to and the prompts.

wear a uniform V
work at night X
1 going to bed at strange imes X
2 live on my own X
3 eat canteen food II'
4 work hard II'
5 study a lot V
6 look after old people V
7 be with sick people all the time X
8 make beds with people still in them X

r>ea~ Mrs MiJJ.K,


I'm. t!Aljotf"'1 YNJ fW,(5~ ~ at 5t
M~'S Husyvf.al in.l.muinL but I"" Mt tMd To 1WI ~ ali, the. time 1AroT~ ar ~"'1
a1.L tIu. ~ in. mlJ lifo Ifd fur ~. As ~ /U!OW, 4 .............................................. ..

I t.Itm t m.i"rd. tJu. ~. A!fu' aiJ, ..................................................... a..nd, ~...............................

" wearin9 .~ ..':'.!!!f.~!.~ ... fum- fYUj ~


used to ........................................................................ . Bcd I'm.
d ~:;;;;;"'5~ but ...... .!.:~..~~!..I!.~~~.~f?.......... ~ 1UU'S~ a. t,t ~ i:Juur. ~.
.. ~.C?!~!~9..~..".';!g.~~... tUVi I ... ....................................... ... . I'm. ~ ~ ~ 1;, ItUJ fUKt
" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. u ................................................ L ..
wet.i<utd 41l .
~ ~ is thai .J ..............................................

.~.~..~.;;;;;;.; ..;;;;.~:..~;;.;;:.~ lets


sol . . . . . . . . ..:::.:~::.:..::.~I~J:J;:;.~.

4. pupk new aNi Itut ~ I wed


~ in, tJu. ................................
but r_~

h"'jAA"~ 7

u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

cWJ,~ wr1Jt Stm1L at mAl ~ ~ ........................................................ . Oltt p.r-trhl..enz U


Iht fuud. /6 oK. J ................................................... .
tJtat 8........................................................................................

......_.........._...................................................... /rrnn. mIJ


..................................................................................................

~ ~ Tht. Iud ~ a.boui t1; i5 tJud I


krit ~ fA hRLp ~ wi1A tJu. ~~ up!

134
Clauses of purpose with to or so that

2:" Correct the statements 1 to 8 by rewriting 3> The Graysons made a lot of changes to their
them with used to/didn't use to. home. Combine the pairs of sentences using to
where possible. Where it isn't possible, use
so that ... could(n 't)/would(n't).

They bu ilt a cup boa rd. They wanted to store t hei r

sports equ ipment.

.. !~!!Y..~!!!.1!.!!..~HI?~~.~r.~.~~.:rr.~r.~..t1!~~!'..~p.~~.................

..~qy'i.P.!!:!~!~.~: ............................................................................

They got a secon d lV set. They wanted the children

to watch lV in their own room .

.. "!]r;~.g~~.~..~!~~!!.~..!.Y..~~.~~..~~.'!!..~~.'f.E~!!~~.'f!:'. ............

could watch TV in their own room.

They knocked down a wal l. They wanted to make


Wome n don't have the vote. t he sitting room bi gger.
...w.~m~!L~i!!.n~t~~~.!9..h.~.~~J~~...CJ.f~:..............................

Salt is very expensive .


...~~.~.y.~.~!!..tCJ..~.~...~.r:JJ..~P~~.~!.~: ........................................

2 They put bars on t he wi ndow. They didn't want


The fastest way to travel is by horse. t hieves to get in.

2 The poorest chi ldren do not go to school. 3 Ligh ts were installed in the 'garden. They wanted to
eat outside in th e eve ning.

3 Chi ldren work in factories.

4 They pu t a bi g w indow in th e dining room. They


4 There isn 't much pollution In our rivers. wan ted to make it lig hter.

5 There aren't many cars.


5 They cut down some trees. They didn't want t he
garden to be so shady.
6 Not many people have televisions.

7 Men have all the top jobs.


6 They installed sol ar panels. They wanted to save
money on electrici ty.
8 Medicine isn't very reliable.

135
u \)

The passive
Present simple We use the passive:
Ho 0 en are the rooms cI aned? - when we are more interested in t he
They're cleaned once a w k. event tha n t he person who did the
action, e.g. I'm afraid the room hasn't
Pent continuous
been clean ed.
Her bik IS being repair d at the moment
We r n't being taught by Mr Morris thiS year. - to ta lk about events in history, e.g. The
electric light bu lb was invented in 1878.
Past simple - to describe tech nica l or scientific
Printing was invented In China.

processes, e.g. When the tea leaves have


Wh n w re you told about he acdden ?
been picked, they are left in special rooms
Pa t continuous
to dry.
Wh I h r bike was being r paired, she walked everywhere.
- to be obj ective, especially in news
reports or scie ntific experiments, e.g.
Present perfect simple
Two swimmers were attacked by sharks
Have you ever been bitten uy
a snake?

at Bango Bay yesterda y.


We haven't been inVited 0 Jack's party.

To form t he passive, we use t he verb


Past p rfeet simple
to be in the appropria te ten se + the
Our ouse lad bee brok n Into when we got back
past participle of t he main verb.
frOI liday

When we use t he passive with modal


Had anythin been stOlen?

ve rbs, we use a moda l ve rb + the


Luc Ily, my CD call ('tion hadn't been touched.

passive in finitive.
Mod Is
The passive gerund is formed with the
T e door can't/couldr!' b opened.
gerund being + the past participle.
om thing shOUld/must be done about the. traffic in hiS town.
The passive infiniti ve is formed wi t h the
Wh n will we be paid?
in fi ni tive to be + the past participle.
We mlgh Imay be m t at lh airport.
When we want to say who or what was
Grund
responsible for the action , we use the
I ha Ing bitten by mosquitoes.
preposition by + a noun, e.g. These
flowers were delivered by a man on
Infimtiv
a motorbike.
How ofte do the plants have to be watered?
We often use t he verb get instead of be,
as an informa l passive form, when we
refer to something unpleasant or SUdden,
e.g. She got bitten by a dog. This is more
common in spoken than in written English.

136

Practice
The pas ive: present simple and past simple
dangerous than freshies. Swimmers who
5....................................... (catch) by a saltie,

1 '/ Complete the article. putting the verbs in


6.... _ ....._ ........................" (roll) around in the water

brackets into the present simple passive or past


simple passive. until their necks 7 ........................................ (break). Then

the swimmer's body 8................................. (store)

under some wood by the croc until it is soft enough


for him to chew. Freshies are much smaller and
swimming with them 9................................. (think)
to be safe but a little Kary.
Last year, by a river in the Australian outback,
J 10................................. (tell) that there were no 5alties
in the water, but just a few freshies.
' I I ...................................... ............ ...............................................

(people/ever/eat) by freshies?' I asked a croc


expert nervously. It 1<................................................. .
(explain) to me that freshies are vegetarian 50 I
didn't need to worry. J 13..................................................

(encourage) by this so I put one foot in the water. .


Crocodiles or croes ..... ~t~.J~.~~~~..... (talk) At the lost minute, I 14...................................... (stop)
about a lot in Australia. Usually they by the croc expert who said, smiling, 'Actually I'm
I. _ ................................... (separate) into two types: not sure if they're vegetarian or if they only eat
saltwater crocs and freshwater crocs. Saltwater vegetarians! You aren't a vegetarian, are you?'
croo <................................. (know) as 'salties' and In the end I was 50 hot and the water looked so
freshwater croes J................................. (call) 'fresh ies'. nice, J dived in. I'm pleased to soy that I enjoyed
Salties, which can be five metres long, my sw{m and my toes 15............................................ (not
1........................................... _. (consider) much more bite) off!

The passive: present continuous


..!.~~.~~~!.~..f!fN~~~~n.~~..~~~~!l..~'!'.P.r.~~~~.!!!..m!:l.~.!l.........

2> Match the noun phrases to the verbs. Then . ~iJJ.~t:!!!.~.~~,!I.~: ........................................................ ~ ..............
write sentences in the present continuous passive.

The whole of Newtown [kJ a) build


The old theatre 0 b) improve in many 2 ...................................................................................................
different ways
2 Cars L
c) redecorate 3 .................................................................................................. .
3 Public transport 0 d) make cheaper and
4 More trees D more efficient
5 A new sports centre 0 e) not allow into the 4 .................................................................................................. .
centre
f) plant in all the
5 ...................................................................................................
n
Practice

Th passive: past continuous The passive: present perfect simple

3) Complete the letter, putting the verbs in 4> Rewrite the vet's comments in the passive.
brackets into the past continuous tense, active Somebody has trea te d this horse bad ly for years.
or passive. 1 People haven't fed him prope rly.
2 People have ridd en hi m too much.
Dear Sir/Mailam.
3 They have forced him to wo rk t oo hard.
Our Easy World huliduy on tbe island of Batto
4 They have left hi m outsid e in col d weat her.
was a Ii aster.
S Nobody has brushed him fo r years.

Throughout ur lWo-we 'k stay, the lift .~~L~~Jn9.. ..!~!~.~.'?~~.~~~.~.~.~~.~~~!~~..~~~w..f~!:.y.~~r.~:...............

,.t;.~p..!!!r.~d.. (repair) As we .~~r.~.g9Jl!~!l. ( lay) on the He ............................................................................................

,c\cnth noor we gOl vay tired.


2 .................................................................................................. .

For the Ii rsl len day:-. lht: po I I ..... 3 ...................................................................................................

................................... (clean)

4 ...................................................................................................

'or nne week of Our holiday, a pop group


1,............................................. (u 'e) the hotel for concert 5 ...................................................................................................

rehear. Is. Can yo u imagine lht: nOIse?

TIlt: mati (Jut,ide Lhe h( t'l J...............................................

............................... (repair) ~o the hOlel was fuU of du t all


The passive: past perfect
the time,
for our fir t Iw J ays. the dimng room 5> Complete the text, putting the verbs in
~ ........................................................................ (redecorate.)
brackets into the past perfect passive.

When we got back from our su mm er holidays last


......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M
(ha.ve)
ur dinner in the garden \ hen the manager came Lo year, we got a horrible shock. Our house .....~~~.~.~~~ ...
peak to us . We tolil him thal we b ................................... ..~~~~~':!.!.':!~<!. ... (break into) and qu ite a few t hings
...... ............................... (nut look after) properly and we 1..................................................... (steal) . The N and video

7....... ~ ........................................................... ... (not enjoy)

2...... .. ............................................. (take) and my mother's

o I[ holiday. He laughcd and said everylhing possible


II. .... ""................................................... (do) to improve
favourite vase 3...... ........... ................. ............................ .

th lIuation. (knock over) . In my parents' room, all the drawers

4 .................. . ......................................... (open) and all

their clothes 5.............................................. (throw) on

the floor. Luckily, my moth er's jewel lery


6....................................... ............ . (hide) unde r the bed

and it 1.................................................... (not fou nd).

My room 8.........................................................................

(not touch) but in my sister's room th e poste rs


9........ .. ........................................... (tea r) off the walls and

her mirror 10.................. .. ...................................... (break).

138
Practice
The passive with modals: should, must, The passive: gerunds and infinitives
will, can
7 ) Complete the text with the verbs in brackets
6 ) Complete the sentences with the verbs in the in the passive gerund or infinitive form.
box. Then rewrite them in the passive.
check contact leave
len d park pick up
~.use

'P~i(ip
f~ttksrfor" ~ 4teK ~e CtV witt&. we're a;u!{l~
yOt{ c~n ".. J!.~~........ i.e ~ yQtt ICmttt.
yot( 5~'t .................... "tlte r~JJo Ut ~ ca.t:
2 YOl( tt(/A~t .............. ...... fltt. ~r fA ~ of .!jQt{r
{irBNi.s
3 Ycu s~(d .................... hod alta -flte ~res r~uIa"tJ .

4 yOt( ~tJ.. mJ~ .................... .(~J.. -free. pei:rd!.

5 goml'.Ol1e wJ1. .................... #Ie. CArrfor ~vicitt8

l1eJtt week.
6 yet( m~t .................... tIte Ut~(MCL (dIt1~~
~tt(ed(a~ if ~tn( f.uw.e. ~t\ a.cd~.
7 You CtlI1 .................... -#At. car in. -Ik ~r ~rk ir\. After .... !!.~.~~9.P.!.C!.!!~~~..... (plan t) in a sunny warm
~!.(t~s Strut. place at the end of su mmer, stra wberry plants have
.. !~..~~.~~~~r.~(. (water) regulprly, especially in dry
..!.~.f~.'.'..~.~..~~~~..~~~~.~~r....Y.~~..~~.'.'.~................................
weath er. In the sp ring, when t he fruit starts to grow,
straw nee ds I . .................................................... (p lace)

under and around each plant. The reason for this is


2 ...................................................................................................
that t he fruit needs 2................................................... ..
(keep) dry when the pl ants are bei ng watered.
3 ...................................................................................................
When the fruit starts gettin g ripe, the
pl ants have J..................................................... (cover)

4 .................................................................................................. .
with nets. This prevents the stra wberries from
4 ......... .................. ......... ..... . ........... (eat) by birds. For
5 ...... ......................................... ....................................................
the best possi ble taste, strawberries need
s ..................................................... (grow) orga nical ly

6 ...................................................................................................
without chemical fe rti lisers and pesticides. If you
wa nt to make strawberry j am, the berries need
G.................................................. .. . (pi ck) when they are still
7 .................................................................................................. .
qu ite hard. Before 7 .......................................... ........... (u se)
for ja m, or eaten raw, th e f ruit ought B.............................

.......................... (wash).
139
u I I

I wish/If only + past perfect


I w' 11 I'd bought a magazin to read on the train.
We use I wish an d Ifon ly+ the past
If only I'd bought a rna azine to read on the train.
perfect to express regrets abou t a past
I Nt h I hadn' left my mob Ie phone at home.
situation, e.g. I wish I'd studied languages
If only I hadn't left my mobile phone at home.
instead ofscience at university.

Third conditional: if clause + We use the th ird cond itional:


'd (wQuJd}/might/cQuld have
- to tal k about unrea l situations in the
If h 'd worked a bit harder, he'd have passed his exam.

past, e.g. If I'd had his phone number, I


If I'd known he was in hospital. I'd have visited her.

could have called him (= But I didn't


Sh mlgh have passed h r driving tes it she hadn't

have it so I coul dn't call hi m.)


dnv n so fast

If you'o had your camera, you could have taken some


- to express regret about past situations,
amazing photos.
e.g. If we'd trained harder, we would have
If I'd tak n the later train, I wouldn't have met Peter.
won the ma tch.
In third cond itional sen te nces, the verb
in the if clau se is in th e past perfect
tense. In the main cla use, we use
'd (WOU ld) have, might have or
could have + the past parti\:iple.

140
I wish + past perfect I wish/If only + past perfect

>
1 Read the examiner's report after Rachel failed >
2 Read Craig's reasons for his team losing a
her motorcycle test. Then write her wishes. football match. Write sentences with I wish or If only.

Motorcycle Test tJi

o,d1'l't t Of Dlt tfA.e. fy'A-N ie


lj~/AL
(, drove. tfA.e. wrO'l't w~ dow~
" o~-wo.~ Sfrt-t.t
d,d1\ 't Dl1\SWt-r ill f ~
~14t.stiO~S

..~ .~!~~..t.~~!!'!!Jfo.r!l!?y.!!n.t(J.. !!?~~..~!!..~~.~.'!!.~r:!.!?.r:. ..........

.!?if..~r.~.~!.r.~~~!!9..~.ff: ............................. ..................................

...If..9.n.Iy..~~..~9!!~:t.!g.~.~.~r..!~~Y.m9!~g~i~.~ ...........

...",g,q.~~..~~~..'n9J~~:.............................................................

2 ..................................................................................................
If onl y ..................................................................................

3 ...................................................................................................
2 I wish ...................................................................................

3 If only ...................................................................................

4 ...................................................................................................

4 I wish ...................................................................................

5 ...................................................................................................

5 If only ...................................................................................

6 ...................................................................................................

6 I wish ...................................................................................

7 .................................................................................................. .

7 If only ...................................................................................

8 If only ...................................................................................

141
Practice

Third conditional Thi,.d conditional

3> Combine the pairs of sentences to make third 4> Match the sentence halves. Then write
conditional sentences with If sentences in the third conditional.

If I (not go) to t he party lliJ


If she (n ot say) th at about his mot her 0
2 I (not camp) t here 0
3 If (you t ell) us that you were in t ro uble 0
4 She (die) 0
5 If I (not spend) all my money 0
6 How much (they pay) yo u at the hote l 0
7 How long (i t t ake) to get t o America 0
a) he (n ot get) so angry
We didn't have a good map. That's why we got lost
(b) I (not meet) Joseph )
..If.w.~:4..h.f:I.~..f:I..9.9.g~.m.t;lp.I.. W.~.W.9.H!~fJ:~.h!!''~.99J.!.9.g:.
c) if she (not have) the opera t ion
We didn't check the oil. That's why the car broke d) if we (go) by Conco rde?
down. e) I (b uy) you some flowers
f) if I (kn ow) abo ut the snakes in that forest
g) if yo u (t ake) the cleani ng job?
h) we (h el p) you

2 ~e didn't listen to the weather forecast That's


.. If..~..~~.t!~.'.~.9.l?,~.~..~~..~h~p.f!.r:!lI!..L~l?,~.~~!J.:!..~~.':.~............

why we were caught in the fog. ..~~~J.l?,~~p.~:.................... ......... l .. ........

2 ...................................................................................................

3 Nina broke her ankle. That's why we had to wait


for help.
3 ...................................................................................................

4 .................................................................................................. .

4 We didn't have our mobile phone. That's why we


couldn 't phone for help.
5 ...................................................................................................

6 .......................................................................... ".......................

5 We were rescued the next day. That's why we


didn't die of cold.
7 .................................................................................................. .

Practice

Conditionals: first. second and third Revision

5:" Use the prompts to complete the sentences 6 > Complete the second sentence so that it has a
using the correct conditionals. similar meaning to the first sentence, using the
words in brackets.

I didn' t catch the thief so they didn't give me a


reward. (would)

If I .. ~.~(~~~9~~.~~~.~~!if,.. ~~!w...l!~~.~~..~~~!:.9~~~':!.......
me a reward.

She regrets missi ng the concert. (wishes)

She ..........................................................................................

the concert.

2 I'm so sorry th at I ate five pieces of chocolate


cake. (only)
If ...............................................................................................
fr ve pieces of chocolate cake.
Where wo uId you Iive ....if..J!.~!!..~~~.~~..~~.~~!~ ...............

3 We were so t ired that we didn 't go to the party.


..~~Y.~~.~E~.!.'.!.!~!: ..~'?r.~~.? ............... (if you/ca n choose
(would)
anywhere in the world?)
If we ........................................................................................

If sh e goes to bed now, .....................................................

.......................................................................... to the party.

(she/probably feel better in the morning) 4 I stopped reading the bo ok because th e plot was
so com plicated. (been)
2 If I were yo u, ........................................................................
If the plot ..............................................................................
(I/tell them th e truth)
...................................................... ............................................
/
3 If everybody gives me a pound, ......................................
reading the book.
5 I'm sorry I didn't remember her birthday. (wish)
(I/buy a present for Judy from a11 of us)
I ................................................................................................
4 If you won a mi llion pounds, ..........................................
her birthday.
6 What a pity there wasn 't any good mu sic at the
(what/you spend it on?)
party! (o nly)
5 What shal l we do ................................................................
If ...............................................................................................
some good music at the party!
(if it/rai n tomorrow?)
7 They did n't have brea kfast so they were hu ngry by
6 You would have met Caroline ......................................... ten thirty. (WOUldn't)
If they .....................................................................................
(if you/come to the party on Saturday)
.......................................................... hungry by ten th irty.
7 If you'd got lost in that wood, .......................................

8 The chair broke beca use you stood on it. (if)


.................................................................... (what/you do?)

The chair ................................................................................


8 If my headache doesn ~way, ......;...........................
....................................................................................... on it.

(I/not come with you t o the beach)

14 3
u o

Verbs must have, might have, can't have


for dra wing conclusions We use must/might/can't have + the past
particip le to make logica l deductions
She must have forgotten about the rehearsal.

abo ut the past.


Sh c n' have gone to the library. It's closed today.

She might have gone or a bike ide.

Reported speech: statements

Direct speech Reported speech


If th e reporti ng verb is in the present
pr nt simple past simple
tense, t here are no tense changes, e.g.
I know lucy. She said (that) she knew lucy.
'I can give you a lift to the station.' She
says she can give us a lift to the station.
present continuous past continuous

It is possible to keep the past simple


I'm aying wIth her. She said she wa staying with her.

instea d of chang ing it to the past perfect


past simple past perfect
in reported speech , e.g. She said they met
We met in Italy. She aid lh y had met in Italy.
in Ital y or She said they had met in Italy. .
present perfect past perfect
The verb used to remains t he same in
I haven't m t her bra er, She said she hadn't m t her brother.
reported sp eech, e.g. I used to live in New
York becomes She said she used to live in
Will/can/may would/could/might New York. Mod al verbs should, could, would,
I'll flte 500n. She said she. would write soon.
might and ought to also remai n the same.
I ca tay long. She said she couldn't stay long.

Some time an d plac phrases change in


I may I plane later. She said she might telephone later.

reported speech.

must!hav to had to Direct speech Reported speech

I must go. She said she had to go.


today/tonight that da y/that night
I hav to catch a train. She said she had to catch a train.
this morning that morning
tomorrow the next day
Reported speech: questions yesterda y the day before
Oir ct questions Reported questions last week the week before
I h angry? I asked if he was angry. next week the following week
Wh t does h want? I wondered what he wanted. here there
th is place that place
Verbs of reporting: various structures Tense ch anges in reported questions are
the same as for reported statements.
V rb (+ that) + clause

He saldfexplain d/whlspered hat he was very tired


. In re ported Wh- question s, we use the
Wh- word + the subject + the verb. We do
V r + direct object + infinitive
not use the interrogative form of the verb.
S e sked/ordered/told/p rsuaded/invited him to come in.

In reported Yes/No questions, we use


V rb + gerund (-ing form)
if + the subject + the verb. We do not
H u9 sted buying h d eaper tickets.
use th e interrogative form of the verb.

Verb + infinitive
We ca n use whether instead of ifin
Sh a re d/oflered/promised 0 pay him back
reported Yes/No questions.

144
Practice

Verbs must flove, might hove, can't have


EVIDENCE
for drawing conclusions
a) A volcano ended all life on their i land
around 3,000 years ago.
1 / Match the arch~logist's conclusions
with the evidence. Check your answers. b) We have found a lot of gold jewellery
Then complete the conclusions with must have, in their dty.
might have or can 't have and the correct form c) There are two picture of a giant fi h
of the verb in brackets. with a woman's bead in a temple.
d) The door' into their hou es are only
1.4 metres hi h .
e) We'v found large bird cages in s )me
[l] The. ~po.ra'Ki ... !!!!!.~..~~.Y.~.~.~.~.r:! ... (be)
Raparoni houses.
ve.~ ric."'-.
t) There L no Raparoni writing ot any
o The1J .....................................,............... (be) kind on any object&.
ve.Y]' t/}..U. g) Their drawings how the correCl
2 D ~e.(j ...."............ ~ ................................. (study) pOSition of the earth and moun.
t"'-e. s"lJ j;\+ 1'l1~"'-t. h) We have found many ex clIent Raparoni
3 0 Me.1'\ ..................................................... (be) (;\.S boats in the sand near the coast.
i~t"-xt "'oS WOttl.'K i1'l ttA.e-rr c.1AH1Ar-e . i) We haven't found many human bones
4 0 The-lj passibilJ ..........................................................
in their dt}'.

................ (believe In) j;\ .pis"'- ~ddes.s.


j) There are only pi tw-e ' of queens,
none of kings.
5 D \1I.e.ir c.rvil,Sj;\tio'K ....................................................
(end) j;\ro1A'Kd (POD Be..

6 O;:J;;t;;;~: .. m..... . . (be)


16 18 JL 49 ES )t fE 6(; Pl
S~3MSN \f

7 0 The.1J ..................................................... (keep)


(-rrots (;\.S pe. t.s .
8 0 1ke.lJ ....................,................................ (have)
t\1'l &\ip~t.

9 0 ~t;~. t~~~.:;;::t~:~:~.

145
Practice
Verbs must have, might hove, can't hove Reported speech: statements
for drawing conclusions
3 > Mr Rush and Ms Drift had a car crash. Read
2> Complete the second sentence so it has a their statements. Then write the police report.
similar meaning to the first sentence, using the
words in brackets. I stopped at t he lights.
She was drivi ng on t he wrong si de of the road .
2 She's a very areless driver.
3 I won't make her pay if she apologises.

I'm sure he didn't break it beca use' was with him


all t he time. (can't) He we nt through a red light.
He can't have broken;r because I was with him 1 He wa s tal king on his mobi le phone.
2 He is going to kill someo ne one day.
04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

all the t ime.


3 I won't say anyth ing until I've seen my lawyer.
I'm sure she was miserable when they broke up.
must)
Form 244c
She .......................................................................................... POLICE

miserable when they broke up. REPORT

2 I'm su re she went rollerblading . Her rollerblades


aren't he re. (must) Mr Rush said h~.~~.. ~.~P.~.. ~~..~.~..~~:.
She ........................................................................... Her Ms Drift sa id .~~.~~~3~.~.~~~~~ ..~ ..:.~.~ ..~~
rollerblades aren't here. He said ...........................................................................
3 Maybe it was the dog wh ich ate our sandwiches.
(m ight)
Sh e said .........................................................................

The dog ..................................................................................


our sand wi ches.
4 I don't believe you took three hours to write th is 2 He said ...........................................................................

essay - it's very short. (can' )


You .......................................................................... three She said ................................................................_.......

hours to write this essay - it's very short.


S Perhaps I threw away your letter from Mike by
accident. (might) 3 He said ................_.........................................................

I .......................................................................... you r letter


from Mike by accident. She said .........................................................................

146
- -
Practice
Reported speech: statements and questions Verbs of reporting: various structures

4 / Report the interview with the TV zoologist, 5> Complete the sentences in reported speech
Alistair Batten. using the verbs in the box.
agreed apol ogised for explained
invi ted offered C
orde red) prom ised
rem inded suggested

Q: Why ~;d )"tJ'U lHam~ a ~o/,?!;sl-.'


II: I~ ",,,r~ ,,,fv45f-ed I;' ttnilfltAls
--In..." p~/~.
'I Q: Ar~ /here. ~"Y 4n;Mifk ydN "/~/"'ke ?
'Take th e gum out of your mouth at once, Jim.'
1/: / ",,/f't eAj"Y S'Mnitl my h,,;t
wi-Ht raHle~'fAker. The teacher ...~r.~~r.~~.I!P..r.l?.r.~~~..~h.~.!l~.'!!..~~tif.. .....
Z Q: Wlt~.f's Y(1Ut" fov(J'7;tf"if~ pllfACl!.' his mouth at once.
/I: flo(/I! Ma"A.1ltst:~
'Don't fo rget t o pack you r toot hbrush , Daisy.'
J C/: H6W '"It/{r Ii,"~f Alttlt. )"tPf ~~" -#tefe?
r
A: t:alt'./- r~,"~M~ Daisy's mother .....................................................................
4- Q: wit ...,. will yIJU do wilelt ym..'f'l! fDo
61d +0 -fr"ave1.' 2 'I'll drive you to the airport.'
A: 1'wI .1"'".1 to +ravel UI1I7'1 I ti,e.. My mot her ............................................................................

I asked Alistair .. ~hy..h.~.~~.t!..~~~!?'E.~.~.~~!.I!.9!':....... 3 'I'm sorry about breaki ng th e picture.'


He said .~~ ..~.t...'E.l?r.~.!~~~r.~f!.t!.}~.. ~.'.';!P.~!.~ .................. I ................................................................................................
.Jh.~~.p~~p'~~: .........................................................................
I asked him ...........................................................................
4 'I'll never lie again:
He ............................................................................................
He said ...................................................................................
5 'OK. I'll lend you the car.'
Her fa ther ..............................................................................
2 I asked him ...........................................................................
6 'Why don't you ta ke t he trai n instead of th e bus?'
He said ...................................................................................
Mrs Martin ............................................................................
3 I asked him ...........................................................................

7 'Would you like to com e and stay for a few


He said ...................................................................................
days, Alice?'
4 I asked him ...........................................................................
Sue ..........................................................................................
8 'Lawn Avenue is the t hi rd tu rn ing on th e rig ht.'
He said ...................................................................................
The police offi cer ................................................................

141
VI

Future continuous
Positive statements We use th e fu tu re continuo us to ta lk
You'll be Iymg on the beach In two weeks' time. about events whi ch wi ll be in progress
at a particular time in the futur
N gativ statements

They won't be revismg for their exams a week


We use will/won't be + the present
from now.
partici ple of the verb to form the
future continuous.
Questions

Wilt she til l be studying English in a year's time?

Short answers

Positive Negative

Y ,sh w (I. No, she won't.

Future perfect
We use t he future perfect to ta lk about
Positive statements
events which will be completed at a
We'll have had supper by nine o'clock
pa rticula r t ime in the future.
tlV statements We use will/won't + have + the past
't have gone to bed yet. particip le of the verb to form the
futu re perfect.
Questions
Will you have written your essay by omorrow?

Short answers

Positive Negative

Y s, I wll!. No, I won't

Short answers with verb + so/not


After t he verbs think, expect, hope, be
1st gOing to be hot tomorrow? afraid and suppose, we can use so when
Positive Negative
respon ding affi rmatively to a comment
I hln so. I don't hlnk so.
or question.
I pcct so I don't expect so.!1 e pect not.
For th e nega t ive responses using these
'hop so. I hope no
verbs, see t he list on the left.
J'm a raid so I'm afraid not.

I tJr po,>e o. I don't uppose so./1 suppose not.

148
Practice
Future cont inuous

1 :, Look at the programme. Then complete the 2> Use the notes below to write predictions using
sentences in the future continuous. the future perfect.

IYI 100 ye4YS' tiMe-_

cV'ea1'e lot.s o.f reW trtAih /Mel v~tAiJIe..s l'(5)

wild /I city ov\ ~e W1DOVo


tNO)

I .54IVe the hl/lck. ~iV'O trOWl eXtlVIG+iOVl tNO)


'2. eliMi~te MIlIav-ia l YES)
:!, di.scoveV' II CI.\'I'e fo'l' oArrtce'l' t YES)
4 ilo'IVel'lt av-tificilll eyes tNO)
S 9ive lAp lASiV19 petrol II.s II .fIAe1 lNO)
6 de.st'l'oy ~e.,.1 ot ~ Y'lIir.fwe.st t YES)

Cleves School
In 100 years' time:
..w.~:(~.~.~~~.~r.~~~~.~~.~~.. ~1.~.~fr.~.~~.~!.'.~...................

..I(.~9.~~.~~~~:...........................................................................

. w.~.~~.~:~.~~~~. ~~Ht.~..~!~.!?1) ..~~!:..~~~~:...................

8.20: Meet outside the school


8.:50:Walk to the underground
8.40-9.30: Travel by train to Gross Harbour Station
2 ................................................................................................

9.30-10.00: Walk through the tunne1 under


the river GreenWich
10.00-18.00: VIsit Gr eenWich Observatory 3 ..............................................................................................

12.00-1.30: Have lunch In the park


2.0D-3.00: Go to WestminSter Pier by boat
3..00-4.00: Return to Hammersmith by underground 4 ................................................................................................

5 ................................................................................................

At 8.30, they ~~~.~.~.. ~~.~~!!!!1 ..~~J~!:..'!:~.~~r9.r.~!!.1)~~ .......

At 9.00, they ........................................................................

6 ................................................................................................

2 At 9.40, they ........................................................................

3 At 11 .00, they ............................... ........................................

4 At 1.00, they ........................................................................

5 At 2.30. they ........................................................................

6 At 3.15, they ........................................................................

Future continuous or future perfect Short answers with verb + so/not

3> Read about Bob. Then write pairs of sentences 4> Use the prompts to write B's answers.
in the future perfect and the future continuous.
Every day of Bob's life is the same and he likes it that
way. He has his breakfast every morning at seven
thirty. It takes him exactly ten minutes to eat it. Then
he sunbathes on the steps of his house for two hours.
At nine forty, he stops sunbathing and lies down on
Claudia's bed. Claudia is Bob's owner and in Bob's
opinion, her bed is the most comfortable one in the
house. At twelve o'clock, he jumps off the bed and
plays in the garden with Marmalade, the neighbours'
cat. At three o'clock, he comes in from the garden
and sits down in front of the fridge to wait for his A: Is it go ing to ra in?
tea. Claudia gets home from school at four fifteen
B: (hope) .... L~~p.~.~.t?,~....... I want to play tennis.

and immediately gives Bob his food . It takes him five


minutes to eat it. After his meal, Bob goes to sleep A: Do you ha ve to leave now?
again and dreams about his breakfast. B: (afrai d) ................................................ I have to get

up ea rly t om orro w.
At eight o'clock tomorrow, Bob ...

2 A: Will Jane be com ing home for supper?


a) will have eaten his breakfast.

B: (expect) .................................... She likes her food!


b) .. ~~!!..~~.~~.':'.~.c!'!~!~!1. ... on the steps of his house.

3 A: Is it goi ng to be sunny tom orrow?


At nine fifty tomorrow, Bob ...
B: (hope) .................................................... I'm meet ing

a) ................................................................... sunbathing.

Ellen at t he beach.
b) ....... on Claudia's bed.

no . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 A: Does t he fi lm st art at eight? ,


2 At twelve fifteen tomorrow, Bob ...
B: (suppose) .......................................................... That's

a) ................................................................... off the bed. when th ey usually start.


b) .............................................................................. in the S A: Is Martha going to be at t he party?
garden with Marmalade.
B: (h ope) ...................................... I ca n't stand her.
3 At three thirty tomorrow, Bob '"
6 A: Have we got to walk to th e ci nema?
a) .................................................... in from the garden.

B: (thi nk) ................................... Dave's taken th e car.


b) ................................................. in front of the fridge.
7 A: Have you got a room for tonight?
4 At four sixteen tomorrow, Claudia ...
B: (afraid) ......................................................... We have

a) ....................................................... home from school. no rooms availabl e until Su nday.


b) .................................................................. Bob his food. 8 A: Do you th ink Engla nd will wi n?
S At six o'dock tomorrow, Bob .. B: (think) .......................................................... Scotland

a) ......................................................................... his food.


are a mu ch stronger t eam.

b) .................................................... about his breakfast.


9 A: Do you thi nk you'll get a big part in the play?
B: (expect) ......................................................... . I'm not

a very good actor.


10 A: Do your black jea ns still fit you ?
B: (suppose) ....................................................... I've put
on th ree kilos th is year!

150