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READING STRATEGIES

SKIMMING AND SCANNING

Skimming and scanning are two very different


strategies for speed reading.

They are each used for different purposes, and they


are not meant to be used all the time. They are at the
fast end of the speed reading range, while studying is
at the slow end.

People who know how to skim and scan are flexible


readers. They read according to their purpose and get
the information they need quickly without wasting
time. They do not read everything which is what
increases their reading speed. Their skill lies in
knowing what specific information to read and which
method to use.
What Is Skimming?

Skimming is one of the tools you can use to read more


in less time. Skimming refers to looking only for the
general or main ideas, and works best with non-
fiction (or factual) material. With skimming, your
overall understanding is reduced because you dont
read everything. You read only what is important to
your purpose. Skimming takes place while reading
and allows you to look for details in addition to the
main ideas.

Once you know where the reading is headed, you can


begin to read only the first sentence of each
paragraph. Also called topic sentences, they give you
the main idea of the paragraph. If you do not get the
main idea in the topic sentence or if the paragraph
greatly interests you, then you may want to skim
more.

At the end of each topic sentence, your eyes should


drop down through the rest of the paragraph, looking
for important pieces of information, such as names,
dates, or events. Continue to read only topic
sentences, dropping down through the rest of the
paragraphs, until you are near the end. Since the last
few paragraphs may contain a conclusion or
summary, you should stop skimming there and read
in detail. Remember that your overall comprehension
will be lower than if you read in detail. If while
skimming, you feel you are grasping the main ideas,
then you are skimming correctly.

Skimming will help you locate the information quickly


while making sure you use your time wisely. It will
also increase the amount of usable material you
obtain for your research.

While reading, ask yourself the following questions to


help you decide whether or not to skim. If you answer
yes to any of these, then skimming is a useful tool.

? Is this material non-fiction?


? Do I have a lot to read and only a small
amount of time?
? Do I already know something about this?
? Can any of the material be skipped?

How to Skim:
Read the title.
Read the introduction or the first paragraph.
Read the first sentence of every other
paragraph.
Read any headings and sub-headings.
Notice any pictures, charts, or graphs.
Notice any italicized or boldface words or
phrases.
Read the summary or last paragraph.

What Is Scanning?
Scanning is another useful tool for speeding up your
reading. Unlike skimming, when scanning, you look
only for a specific fact or piece of information without
reading everything. You scan when you look for your
favorite show listed in the cable guide, for your
friends phone number in a telephone book, and for
the sports scores in the newspaper. For scanning to be
successful, you need to understand how your material
is structured as well as comprehend what you read so
you can locate the specific information you need.
Scanning also allows you to find details and other
information in a hurry.

How to scan.

Because you already scan many different types of


material in your daily life, learning more details about
scanning will be easy. Establishing your purpose,
locating the appropriate material, and knowing how
the information is structured before you start
scanning is essential.

Your peripheral vision can also help you scan


effectively. When your hand moves down a list of
names, you see not only the name your finger is
pointing to, but also the names above and below. Let
your eyes work for you when searching for
information.

Keep the concept of key words in mind while


scanning. Your purpose will determine the key words.
Suppose you are looking for the time a train leaves
from New York City for Washington, D.C.The key
words to keep in mind are from New York City and
to Washington,D.C. If you are looking for the cost of
a computer printer with the code number PX-710, the
key word to locate in a list of many printers is PX-
710.

When to scan.?

You scan when your aim is to find specific pieces of


information

How to Scan:
State the specific information you are looking
for.
Try to anticipate how the answer will appear
and what clues you might use to help you locate
the answer. For example, if you were looking for
a certain date, you would quickly read the
paragraph looking only for numbers.
Use headings and any other aids that will help
you identify which sections might contain the
information you are looking for.
Selectively read and skip through sections of
the passage.

KEYWORDS

A keyword is generally a word or phrase that is a topic


of significance. Searchers use keywords as a way to
identify and verbalize their problem or topic in which
they're looking for more information. Businesses
create content around relevant topics to their
business which helps them rank and be the content in
which searchers find.

A word that serves as a key, as to the meaning of


another word, a sentence, passage, or the like.

COGNATES
Cognates are words in two languages that share a
similar meaning, spelling, and pronunciation. While
English may share very few cognates with a language
like Chinese, 30-40% of all words in English have a
related word in Spanish. For Spanish-speaking ELLs,
cognates are an obvious bridge to the English
language.
English Spanish
family familia
center centro
radio radio
class clase
desert desierto
magic magia
gorilla gorila

False Cognates

These are words that look alike but do not have the
same meaning in English and Spanish. Ask the
students:

Does anyone know what pie means in Spanish (foot)?


What does the word pie mean in English (dessert)?

Another example of a false cognate is the word


embarrassed in English and embarazada in Spanish.
What does embarrassed mean in English (to feel
ashamed about something)? Does anyone know what
embarazada means in Spanish (pregnant)?

English Spanish
globe globo (balloon)
pie pie (foot)
rope ropa (clothes)
soap sopa (soup or pasta)
large largo (long)
exit xito (success)
hay hay (there is)

False Cognates Examples


Falsos Cognados Ejemplos
He is actually not the manager
En realidad l no es un
gerente
actually at present
1
en realidad actual My cousin is in France at
present
Mi primo est actualmente en
Francia
There's no need to advertise a
to advertise to warn
2 good wine
anunciar advertir
No hay necesidad de anunciar
un buen vino

Tom tried to warn Mary, but


she ignored him
Tom trat de advertir a Mary,
pero ella lo ignor
I need your advice
Necesito tu consejo
advice notice
3 Tom was dismissed without
consejos aviso
notice
Tom fue despedido sin previo
aviso
Somebody caught me by the
arm
arm gun Alguien me agarr por el brazo
4
brazo arma
Bill was killed with a gun
Mataron a Bill con un arma
I borrowed this cartoon from
his sister
Tom prestado este comic de
cartoon cardboard su hermana
5
cmic cartn
I just bought some cardboard
Acabo de comprar algo de
cartn
I have nothing to complain
to complain to please
6 about
quejarse complacer
No tengo nada de que
quejarme
John is easy to please
John es fcil de complacer
The conductor appeared on
the stage
El director apareci en el
escenario
conductor driver
7
director conductor
The driver asked me which
way to go
El conductor me pregunto a
que lado deba ir
We will have a music contest
soon
Pronto tendremos un
concurso de msica
contest to answer
8
concurso contestar
No student was able to
answer the question
Ningn estudiante pudo
contestar la pregunta
The family seemed to be
under a curse
La familia pareca estar bajo
una maldicin
curse course
9
maldicin curso
Students will take one of these
English courses
Los estudiantes tomarn uno
de estos cursos en ingles
Write down your date of birth
here
Escriba su fecha de nacimiento
aqu
date data
10
fecha dato
The data hasn't been compiled
yet
Los datos no han sido
compilados an
The art of pleasing is the art of
deception
El arte de complacer es el arte
de engaar
deception disappointment
11
engaar decepcin
The party was a big
disappointment
La fiesta es una gran
decepcin
Put on your shoes. Let's go out
for dinner
Ponte los zapatos y vamos a
dinner money cenar
12
cena dinero
He's rich. He doesn't need
money!
El es rico. No necesita dinero!
I was embarrassed to look her
in the eye
embarrassed pregnant
13 Estaba avergonzado para verla
avergonzado embarazada
a los ojos
She is eight months pregnant
Ella est embarazada de ocho
meses
His theory is based on
elaborate investigation.
Su teora est basado sobre
una detallada investigacin
elaborate manufacturing
14
detallado elaborado His company engages in the
manufacturing of stainless
steel
Su empresa se dedica al
elaborado de acero inoxidable
The building has no fire exit
El edificio no tiene salida de
exit success incendios
15
salida xito
I'm sure of your success
Estoy seguro de tu xito
This fabric is impermeable to
water
Este tejido es impermeable
fabric factory
16
tela fbrica The factory produces cotton
goods
La fbrica produce buen
algodn
Please fill out this form first
form shape Por favor primero llene este
17
formulario forma formulario
You're in better shape than I
am
Estas en mejor forma que yo
A long list of grocery stores
agreed to situate my products
Una larga lista de tiendas de
grocery rude comestibles acord situar mis
18
tienda grosero productos
How rude of you!
Qu grosero!
To catch the bull, grab its
horns
Hay que coger al toro por los
horn oven
19 cuernos
cuerno horno
I want a new oven
Quiero un nuevo horno
Relationships involve
compromise
Las relaciones involucran
involve wrap
20 compromiso
involucrar envolver
Just wrap it up
Envuelvalo por favor
His lectures are boring
Sus clases son aburridas
lecture reading
21
conferencia lectura He spent the evening reading
a book
Se pas toda la tarde leyendo
un libro
I have free access to the
library
Yo tengo acceso libre a la
biblioteca
library bookshop
22
biblioteca librera
Every bookstore has its own
appeal
Cada librera tiene su propio
atractivo
The mayor is not available
now
El alcalde no esta disponible
ahora
mayor bigger
23
alcalde mayor
My dog is the bigger of the
two
Mi perro es el ms mayor que
los dos
The media doesn't distribute
the news
Los medios no difunden esta
media sock
24 noticia
medios media
Take off your socks, please.
Por favor qutese los medias.
The misery of others leaves a
weird taste
misery poverty
25 La tristeza ajena deja un
tristeza miseria
extrao sabor
He was doomed to life-long
poverty
Fue destinado a pasar miseria
de por vida
The notice was badly printed
El anuncio estaba mal impreso
notice news
26
anuncio noticia No news is good news
Si no hay noticias, son buenas
noticias
I once wanted to be an actor
Una vez quera ser actor
once eleven
27
una vez once
It is already eleven
Ya son las once
This pan has several uses
Esta sartn tiene muchos usos
pan bread
28 I'd like some more bread,
sartn pan
please
Quisiera un poco ms de pan,
por favor
I mean to quit this company
Pienso abandonar esta
empresa
to quit to remove
29
abandonar quitar The coffee stain was difficult
to remove
La mancha de caf es difcil de
quitar
Let go of the rope
Suelta la cuerda
rope clothes
30 Mary spends a lot of money
cuerda ropa
on clothes
Mary gasta mucho dinero en
ropa
What a rude man!
Qu tipo grosero!
rude rough
31
maleducado rudo
He received rough treatment
Recibi un trato muy rudo
It took him a while to realize
the situation
Le tom un tiempo darse
cuenta de la situacin
to realize to make
32
darse cuenta realizar
It is easier to make plans than
to put them into practice
Es fcil realizar planes que
llevarlos a cabo
Are you going to record
today's episode?
Vas a grabar el captulo de
hoy?
to record remember
33
grabar recordar
Do you remember seeing me
before?
Recuerdas haberme visto
antes?
34 to resume to summarize He resumed his work after a
reanudar resumen short break
El reanudo su trabajo tras un
breve descanso

I want to summarize the


content of the presentation
Quiero resumir el contenido
de la presentacin
It comes with soup and salad
Viene con sopa y ensalada
salad salty
35
ensalada salado
This food is too salty
Esta comida esta muy salada
They are sensible girls
Ellas son chicas sensatas
sensible sensitive
36 You are too sensitive to
sensato sensible
criticism
Eres demasiado sensible a las
crticas
This letter bears no signature
Esta carta no tiene firma
signature subject
37 Which subject do you like
firma asignatura
best?
Cul es tu asignatura
favorita?
The wages of sin is death
sin without El precio del pecado es la
38
pecado sin muerte
My life is hollow without him
Mi vida est vaca sin l
The soap hurt my eyes
El jabn me hizo dao en los
soap soup ojos
39
jabn sopa
This soup is exquisite
Esta sopa es exquisita
The first attack missed the
target
El primer ataque no dio al
target card blanco
40
objetivo tarjeta
Can I pay by credit card?
Puedo pagar con mi tarjeta
de crdito?
Brad Pitt is the most handsome
actor actor in the world
actor Brad Pitt es el ms guapo actor
en el mundo
analyze He want to analyze your urine
2
analizar El quiere analizar tu orina
angel You're an angel!
3
ngel Tu eres un ngel!
art Her garden is a work of art
4
arte Su jardn es una obra de arte
She was raised in an artistic
artistic
5 family
artstico
Ella fue criada en una familia
artstica
I like bananas more than apples
banana
6 Prefiero los bananos ms que las
banano
manzanas
bank The bank loaned him 200 dollars
7
banco El banco le presto 200 dolares
The balance of nature is very
balance fragile
8
balance El balance de la naturaleza es
muy frgil
bus Hurry up, or you'll miss the bus
9
autobs Date prisa, o perders el autobs
The car crashed into the wall
car
10 El coche se estrell contra la
coche
pared
channel Turn to channel 10
11
canal Cambia al canal 10
The collection is open to the
collection public
12
coleccin La coleccin esta abierta al
pblico
Hydrogen and oxygen combine
combine to form water
13
combinar El hidrgeno y el oxgeno se
combinan para formar agua
I would like to go to the concert
concert with you
14
concierto Me gustara ir al concierto
contigo
It's fun to learn about foreign
culture cultures
15
cultura Estudiar las culturas de otros
pases es divertido
curious I am curious
16
curioso Yo soy curioso
delicate It's a delicate problem
17
delicado Es un problema delicado
The pilot described the scene in
detail detail
18
detalle El piloto describi la escena en
detalle
distance I saw a house in the distance
19
distancia Vi una casa en la distancia
It is absurd to divide people into
divide good and bad
20
dividir Es absurdo dividir a la personas
entre buenos y malos
enormous The new building is enormous
21
enorme El edificio nuevo es enorme
Health is essential to happiness
essential
22 La salud es esencial para la
esencial
felicidad
excellent You did an excellent job
23
excelente Hiciste un excelente trabajo
This limited express is bound for
express Barcelona
24
expreso Este tren expreso va hacia
Barcelona
Your proposal is a bit extreme
extreme
25 Tu propuesta es un poco
extremo
extrema
The family is the most important
family unit in society
26
familia La familia es la unidad ms
importante en la sociedad
fantastic This blog is fantastic
27
fantstico Este blog es fantstico
I like Chinese food in general
general
28 Me gusta la comida China en
general
general
guide My friend will be our guide
29
gua Mi amigo ser nuestro gua
hospital There is a hospital near by
30
hospital Cerca de aqu hay un hospital
I prefer a hotel by the airport
hotel
31 Prefiero un hotel por el
hotel
aeropuerto
You never have time for
important important things!
32
importante Nunca tienes tiempo para las
cosas importantes!
Every situation requires
individual individual analysis
33
individual Toda situcacin requiere un
anlisis individual
infinite There's no doubt the universe is
34
infinito infinite
No cabe duda que el universo es
infinito
The kids are playing interactive
interactive games
35
interactivo Los nios estn jugando juegos
interactivos
invention Radio is a great invention
36
invencin La radio es una gran invencin
illusion All is illusion
37
ilusin Todo es una ilusin
They were marooned on a desert
isle isle
38
isla Fueron abandonados en una isla
desierta
The English alphabet has 26
letter
39 letters
letra
El alfabeto ingles tiene 26 letras
The lion is called the king of
lion animals
40
len El len es llamado el rey de los
animales
machine What a wonderful machine!
41
mquina Qu maravillosa mquina!
material This material stretches easily
42
material Esta material se estira fcilmente
This melody reminds me of my
melody school days
43
meloda Esta meloda me recuerda a mis
das de escuela
I wish I had a better memory
memory
44 Me gustara tener una buena
memoria
memoria
miserable She's rich but miserable
45
miserable Ella es rica pero miserable
moment I want to see you for a moment
46
momento Quiero verte por un momento
music My favorite music is pop music
47
msica Mi favorita msica es el pop
The patriots stood up for the
nation rights of their nation
48
nacin Los patriotas defendieron los
derechos de su nacin
A computer is an absolute
necessity necessity now
49
necesidad Ahora una computadora es una
absoluta necesidad
Read the note at the bottom of
note
50 the page
nota
Lea la nota al pie de la pgina
objective His objective is to pass the test
51
objetivo Su objetivo es aprobar la prueba
The Pacific Ocean is one of the
ocean five oceans
52
ocano El Ocano Pacifico es uno de los
5 ocanos
Every opinion is a mixture of
opinion
53 truth and mistakes
opinin
Toda opinin es una mezcla de
verdad y errores
option This is an option to consider
54
opcin Esto es una opcin a considerar
The British have a lot of respect
order for law and order
55
orden Los Britnicos tienen mucho
respeto a la ley y el orden
original Bill has a lot of original ideas
56
original Bill tiene muchas ideas originales
All you have to do is sign this
paper paper
57
papel Lo nico que tienes que hacer es
firmar este papel
park We walked as far as the park
58
parque Caminamos hasta el parque
Do you know how to use a
personal personal computer?
59
personal Sabes cmo usar una
computadora personal?
photo Please do not take photos here
60
foto Favor de no tomar fotos aqu
pine She likes the smell of pine trees
61
pino A ella le gusta el olor de los pinos
Plants grow quickly after rain
plant
62 Las plantas crecen ms rpido
planta
despus de la lluvia
possibility There's a possibility that the man
63
posibilidad was murdered
Hay una posibilidad de que un
hombre haya sido asesinado
Doctors warn us of a possible
possible danger
64
posible Los mdicos nos advierten de un
posible peligro
For whom will you vote for
president president?
65
presidente Por quin votars para
presidente?
Hi, I just wanted to let you know
problem that the problem is fixed
66
problema Hola, Solo quera que supieras
que el problema se arregl
I am proud to be a part of this
project project
67
proyecto Estoy orgulloso de formar parte
de este proyecto
He worked hard to promote
promote peace
68
promover El trabaj duro para promover la
paz
public I don't like to speak in public
69
pblico No me gusta hablar en pblico
radio The radio on the desk is a Sony
70
radio La radio sobre la mesa es Sony
Please write about your real
real
71 experience
real
Por favor escribe sobre tu
experiencia real
For some reason I feel more alive
reason at night
72
razn Por alguna razn me siento ms
vivo por la noche
Whoever wins the race will
receive receive the prize
73
recibir Quien sea que gane la carrera
recibir el premio
Could you reduce the price a
reduce little?
74
reducir Podras reducir un poco el
precio?
relation What's your relation with him?
75
relacin Qu relacin tienes con l?
The teacher made me repeat the
repeat sentence
76
repetir El profesor me hizo repetir la
oracin
I'd like a hotel reservation
reservation
77 Quisiera hacer una reservacin
reservacin
en el hotel
I found that restaurant by
restaurant accident
78
restaurante Encontr ese restaurante por
accidente
What's your favorite romantic
romantic
79 movie?
romntico
Cul es tu pelcula romntica
preferida?
rose There is no rose without a thorn
80
rosa No hay rosas sin espinas
This is the route indicated in the
route map
81
ruta Esta es la ruta indicada por el
mapa
Life is not an exact science, it is
science an art
82
ciencia La vida no es una ciencia exacta,
es un arte
Your secret will be safe with me
secret
83 Tu secreto estar a salvo
secreto
conmigo
The hair style of the Beatles
sensation created a sensation
84
sensacin El corte de pelo de los Beatles
caus sensacin
silence The captain commanded silence
85
silencio El capitn orden silencio
We have lobsters only on special
special occasions
86
especial Nosotros comemos langosta solo
en ocasiones especiales
The structure of the brain is
structure complicated
87
estructura La estructura del cerebro es
complicada
88 telephone I forget your telephone number
telfono Olvid tu nmero de telfono
terrible This is a terrible climate
89
terrible Hay un clima terrible
At this hour, there is incredible
traffic traffic
90
trfico A esta hora, hay un trfico
increble
These three countries were
united united into one
91
unido Los tres pases se unieron para
formar un solo pas
I have an urgent matter to
urgent
92 attend to
urgente
Tengo algo urgente que atender
The meeting ended earlier than
usual usual
93
usual La reunin termin antes de lo
usual
vacation The vacation is over now
94
vacacin La vacacin termina ahora
verb Can you conjugate this verb?
95
verbo Puedes conjugar este verbo?
We should not resort to violence
violence
96 No debemos recurrir a la
violencia
violencia
There was a violent storm at sea
violent
97 Hubo una tormenta violenta en
violento
el mar
This year I am going to visit
visit
98 Madrid
visitar
Este ao voy a visitar Madrid
The victory made him a hero
victory
99 La victoria le convirti en un
victoria
hroe
Reading helps you build up your
vocabulary vocabulary
100
vocabulario La lectura es til para
incrementar el vocabulario

WORD CLASSES)
All words belong to categories called word classes (or
parts of speech) according to the part they play in a
sentence. The main word classes in English are:

Noun
Verb
Adjective
Adverb
Pronoun
Preposition
Conjunction
Determiner
Exclamation

INTENSIVE READING
Intensive reading involves learners reading in detail
with specific learning aims and tasks. It can be
compared with extensive reading, which involves
learners reading texts for enjoyment and to develop
general reading skills.

Example
The learners read a short text and put events from it
into chronological order.

In the classroom
Intensive reading activities include skimming a text for
specific information to answer true or false
statements or filling gaps in a summary, scanning a
text to match headings to paragraphs, and scanning
jumbled paragraphs and then reading them carefully
to put them into the correct order.

CRITICAL READING

It means engaging in what you read by asking yourself


questions such as, what is the author trying to say?
or what is the main argument being presented?

Critical reading involves presenting a reasoned


argument that evaluates and analyses what you have
read. Being critical, therefore - in an academic sense -
means advancing your understanding, not dismissing
and therefore closing off learning.

To read critically is to exercise your judgement about


what you are reading that is, not taking anything
you read at face value. When reading academic
material you will be faced with the authors
interpretation and opinion. Different authors will,
naturally, have different slants. You should always
examine what you are reading critically and look for
limitations, omissions, inconsistencies, oversights and
arguments against what you are reading. In academic
circles, whilst you are a student, you will be expected
to understand different viewpoints and make your
own judgements based on what you have read.

Critical reading goes further than just being satisfied


with what a text says, it also involves reflecting on
what the text describes, and analysing what the text
actually means, in the context of your studies.

As a critical reader you should reflect on:


What the text says: after critically reading a
piece you should be able to take notes,
paraphrasing - in your own words - the key
points.
What the text describes: you should be confident
that you have understood the text sufficiently to
be able to use your own examples and compare
and contrast with other writing on the subject in
hand.
Interpretation of the text: this means that you
should be able to fully analyse the text and state
a meaning for the text as a whole.

Critical reading means being able to reflect on what a


text says, what it describes and what it means by
scrutinising the style and structure of the writing, the
language used as well as the content.
Following SQ3R

SQ3R is a well-known strategy for reading. SQ3R can


be applied to a whole range of reading purposes as it
is flexible and takes into account the need to change
reading speeds.

SQ3R is an acronym and stands for:

Survey
Question
Read
Recall
Review
Survey

This relates to speed-reading, scanning and skimming


the text. At this initial stage you will be attempting to
gain the general gist of the material in question.

Question

It is important that, before you begin to read, you


have a question or set of questions that will guide you
- why am I reading this? When you have a purpose to
your reading you want to learn and retain certain
information. Having questions changes reading from
a passive to an active pursuit. Examples of possible
questions include:

What do I already know about this subject?


How does this chapter relate to the assignment
question?
How can I relate what I read to my own
experiences?

Read

Now you will be ready for the main activity of


reading. This involves careful consideration of the
meaning of what the author is trying to convey and
involves being critical as well as active.

Recall

Regardless of how interesting an article or chapter is,


unless you make a concerted effort to recall what you
have just read, you will forget a lot of the important
points. Recalling from time to time allows you to
focus upon the main points which in turn aids
concentration. Recalling gives you the chance to think
about and assimilate what you have just read,
keeping you active. A significant element in being
active is to write down, in your own words, the key
points.

Review

The final step is to review the material that you have


recalled in your notes. Did you understand the main
principles of the argument? Did you identify all the
main points? Are there any gaps? Do not take for
granted that you have recalled everything you need
correctly review the text again to make sure and
clarify.