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INTERNATIONAL

ADVANCED LEVEL
Law

SPECIFICATION
Pearson Edexcel International Advanced Level in Law (YLA1)
For first teaching in September 2015
First examination June 2017
Issue 1
INTERNATIONAL
ADVANCED LEVEL
Law

SPECIFICATION
Pearson Edexcel International Advanced Level in Law (YLA1)

For first teaching in September 2015

First examination June 2017


Acknowledgements
This specification has been produced by Pearson on the basis of consultation with teachers,
examiners, consultants and other interested parties. Pearson would like to thank all those
who contributed their time and expertise to the specifications development.

References to third party material made in this specification are made in good faith. Pearson
does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may
be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks,
journals, magazines and other publications and websites.)

All information in this specification is correct at time of going to publication.

ISBN 978 1 446 91478 6


All the material in this publication is copyright
Pearson Education Limited 2015
About this specification
The Pearson Edexcel International Advanced Level in Law is designed for use in schools and
colleges outside the United Kingdom. It is part of a suite of International Advanced Level
qualifications offered by Pearson.
This qualification has been approved by Pearson Education Limited as meeting the criteria
for Pearsons Self-Regulated Framework.
Structure: two sections comprising IAL papers.
Content: updated, engaging and relevant to international customers using English law
terminology.
Assessment: 100% external assessment, to be taken in June.
Approach: designed using Pearsons Efficacy Framework, developed in line with world-class
principles.
Students who successfully study for this qualification will have a good knowledge and
understanding of the principles, concepts and techniques of law. This qualification lays a
secure foundation for further study. In addition, it provides a worthwhile course for students
who will end their study at the International Advanced Level stage.

Specification updates

This specification is valid for the Pearson Edexcel International Advanced Level examination
from 2015. If there are any significant changes to the specification Pearson will write to
centres to let them know. Changes will also be posted on our website.
For more information please visit: qualifications.pearson.com/en/qualifications/edexcel-
international-advanced-levels/law.html

Using this specification

This specification has been designed to give guidance to teachers and encourage effective
delivery of the qualification. The following information will help you get the most out of the
content and guidance.
Compulsory content: as a minimum, all the bullet points in the content must be taught.
The word including in paper content specifies the detail of what must be covered.
Depth and breadth of content: teachers should prepare students to respond to
assessment questions. Teachers should use the full range of content and all the assessment
objectives given in Specification Overview.

Abbreviations

International Advanced Level IAL


Qualification aims and objectives
The aims of the International Advanced Level in Law are to:
provide a sound understanding of the nature of law give an appreciation of the
role of law in society
demonstrate the importance of legal institutions and their relationship to other
institutions in society
provide a broad understanding of the various branches of law in order to give a
fuller picture of the role of law
provide knowledge of the sources of law, in particular statutes and cases, and of
how these are applied to the determination of disputes
develop an analytical and critical approach to the application of legal principles
consider the appropriateness of dealing with certain aspects of behaviour within
the law.
Contents

Specification at a glance 1
Assessment overview 1

Specification overview 3
Summary of assessment requirements 3
Assessment objectives and weightings 3
Relationship of assessment objectives to papers 3

Law content 5
Course structure 6
Paper 1: Underlying Principles of Law and the English Legal
System 7
Paper 2: The Law in Action 11

Assessment and additional information 17


Assessment objectives 17
Entering candidates for the examinations for this qualification 17
Resitting of papers 17
Awarding and reporting 17
Performance descriptions 17
Qualification grading 18
Language of assessment 18
Additional information 19
Student recruitment 19
Malpractice 19
Access arrangements and special requirements 19
Equality Act 2010 19
Prior learning and progression 19

Support, training and resources 20


Support 20
Training 20
Resources 20
Specifications, Sample Assessment Materials and Teacher
Support Materials 21
Appendices 23
Appendix 1: Performance descriptions 25
Appendix 2: Codes 27
Appendix 3: Command words used in examinations 29
Specification at a glance

Assessment overview
Paper 1: Underlying Principles of Law and the English *Paper code YLA1/01
Legal System
Externally assessed 50% of the total IAL
raw marks
Availability: June
First assessment: June 2017
Content summary
The nature and purpose of law.
Legal theories are introduced which help develop an understanding of the role, function
and benefits of law in society.
Concepts of justice and morality are compared with law both in England and elsewhere.
Parliamentary and judicial law making.
How legal disputes are resolved by a range of people involved in that process.
The effectiveness, impact and costs of the law.
Assessment
100 marks
3 hours
Question 1: 20 marks closed, short to medium response questions
Question 2: 20 marks closed, short to medium response questions
Question 3: 20-mark, multi-part, problem-solving questions
Question 4: 20-mark, multi-part, problem-solving questions
Question 5: 20-mark, problem-solving question

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Paper 2: The Law in Action * Paper code YLA1/02
Externally assessed 50% of the total IAL
raw marks
Availability: June
First assessment: June 2017
Content summary
The overlap between civil and criminal outcomes from the same event.
Separate legal consequences of activities.
The application of legal principles.
Outcomes in dispute resolution in decided cases and statutes.
The contrast in the use of law is explored through different contexts.
Assessment
100 marks
3 hours
Question 1: 20 marks closed, short to medium response questions
Question 2: 20 marks closed, short to medium response questions
Question 3: 20-mark, multi-part, problem-solving questions
Question 4: 20-mark, multi-part, problem-solving questions
Question 5: 20-mark, problem-solving question

* See Appendix 2 for a description of this code and all other codes relevant to this
qualification.

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Specification overview

Summary of assessment requirements


Paper number and Level Assessment information Number of
paper title raw marks
allocated
in the
paper
Paper 1: Underlying IA2 100 marks 100
Principles of Law and the
English Legal System 3 hours

Paper 2: The Law in IA2 100 marks 100


Action
3 hours

Assessment objectives and weightings


Students must: % in IAL
AO1 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of legal terms,
25
concepts, cases, statutes and theories
AO2 Apply appropriate knowledge and understanding of legal rules and
25
principles to a situation
AO3 Analyse legal problems, showing an understanding of how the law
25
might resolve disputes
AO4 Evaluate how the law and legal theories are applied in context,
25
using areas of law studied in a coherent and logical manner

Relationship of assessment objectives to papers


Paper number Assessment objective
AO1 AO2 AO3 AO4
Paper 1 1015% 1015% 1015% 1015%
Paper 2 1015% 1015% 1015% 1015%
Total for International
25% 25% 25% 25%
Advanced Level

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Law content

Paper 1: Underlying principles of Law and the English Legal System 7


Paper 2: The Law in Action 11

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Course structure
The Pearson Edexcel International Advanced Level in Law comprises two papers.
Students wishing to take the International Advanced Level must complete both
papers.
The structure of this qualification allows teachers to construct a course of study
that must be taught and assessed as a linear course that is assessed in its entirety
at the end.

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Paper 1: Underlying Principles of Law and the
English Legal System

IAL compulsory paper

Externally assessed

Paper description
In this paper, students will learn about the nature and purpose of
law. Legal theories are introduced which help develop an
About this understanding of the role, function and benefits of law in society.
paper In particular, concepts of justice and morality are compared with
law both in England and elsewhere.
The theoretical background is explored through the ideas of
parliamentary and judicial law making and how legal disputes are
resolved by a range of people involved in that process.
The role that law plays in society is evaluated through its
effectiveness, the impact on participants and its costs.

Assessment information

Examination length: 3 hours


Total for paper: 100 marks

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Subject content What students need to learn:
1.1 The nature, The distinction between rules and law
purpose of and
1.1.1 Certainty
liability in law
1.1.2 Enforcement
1.1.3 Sanctioned by the state
The role, function and benefits of law in society
1.1.4 Rights, duties, privileges, liabilities and legal
personality
1.1.5 Liability and remedies in civil law
1.1.6 Liability and sanctions in criminal law
1.1.7 Relationship between civil and criminal law sanctions
1.1.8 Theories of punishment: revenge, retribution,
rehabilitation, reparation, restoration, denunciation,
deterrence
Legal theories of law and justice
1.1.9 Positivism
1.1.10 Natural law
1.1.11 Utilitarianism
The relationship between law and morality
1.1.12 The Hart/Devlin debate
1.1.13 Public and private morality
1.1.14 The legal interpretation of morality

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Subject content What students need to learn:
1.2 The sources of Legislation
English law, its
1.2.1 Creation of an Act of Parliament
enforcement and
administration 1.2.2 The influences on law reform in developing English law:
political parties
pressure groups
law reform agencies
judges
media
1.2.3 Judicial interpretation of statutes
Delegated legislation
1.2.4 Types of delegated legislation
1.2.5 Control of delegated legislation:
judicial
parliamentary
1.2.6 Advantages and disadvantages of delegated legislation
Judicial law making
1.2.7 The doctrine of precedent in the court hierarchy
1.2.8 The role of equity in developing remedies in
contract law
1.2.9 Advantages and disadvantages of judicial law making
The impact of EU law and its institutions on English law
1.2.10 Directives
1.2.11 Regulations
1.2.12 Decisions of the European Court of Justice and the role
of the European Commission
Methods of civil dispute resolution
1.2.13 The courts
1.2.14 Public tribunals
1.2.15 Arbitration
1.2.16 Conciliation
1.2.17 Mediation
1.2.18 Negotiation
1.2.19 Ombudsman

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Subject content What students need to learn:
1.2 Continued Role and selection of people in law
1.2.20 Judges
1.2.21 The legal profession
1.2.22 Lay people in the law:
magistrates
jurors
tribunal members
mediators
conciliators
ombudsman
arbitrators
The costs of going to law
1.2.23 The cost of taking legal action:
court costs
legal representation costs
awarding of costs against unsuccessful party
hidden costs of loss of reputation
1.2.24 Funding of going to law:
insurance
state funding
Conditional fees
trade union membership
Citizens Advice Bureau
pro bono

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Paper 2: The Law in Action

IAL compulsory paper

Externally assessed

Paper description
In this paper, students will explore, in depth, specific areas of
substantive law. The overlap between civil and criminal outcomes
About this from the same event will be recognised, as will the separate legal
paper consequences of activities.
The theoretical background to aspects of civil and criminal law and
human rights are developed through the application of the legal
principles. The use of decided cases and statutes allows students
to explore potential outcomes in dispute resolution. The contrast in
the use of law is explored through different contexts.

Assessment information

Examination length: 3 hours


Total for paper: 100 marks

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Subject content What students need to learn:
2.1 The market The law of contract
2.1.1 Formation of contract:
offer
acceptance
consideration
legal intention
capacity
2.1.2 Terms in a contract:
express
implied
condition
warranty
implied terms in the Sale of Goods Act 1979 (as
amended)
implied terms in the Supply of Goods and
Services Act 1982 (as amended)
exclusion clauses
2.1.3 Validity of contracts:
misrepresentation
mistake
discharge of contract
performance
agreement
breach
frustration
2.1.4 Privity of contract:
the privity rule
Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 (as
amended)

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Subject content What students need to learn:
Liability in negligence as an alternative to contract
2.1.5 Negligence:
duty of care
breach of the duty of care
damage resulting from breach of duty of care
damages as a remedy
2.1.6 Consumer Protection Act 1987:
products
defects
defences
injury
2.1.7 Remedies for the market:
damages
injunctions

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Subject content What students need to learn:
2.2 The criminal The nature of criminal liability
offender
2.2.1 actus reus:
causation
liability for omissions
2.2.2 mens rea:
intention
recklessness
2.2.3 Strict liability
Property offences:
2.2.4 theft
2.2.5 burglary
2.2.6 robbery
2.2.7 blackmail
2.2.8 Fraud Act 2006, Sections 2 and 11 (as amended)
2.2.9 making off without payment
2.2.10 criminal damage
General defences:
2.2.11 duress
2.2.12 intoxication
Sanctions and sentencing:
2.2.13 custodial
2.2.14 community
2.2.15 financial
2.2.16 discharge

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Subject content What students need to learn:
2.3 The individual Freedom of speech common law rights
2.3.1 Defamation:
libel
slander
defences and remedies
Human Rights Act 1998 (as amended)
2.3.2 Protection under the Human Rights Act 1998 (as
amended) with respect to freedom of speech and
assembly
2.3.3 Appeals to the European Court of Human Rights
2.3.4 Effect on the government of successful appeals to
the European Court of Human Rights
Right to privacy
2.3.5 Legal actions to protect privacy and confidentiality
2.3.6 Freedom of information:
access to official, government and personal
records
data protection
Occupiers liability:
2.3.7 Occupiers Liability Act 1957 (as amended)
2.3.8 Occupiers Liability Act 1984 (as amended)
2.3.9 Trespass to land
2.3.10 Remedies for the individual

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Assessment and additional information

Assessment objectives
Students must: % in IAL
AO1 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of legal terms,
25
concepts, cases, statutes and theories
AO2 Apply appropriate knowledge and understanding of legal rules and
25
principles to a situation
AO3 Analyse legal problems, showing an understanding of how the law
25
might resolve disputes
AO4 Evaluate how the law and legal theories are applied in context,
25
using areas of law studied in a coherent and logical manner

Entering candidates for the examinations for this qualification

Details of how to enter candidates for the examinations for this qualification can be
found in the International Information Manual, copies of which are sent to all
examinations officers. The information can also be found at
qualifications.pearson.com/en/qualifications/edexcel-international-advanced-
levels/law.html

Resitting of papers

Students must resit both papers if they resit the qualification.


Individual paper resits are not permitted.

Awarding and reporting

The International Advanced Level will be graded on a six-point scale A* to E.


Individual paper results will be reported.
A pass in an International Advanced Level subject is indicated by one of the six
grades A*, A, B, C, D, E of which grade A* is the highest and grade E the lowest. To
be awarded an A* students will need to achieve an A on the full International
Advanced Level qualification and an A* aggregate of the papers. Students whose
level of achievement is below the minimum judged by Pearson to be of sufficient
standard to be recorded on a certificate will receive an unclassified U result.

Performance descriptions

Performance descriptions give the minimum acceptable level for a grade. See
Appendix 1 for the performance descriptions for this subject.

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Qualification grading

Grade boundary marks for each component will be determined judgementally for the
key boundaries:
E/U
A/B
After key grade boundaries for each component have been set, provisional boundaries
for the qualification as a whole will be established for the key judgemental grades.
The boundary mark for each component is scaled as necessary to reflect the
weighting for that component as detailed in the specification. The other grade
boundaries are determined arithmetically. The grade B/C, C/D and D/E boundary
marks are calculated by dividing the mark interval between the A/B and E/U
boundaries by four.
The A* boundary is set as follows:
The A* boundary is set the same number of marks above the A boundary as the B
boundary is below the A boundary. If the mark interval between the A/B boundary
and the maximum mark is less than or equal to twice the mark interval between A/B
and B/C, then the A* boundary is set halfway between the A/B boundary and the
maximum mark, rounded down where necessary to the nearest whole number (e.g.
78.5 is rounded to 78)

Language of assessment

Assessment of this specification will be available in English only. Assessment


materials will be published in English only and all work submitted for examination
must be produced in English.

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Additional information

Student recruitment

Pearsons access policy concerning recruitment to our qualifications is that:


they must be available to anyone who is capable of reaching the required standard
they must be free from barriers that restrict access and progression
equal opportunities exist for all students.

Malpractice

For up-to-date information on malpractice, please refer to the latest Joint Council for
Qualifications (JCQ) Suspected Malpractice in Examinations and Assessments:
Policies and Procedures document, available on the JCQ website: www.jcq.org.uk

Access arrangements and special requirements

Pearsons policy on access arrangements and special considerations for GCE, GCSE,
IAL and Entry Level is designed to ensure equal access to qualifications for all
students (in compliance with the Equality Act 2010) without compromising the
assessment of skills, knowledge, understanding or competence.
Please see the JCQ website (www.jcq.org.uk) for their policy on access
arrangements, reasonable adjustments and special considerations.
Please see our website (qualifications.pearson.com) for:
the forms to submit for requests for access arrangements and special
considerations
dates for submissions of the forms.

Equality Act 2010

Please see our website (qualifications.pearson.com) for information on the Equality


Act 2010.

Prior learning and progression

Prior learning
There are no prior learning or other requirements for this qualification.
Progression
This qualification supports progression from GCE 2015 onto further education,
training or employment.

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Support, training and resources

Support
Pearson aims to provide the most comprehensive support for our qualifications. Here are
just a few of the support services we offer:
Subject Advisor subject experts are on hand to offer their expertise to answer any
questions you may have on delivering the qualification and assessment.
Subject Page written by our law advisors, the subject pages keep you up to date with
the latest information on your subject.
Subject Communities exchange views and share information about your subject with
other teachers.
Training see Training below for full details.
For full details of all the teacher and student support provided by Pearson to help you deliver
our qualifications, please visit qualifications.pearson.com/en/qualifications/edexcel-
international-advanced-levels/law.htm

Training
Our programme of professional development and training courses, covering various aspects
of the specification and examinations, are arranged each year on a regional basis. Pearson
training is designed to fit you, with an option of face-to-face, online or customised training
so you can choose where, when and how you want to be trained.
Face-to-face training
Our programmes of face-to-face training have been designed to help anyone who is
interested in, or currently teaching, a Pearson Edexcel qualification. We run a schedule of
events throughout the academic year to support you and help you to deliver our
qualifications.
Online training
Online training is available for international centres who are interested in, or currently
delivering our qualifications. This delivery method helps us run training courses more
frequently to a wider audience.
To find out more information or to book a place please visit:
qualifications.pearson.com/en/support/training-from-pearson-uk.html
Alternatively, email internationaltfp@pearson.com or telephone +44 (0) 44 844 576 0025

Resources
Pearson is committed to ensuring that teachers and students have a choice of resources to
support their teaching and study.
To search for Pearson GCE resources, please visit www.pearsonschools.co.uk
To search for endorsed resources from other publishers, please visit:
qualifications.pearson.com/en/support/published-resources.html

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Specifications, Sample Assessment Materials and
Teacher Support Materials
Specifications, Sample Assessment Materials (SAMs) and Teacher Support Materials (TSMs)
can be downloaded from the International Advanced Level subject pages.
To find a complete list of supporting documents, including the specification, SAMs and TSMs,
please visit qualifications.pearson.com/en/qualifications/edexcel-international-advanced-
levels/law.html

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Appendices

Appendix 1: Performance descriptions 25


Appendix 2: Codes 27
Appendix 3: Command words used in examinations 29

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Appendix 1: Performance descriptions
Performance descriptions describe the outcomes of learning and levels of attainment likely to
be demonstrated by a representative candidate performing at the A/B and E/U boundaries
for IAL.
In practice, most candidates will show uneven profiles across the attainments listed, with
strengths in some areas compensating in the award process for weaknesses or omissions
elsewhere. Performance descriptions illustrate expectations at the A/B and E/U boundaries of
the IAL as a whole; they have not been written at paper level.
Grade A/B and E/U boundaries should be set using professional judgement. The judgement
should reflect the quality of candidates work, informed by the available technical and
statistical evidence. Performance descriptions are designed to help examiners in exercising
their professional judgement. They should be interpreted and applied in the context of
individual specifications and their associated papers. However, performance descriptions are
not designed to define the content of specifications and papers.

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Performance descriptions

Assessment objective 1 Assessment objective 2 Assessment objective 3 Assessment objective 4


Candidates will be able to: Candidates will be able to: Candidates will be able to: Candidates will be able to:
Assessment Demonstrate knowledge Apply appropriate Analyse legal problems, Evaluate how the law
objectives and understanding of knowledge and showing an and legal theories are
legal terms, concepts, understanding of legal understanding of how applied in context, using
cases, statutes and rules and principles to a the law might resolve areas of law studied in a
theories situation disputes coherent and logical
manner
A/B boundary Demonstrate both depth of Demonstrate application of Analyse legal problems Evaluate and make
performance knowledge and knowledge, understanding using coherent chains of informed recommendations
descriptors understanding of law. and legal rules. reasoning, showing full from the evidence by
understanding of how the assessing the current
law might resolve disputes. situations and its
alternatives. Clear
recommendations are
based on judgement of the
evidence.
E/U boundary Demonstrate knowledge Demonstrate sound Analyse legal problems. Evaluate and make
performance and understanding of some application of only limited Some chains of reasoning informed recommendations
descriptors elements of law. elements of knowledge, are presented. from the evidence by
understanding and legal Understanding of how the assessing current
rules. law might resolve disputes situations.
is incomplete. Recommendations are
made on limited evidence
and lack consideration of
alternatives available.

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Appendix 2: Codes
Type of code Use of code Code number
Paper codes Each paper is assigned a paper code. This Paper 1: YLA1/01
paper code is used as an entry code to indicate
Paper 2: YLA1/02
that a student wishes to take the assessment
for that paper. Centres will need to use the
entry codes only when entering students for
their examination.

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Appendix 3: Command words used in examinations

Command word Definition


Give/state Requires the recall of one or more piece of information.
Describe Painting a picture with words. Giving an account which
demonstrates the meaning of a legal term.
Explain Requires a linked justification/exemplification of a point.
Analyse Examine in detail. Break down into individual components
methodically. Identify relationships between separate elements.
Assess Weigh up factors and events that may apply and identify which
are the most important or relevant.
Evaluate Identify and analyse relevant areas of law, review information
and draw on evidence. Use understanding of the law to justify an
argument or apply to a scenario and come to a conclusion.

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