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LABORATORY MANUAL

San Jose State University

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. COURSE OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................ 1

B. PRE-LAB CALCULATIONS ................................................................................................ 2

C. DATA SHEETS ...................................................................................................................... 3

D. ACCURACY AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ..................................................................... 4

E. LABORATORY REPORT ..................................................................................................... 5

E.1. Grading ........................................................................................................................... 6

E.2. Report Organization ........................................................................................................ 6

E.2.1 Objectives of Experiment and Procedures .................................................................. 6

E.2.2 Theoretical Estimation of Experimental Results ........................................................ 6

E.2.3 Results of Experiment ................................................................................................. 7

E.2.4 Conclusions ................................................................................................................. 8

E.2.5 References ................................................................................................................... 8

E.3. Elements of a Good Laboratory Report .......................................................................... 8

E.3.1 Spelling and Grammar ................................................................................................ 8

E.3.2 Tables .......................................................................................................................... 9

E.3.3 Graphs ......................................................................................................................... 9

E.3.4 Figures......................................................................................................................... 9

F. STRAIN GAUGES ............................................................................................................... 11

F.1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 11

F.2. Bonded Electrical Resistance Strain Gauge ...................................................................... 11

F.3. Principal Stresses and Strains from Strain Gauge Rosettes .............................................. 12

G. STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS................................................................................. 16

G.1. Hooke's law ................................................................................................................... 16

G.1.1 Uniaxial Stress Equations ......................................................................................... 16

G.1.2 Biaxial Stress Equations ........................................................................................... 16

H. Experimental Techniques...................................................................................................... 17

H.1. Pre-loads ....................................................................................................................... 17

H.2. Gathering data ............................................................................................................... 19

H.3. Teamwork ..................................................................................................................... 19

I. EXPERIMENT #1 ................................................................................................................ 20

J. EXPERIMENT #2 ................................................................................................................ 25

K. EXPERIMENT #3 ................................................................................................................ 29

L. EXPERIMENT #4 ................................................................................................................ 31

M. EXPERIMENT # 5 ............................................................................................................... 32

N. EXPERIMENT #6 ................................................................................................................ 37

A. COURSE OBJECTIVES

Student learning outcomes: The student will demonstrate the ability to:

a) Identify when theory applies and when theory is limited by simplifying assumptions

b) Identify reasons why actual measurements will differ from theoretical calculations

Student learning outcomes: The student will demonstrate the ability to:

a) Perform pre-laboratory calculations to estimate experimental parameters, outcomes and

limits

b) Develop an organized and meaningful data sheet

c) Use software tools to reduce and analyze data

d) Organize a team to share responsibilities for operating equipment and collecting data

Student learning outcomes: The student will demonstrate the ability to:

a) Use the laboratory equipment correctly and safely to perform all experiments

Student learning outcomes: The student will demonstrate the ability to:

a) Write experimental objectives and procedures

b) Present results in a organized and clear manner

c) Draw graphs and figures to summarize key findings

d) Put together a complete report including tables of contents, references and appendices

1

B. PRE-LAB CALCULATIONS

For each experiment discussed in this Manual, a set of calculations that must be completed and

questions that must be answered in order to prepare for the collection of data in the lab.

Examples of the types of calculations you will make include:

Estimation or prediction of experimental results.

Determination of simple relationships between independent and dependent variables.

A data sheet, as described in the next section of this manual.

Your laboratory preparation work will be completed and turned in during the session that meets

prior to the session when actual lab is performed. This insures that you are prepared so that

accurate and complete data is collected and that a high-quality report can be written. Incomplete

or inadequate laboratory work will result in a similarly inadequate report.

The pre-lab calculations may vary from semester to semester so do your own work.

The instructor may require the pre-lab to be completed in class the week before the actual lab

occurs.

application so that changes can easily be made. This can save time and effort if the experimental

setup is found to differ from the description in this manual.

2

C. DATA SHEETS

A prepared paper or spreadsheet template data sheet is required as part of each pre-lab. A copy of

you paper data sheet or a printout of the spreadsheet template must be handed in with the pre-lab.

It is essential that you put some thought into how you plan to collect data before you come to the

laboratory session. You must design it carefully in order to help you collect complete and

accurate data. Remember that you are very unlikely to write a good report with bad or

incomplete data. Items to consider:

Your data sheet should include a sketch of your test setup including gauge location and

appropriate dimensions so that you can check that the experiment is set up correctly before

you start. (usually you can get this sketch from the Laboratory Manual)

How many columns of data will you need? You will generally need to have two columns for

each data variable and sometimes three so that scale factor and/or zero offset calculations can

be made.

Each column should be labeled so that you can remember where the data came from and

what it relates to.

The units of the data you are taking should be in your column labels.

How many rows will you need? The rows will need labels too.

Is there a location to put comments that relate to the test setup, procedures or the collection of

data?

If you plan to use a spreadsheet and enter data directly into a computer, you need to design the

spreadsheet with the same considerations as above. You may want to design different sheets for

different parts of the experiment.

A sample data sheet is included in the section of this manual for laboratory #1.

3

D. ACCURACY AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES

The number of significant digits displayed is an indicator of the accuracy of a number. With

digital calculator displays and computer spreadsheets, it is easy to overstate the accuracy of a

number. When taking a measurement, the last reliable digit relative to the decimal point

determines the precision of your measurement. Data should not be recorded more precisely than

warranted. For example, assume you are reading load off the analog dial where there are tick-

marks every 10 pounds. If the needle is between the 50 and the 60 pound tick mark you could

guess that the load is 54 pounds, but the 4 is not very reliable. Certainly you would not want to

write down 54.3 pounds. It is somewhat harder to determine a reliable measure with the digital

machines, and one would have to read the testing machine manual to determine that reliability

for each range, but normally two or three significant digits is all that can be expected for the

equipment used in this course.

Finally when doing calculations, the answer cannot be more precise than the data and constants

you begin with. For example, if you know that the dimensions of a rectangular specimen are

25.5 mm (3 significant figures) by 30.01 mm (4 significant figures), the area of the specimen

would be

You may at times want to carry more significant digits while you are calculating to avoid round-

off and truncation error, but your final answer should not be more precise than the original data.

Little if any, of the data collected in this course will be accurate to 2%. Material properties are

seldom known to more than 2-digit accuracy. This is consistent with most work in the "real

world" of engineering design and analysis. In some areas of engineering work (earthquakes and

machine vibration are good examples) the actual forces a structures are subjected to are not

known to the designer with much reliability. Some of the data collected in this course will be

only be two-significant figure accuracy and the calculated results should properly represent this

fact.

Another example:

section. The specimen is loaded in a machine that reports applied loads to the nearest 10 pounds

to a displayed load of 5930 pounds. The stress in the specimen is calculated:

= P / A = 59301.00 * 0.623

The calculator displays the solution as 9518.4591. But the data (measurements of dimensions

and load) is only accurate to three significant figures. So, the solution should be reported as:

9520 psi

4

E. LABORATORY REPORT

The format and requirements for your laboratory reports will be set forth by your laboratory

section instructor and in the descriptions of each laboratory provided in this manual, but some

general guidelines are included below.

The primary objective of a lab report is to convey to the client (general public, other

engineers, the professor, etc.) the information that the experimenter has collected. The

report should be organized so that someone who is not familiar with the particular

experiment or test set-up can understand. Some important things to include are:

what procedures were followed,

what data was collected,

what analysis was completed

which conclusions were made

The fundamental purpose of your report is to clearly demonstrate to the instructor that you fully

understand the theories, methods, variable, accuracy, data and analysis involved in the particular

lab.

In CE 113, students will work in teams to complete lab reports and submit them to the instructor

for grading. It is the students responsibility to convey their understanding of the experiment

through clear text, calculations, graphs, figures, and tables.

Microsoft Word can insert equations if the equation editor is installed. If it has not been

installed on your computer, search in help for troubleshoot equation editor. To insert an

equation, click Insert then Object and select Microsoft Equation. You can also customize

your toolbar so that an Equation Editor button is available for easy use.

Microsoft Excel spreadsheets can also be inserted into a document by placing the curser where

you want the spreadsheet and then clicking the Inset Microsoft Excel Worksheet button on the

standard toolbar.

Microsoft Excel charts can also be inserted into a document simply by copy and paste.

5

E.1. Grading

Each instructor will have individual instructions about how he/she plans to assign grades to lab

reports. However, in all cases, effectiveness of communication will be a major factor in

determining the report grade. Effectiveness of communication will include

Spelling

Grammar

Complete samples of calculations

Labeling of graphs, figures and tables

Proper style for citing references

All material, except appendices, must be developed using a computer unless otherwise

authorized by your instructor. It is recommended that sample hand calculations be written using

a computer, but engineering block lettering is acceptable.

E.2. Report Organization (see individual labs within this manual for summaries)

The Objectives of the Experiment and the Procedures may be adapted from the objectives stated

in this Manual, be sure the Manual is cited in the text and listed in the References section of your

report. Procedures should explain the test configuration as well as the steps to follow to complete

the experiment. Use of bullets or numbers for this section is acceptable and often makes for

clearer, more concise organization. Be sure and clearly describe if and how your procedure or the

setup varied from that provided in this manual.

Each lab has a theoretical component, usually summarized and performed as part of the Pre-lab

assignment. The theory should be clearly explained, including the key components of the theory,

equations used, and any assumptions that are used. You should include samples of all

calculations and then a table to summarize estimates of key experimental results completed

during the pre-lab assignment. For example a table such as this may be useful:

Gauge Load (lbs.) Estimated Strain

Number (in/in)

1 P 0.02P

2 P 0.04P

3 P -0.03P

Equations should be written using appropriate software (such as Microsoft Equation 3.0, which

is an installation option for Microsoft Word). Simple equations may be developed using a

6

traditional keyboard. All equations should be indented and numbered. Equation numbers should

occur at the same tab stop for all equations. As an example:

2

1

xdx (Eq. 1)

The experimental measurements should be summarized and explained in this section. This

section usually will not include the raw data, since that will be reserved for Appendix A. Often

you will want to include tables and plots to show the summarized results. Be very careful to

present numerical results with appropriately accurate significant figures. In charts and graphs,

you should not curve-fit a line through the data points since errors (which are always present)

cause the individual data points to be offset from the actual phenomena being measured. A chart

that presents a theoretical relationship may be presented by a continuous line if the theory results

in a continuous equation. An example of a complete table is shown here:

Actual Load Strain Stress Predicted Strain

(lbs.) (inch/inch) (psi) inch/inch)

(

(Measured) (Measured) (Calculated)

0 0 0 0

1020 35 6,700 32

2200 72 13,700 69

3350 106 20,200 105

7000

6000

5000

E xp e rim e n ta l

stress (psi)

4000 D a ta

3000 C a lc u la ted

S tre s s -S tra in

2000 C a lc ula ted s lo p e R e la tio n sh ip

E = 2 4 .9 x 1 0 6 psi

1000

0

0 100 200 300

-6

s tra in (1 0 in c h /inc h )

on January 1, 2000 the curve was calculated using the least squares function in

Excel 97. Also see section H.2

7

Note: If possible, you should present your data and predictions as plots for comparison. All

plots for comparison should be to the same scale. Present numerical comparisons in

tables.

E.2.4 Conclusions

This section is for the student to discuss whether the objectives (found in this Manual) of the

experiment were achieved and to make observations and draw conclusions based on the

comparisons of the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. Here are a few examples

of points that could be included:

if the data and the theoretical predictions are not the same, a discussion of reasons why this

may have happened;

whether the theoretical model is appropriate for this real world specimen;

whether the test procedure is an appropriate method of validating the theory;

difficulties that occurred in completing the experiment or data analysis.

In addition, the conclusions should include at least one technical aspect of the experiment that

the author understands clearly. This technical item could be related to the theory, or to the

assumptions that were made that would prevent the experiment from matching theory, or some

functional aspect of the instrumentation, etc. If the report is a group report, the conclusions

should contain one item that is clearly understood by each student in the group.

E.2.5 References

Any material, that is not written or derived by the lab report authors, needs to be referenced. The

purpose of the citation is to provide the reader with the information necessary to find the item in

the library or on the Internet.

The format for citing references should be one that is generally accepted by the engineering

profession. The web site http://pubs.asce.org/authors/book/generalresources/references.htm

gives examples of the format ASCE requires authors to use for citing many different types of

books, journal articles, reports and reference documents.

It is highly recommended the students use the spell checker and grammar checker that come with

most word processing software. However, for reasons stated below, you need to read the

laboratory report carefully yourself and use the dictionary, your knowledge, grammar textbooks,

and your judgment in cases where the word processing software cannot properly correct your

text.

It is important to understand that the standard libraries that come with the word processing

software do not contain some of the words that we typically use in engineering applications and

8

you may have to teach these words to the software. Examples are the words: geotechnical,

uniaxial, deflectometer, Hookes Law, or Poissons ratio. Also, the spell checker will not correct

the spelling of a word if it is spelled correctly but is used incorrectly (e.g. principal stress, not

principle stress). Furthermore, most grammar checkers try to correct sentences that use the

passive voice (e.g. The specimen was loaded, versus I loaded the specimen). However, in

engineering, the passive voice is quite acceptable and sometimes even encouraged.

E.3.2 Tables

Tables must include a table number, a title above the table, and labels at the top of each column

that completely describe the contents of the column. In some cases you may also need labels for

rows or subsections of the table. All labels should include units where appropriate. Since tables

must be readable, you should not use a font smaller than 10 point. Tables may be printed in

portrait or landscape mode.

E.3.3 Graphs

It is likely that you will use Excel or Matlab for drawing graphs. It is very important that you

understand the assumptions being made and limitations of the software when you draw a graph.

For example you should know the difference between a scatter graph and a line graph in Excel.

(Note: you dont want to use the line graphs for plots you need for this class).

In general data should be shown on graphs as markers without connecting lines. Theoretical

predictions, or estimates of relationships developed from analysis of the data, should be shown as

lines without markers. Generally a graph should be at least one half of a page so that you can fit

all of the relevant information on it and still use a font that is 10 point or larger. A full page for

each graph is recommended.

Do not fit curves to your data unless the curve being fitted is part of the theory being tested. If

there is a theory being tested, the theory will provide an appropriate equation.

Graphs must include a figure number with a caption that gives information about the data such as

experiment number and date collected, a title at the top of the graph, the axis names and units,

and an indication of which is the experimental data. You may use a legend or you may label

points and lines. An example graph is shown in section E.3.3.

E.3.4 Figures

Figures are any types of graphics that serve to support your laboratory report. Drawings of the

test apparatus or the specimens, as well as graphs developed to display data are all figures.

Drawings of the test apparatus and specimens are a simple way to show dimensions, orientation,

and the loading configuration of each experiment. Figures of the test set up may be copied from

the laboratory manual if the manual is properly cited. Digital cameras are an excellent way to

acquire images to be used as figures in your report.

9

Figures must include a figure number and a caption below the figure. The caption should clearly

explain what is in the figure. If a figure is not drawn by the author, but instead taken from

another source, it must contain a citation of the reference.

10

F. STRAIN GAUGES

F.1. Introduction

Stress is not directly measurable with current technology. We can measure the load that we apply

to a specimen, but we cannot easily measure the load per unit area, stress, at any point on the

specimen. Instead, the experimental analysis of engineering stresses must be based on strains,

which can be used to calculate stresses. Using measured values of strain and knowledge of the

mechanical properties of the material such as the modulus of elasticity and Poissons ratio,

stresses can be calculated from the appropriate stress-strain relationship of the material.

There are many types of commercially available strain gauges used in experimental mechanics.

Examples are acoustical, capacitance, inductance, mechanical, optical, piezioresistive, resistance,

and semiconductor. The optical strain gauges come in two types, diffraction and interferometric.

Perhaps the most versatile and widely used gauge is the bonded electrical resistance strain gauge

which is the type of gauge attached to the test specimens in Experiments 1 and 2 in this course.

Experiment 5 uses a Berry Strain Gauge, which is a particular type of mechanical strain gauge.

The bonded electrical resistance strain gauge consists of a metallic strain-sensing element

encapsulated by a thin polyimide film that acts as an insulator attached to tabs for leadwire

connections. The sensing element is a grid of very thin metal alloy. The entire assembly can

then be bonded to the specimen so that the gauge moves in unison with the specimen. Figure F.1

shows a graphic of a uniaxial strain gauge. As the gauge is stretched, the thin wires elongate,

increasing the electrical resistance of the gauge in direct proportion to the strain. The

measurement of the change in electrical resistance, which is measured as a change in voltage in a

bridge type circuit, is converted to strain is by dividing by a gauge factor. Equation F.1 illustrates

this simple relationship.

Where: R = resistance

R = change in resistance

L = original length

L = change in length (L/L = strain)

The gauge factor is a property of the particular gauge being used

and is usually between 2.00 and 2.20

for measuring strain in the direction of the gridlines.

Courtesy of Measurements Group, Raleigh, NC.

11

There is a wide selection of grid configurations, sizes, and alloy compositions to accommodate

test conditions, including temperature extremes, dynamic or cyclic loading, etc. "Rosette"

configuration strain gauges have two or three sensing elements and are used to determine

principal strains and principal directions for general two dimensional plane stress problems.

Three element strain gauge rosettes will be used in Experiments 1 and 2.

Strain gauge resistance changes are very small, on the order of 10-3 to10-6 , due to micro

strains occurring in engineering materials when stressed. Conventional ohmmeters are not

capable of measuring resistances with enough precision to detect these small changes. Instead,

potentiometer circuits and Wheatstone bridge circuits are used to convert these very small

resistance changes to voltage signals that can be observed and recorded. The Wheatstone bridge

circuits used in the laboratory are shown below. The dummy gauge in Figure F.2b is used to

compensate for strain changes due to temperature only. The instruments in the laboratory are

calibrated periodically and include adjustments for the strain gauge sensitivity (resistance),

bridge balance (zero) and gauge factor. The instruments' readings are in proportion to strain.

(a) Typical Wheatstone bridge, (b) Circuit configuration to compensate for temperature change.

A short explanation of how the instruments in the laboratory work is as follows. In Figure F.2a,

the bridge is initially "balanced" so that R1R3 = R2R4 and the signal voltage Eo is zero. The

Active leg of the bridge (R1) is the strain gauge and the resistance of R1 varies as the structure is

loaded. If the resistance of R1 increases (tension), the signal voltage (Eo) increases in proportion

to the strain. The signal voltage is amplified and displayed.

Principal stresses cannot be directly determined from a strain rosette. Principal strains can be

calculated from the measurements taken from the strain rosette and then Hookes Law can be

used to convert principal strains to principal stresses. This section refers to homogeneous,

isotropic materials in the linear-elastic range:

A rectangular rosette has three gauges so that measurements of normal strain can be taken along

three axes the rosettes used in this course are Rectangular and have three gauges oriented 45

from each other. In the example that follows, the three axes of the rosette are numbered 1, 2, 3

counterclockwise and measure the strains 1, 2, and 3 Respectively. The whole rosette is

12

oriented at an arbitrary angle, p, measured from gauge number 1 with respect to the principal

axes of the strain on the specimen.

Figure F3: Labeling and orientation of gauges and axes for a rectangular rosette.

The angle p is measured counterclockwise with respect to 1.

In this course you will learn a graphical solution method to solve for the principal strains from

rectangular rosette data. The following equations can also be used to determine the principal

strains, p and q, and principal stresses, p and q, and the angle of orientation, p:

+ 3

p,q = 1

1

(1 2 )2 + (2 3 )2

2 2

E 1 + 3 2

p ,q =

2

(1 2 )2 + (2 3 )

2 1 1+

1 ( 3 ) (1 2 )

p ,q = tan 1 2

2 1 3

(Eqs. F-2)

if 1 >3 , p ,q = p ;

if 1 <3 , p,q = q ;

if 1 =3 and 2 <1 , p,q = p = 45;

if 1 =3 and 2 >1 , p ,q = p = 45;

if 1 =2 =3 , p ,q is indeterminate (equal biaxial strain )

13

Delta rosette (0 - 60 - 120)

Delta rosettes are not currently used in this course. Delta Rosettes can provide slightly better

accuracy in solving for the principal stresses than Rectangular Rosettes.

1 + 2 + 3

p,q =

2

(1 2 )2 + (2 3 ) + (1 3 )

2 2

3 3

E 1 + 2 + 3 2

p ,q =

2

(1 2 )2 + (2 3 ) + (1 3 )

2

3 1 1 +

1 3 (2 3 )

p ,q = tan 1

2 (

1 2 ) + (1 )

3

(Eqs. F-3)

if 1 > (1 / 2)(2 + 3 ), p ,q = p ;

if 1 < (1 / 2 )(2 + 3 ), p ,q = q ;

if 1 = (1 / 2)(2 + 3 ) and 2 <1 , p ,q = p = 45;

if 1 = (1 / 2 )(2 + 3 ) and 2 >1 , p ,q = p = 45;

if 1 =2 =3 , equal biaxial strain

and p,q is indeterminate

Tee Rosettes are not currently used in this course. When the directions of the principal axes are

known in advance, a two-element 90-degree (or "Tee") rosette can be used. However, the gauge

axes must be aligned to coincide with the principal axes. The directions of the principal axes can

sometimes be determined with sufficient accuracy from the shape of the test object and the mode

of loading.

14

These equations that can be used to determine the principal strains, p and q, and principal

stresses, p and q, from Tee Rosettes:

p =1

q =2

(Eqs. F-4)

E

p = ( + 2 )

2 1

1

E

q = 2

(2 + 1 )

1

Beer, F. P. and Johnston, E. R. (1992) Mechanics of Materials, Second Edition, Mc-Graw Hill,

Inc., New York, New York.

Gere, J. M. and S. P. Timoshenko, Mechanics of Materials, Third Edition, PWS-Kent Publishing

Company, Boston, 1990.

http://www.vishay.com/strain-gauges/knowledge-base-list, this web site has detailed information

about many aspects of electrical resistance strain gauges as well as the PhotoStress method for

visualizing strains.

15

G. STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS

G.1. Hooke's law

For homogeneous, isotropic materials in the linear-elastic strain range:

A uniaxial stress state exists where there is only one nonzero principal stress. The uniaxial stress-

strain equations below apply when the x-axis is in the direction of the nonzero principal stress:

x

x = x = E x

E

x y

y = x = E

E

xy = 0 xy = 0

A biaxial stress state exists where there are (only) two nonzero principal stresses and both xy

and xy equal zero in principal directions:

x y

x = x =

E

(x + v y )

E E 1 v2 Note that these equations simplify to the

y x uniaxial forms if y = 0 and x is the

y = y =

E

( y + v x )

E E 1 v 2

principle stress.

xy xy = G xy

xy =

G

Where:

= normal stress, psi

= normal strain, in/in [or m/m, etc.]

= Poisson's ratio, non-dimensional

= shear stress, psi

= shear strain, radians

G = modulus of rigidity (shear modulus), psi

E

Note : G =

2(1 + )

16

H. Experimental Techniques

H.1. Variables

Experimenters often identify variables relevant to their work by assigning them to three

categories; Independent Variables, Dependent Variables and Controlled Variables. The purpose

of the experiment is to investigate the relationship, if any, between the independent and

dependent variables. The controlled variables may influence the relationship being investigated

but are not allowed to vary during the course of the experiment.

As an example, a researcher might be interested in the relationship between temperature and the

tensile strength of a material. She would adjust the temperature of several samples and then test

them for strength. The independent variable is the one she controls, in this case the specimen

temperature. The dependent variable is the one she observes, the tensile strength. The

experimenter might suspect that the age of the material influences its tensile strength so all of the

samples tested are the same age. The age of the specimen is a controlled variable for this

experiment.

Independent Variables are changes that occur in an experiment that are manipulated

directly by the experimenter.

Dependent Variables are changes that occur due to independent variable changes.

Controlled Variables are anything else that might influence the dependent variables but

are kept constant by the experimenter.

H.2. Pre-loads

Pre-load is a term for a load applied to the specimen before the prescribed experimental

procedure begins. A pre-load is applied to eliminate any non-linearities that sometimes occur at

low loads. These non-linearities are generally due to mechanical problems such as miss-

alignment of the specimen, supports or loading fixture. As an example, imagine a prismatic beam

which is rectangular in cross section and is resting on two supports, one support near each end.

One support might be a knife-edge and the other might be a roller in the form of a cylinder. If

the knife-edge and the cylinder are not perfectly parallel, or if the beam has a slight twist, there

will not be full contact between the beam and its supports until sufficient load is applied to the

beam. The load required to settle the beam onto its supports is generally not considered in the

experimental analysis. By applying a pre-load before the experiment begins the effect can be

eliminated. Pre-loading may be required if a plot of your data indicates an anomalous

nonlinearity at low loads. Always record any pre-load applied as part of your data in case it

becomes an issue later on.

Example:

A set of load and deflection data is presented in the table below. As can be seen from the first

plot, the data does not begin at the plot origin. In the first step, the deflection data is zeroed to

17

the initial reading by subtracting that initial reading from subsequent readings. In the second plot,

it is apparent that the first data point is not representative of the rest of the data set which is very

nearly linear. The first data point is neglected and the second data point is taken as the reference

zero for the final plot.

Raw Zero

Load Data offset for Pre-

Deflection Adjusted

Data load and Zero

Data Deflection

(pounds) Adjusted

(inches) (inches)

102 0.031 0.021 0 0.000

201 0.036 0.026 99 0.005

300 0.041 0.031 198 0.010

399 0.047 0.037 297 0.016

500 0.053 0.043 398 0.022

602 0.058 0.048 500 0.027

701 0.062 0.052 599 0.031

800 0.068 0.058 698 0.037

900 900

800 800

700 700

600 600

Load (lb)

Load (lb)

500 500

400 400

300 300

200 200

100 100

0 0

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

Deflecion (in) Deflection (in)

900

800

700

600

Load (lb)

500

400

300

200

100

0

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

Deflection (in)

18

H.3. Gathering data

It is practically impossible to collect too much data. If you are unsure of how many data points to

record - collect more than you think can possibly be required. Some of the experiments may be

destructive to the specimen and lost data is not recoverable. Work slowly and record everything.

H.4. Teamwork

Assign a specific task to each member of the group working on an experiment. Be consistent in

method and do not change personnel during the experiment procedure. Any readings that are

taken should be observed by at least two members of the group and cross-checked. The written

record of the data should also be cross-checked. Much of your grade in this course is based on

group success, if one member of your group does not do his part, the whole group will suffer.

A structure fails when it can not resist additional load due to instability, material failure or

component failure. If the purpose of an experiment is to determine the capacity of a structure, it

will be tested to failure (Labs #5 and 6 are examples of this case). If the purpose of the

experiment is to determine the behavior of a structure under varying load, the structure is not

usually loaded to failure (Lab #1 is an example of this case). If the structure is not to be failed, a

safe load must be determined to prevent failure or damage. In order to determine a safe load,

the failure load is estimated and then reduced by a safety factor. The safety factor must be

adequate to compensate for unknowns and normal variations in materials and components.

Safety factors in Civil Engineering vary from about 1 to as much as 10 but are generally about 2.

19

I. EXPERIMENT #1

INTRODUCTION TO STRAIN MEASUREMENTS

TENSION AND BENDING STRAINS AND STRESSES

Objectives:

(1) To verify tension and bending stress models developed in a first course in Mechanics of

Materials. (Mc/I and P/A)

(2) To verify Hookes Law

(3) To determine material modulus of elasticity (E) from test measurements

(4) To become familiar with and learn how strain gauges work

(5) To get hands-on experience with laboratory equipment and instruments

(1) For the tension strap, calculate the maximum allowable load based on the material properties

and the specimen dimensions provided.

(2) Provide predictions of the strain readings for the tension strap so that you can easily verify

your data during the experiment. You can do this based on your maximum allowable load.

NOTE: The two axial gauges on the two faces of the strap will read the maximum or

principal tension strain. The two gauges will be wired into a single Wheatstone bridge such

that the sum of the two gauge signals will be measured. The average strain for the two gauges

can be calculated by dividing the measured value by two.

(3) For the beam, draw shear and moment diagrams and calculate the maximum allowable load

based on the material properties and specimen dimensions provided.

(4) Provide predictions of the strain readings at the top and bottom of the small beam for the

allowable load so that you can easily verify your data during the experiment.

(5) Prepare data sheets for the two tests. Two data columns will be needed for the load data

(target load and actual load). Two columns (displayed strain and zero adjusted or average

strain) will be required for each strain gauge. Also, provide space on your data sheet to

sketch the test specimens and indicate strain gauge orientation and dimensions.

(6) List dependent variable(s), independent variable(s) and controlled variable(s). See section

H.1 of this manual.

Note that all force measurements will be in units of pounds, strain measurements are

dimensionless but will be recorded as micro-inches per inch ( ), all stresses are in pounds

per square inch (psi) and the modulus of elasticity also has units of pounds per square inch

(psi).

20

Table H.1: Material strength for use in pre-lab calculations

Bending Stress (+/-)

Allowable Beam Shear 9,000 psi

Stress (+/-)

v (Poisson's Ratio) = 0.27 to 0.30

In the Laboratory:

(3) Select proper load scale and adjust load zero reading if required. Using SLOW speed at

all times, allow a small load to be applied to get the feel of the machine - release load.

Check all dimensions. Prepare sketches to show location of strain gauges and test

configuration.

maximum load while recording gauge data for each increment of load.

Check all dimensions and record them on your data sheet. Prepare sketches to

show location of strain gauges and test configuration.

Record strain readings for the top and bottom gauges at zero load (no pre-load is

required).

maximum load while recording gauge data for each increment of load.

21

Record the zero reading for the gauges.

(6) Compare you data to the predictions using the factors calculated for the pre-lab before

leaving the laboratory. You may want to ask the instructor to look over your data.

Laboratory Report:

Every group is required to submit a full, formal report for experiment #1. Please see Section E of

this manual. Your analysis should include the following:

Note: If possible, you should present your data and predictions as plots for comparison. All

plots for comparison should be to the same scale. Present numerical comparisons in

tables.

(1) Using your data obtained from the tension test specimen:

(b) Determine E (Young's Modulus) for this specimen from the slope of your plot of

stress vs. strain for the axial gauges.

(2) Using the data obtained from the bending test specimen:

(a) Prepare 3 plots of stress versus strain. One for the top gauge, one for the bottom

gauge and one showing the average of the absolute values of the strain measured

at the top and bottom gauges.

(b) Determine the E (Youngs Modulus) for this specimen from the slope of the

average stress strain plot.

(3) Provide a list of all variables (dimensions, force, strain, material properties etc.) and

discuss the accuracy of the measured or assumed value for each.

(4) Compare your experimentally determined values for modulus of elasticity to the value

used in the pre-lab.

22

Figure H.1: Experiment 1 Tension Strap

23

J. Sample Data Sheet for the beam in Experiment #1

24

EXPERIMENT #2

Objectives:

(1) To verify the assumed linearity of the stress/strain profile of a beam subjected to

bending. (My/I where y is the distance from the neutral surface)

This is the fundamental assumption upon which beam theory is based. The accuracy

of this assumption influences the accuracy of beam bending stress calculations, beam

shear stress calculations, beam deflection calculations and even column bucking.

("...each cross-section, originally plane, is assumed to remain plane and normal to the

longitudinal fibers of the beams." Timoshenko & Young, 5th ed.)

(2) To verify Hookes Law for aluminum

(3) To determine Youngs modulus (E) for aluminum alloy from laboratory

measurements

(4) To determine the value of Poisson's ratio for Aluminum by measuring longitudinal

and transverse bending strains in a beam.

(5) To verify the equations for shear stresses and strains in beams by means of principal

strain/stress analysis (strain gauge rosette) at the neutral surface.

Examine the beam assigned to your group noting the positions and numbers of the gauges

as these may vary from what is indicated in this manual. Group 1 uses beam 1, Group 2

uses beam 2, etc.

(1) Determine the allowable load for the beam assigned to your group. Show the shear

and moment diagrams for the beam.

Allowable bending stress +18,000 psi ( = Mc/I)

Allowable shear stress + 9,000 psi ( = VQ/It = ~ V/dtw)

where d is total beam depth, tw is web thickness

(2) Predict the strains based on a unit load or your calculated allowable load for:

(a) Bending strain at the top of the beam

(b) Poissons effect strain at the top of the beam

(c) Bending strain at the bottom of the beam

(d) Poissons effect strain at the bottom of the beam

(e) Bending strain in the web (y = 1, 0 and -1)

(f) The principal strains due to shear (biaxial stress) at the rosette

NOTE:

You do not need to predict the strains measured by the individual gauges of the

rosette. To do so requires that you know the rosette orientation. Therefore,

calculate factors for the maximum and minimum strains possible at the rosette.

25

Bear in mind that we are investigating shear stresses which result in biaxial

normal stress and strain at this location.

(3) Predict the coordinates of the center of Mohr's circle of strain at the rosette. In the

lab, your data can be partially verified by checking the location of the center of

Mohr's circle, which can be found by taking the average of the strain readings from

the two perpendicular gauges in the rosette.

(4) Sketch the orientation of the expected principal stresses at the rosette in relation to

the beam neutral axis.

(4) List dependent variable(s), independent variable(s) and controlled variable(s).

(5) Prepare a data sheet for use in the lab.

For pre-lab calculations, E = 10,000,000 to 10,600,000 psi

For pre-lab calculations, Poisson's ratio in ~ 0.33.

The shear modulus (if needed) can be calculated from Poisson's ratio and the modulus of

elasticity.

In The Laboratory:

A universal testing machine will be used to apply the load to the simply supported aluminum

beam. Three sets of strain gauges are bonded to the beam in the locations shown in the attached

diagram.

(1) Using a suitable measuring tape, check all of the dimensions and record them on your

data sheet.

(2) Prepare sketches to show the test configuration as well as the location, number and

the orientation of the strain gauges including a detailed sketch of the rosette showing

gauge numbers and angle to the beam axis.

(3) Take zero readings for all strain gauges.

(4) Load the beam in at least four equal increments to the allowable load determined in

the pre-lab. Record all gauge readings for each increment of load.

(5) Obtain apparent strains for each gauge by subtracting the zero strain reading from all

subsequent strain readings. Strains in tension are positive and those in compression are

negative.

(6) Record the zero reading for the gauges.

(7) Compare your data to the strains predicted in parts 2 and 3 of the pre-lab

Laboratory Report:

26

If your group will be preparing a full report on this experiment, please refer to the course

syllabus and the steps below.

(a) The measured strain profile determined from the bending strain gauges (excluding the

shear rosette and the two Poissons effect gauges). This is a plot of "y" (the distance from

the neutral axis of the beam) on the vertical axis and strain on the horizontal axis. Use the

data from the largest applied load that provided good data.

(b) Your predicted strain profile. This can be overlaid on the measured profile plot or a

separate plot to the same scale.

(2) In order to investigate objective #2, determine Youngs modulus E from a stress vs.

strain plot. Use the stain measurements from gauges 1,2,3 and 5,6,7. Calculate the stress at

these gauges from the applied load and beam geometry.

(3) Determine Poisson's ratio in order to investigate objective #4. Poisson's ratio can be

calculated from the strain readings from gauges 1 through 8. Taking averages of repetitive

data can increase the accuracy of your result.

(4) For objective # 4, using the data from your maximum load, solve for the principal normal

stresses and maximum shear stress at the neutral surface using your data from the strain

gauge rosette. The analysis of your rosette data should result in both the magnitude and

direction of the principal stress which can be compared to the shear stress calculation. Note

that 1 = 2 = = VQ / Ib or V / A W

(5) Compare your calculated and pre-lab values of E, v, and maximum shear stress. Be sure

to compare both the magnitude and the direction of the shear stresses at the rosette.

(6) Include a corrected copy of your pre-lab.

I Major Area

Beam No.

in4 in2

1 or 3 6.06 2.25

2 or 4 6.79 2.79

27

Note that all gauges are aligned with the long axis of the beam with the exceptions of #4, #8 and the rosette

Figure I.1: Experiment 2 Beam Sections

28

K. EXPERIMENT #3

DEFLECTION OF A BEAM

Objectives:

Inspect and measure the beam provided for the experiment. The material is ASTM A500

grade B.

(1) Construct shear and moment diagrams and calculate the safe capacity of the beam for

both bending and beam shear. Determine the allowable flexural load using an allowable

stress equal to one half the yield stress. (A safety factor of 2.0) Use an allowable shear

stress equal to one fourth the yield stress.

(2) Using one of the theoretical equations for deflection provided, predict the deflection of

the beam at the various locations along the beam where the deflectometers are located.

(3) List dependent variable(s), independent variable(s) and controlled variable(s). See

section H.1 of this manual.

(4) Prepare a data sheet for the laboratory. Deflections will be measured at the same

four locations along the beam as required for your predictions.

In The Laboratory:

If there are two beams set up for testing, you are only required to collect data from one beam.

(1) Check location and operation of the deflection gauges and take your "zero" readings.

(2) Pre-load the beam to approximately 10% of the maximum load. See Section H.1. of this

manual to learn more about pre-loads.

(3) Apply your calculated allowable load in at least five increments while taking deflection

readings for each increment.

(5) Compare your data to the predictions from part 3 of the pre-lab.

29

Laboratory Report:

Please refer to the required format provided in the course syllabus and the steps below.

Note: If possible, you should present your data and predictions as plots for comparison. All

plots for comparison should be to the same scale. Present numerical comparisons in

tables.

(1) Prepare four plots comparing predicted and measured deflections at each deflection

gauge (load vs. deflection). If the deflections for your first increment of load (pre-load)

are not linear, you may need to consider the first load increment data as your effective

zero for data analysis. See Section H.2. of this manual

(2) Prepare a plot comparing the predicted and measured deflected shape of the beam at the

maximum applied load. This is a plot of X (position along the beam) vs. Y (deflection).

d

=

x

d 2 1 M

=k = =

dx 2

EI

30

L. EXPERIMENT #4

Preparation for the Laboratory:

1. Define the objectives of the experiment. Objectives need to be specific and directly or

indirectly measurable.

2. Research any relevant theory that might predict the results of the experiment.

6. Verify that the equipment and instrumentation is appropriate for measuring the dependent

and independent variables.

7. Determine an appropriate number of data points needed for each type of measurement.

8. Prepare data sheets and anything else you might need to perform the experiment.

Presentation of Results:

See section E of this manual and the report format provided by your instructor.

Provide a list of all variables measured or assumed and estimate the expected error for each.

31

M. EXPERIMENT # 5

Objective:

(2) Prediction and measurement of the buckling loads of columns of varying lengths and

materials.

(1) Calculate your predicted critical loads for the pin-supported columns to be tested in

the laboratory. The test specimens are 6", 9", 12", 15", 18", and 21" in length for

both steel and aluminum. All of the columns are 5/8 inch diameter round bars.

(2) Prepare a data sheet for the laboratory indicating the following information in a table:

length, predicted critical load, measured critical load, and failure mode (elastic or

inelastic).

(4) Submit copies of your calculations and data sheet to your laboratory instructor at

the beginning of the laboratory period.

In The Laboratory:

(3) Before placing a specimen in the machine, check for zero load reading and adjust if

necessary.

(4) Carefully bring the load head into contact with the specimen.

(5) For each column, apply load very slowly to buckling failure. Record the critical

load and failure mode.

Laboratory Report:

Please refer to the format provided in the course syllabus and the steps below.

32

Note: If possible, you should present your data and predictions as plots for comparison. All

plots for comparison should be to the same scale. Present numerical comparisons in

tables.

1) Acquire the column test data from all of the current semester lab sections and work with

the average critical load for each column type. Data may be made available on the course

web-site http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/dmerrick/113/.

2) Plot the average critical load data for each material on a chart of critical load verses

length. The column length scale of your plot should extend from zero length to 24 inches.

3) Using Euler's equation and the average critical load data for the 21 inch columns, solve

for the effective length of the 21 inch columns and the effective length factor k: Le = kL

4) Use Johnson's equation and the average critical load for the 6 in columns to solve for the

yield strength of each material. Note that Lc is a function of both E and y resulting in a

quadratic equation.

5) Recalculate the theoretical critical loads for each column length and material using the

method described in the pre-lab basing your calculations on the yield strength determined

in #4 and the effective length factor determined in #3. These new lengths will be different

from the lengths used in the pre-lab; : Le = kL

6) Graphically show that Eulers equation diverges from your data as the column length

decreases. Extend the lines for the expected Euler values to near zero length and 24

inches.

7) Graphically show that Johnsons equation diverges from your data as the column length

increases. Extend the lines for the expected Johnson values to zero length and 24 inches.

8) Provide a critical load verses length plot for each material showing:

b) The theoretical critical load from #5. Extend the lines for the expected values

to 3 inches and 24 inches.

If your group does not have a principal investigator assigned to this experiment, do the

following:

(1) Acquire the data from all of the current semester sections.

33

(4) Calculate the expected values using your corrected pre-lab.

(5) In a table, compare your experimental values and theoretical values for all of the tests.

This can probably be done with three columns; laboratory data, expected values and

percent error.

(6) Provide plots of your data and predictions. Extend the lines for the expected values to

3 inches and 24 inches.

Background:

In this experiment, we will consider both elastic columns (also referred to as Euler or long

columns) and intermediate columns. All of the columns will have pinned ends and be loaded

concentrically with a force P that is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the column. This system

is stable when the load P is less than the critical load (Pcr) and unstable when the load is greater

than the critical load.

Le = the effective length of the column : Le = kL

(Le = L for a pinned end column)

The prediction of critical load for inelastic columns is more complex than it is for elastic

columns. Various methods have been proposed and used over the years such as Hodgekins

straight line equation, reduced modulus, the Rankine equation, Engessers tangent modulus

method, the secant method and the double modulus method have been developed and can

provide reliable results.

The Rankine method is an interaction equation using the yield and Euler capacities of the

column. Engessers method (also known as the Tangent Modulus Method) uses a tangent

modulus theory and works well for non-ideal elastic/plastic materials if detailed material

information is available. Steel is a nearly ideal elastic/plastic material so this method does not

work well for steel but has other applications for materials such as aluminum. The double

modulus approach is also intended for non-ideal elastic/plastic materials and recognizes that the

modulus may vary in the section due to variation in stress due to flexure. The Secant method

assumes an eccentric applied load to calculate a combined bending and axial stress, which is then

compared to the proportional limit of the material. The Secant method requires a known or

34

assumed eccentricity (crookedness of column) The Secant Method requires a trial-and-error

solution.

Several approximate methods such and Hodgekins and Johnsons have been developed that are

usually more appropriate for general engineering design and for this laboratory experiment.

These approximate methods rely on an empirical equation or equations to predict the behavior of

short and intermediate columns. The equation that we will use for inelastic columns in our

predictions is referred to as Johnsons Equation (see J. B. Johnson, et al The Theory and

Practice of Modern Framed Structures. Vol. 2 1893) and is used in structural steel design

methods. In our method, all columns are divided into two categories, elastic and inelastic. The

division between these two categories is the column length for which the solution to Eulers

equation provides a critical stress equal to 1/2 the yield stress. This is dividing point is referred

to as a slenderness ratio equal to cc or as a column length of Lc. The slenderness ratio, r, is a

dimensionless measure of the slenderness of a particular column. cc is a dimensionless material

property. For a given column cross-section, the length that corresponds to cc will be referred to

as Lc.

y Pcr 2 EI

= = 2

2 A Lc A

Or, solving for L c :

2 2 EI 2 2 E

Lc = =r = rcc

yA y

Note that c c is a dimensionless material property

cc = 2 2 E / y

Where :

y = Yield Stress E = Modulus of Elasticity

I = Moment of Inertia A = Area

Lc = Column Length at which Euler' s Equation equals half the yield stress

I

r = Radius of Gyration =

A

Material Properties:

Steel Aluminum

35

The following are equations will provide adequate predictions of column critical loads for this

laboratory experiment:

2 EI

Pcr = 2

Le

For columns where L e < L c use Johnson' s Equation :

1 L 2

Pcr = y A 1 e

L

2 c

See:

Johnson, J. B., Bryan, C. W. and Turneaure, F. E., Theory and Practice of Modern

Framed Structures, John Wiley and Sons, 7th ed. (1899)

Johnston, B. G. (editor) The Column Research Council Guide to Design Criteria for

Metal Compression Members, John Wiley and Sons, 2nd ed. (1966)

Ziemian, R. D. (editor) Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, John

Wiley and Sons, 6th ed. (2010)

36

N. EXPERIMENT #6

Objectives:

a) Investigate the bending and/or shear strength of various wood beams.

b) Investigate the behavior of wood subjected to compressive stresses in various

orientations.

2) Learn about other factors that effect the engineering properties of wood

a) Species

b) Moisture

c) Defects

d) Load duration

3) Learn about statistical representation of engineering properties and safety factors for a

variable material. (see section H.4 on page 17)

1) If possible, inspect the test specimens and identify the species of wood being investigated. If

the specimens are not available, assume dry, coast Douglas Fir.

2) For the four specimens:

a) Check bending and shear to find the maximum allowable load for beam #1.

b) Check bending and shear to find the expected ultimate strength for beam #1.

c) Check bending and shear to find the maximum allowable load for beam #2.

d) Check bending and shear to find the expected ultimate strength for beam #2.

e) Calculate the maximum allowable load for block #1.

f) Calculate the expected ultimate strength for block #1.

g) Calculate the maximum allowable load for block #2.

h) Calculate the expected ultimate strength for block #2.

3) Calculate the expected safety factor for each specimen. The beams will actually have two

safety factors, one for shear and one for bending.

4) Tabulate your results from part 2 and 3.

of

Shear Bending Shear Bending safety

Beam

#1

Beam

#2

Factor

Allowable Ultimate of

load load safety

Block

#1

Block

#2

37

5) Prepare a data sheet. There must be space on your data sheet to sketch the failure of the

specimens and to write a description of the test and failure.

In the Laboratory:

1) Slowly load one block in compression perpendicular to the grain until the load rate decreases

significantly. Initially the piece will be fairly stiff but the stiffness will abruptly decrease when

the wood cells begin to collapse. Record the magnitude of the load when the cells begin to crush.

Sketch and note any observed phenomena.

2) Slowly load the other compression block in compression parallel to the grain until the

maximum load is achieved. Record the magnitude of the maximum load. Sketch and note any

observed phenomena.

3) Slowly load the first beam until the ultimate load is achieved. Record the magnitude of the

maximum load. Sketch and note any observed phenomena.

4) Slowly load the second beam until the ultimate load is achieved. Record the magnitude of the

maximum load. Sketch and note any observed phenomena.

Laboratory Summary:

Note: Reports may be submitted without: table of contents, introduction, objectives, procedures

or conclusion.

1) Report the failure load and failure mode for each specimen.

2) Carefully describe your observations of the loading, failure and the failed specimen. Describe

any remarkable sights, sounds, smells, etc.

4) Determine the factor of safety for the wood specimens tested. Provide a table showing

allowable load, ultimate load and factor of safety for each specimen. For the beams, you can only

provide a safety factor for the actual failure mode

5) Describe any physical factors that may have had an affect on the performance of the

specimens.

Material Information: The specimens tested in this laboratory are western softwoods. The

following are typical design allowable strength values for western softwoods that include factors

of safety. These values have been adjusted for size (2x4) and for assumed load duration of one

minute (1.75):

38

Table M.1

Allowable Stresses (psi)

Compression

Species Bending Shear

Parallel Perpendicular

Western Hemlock 3680 260 3940 400

Sugar Pine 3280 120 3680 425

Douglas Fir 3900 170 3400 625

The strength of wood for most loading conditions is time dependant. In the chart below it can be

seen that wood can resist about twice the stress in impact loading as it can in permanent loading.

Figure M.1

39

The following data was taken from Chapter 4 of:

Technical Report FPL-GTR-190. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,

Forest Products Laboratory: 508 p. 2010.

Download the PDF version of this publication at: http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/ for further

information.

Table M.2

(Table 53b in FPL Wood Handbook)

Example Strength properties for Douglas Fir

Go to the above website for other species of wood

Static bending

Douglas-fird Moisture Specific Modulus of Modulus of Work to Impact Com- Com- Shear Tension Side

content gravityb rupture elasticityc maximum load bending pression pression parallel perpen- hard-

(lbf/in2) (106 lbf/in2) (in- lbf/in2) (in) parallel to perpen- to grain dicular to ness

grain dicular to (lbf/in2) grain (lbf)

(lbf/in2) grain (lbf/in2)

(lbf/in2)

Coast Green 0.45 7,700 1.56 7.6 26 3,780 380 900 300 500

12% 0.48 12,400 1.95 9.9 31 7,230 800 1,130 340 710

Interior West Green 0.46 7,700 1.51 7.2 26 3,870 420 940 290 510

12% 0.50 12,600 1.83 10.6 32 7,430 760 1,290 350 660

Interior North Green 0.45 7,400 1.41 8.1 22 3,470 360 950 340 420

12% 0.48 13,100 1.79 10.5 26 6,900 770 1,400 390 600

Interior South Green 0.43 9,800 1.16 8.0 15 3,110 340 950 250 360

12% 0.46 11,900 1.49 9.0 20 6,230 740 1,510 330 510

a) Results of tests on small clear specimens in the green and air-dried conditions. Definition of properties: impact bending is height of drop that

causes complete failure, using 0.71-kg (50-lb) hammer; compression parallel to grain is also called maximum crushing strength; compression

perpendicular to grain is fiber stress at proportional limit; shear is maximum shearing strength; tension is maximum tensile strength; and side

hardness is hardness measured when load is perpendicular to grain.

b) Specific gravity is based on weight when ovendry and volume when green or at 12% moisture content.

c) Modulus of elasticity measured from a simply supported, center-loaded beam, on a span depth ratio of 14/1. To correct for shear deflection, the

modulus can be increased by 10%.

d) Coast Douglas-fir is defined as Douglas-fir growing in Oregon and Washington State west of the Cascade Mountains summit. Interior West

includes California and all counties in Oregon and Washington east of, but adjacent to, the Cascade summit; Interior North, the remainder of

Oregon and Washington plus Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming; and Interior South, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico.

Property Coefficient of variationa (%)

Static bending

Modulus of rupture 16

Modulus of elasticity 22

Work to maximum load 34

Impact bending 25

Compression parallel to grain 18

Compression perpendicular to grain 28

Shear parallel to grain, maximum shearing strength 14

Tension parallel to grain 25

Side hardness 20

Toughness 34

Specific gravity 10

a) Values based on results of tests of green wood from approximately 50 species. Values for wood adjusted to 12% moisture content may be

assumed to be approximately of the same magnitude.

40

Glossary of Common Properties of Wood:

Mechanical properties most commonly measured and represented as strength properties for

design include modulus of rupture in bending, maximum stress in compression parallel to grain,

compressive stress perpendicular to grain, and shear strength parallel to grain. Additional

measurements are often

and is proportional to maximum moment borne by the specimen. Modulus of rupture is an

accepted criterion of strength, although it is not a true stress because the formula by which it is

computed is valid only to the elastic limit. The modulus of rupture is calculated by dividing the

ultimate moment by the section modulus.

deformation and more or less injury to a specimen. Work to maximum load is a measure of the

combined strength and toughness of wood under bending stresses.

to-grain specimen having a ratio of length to least dimension of less than 11.

is no clearly defined ultimate stress for this property. The published values are based on a

specimen deformation of 0.04 inch.

Shear strength parallel to grainAbility to resist internal slipping of one part upon another

along the grain. Values presented are average strength in radial and tangential shear planes.

Impact bendingIn the impact bending test, a hammer of given weight is dropped upon a beam

from successively increased heights until rupture occurs or the beam deflects 152 mm (6 in.) or

more. The height of the maximum drop, or the drop that causes failure, is a comparative value

that represents the ability of wood to absorb shocks that cause stresses beyond the proportional

limit.

Tensile strength perpendicular to grainResistance of wood to forces acting across the grain

that tend to split a member. Values presented are the average of radial and

tangential observations.

measured by the load required to embed a 11.28-mm (0.444-in.) ball to one-half its diameter.

Values presented are the average of radial and tangential penetrations.

grain. Relatively few data are available on the tensile strength of various species of clear wood

parallel to grain. The average tensile strength values available are for a limited number of

specimens of a few species. In the absence of sufficient tension test data, modulus of rupture

41

values are sometimes substituted for tensile strength of small, clear, straight-grained pieces of

wood. The modulus of rupture is considered to be a low or conservative estimate of tensile

strength for clear specimens (this is not true for lumber). The average tensile strength for small,

clear, green, straight-grained specimens of Douglas-Fir Interior North is 15,600 psi. results are

about 13% higher for specimens tested at 12% moisture content.

Beam #1 Beam #2

42

Block #1 Block #2

For additional information, see the glossary on previous pages for Modulus of Rupture

43

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