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1.

0 INTRODUCTION

In Milestone 3 we have assigned to draw the design of our bicycle solar dryer which will be
used to remove the surface moisture content in anchovies. This bicycle dryer will be used to
remove the water of the anchovies from 80% to 30% while the remaining moisture content
upto 12% will be drawn out by placing the anchovies inside solar tunnel dryer. As our solar
tunnel dryer design almost similar to the one that already been using in market now, so in
this milestone 3 we have included the drawing of our bicycle dryer. In order to produce a
very clear and detail drawing, we have used SolidWorks to draw our design.

SolidWorks is a drawing software that mainly used in drawing complicating design and it is
commonly use in engineering field. This software is a solid modelling computer-aided design
(CAD) and computer-aided engineering and it runs on Microsoft Windows and published by
Dassault Systems. It is also known as a solid modeller and it uses feature-based method to
draw a model as well as to assembly it. Engineers and designers prefer to use this software
as it is easier to draw 2D and 3D drawing by using this software compare to manual
drawing. Other than that, the advantages of this software is that we can make changes to
our design in a short time and it helps to solve designs problem as well as in constructing
the components of a product economically.

The new ideas of a product can be transformed into a drawing in a short period by using
SolidWorks. Another criterion that makes SolidWorks very useful is that it has CAD feature
and it also has the capability to work with multiple data drawing formats. Thus, this help
engineers to produce more creative and efficient design. SolidWorks gives a very detail
picture of the design we would like to work on and can save our time and money by not
producing prototype of a design. Other than that, SolidWorks has a higher level of accuracy
which will help the engineers to produce a better equipment.

In order to draw the bicycle solar dryer, we need to find the dimensions of each part. Other
than that, as our stainless steel chamber has perforated wall so we have to choose the most
appropriate features. In this report we have drawn the fully assemble part of our dryer and
each component of our dryer. We have included the 2D and 3D drawing for each component
as well as the important view which are top view, front view and right view. Other than that,
we have labelled and state the dimension of each drawing. Thus, we believe these drawings
can give a clear picture of our design.

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1.0 MATERIALS SELECTION
Table 1 : Material Selection

Objective 1. Low cost.


2. Corrosion resistance.
Consideration of characteristics 1. Cost of installation.
2. Effect of high temperature.
3. Corrosion resistance.
4. Mechanical and chemical properties.
5. Lifespan

2.0 MATERIALS
As the anchovies are loaded into the drying chamber of this pedal powered
centrifugal dryer, the chamber will then spins according to the motion of the peddler
in order to reduce the moisture content. The components and materials that are
required to manufacture this pedal powered centrifugal dryer are as follows:

Table 2: Components and Materials Used in Pedal Powered Centrifugal Dryer.

Components Materials
Belt Rubber
Bevel Drive Gear Alloy Steel
Bevel Driven Gear Alloy Steel
Chain Alloy Steel
Chamber Holder Alloy Steel
Outer Chamber Polypropylene
Inner Chamber Stainless Steel
Pulley Stainless Steel
Bottom Table Stainless Steel
Shaft Iron
Sprocket Galvanized Steel

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1. Rubber
Natural rubber is an elastomer whose structure is being transformed by chemical
cross linking, the process known as curing. Rubber is used by many manufacturing
companies for their production of products. There are several types of timing belts
and pulleys namely timing belts, v-belts, flat belts and chains in choosing, installing
and using power transmission system. A V-belt rubber is used to transmit power by
mechanically linking two or more rotating shafts. V-belts are called so due to its
cross sectional shape which are trapezoidal in nature. There occurs no problem of
alignment and slipping in using V-belts, which usually occurs in other types of belts.
V-belts are chosen and used in this system since it requires no lubrication, longer
maintenance period and are cheaper belt options compared to other belts. Singhs
(2015) study has provided the following mechanical properties of v-belts (p.64):

Table 3: Mechanical Properties of V-Belt Rubber

NO. TEST UNIT READING/OBSERVATION


1 TENSILE STRENGTH KG/CM2 128.5
2 TEAR STRENGTH KN/M 37.5
3 HARDNESS SHA 85
4 DENSITY OF COMPOUND G/CC 1.15
5 ELONGATION AT BREAK % 210
6 MODULAS@300% KG/CM2 101.5

Table 4: Mechanical Properties of V-Belt Rubber Compound after Ageing@70C


for 72 Hours

NO. TEST UNIT READING/OBSERVATION


1 TENSILE STRENGTH Kg/cm2 105
2 HARDNESS SHA 90.0
3 MODULUS Kg/cm2 59.5
4 ELONGATION % 140

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2. Alloy Steel
Alloys are metals combined with other substances to make it stronger, harder, lighter
or better in some ways. Alloy is a material made up of at least two different chemical
elements, one of which is metal. The most important metallic component of an alloy
is called main metal, the parent metal or the base metal which often represent 90%
or more of the material. The other components of an alloy can be metals or non-
metals which are the alloying agents that is sometimes less than 1% of the total. In
this design, there are four main components that are made of alloy steel. The
following table shows the chemical composition according to the American Iron and
Steel Institute of AISI 4140 alloy steel:

Table 5: Chemical Composition of AISI 4140 Alloy Steel

NO ELEMENT CONTENT (%)


1 CHROMIUM, Cr 0.80 1.10
2 MANGANESE, Mn 0.75 1.0
3 CARBON, C 0.380 0.430
4 SILICON, Si 0.15 0.30
5 MOLYBDENUM, Mo 0.15 0.25
6 SULFUR, S 0.040
7 PHOSPHOROUS, P 0.035

3. Polypropylene
Plastics materials used in this centrifugal dryer are the outer chamber of the dryer.
Oil and natural gas are the major raw materials used to manufacture plastics. The
type of plastics used is thermoplastics which by means that once the plastic is
formed it can be heated and reformed repeatedly, which are 100% recyclable.
Polypropylene is used in the production of this centrifugal dryer. Plastics used for the
centrifugal dryer components do not bear weight or require extremely good rust
resistance. In addition to being plastics, it can be heated and recycled and mould
into other items. The energy obtained is for the production of 3.87 million tonnes of
polyethylene. This represents 89.7% of all West European production. The average
gross energy required to produce 1kg of polypropylene is 76 MJ with a range
extending from 56 MJ to 91 MJ.

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4. Stainless Steel
Stainless steel is one of the raw materials used for the pulley, bottom table, turbine
rotor and inner chamber for centrifugal dryer. Stainless steel is a hard and strong
substance, it is not a good conductor of heat and electricity, it is ductile, magnetic,
retains its strength and cutting edge regardless of temperature. The unique ability
of stainless steel to resist corrosion, heat damage and chemical damage, high
strength duplex grades provide added strength, allowing for a reduced thickness in
the material, providing a cost advantage over conventional grades of stainless steel.
The heat cause from the friction from the rotation will not be easily transfer to other
component and will not be cause harm to the user.
5. Iron
Shafts are manufactured with a variety of materials but there are three basic types:
Graphite, Steel and Composite. For our design we choose iron type of shaft.
Hardness of Iron is its ability to resist compression force applied externally.
Moreover, irons have a good ductility. Ductility is the property that enables a
material to stretch, bend, or twist without cracking or breaking.
6. Galvanized Steel
Galvanized steel is used for the pedal sprocket in the centrifugal dryer. Galvanized
steel can be obtained when all the surfaces of the steel are dipped into and
completely coated with molten zinc. Sprockets and including the chains that connects
the sprocket to the centrifugal are used for power transmission from one shaft to
another where slippage is not admissible. It is used because it has the lowest first
cost, toughest coating, less maintenance, faster erection time and a full protective
coating can be applied in minutes.

Figure 1: The rank of the mechanical properties of materials

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3.0 DRAWINGS

Belt

This belt is made up of rubber with these dimensions with length of 434 mm and width of
20 mm. This belt will be connected from the bevel gear straight to the pulley under the
centrifugal dryer. The only feature used to draw the belt in SolidWorks software is Boss
Extruded where firstly we will draw the rectangular shape with 34mm width and curve at
both end of the belt and extruding it to 20 mm. After that, the inner part drawn using the
same exact step but with 30mm width.

Figure 2: Drawings of belt

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Bevel Gear

Bevel gear consist of drive and driven gear made up of stainless steel. Gears are
fundamental asset for power transmission in automation industry whereby bevel gears are
used to transmit the power between two intersecting shafts at almost any angle or speed.
The drive gear transmits power to the driven gear whereby the motion of the drive gear will
affect the motion of the driven gear. The features used in this drawing lofted cut, linear
pattern and revolve cut.

Figure 3: Drawings of bevel drive gear

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Figure 4: Drawings of bevel driven gear

Kurlapkars (2016) research has provided the material properties for a bevel gear made from
alloy steel (p. 310):

Table 6: Material Properties of a Bevel Gear

NO PARAMETER VALUE UNIT


1 YOUNGS MODULUS 206000 MPA
2 POISSONS RATIO 0.3
3 ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH 1030 MPA
4 DENSITY 7850 Kg/m3

Chain and Sprocket

The chain and sprocket comes in pair. They are a very vital component in the transmission
of power and motion in most motorcycle or in our case the pedal powered centrifugal dryer.
There is always a pair of sprockets which are the rear and front. Chains and sprockets
dimensions and teeth numbers varies with its design and usage. In this pedal powered
centrifugal dryer, there are two types of chains and sprockets used, the first one is a pair of

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sprockets connected to the peddler which is the basic components of a bicycle and the
second pair of sprockets are attached with the bevel gear which is the main component that
spins the dryer. The chains used in this design are made out of alloy steel for both of the
different sprockets.

Figure 5: Drawings of chain

The first part in drawing the chain is by dividing the chain into two parts that are the inner
and outer roller. The dimension of the chain can be identifying in the drawing. After both
inner and the outer part have been drawn, they will be assembling together with 19 outer
rollers and 18 inner roller connecting together. Features used for this drawing are extruded
boss, mirror and fillet.

Then, the process of drawing the sprocket is firstly by drawing the centre circle extruded out
to 12.7mm and extrude cut in the middle. Then moving to the outer circle with 20 chain
teeth and tooth pattern. Finish the drawing by assembling the chain and sprocket. The

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features in drawing sprocket are revolve boss/base, extruded cut, linear pattern, extruded
boss and fillet.

Figure 6: Drawings of sprocket

Bicycle

The bicycle is one of the main parts in this bicycle dryer design. Pedalling this bicycle pedal
will rotate the chain and sprocket attached on this bicycle. The chain at the back of the
bicycle will also rotate the sprocket that connected to the bevel gear transferring the pedal
power onto the bevel gear. Then the pedal force will be transfer to pulley under the
chamber rotating the shaft and at the same time rotating the inner chamber and the turbine
rotor. The features used for bicycle are revolve cut, extruded cut, linear pattern, fillet,
mirror, swept, lofted boss.

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Figure 7: Drawings of bicycle

Chamber Holder

The bottom table is made up of stainless steel with function to hold the back tyre of the
bicycle from reaching the ground and the centrifugal dryer with shaft for it to be the same
level as the bevel gear. The bottom table will also hold the pulley from the bicycle and also
the pulley connected to the shaft. The drawing of this part will mainly consist of the 245mm
table with two pulley holder, bicycle holder and bevel holder. The features used in drawing
this are extruded boss and extruded cut.

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Figure 8: Drawings of chamber holder

Chamber Spinner

The chamber holder will take part in the spinning process rotating the inner chamber along
with the turbine rotor. When these two parts spun, the water content from the product will
be remove as well. These stainless steel chamber holder or spinner will be drawn firstly by
sketching a 320mm circle on the bottom plane and extruding it to 20mm height. After that,
extrude cut the circle with inner diameter 310mm. On the top plane, place and x-bar with
20mm width and 310mm length. Extrude cut in the middle of the x-bar to be connected to
the shaft.

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Figure 9: Drawings of chamber spinner

Stainless Steel Chamber

This stainless steel inner chamber will be made up of porous wall to allow the waste water
to be remove from the product. This inner chamber is 600mm height and 300mm of
diameter in the drawing with ratio 1:10 to the real measurement. The inner chamber will
also have bottom holes to be connected to the shaft to rotate the chamber. The features
used are extruded boss, extruded cut and hole wizard.

Plastic Chamber

The plastic outer chamber will stand still on the bottom table holding the inner chamber
containing the product during the spinning process. The waste water will go out through the
drain vessel. The features used extruded boss, extruded cut and structural member.

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Figure 10: Drawings of stainless steel chamber

Figure 11: Drawings of plastic chamber

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Pulley

There will be two pulley used in this design where the first pulley will be connected to the
bevel driven gear and the second pulley will be connected to the shaft connected to the
chamber holder. The pulley will transfer the pedal force from the bicycle using the rubber
belt. These pulleys both made up of stainless steel. The features used are extruded boss
and extruded cut.

Figure 12: Drawings of pulley 1

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Figure 13: Drawings of pulley 2

Shaft

The iron shaft connected the pulley under the chamber onto the chamber holder to rotate
the turbine rotor and the inner chamber. The shaft will transfer the pedal force from the
pulley onto the chamber. There will be three part to draw this shaft with three different
diameter which are 34mm, 48 mm and 220 mm. First step in drawing these shafts is
sketching a circle with certain diameter. After that, use boss extrude features to strain it into
certain length.

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Figure 14: Drawings of 34mm-shaft

Figure 15: Drawings of 48mm-shaft

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Figure 16: Drawings of 220mm-shaft

Agitator

Agitator placed inside the stainless steel inner chamber to mix the anchovies during the
rotation so that the anchovies will be totally spun in the dryer. The agitator is made up of
stainless steel also so the spinning of the chamber and the agitator hoping not to make so
much noise. Drawing agitator need to be divided into two top plane dividing the sweep and
the dome part. This agitator consists of eight blade with thickness of 2.54 mm in the
drawing. The features used are revolve boss, swept boss, linear pattern, fillet and extruded
cut.

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Figure 17: Drawings of agitator

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Figure 18: Assembly of the centrifugal dryer

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Figure 19: Drawings of the assembly

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CONCLUSION

In this milestone, we have learnt how draw our design which is the centrifugal dryer using
SolidWorks software. We have also acquired lots of knowledge and skills while drawing each
and every part of our design including sketching, using different features and also adding
additional appearance to it as a final touch. Through this software, we have learnt how each
part is assembled to produce the final product.

REFERENCE

[1] Mechanical Properties, Retrieve here: http://www.tpub.com/steelworker1/2.htm

[2] Singh, G., Mahajan, A., & Kumar, M. (2015). Comparative Study of Tyre Rubber and V-
Belt Rubber: Composition and Mechanical Properties. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil
Engineering. 12(5), 60 64.

[3] Kurlapkar, R.R., Mirza, M.M., & Naik, V.M. (2016). Design and Static Structural Analysis
of Bevel Gear. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology. 35(7), 309
310.

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Description of Task Distribution

No. Content Page Person In Charge


1. Executive Summary i Dan Gintik
2. Introduction 1 Yamunah
3. Material Selection 2 Sara Elmira
4. Material 2 Syahirah
5. Drawings
- Belt 6 Sara Elmira
- Bevel Gear 7&8 Nur Ain Syafiqah
- Chain & Sprocket 9 & 10 Syahirah
- Bicycle 11 Dan Gintik
- Bottom Table 12 Sara Elmira
- Chamber Spinner 13 Syahirah
- Stainless Steel Chamber 14 Yamunah
- Plastic Chamber 14 Yamunah
- Pulley 15 & 16 Syahirah
- Shaft 17 & 18 Sara Elmira & Nur Ain
Syafiqah
- Agitator 19 Yamunah
- Assembly 20 All

6. Conclusion 22 Dan Gintik


7. Reference 22 Dan Gintik

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