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Pre-reading activities:

1. How can you define Folklore? What genres of folklore literature do you know?
2. What is the difference between a folk tale and a fairy tale?
3. Can you name types and peculiarities of folk tales in English and Russian?

Reading tasks:
1. Read the tale silently and try to identify its plot elements.
2. Read the tale silently and copy out key-words and those words and expressions that you cannot
guess from the context.
3. Choose a passage you find most interesting and read aloud to practice peculiarities of English
connected fluent speech (theme-rheme, reduction, assimilation, linking, logical and emotive
stress).

Folk tale: The Goat and Her Three Kids


Once upon a time there was a goat with three kids. The little one was hardworking and always listening
to his mother. But the middle and the big kids were looking for trouble all the time.
One day, the mother goat told her kids:
- Dear kids, I have to go for a walk in the woods to bring food. Please, keep the door locked after I have
left and dont open it until you hear my voice. When I am back, youll hear this little song:
Three kids, little kids
Open door to your mommy
Mommy's bringing to you all
Fresh grass on the lips
Milk and salt on the back
- Do you understand?
And all the three kids answered together:
- Yes, mama!
- So let me kiss you goodbye. I'll be back soon with lots of goodies!
Mother goat went for a walk in the woods, the little kids locked the door and all started playing in the
house.
Meanwhile, the evil wolf, having heard the conversation between the mother goat and the kids about the
song, started singing the same song to the kids, hoping this way he would trick them and they would
open the door to him.
Three kids, little kids
Open door to your mommy
Mommy's bringing to you all
Fresh grass on the lips
Milk and salt on the back
The big elder kid, as soon as he heard the song, jumped down to open the door, thinking that his mother
was there!
But the little one cried:
- Dont open the door! Its not mother, she has a lovely voice, this one is rough and harsh!
When the wolf heard such a thing, he went to the blacksmith to ask him to sharpen his voice! Then he
came back and started singing again:
Three kids, little kids
Open door to your mommy
Mommy's bringing to you all
Fresh grass on the lips
Milk and salt on the back
The big kid was very sure that now it was his mama.
-Who else could be? I'll open the door, she must be tired and full of goodies.
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-My brother! I feel its not mama. Please, dont open! - said the little one.
But the big kid didnt listen and opened the door! The middle kid hid under a blanket and the
little one in the fireplace.
The big kid didnt open the door well and in a blink of an eye the wolf ate it greedily. He started
searching the rest of the house, he was sure that other kids must be in the house.
-Well, well, wellIt seems to me, that Ive heard more voices. I'll rest a little before leaving.
Then he lay on the blanket and felt something under the blanket.It was the poor middle kid!
The hungry wolf ate it too.
When the wolf left, the little kid went out the fireplace, blocked the door and started crying
inconsolably over his brothers.
Meanwhile, the mother goat came back home from the woods and she started to sing the song:
Three kids, little kids
Open door to your mommy
Mommy's bringing to you all
Fresh grass on my lips
Milk and salt on my back
The little kid jumped to open the door and fell in his mother arms, crying desperately and started
to tell his mother the sad story.
Mother goat cried and cried until she decided to punish the bad wolf. She started cooking all
kind of goodies, made a hole in the garden, covered it with woods, embers and brambles and
made a table and a chair in wax.
When everything was ready, she went in the forest to look for the wolf to invite him to the
mourning feast. The wolf was getting some rest in the shadow of an old oak.
- Good day to you, she-goat! What brings you here?
- A tragedy happened when I was walking in the woods. Somebody ate all my kids and now I
came to invite you to eat something for their memory and remembrance.
- Glad about your invitation! - said the wolf.
They went to the goats' house, and while mother goat was crying in pain, the wolf was
pretending that he was very shocked by the news and tried all the time to blame the bear for what
had happened. Back at the house, mother goat invited the wolf to seat on the wax chair, and
started bringing him food.
- Bon Appetit, says the goat!
- Thank you, the wolf answered politely and, being very greedy, he was eating very fast all the
tasty food. While he was eating, the wax chair melted and the wolf fell in the fire hole!
- Get me out of here, screamed the wolf, I am burning alive!
- Burn there, wolf, like my heart burned of pain in my chest after my babies.
- Dont let me die! Have mercy! (begged) implored the wolf.
- Did you have mercy for my kids? - asked the mother goat.
The news about the wolf's death soon traveled through the forest and was heard by all the goats.
And all the goats were pleased with the well deserved end of the bad wolf.

Post-reading activities:
1. Can you trace the origin of the folk tale and name its type?
2. What cultural elements are present in the text?
3. What human traits of character are attributed to the wolf, goat and her kids? Are they similar
in Russian culture?

Speech patterns:
1. Once upon a time there lived a Nanny goat with her seven little kids.
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2. The elder kids were naughty and looking for trouble.
3. Dont open the door, until you hear my voice.
4. The wolf tried to blame the Bear for having eaten the kids.
5. The Nanny goat and her three kids went home and lived happily ever after.

Phrases and word combinations:


to start to do smth; Nanny goat;
to start doing smth; little kids;
to play a trick on smb; mourning/commemorative feast;
to sharpen ones voice; a blacksmith;
to cry bitterly/desperately; a low/ rough/ harsh/ gruff voice;
to have mercy for smb; a thin/ high/ melodious voice;
to kiss smb good-bye; woods/ forest;
in a blink of an eye; a flagrant lie / crime;
to pay smb back for doing smth; meanwhile / meantime;
to raise ones voice; as soon as;
to lower ones voice; nursery;
to speak loudly/quietly; at the edge of the woods;
to be in mourning for smb; greedy wolf;
to revenge oneself on smb; a chair of wax.

Vocabulary exercises
1. Pick up key-words and new expressions that you cannot guess from the context.
2. Put down vocabulary and terms that deal with various cultural phenomena.
3. Make up a list of domestic animals (males and females) and the names of their babies.
Domestic animals
Animal Males Females Babies Verbs Sounds
they make
Rook, Rooster, Speckled hen- Chick cluck, Crow, cock- -a-
chicken Cock-crow cluck cheep cluck doodle-doo
Cattle, Bull - bellows Cow - moo Calf, calves - Bellow, moo
Oxen bleat moo
Horse Stallion, Mare, filly, foal neigh neigh
haras, stud, gillot neigh,
colt bellow, whinny
call
Pig, swine boar Sow piglet, oink, oink, griffy-
suckling snort, gruffy
grunt,
squeal
Goat Billy Nanny, doe kid bleat baa
Dog Dog bitch Puppy, whelp bark,bay, bow-wow
growl,
woof,
howl,
whine,
yip, yap

Cat Tom Cat Pussy cat, kitten meow, meow


queen purr,
cater,
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waul
Duck Drake Duck duckling quack quack-
quack
Goose Gander, steg goose gosling cackle, hiss, honk
hiss,
honk,
quack
Rabbit buck roe bunny, kitten squeak,
squeal,
grunt
Sheep Ram, buck ewe lamb bleat baa
Swan cob pen cygnet, trumpet, honk
flapper hiss
Donkey Jack Jenny/jennet foal bray eee-ah
Dove Dove Dove chick coo coo - coo
Sparrow Cock Hen chick chirp skuak -
skuak

4. Put down the name of groups for domestic animals and places they live in.
Animal Collective terms (terms of venery) Places to live in
Rook, a brood of chickens, a flock of chickens/ hen coop
chicken clamor/building
Cattle a herd of cattle/ drove, drift, mob,flink cow shed
Horse a herd of horses, a team of horses (in stables
harness), a string of horses (for racing)/
harras /stable/field/race string=ponies, rag=colts
Pig, swine a herd of pigs, a flock of pigs/ sounder/ pigpen, piggery, sty
Goat a flock of goats, a herd of goats/ trip/tribe stalls, pen, goosery
Dog a pack of dogs/ kennel kennel, dog house
Cat a clutter of cats/ clowder, dowt, glaring, cattery, lair, den
destruction=(wild cats)
Duck a raft of ducks/ brace/team/flock ponds, nests, hen coops
Goose a flock of geese, a gaggle of geese/ skein goosery
Rabbit a colony of rabbits, a nest of rabbits, a hutch, form
warren of rabbits (strictly, where they live)/
drove/trace/down/husk/trip/leash/bury
Sheep a flock of sheep/drove sheep shed, sheep fold
Swan bevy of swans/wedge of swans/team ponds
Donkey herd/drove of donkeys donkey sheds
Sparrow host of sparrows/flight of sparrows roof nests, starling-box
()

5. Make a list of traditional English meals and furniture in a farmers house.


Clothes and Traditional meals Furniture Rooms
footwear
outmeal porridge table nursery
rugs
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Animal Sounds Quiz
Instructions: Choose what animal sounds the following animals make.
1. turkey
a. hiss
b. crow
c. gobble
2. doves
a. coo
b. yelp
c. cackle
3. goat
a. bay
b. bleat
c. caw
4. bees
a. squeal
b. screech
c. hum
5. horse
a. neigh
b. croak
c. low
5. Add up to the list of adjectives describing the characters of the folk tale.
Kids - playful, amiable, lively, vivacious, boisterous, careless, nave, naughty, irresponsible, ill-fated, etc.
Nanny goat loving, caring, smart, folksy, rustic, revengeful, frustrated, etc.
Wolf malicious, merciless, cruel, murderous, hungry, greedy, evil, wicked, villainy, wild, treacherous,
resourceful, cunning, with a criminal nature, etc.
Blacksmith talented, professional, artist.
6. Make a list of what is the regular diet of a goat and her kids.

What Is a Goat's Diet?


Goats can be fun and fascinating creatures. You can often find them on farms where they are used for their milk,
meat or wool. Some goats are even kept as pets. A proper diet is always necessary to ensure healthy, happy
animals. Goats have some special considerations when it comes to their food. Some basic information about
their bodies and needs is important to understanding a goat's unique diet.
Function
1. Goats are ruminants. This means that they have four stomachs and digest their food in a unique way, very
different from humans. Each stomach can be compared to a fermentation vat. It uses bacteria to digest the food.
In order for the process to work correctly, goats must have lots of roughage and fiber in their diet. Sudden
changes in diet can be very unhealthy for goats, as it throws off the important balance of the bacteria.
Time Frame
2. A goat's diet should vary a bit through the various life stages. Kids (young goats) younger than two weeks
usually subsist on their mother's milk. From two weeks to two months, this is supplemented with grain, minerals
and hay. Between two and seven months of age, mothers will usually begin to gradually wean kids from their
milk. Special considerations must also be taken for goats, who are gestating, nursing or milking. These goats will
need plenty of extra nutrition and even then may become thin.
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Features
3. Domestic goats can consume a varied diet. Grain and hay are usually staples. Hay should never be damp or
moldy, but hay with some weeds growing in it is actually healthy for goats. Alfalfa cubes soaked in warm water
can be used alone with--but never in place of--hay. Kitchen scraps are an acceptable addition, including things
such as orange and banana peels and various vegetable ends. Treats that can be fed in moderation include
bread, corn chips and raisins. With access to a pasture, goats will also eat a variety of browse. Flowers, shrubs,
saplings, tree bark, weeds and herbs all make for excellent browsing.
Considerations
4. Goats need copper in their diet. This is just one factor that makes goat feed unique. Goats should not be fed
dog food, cat food or even feed formulated for sheep. The unique anatomy and dietary requirements of goats
can make these other diets very unhealthy. Some places offer "sheep and goat" feed. This may be fine for sheep,
but can cause a problem for goats. Sheep cannot consume the copper that is necessary for goats, so goats on
this diet will need supplemental copper.
Misconceptions
5. Because of their big appetite, goats are sometimes thought of as little lawnmowers. However, anyone
purchasing goats for this purpose will be in for a surprise. Goats will readily eat flowers, shrubs and trees before
they start on the grass. This does make them ideal for another type of yard work. Overgrown grasslands can be
quickly stripped of brambles, wildflowers and other small trees and shrubs by a few hungry goats.
Conclusions:
Goats eat fresh grass, .
Comments:

What is the difference between a forest and the woods?


The meanings are pretty much the same, but historically, woods were usually the property of an owner,
i.e. the lord or king of the area, and the wildlife of the woods was his to hunt if he chose. Forests were
more freely available for people to roam around in. Both forests and woods can be described as large
tracts of wild-growing trees and plants which are not cultivated but grow naturally.
However, most of the time "The Woods" means a smaller area than "A Forest". Forests are usually many
miles in diameter. They are usually listed on maps too because of how large they are and they are
usually owned by the state they are in.
Sherwood Forest is a Royal Forest in Nottinghamshire, England, that is famous through its historical
association with the legend of Robin Hood. Continuously forested since the end of the Ice Age,
Sherwood is today reduced to a 165 square-mile (423 square kilometre) remnant surrounding the village
of Edwinstowe, the site of Thoresby Hall. The wooded forest of today is a remnant of a much larger
royal hunting forest, named as the "shire wood" of Nottinghamshire, which in fact extended into several
neighbouring counties (shires), bordered on the west along the River Erewash and the Forest of East
Derbyshire.

Reading Comprehension exercises


1. Transcribe and explain the following words. Comment on the placement of stresses.
Food, woods, door, walk, work, conversation, rough, harsh, inconsolably, desperate, embers,
brambles, wax, somebody, pretending, implore, deserve.
2. Transcribe and explain the following compound words structure. Comment on the placement of
stresses and its effect on the meaning.
Fireplace, meanwhile, mourning feast, fire hole, tasty food, ill-fated.
Grammar exercises
1. Find the difference in the usage of the prepositions till, until, before and do the following
exercise:
2. Explain the usage of tenses in the narrative part of the folk tale.
3. Explain the usage of tenses in the dialogues in the folk tales.
4. What types of sentences predominate in the folk tale. Explain why.
Writing skills development exercises
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1. Write down the character sketches of the Nanny Goat, the Wolf and the Kids. Speak on the
cultural differences in character traits given to the protagonists in Russian.
2. Make up a list of dos and donts for the kids. What mood and clichs would be appropriate for
such a type of text?
3. Draw up vocabulary lists (speech patterns and collocations) for the themes you would like to
discuss in connection with the folk tale.
Speaking skills development exercises
1. Prepare for a debate on animal rights. Bring material or data to support your standpoint.
2. Speak on the folk tale plot development elements and their characteristics. Give examples.
3. What themes and types of conflict could be discussed related to the folk tale.
4. Look at the proverbs and sayings below and discuss with the classmates how they can be
connected with the folktale.

Animal Proverbs & Clichs


http://www.indiana.edu/~animal/fun/wordplay/proverbs.html#cliches

Cervantes described proverbs as "short sentences drawn from long experience."

You can't teach an old dog new tricks.*


One keeps more habits and tastes acquired during youth than acquired after one is
grown.
Don't try to change someone who is set in their ways.
* An old dog can learn new tricks, but it is much easier to train a puppy.
circa 1500s (J. Fitztherbert, Husbandry )

You can lead a horse to water, but you can't make him drink.
One may suggest something to another, but cannot force the other to do what he does
not wish to do.
circa 1175 (Old English Homilies)

It's too late to close the stable door after the horse has bolted.
It's too late to protect yourself after something bad has happened; take appropriate
precautions.
circa 1300s (French -- a tart ferme on l'estable, quant li chevaux est perduz)

ANIMAL CLICHS

Metaphor clichs:
1. I know where your goat is tied.= if another doesn't know your weakness s/he can't use them
against you.

This apparently refers to an old English (Welsh?) belief that keeping a goat in the barn would
have a calming effect on the cows, hence producing more milk. When one wanted to
antagonize/terrorize one's enemy, you would abscond with their goat rendering their milk cows
less- to non-productive.

2. Cry wolf = raise a false alarm;


3. It gets my goat = annoy severely;
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4. Separate the sheep from the goat = distinguish one thing from another;
5. Wolf in sheep's clothing = a person of evil intent who is supposed to be someone he isn't.
6. "If you call one wolf, you invite the pack." Bulgarian proverb

GOAT

separate the sheep from the goats = To distinguish the good from the bad.
Source: Bertram, Anne (Bowl of Cherries)

old goat = an old man, a cranky man


Source: Wayne Magnuson

a scapegoat = One whom is inflicted punishment for the faults or wrongs of another.

The poor scapegoat gets the punishment for everyone else's mistakes. God condoned this cruelty to animals in
Leviticus 16:7-10 "And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the Lord, and the other for the
scapegoat." The scapegoat got to escape, and carry the tribe's sins into the wilderness, to be eaten by some
animal instead of being offered alive as a sacrifice for the Lord.
Source: Silly Superstitions and Funk, Charles

get someone's goat = to irritate someone


Source: Bertram, Anne (Pig's Eye)

"Wherever a goat goes, a kid follows." Mzab proverb

WOLF
a growing youth has a wolf in his belly =
Young people who are growing fast are hungry all of the time.
Source: Bertram, Anne (Bowl of Cherries)

Wolf = a voracious, grabbing, or fiercely cruel person or thing


Source: wordreference.com, The Collins English Dictionary

Wolf = a man who habitually tries to seduce women


Source: wordreference.com, The Collins English Dictionary

keep the wolf from the door = to ward off starvation or privation
Source: wordreference.com, The Collins English Dictionary

lone wolf = a person or animal who prefers to be alone


Source: wordreference.com, The Collins English Dictionary

throw to the wolves=to abandon or deliver to destruction


Source: wordreference.com, The Collins English Dictionary

to wolf down=to gulp


Source: wordreference.com, The Collins English Dictionary

a wolf in sheep's clothing = Getting admission under false pretenses.


Source: Funk, Charles
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when the wolf comes in the door love creeps out the window =
If a couple gets married because they are in love, but they do not have any money, they will stop loving
each other when the money runs out.
Source: Bertram, Anne (Bowl of Cherries)

to cry wolf
Taken from the Aesop Fable, "The Shepherd-boy and the Wolf."

Find Russian proverbs about wolves and goats and compare them with the English ones. Give
your comments.

Discourse and text analysis exercises


1. Explain gender roles in the folk tale.
2. Find and comment socio-cultural patterns of behavior in the folk tale.

SUPPLEMENT


http://www.storybook.ru/russian/

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