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A Mobile Equipment for Thermal Response Test

Article January 1996

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MASTERS THESIS 1996:198 E
ISSN 0349 6023
ISRN: HLU TH EX - - 1996/198 E - - SE

TED
A Mobile Equipment for
Thermal Response Test
Testing and Evaluation

CATARINA EKLF
SIGNHILD GEHLIN

TEKNISKA HGSKOLAN I LULE


LULE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................................................6
1.1 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................................7
1.2 AIM ................................................................................................................................................................7
2. UNDERGROUND THERMAL ENERGY ......................................................................................................8
2.1 TYPES OF BOREHOLE INSTALLATIONS ............................................................................................................9
3. SYMBOLS ........................................................................................................................................................10
3.1 GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ........................................................................................................................10
3.2 PHYSICAL PARAMETERS ...............................................................................................................................10
3.3 THERMAL PARAMETERS ...............................................................................................................................11
3.4 HYDRAULIC PARAMETERS ............................................................................................................................11
3.5 OTHER PARAMETERS ....................................................................................................................................11
3.6 CONSTANTS .................................................................................................................................................11
3.7 STATISTIC PARAMETERS ..............................................................................................................................11
4. THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................12
4.1 HEAT TRANSFER ...........................................................................................................................................12
4.1.1 Heat transfer in bedrock......................................................................................................................13
4.1.2 Conduction of heat in a duct energy system ........................................................................................13
4.1.3 The transient process and superposed pulse .......................................................................................14
4.1.4 The stationary process.........................................................................................................................17
4.1.5 Break time between transient and stationary conditions.....................................................................18
4.1.6 Important equations - Summary ..........................................................................................................18
4.2 DIMENSIONING OF AN UNDERGROUND THERMAL ENERGY SYSTEM ..............................................................19
4.2.1 Ground properties ...............................................................................................................................20
4.2.2 Conditions at ground surface, geothermal gradient and undisturbed ground mean temperature......21
4.2.3 Ground water flow...............................................................................................................................22
4.2.4 Borehole properties .............................................................................................................................23
4.2.5 Heat exchanger properties ..................................................................................................................23
4.2.6 Miscellaneous......................................................................................................................................24
5. THE RESPONSE TEST..................................................................................................................................26
5.1 RESPONSE TEST ............................................................................................................................................26
5.2 THE IDEA BEHIND THE THERMAL RESPONSE TEST .........................................................................................28
5.2.1 Undisturbed ground temperature ........................................................................................................29
5.2.2 Thermal conductivity and thermal resistance .....................................................................................29
5.2.2.1 Constant heat power ......................................................................................................................................29
5.2.2.2 Stepwise constant heat power........................................................................................................................30
5.3 HOW DIFFERENT PARAMETERS AFFECT THE THERMAL RESPONSE TEST ........................................................30
5.3.1 Ground properties ...............................................................................................................................31
5.3.2 Borehole properties .............................................................................................................................31
5.3.3 Heat exchanger properties ..................................................................................................................32
6. EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST...................................................................................33
6.1 THE MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TESTS ..........................................................................33
6.2 TED - A FIRST CONSTRUCTION ...................................................................................................................33
6.3 EXPERIENCE AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF TED ...................................................................................34
6.4 RUNNING THE MACHINE ...............................................................................................................................35
6.5 MATURED TED............................................................................................................................................37
6.6 QUALITIES OF SECOND GENERATION TED....................................................................................................37
7. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS.............................................................................................................40
7.1 THE F-BUILDING ..........................................................................................................................................40
7.1.1 Determining the thermal conductivity .................................................................................................41
7.1.2 Determining the thermal resistance ....................................................................................................41
7.2 A REQUEST FROM TELIA ............................................................................................................................47
7.2.1 Drevikstrand........................................................................................................................................47

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS

7.2.1.1 Determining the thermal conductivity ...........................................................................................................48


7.2.1.2 Determining the thermal resistance ...............................................................................................................48
7.2.1.3 Cooling capacity of Drevikstrand..................................................................................................................49
7.2.2 ngby...................................................................................................................................................53
7.2.2.1 Determining the thermal conductivity ...........................................................................................................53
7.2.2.2 Determining the thermal resistance ...............................................................................................................54
7.2.2.3 Cooling capacity of ngby............................................................................................................................54
7.3 CONCLUSIONS ..............................................................................................................................................58
8. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS..........................................................................................................................60

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
2
THANKS

THANKS
This Master Thesis is part of our education of the Civil Engineering program at the division
of Water Resources Engineering, department of Environmental Planning and Design, Lule
University of Technology, Sweden. To work with this thesis has been a very stimulating
challenge, not the least because of all those wonderful people we have met during the process.
Without these people this thesis would never have been done, and therefore we will take the
opportunity to show them our gratitude for all that they have done for us.

First of all we would like to give our special salute for professor Bo Nordell, our dear tutor on
the subject. He has been the best tutor one could ever wish for, showing great patience with us
and catching enthusiasm to our work. We will also give our special thanks to:
Martin Edman, IdArktica, and Thorwald Lundkvist, Anima AB, who helped us by
constructing TED.
Anders Westerlund and Rolf Engstrm, LuTH, who helped us with all the practical
problems we met.
Svante Enlund and Thomas Hallerdt at Telia for giving us the opportunity to use TED at
their telephone stations in Stockholm and for all the assistance with the tests.
Gran Hellstrm, LTH, for help with the theoretical parts of the study.
Frank Cruickshanks, Environment Canada, for letting us present our thesis at the IEA
Conference in Dartmouth/Halifax, June 1996.
Jenny Salmonsson for generously offering to read the report for correction.
Everyone else who has helped us in any possible way, among them Nykers bakery for
their cookies that kept us in good temper during our work.

At last, but not least, we must thank TED, our mobile equipment for thermal response test, for
cooperating with us when he did. Thanks, all of you!

Catarina Eklf & Signhild Gehlin


LuTH, June 1996

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
3
SUMMARY

SUMMARY correspond, with a good accuracy, to the


capacity actually obtained from the
systems in use. The results indicate that
Underground Thermal Energy Storage
convection occurs at the locations, which
(UTES) systems have recently been shown
explains why the actual service conditions
an increasing interest. Working groups of
are better than those suggested by the
national as well as international character
simulations that were done for the
have been selected to investigate
dimensioning of the systems.
development potentials for the techniques.
Thus the conclusion is that if a response
An important aspect of the development of
test had been executed at one borehole
UTES is to optimise the systems with
before the rest of the system was
regard to the current conditions at each
constructed, the number of boreholes
specific location. Today a number of
required for the system could have been
computer simulation programs of good
reduced, and the costs for the system
quality for dimensioning of UTES are
would have been less.
available, but the use of thermal response
test for determining the actual thermal
As the tests with the mobile response test
capacity of a UTES in situ, has not yet
equipment have given such positive
been granted its legitimate value.
results, development of the test equipment,
in order to further improve its reliability
The advantage of a response test is that
and simple construction, is suggested.
properties of the installation and local
Today the interest is already large from
conditions that are difficult to estimate, can
leading companies in the field to develop
be measured, and thus taken into account
the method of using a mobile equipment
at the dimensioning process. As the
for thermal response test. The method has
properties of the installation and location
also been paid attention to internationally,
quite often have a positive effect on the
and the market for response test is now
capacity of the system, money can be
being investigated in a number of
saved by determining these properties in an
countries, among them Germany and
early stage of the construction of the
Canada.
system.

At the request of Division. of Water


Resources Engineering, Lule University
of Technology, the company IdArktica,
vertorne, Sweden, has constructed a
mobile equipment for thermal response
test. The equipment, which mainly consists
of a pump, a water heater, two temperature
sensors for measuring inlet and outlet
temperatures and a logger for collecting
the temperature data, has in this work been
tried with regard to the construction,
function and accuracy. It has been tested at
two cooling systems for telephone stations
in Stockholm, on request from the Swedish
Telephone Company, Telia AB.

The results show that the measured power "TED saves money! Put your money in a
capacity of the two cooling systems Teddybank!"

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
4
SUMMARY - SWEDISH

SAMMANFATTNING Stockholm. Mtningarna visar att den


effekt hos de bda kylsystemen som den
mobila utrustningen ger, vl verens-
Bergvrmesystem fr uppvrmning,
stmmer med den effekt som man erhllit
kylning och vrmelagring har p senare r
under drift. Resultaten indikerar att
visats ett kande intresse. Arbetsgrupper
konvektion frekommer och kan frklara
nationellt svl som internationellt har
varfr de verkliga driftsfrhllandena visat
tillsatts fr att underska utvecklings-
sig vara bttre n de som simuleringarna
potentialer fr tekniken. En viktig del i
frutsade. Slutsatsen r allts att om
utvecklingen av bergvrme r att p ett
responstest utfrts p ett borrhl vid
enkelt stt kunna optimera anlggningarna
anlggningsplatserna innan hela
med avseende p de frhllanden som
borrhlssystemen konstruerades, hade
rder vid respektive anlggningsplats.
anlggningarnas storlek kunnat reduceras
Redan idag finns ett antal vl fungerande
och kostnaderna fr anlggningarna
datorbaserade simuleringsprogram fr
minskats.
dimensionering av bergvrmesystem. Vad
som dock i dagslget nnu inte kommit att
Eftersom frsken med den mobila
utnyttjas i tillrcklig utstrckning r
responstestutrustningen givit s positiva
mjligheten att mer exakt kunna bestmma
resultat, ges i examensarbetet frslag p
en anlggnings termiska kapacitet in situ,
hur utrustningen kan vidareutvecklas.
vilket kan gras med hjlp av ett termiskt
responstest. Frdelen med ett sdant test r
Redan idag finns ett gldjande stort
att egenskaper hos installationen, och
intresse frn ledande svenska fretag inom
lokala frhllanden som i simuleringarna
nrliggande branscher fr att utnyttja
r svra att uppskatta, kan tas med vid
mjligheterna med termisk responstest.
dimensioneringsberkningarna. Eftersom
ven internationellt har uppmrksamhet
det r vanligt att egenskaper hos
riktats t metoden, och marknaden fr
installation och lokal har en positiv effekt
responstest undersks nu i ett flertal lnder
p anlggningens termiska kapacitet, kan
vrlden ver, bland annat Kanada och
pengar sparas genom att dessa egenskaper
Tyskland.
underskts infr dimensioneringen.

Fretaget IdArktica har p uppdrag av


Avdelningen fr Vattenteknik, Tekniska
Hgskolan i Lule, konstruerat en mobil
utrustning fr termisk responstest.
Utrustningen som i huvudsak bestr av en
pump, en vrmare, tv temperaturmtare
fr in- och utloppstemperatur samt en
datalogger fr insamling av temperatur-
data, har genom det hr examensarbetet
testats med avseende p utformning,
funktion och tillfrlitlighet.

Utrustningen har testats p borrhl i berg-


baserade kylsystem fr AXE-vxlar, som
gs av Telia AB. De tv AXE-stationerna
r bda konstruerade i likartad berggrund
(granit), den ena i Drevikstrand, sder om
Stockholm och den andra i ngby, norr om

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
5
INTRODUCTION

down to the bottom of the borehole in one


1. INTRODUCTION channel, and back upwards in another
channel. The cold borehole extracts heat
from the surrounding rock by heat
Natural heat systems make it possible to
conduction.
utilise solar energy which is stored
passively in air, ground and water. Using a
When the borehole is used for heating as
heat pump, this low temperature heat can
well as cooling, one may speak of heat
be extracted for heating purpose.
storage, i.e. heat is being led through the
borehole for cooling and will later be used
In 1980 the referendum about nuclear
for heating. There are several different
power, which took place in Sweden,
types of UTES storage, but the technique
resulted in a decision to gradually close all
which is said to have the greatest potential
the Swedish nuclear power plants until the
for large stores of thermal energy is the so
year of 2010. As it looks today, this aim
called borehole heat storage. The thermal
will not be fulfilled till then, but still the
energy is then stored in the bedrock
result of the referendum has increased the
between the boreholes.
interest for development of alternative
energy sources and energy saving
Thermal energy storage in boreholes is
techniques. Along with raised taxes on
now shown an increasing international
fossil fuels and a possible closing of
interest. In Sweden there are about 3000
nuclear power plants, energy prices will
UTES systems built every year, while USA
raise and solar heat and heat storage will
produces about 40.000 each year. In USA
see a widened market with an improved
a consortium has been established,
economical potential.
Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium
(GHPC), with the aim of increasing the
There are a great number of Underground
number of installations done each year by
Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) systems
a factor ten. This would mean that by the
available today. One way to extract heat
year 2001, USA would have 400.000
from the ground to support a heat pump for
UTES systems done per year. Also in
domestic heating is to use a deep borehole,
several other countries, an extensive work
preferably in rock with high thermal
is done in this field. (For more information
conductivity. The depth of the borehole
see http://www.ghpc.org/index.html).
may be 40-150 meters. The heat carrier
fluid is heated by the rock, while it flows

Figure 1.1 This picture shows some common types of natural heat systems: 1.
Heat from air, 2. Heat from sea or lake, 3.Heat from ground, 4.Heat from
groundwater, 5. Borehole system. (After Nordell, Sderlund 1991)
C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
6
INTRODUCTION

gains obtained by the use of such a mobile


1.1 BACKGROUND equipment would help to improve the
significance of thermal heat systems in
To make UTES even more economically rock as an energy saving technique.
reasonable it is necessary that the capital
cost is not too large. It is therefore of great
importance to develop methods for better 1.2 AIM
optimisation of the systems. This can be The aim of this study is to describe, test
done by measuring the actual thermal and further develop a mobile equipment
conductivity of the bedrock and the for thermal response test in boreholes.
thermal resistance of the borehole
installation before the full scale plant is A preparatory study to this work was done
built. The two parameters mentioned above in 1995 as a part of a course in Solar Heat
are both of general interest for the and Heat Storage given by Division of
efficiency of the heat store. They can be Water Resources Engineering, University
determined in situ by a thermal response of Lule, Sweden. In that study a mobile
test. equipment for response tests in boreholes
was designed [1]. The equipment was later
During a response test, a heat carrier fluid constructed by IdArktica in vertorne,
is circulated through the borehole Sweden.
installation during a few days. While this is
done the inlet and outlet temperatures of
the heat carrier fluid in the borehole are
measured. The test can be done for heat
injection as well as for heat extraction, and
it is also possible to run the test for one
single borehole or for a complete borehole
system. An important condition for the test
is that the heat injection-/extraction rate is
constant and known throughout the test.
The thermal conductivity and thermal
resistance can then be determined if the
mean temperature of the heat carrier fluid
is plotted against the logarithmic time.

Thermal response tests have been carried


out at several occasions at various borehole
heat stores, but as the test requires a pump,
temperature measurements, a heater etc.,
the tests have so far only been performed
at full scale plants. There would be a
considerable advantage if the response test
could be run before the plant is fully
installed. With the help of a mobile
equipment for thermal response test, this
could be done. The thermal conductivity
and thermal resistance are then determined
in situ for one borehole and the rest of the Figure 1.2 TED - the covered trailer contains all that is
plant sized thereafter. The economical needed for the measurements.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
7
UNDERGROUND THERMAL ENERGY

using some kind of long-term storage, e.g.


2. UNDERGROUND a duct store. The duct store is very
functional. It is general, simple and
THERMAL ENERGY unexpensive, it has a large volume but
does not require large ground surface
Underground Thermal Energy Storage reservations,.
systems (UTES) require that suitable rock
is available, which is the situation in most Geothermal heat and Groundwater heat
parts of Sweden [2]. For low power
requirements it may be sufficient with one While discussing bedrock heat systems,
single borehole, but more often the stores geothermal heat and groundwater heat are
are constructed for large energy sometimes included. Geothermal heat
requirements, and therefore the boreholes refers to the method of extracting hot water
are placed in suitable multiple from deep boreholes (500 - 2000 meter)
constellations. In this study we will only [2].
discuss detached boreholes.
Groundwater heat utilises wells with the
The UTES system can be operated to possibility of extracting large groundwater
utilise the heat from the sun that is flows. The water is directly pumped to the
passively stored in the bedrock. The evaporator chamber of the heat pump
temperature in the bedrock is low, and where the temperature decreases. The
therefore a cold fluid is circulated in the groundwater is then drained to a recipient
borehole to obtain the necessary or is re-injected to the groundwater
temperature difference between the heat aquifer.
carrier fluid and storage medium (rock). In
most cases this type of thermal energy These two types of UTES systems are not
systems must be recharged with heat from based on the same principals as duct heat,
solar panels, waste heat or similar. and will not be further discussed in this
The systems require boreholes of about study.
100-150 meter of depth [2]. The larger
power extracted from the store, the more
boreholes are required, but as the
boreholes influence each other thermally,
one must take into account that a number
of closely placed boreholes produce less
power than the same number of detached
boreholes.

The energy demand over the year normally


shows large seasonal changes. In
households the power demand in
summertime is mainly used for tapwater
heating, while the energy demand during
Figure 2.1 Geothermal energy is extracted
the coldest Swedish winter days will be
from very deep boreholes (500-2000 m). (After
considerably larger due to space heating. Nordell, Sderlund 1991).
For natural energy systems the lowest
energy supply coincide with the periods of
the largest energy needs. A way to
compensate for this seasonal problem is to
balance the energy supply over the year by

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
8
UNDERGROUND THERMAL ENERGY

Geohydrological and geochemical


2.1 TYPES OF BOREHOLE conditions are often unfavourable to an
INSTALLATIONS open system. By inserting one or more
closed U-shaped loops of plastic tubing, a
There is a distinction between open and so called closed system is obtained. The
closed borehole systems, with regard to the heat carrier fluid that is circulated through
arrangement of the tubes through which the system is then entirely separated from
the heat carrier fluid flows in the borehole. the surrounding medium (Figure 2.2 b,c
and d). This circumstance makes it
In an open system the groundwater, which possible to use other heat carriers than
fills the borehole, is extracted from the water (e.g. glycol mixtures), so that
borehole via a single plastic tube. After temperatures below 0oC can be used. The
cooling/heating the water in a heat pump, heat transfer is not as good as for the open
the water is reinjected into the well (Figure system though, as the heat transfer from
2.2 a). the heat carrier fluid to the surrounding
The main advantage of this arrangement is rock takes place via the tube material and
that the heat carrier fluid is in direct the medium which fills the borehole (e.g.
contact with the surrounding rock in the groundwater or sand). This means that the
borehole. This leads to a good heat transfer closed system will have a greater thermal
between the heat carrier fluid and the resistance between the heat carrier fluid
surrounding rock. The heat extraction and the borehole wall, something that will
temperature must, however, be above 0oC reduce the capacity of the system. (see
in order to avoid freezing. section 4.2.5).

Figure 2.2 Four types of borehole installations. Borehole a is an open


installation. b, c and d are all closed installation. b is a common U-loop, c is
an open system enveloped by a 'sock', d is called coaxial system.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
9
SYMBOLS

3. SYMBOLS
3.2 PHYSICAL PARAMETERS
Before explaining the theory of the
response test, we would like to introduce
the symbols and definitions used in this [W/m, K] Thermal conductivity
thesis. The symbols defined below are of rock
used throughout this work: * [W/m, K] Assumed thermal
conductivity of rock
cr [J/kg, K] Heat capacity of
rock
cf [J/kg, K] Heat capacity of
heat carrier fluid
Cr [J/m3,K] Volumetric heat
capacity of rock,
Cr = cr r
3
Cf [J/m ,K] Volumetric heat
capacity of heat
carrier fluid,
Cf = cf f
a = /C [m2/s] Diffusivity
2
qgeo [W/m ] Geothermal heat flow
Rb [K/(W/m)] Thermal resistance
between heat carrier
fluid and borehole
wall
Figure 3.1

3.1 GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS

Di [m] Depth of insulated


part of borehole
Dm=Di + H/2 [m] Mean depth of
borehole
H [m] Efficient depth of
borehole
Hb= Di + H [m] Total depth of
borehole
r [m] Radius
r0 [m] Borehole radius
rw [m] Radius of
groundwater
well
Lp [m] Total lenght of pipe

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
10
SYMBOLS

3.3 THERMAL PARAMETERS


3.4 HYDRAULIC PARAMETERS

K [m/s] Hydraulic
conductivity
s [m] Hydraulic drawdown
in a groundwater well
B [m] Thickness of
groundwater aquifer
Taq = K*B [m2/s] Hydraulic gradient
h [m] Hydrostatic pressure
hw [m] Groundwater level in
well

3.5 OTHER PARAMETERS

t [s] Time
ts [s] Break time from transient to
stationary conditions
tb [s] Break time for time criteria

Figure 3.2 3.6 CONSTANTS

T0 [oC] Annual mean = 0.5772 Eulers constant


temperature of
ground surface
Tsur [oC] Mean temperature of 3.7 STATISTIC PARAMETERS
undisturbed rock
Tr [oC] Temperature of rock R2 Standard deviation
at borehole wall
Tf [oC] Mean temperature of
heat carrier fluid
Tin [oC] Temperature of the
heat carrier fluid
going into the
borehole
Tout [oC] Temperature of the
heat carrier fluid
going out of
the borehole
Q [W] Heat injection
/extraction rate
q = Q/H [W/m] Heat
injection/extraction
per meter

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
11
THEORY

dependent supply of heat. During


4. THEORY stationary conditions the heat capacity
looses importance and so does the time
In this chapter we briefly the theory to
derivative. The equation of heat
understand the response test. If you are
conduction can then be represented by the
already accustomed to heat transmission,
Laplace equation [10]:
super positioning, transient and stationary
conditions, and dimensioning of under-
ground heat systems, you may well 2T 2T 2T
+ + =0 (4.2)
proceed to the next chapter. x 2 y 2 z 2

4.1 HEAT TRANSFER


Transfer of heat can occur in three
The two equations above are valid for a
different ways, through conduction, con-
infinite, solid material in a Cartesian co-
vection and radiation.
ordinate system. The material has to be
If there is to be a transfer of heat there has
homogenous and isotropic.
to be a temperature
difference within the A medium is
Convection of heat
medium (conduction) or homogenous when a
between media (convection certain property is equal
Natural convection occurs
and radiation). in every point. Otherwise
when density differences cause
the medium is
circulation. Forced convection
Conduction of heat heterogeneous. If a
occurs when external forces
certain property of a
affect the medium to such
The diffusivity, a, depends medium is independent of
extent that the density
entirely on material direction, the medium is
differences can be neglected (in
properties and shows isotropic in this point.
running water, for example).
whether a material is a good
To determine the transfer of heat by
thermal conductor or not - the better heat
convection it is necessary to define a heat
conductor the higher the parameter a. The
transfer index. The heat transfer index is
diffusivity is expressed: a=/C. not a material constant as the diffusivity,
but an index that depends on the properties
The fundamental equation of heat of the medium and on the state of flow.
conduction shows how the temperature The heat transfer index is calculated with
depends on a: the aid of dimensionless numbers and can
also be expressed as an equivalent -value.
2 T 2 T 2 T 1 T
+ + = (4.1)
x 2 y 2 z 2 a t

The temperature, T, in a point with the co-


ordinate (x,y,z) is determined by the time,
t, and by the diffusivity, a.

Transient (time dependent) conditions


occur , for example, when there is a sudden
change of temperature in a body, a
periodically altering temperature or a time
C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
12
THEORY

Radiation of heat The ground temperature increases with


increasing depth. This is called the
Transfer of heat by radiation occurs when geothermal gradient. The temperature field
the energy is transported by that under normal conditions exists
electromagnetic waves. beneath the ground surface is considered
stationary. The geothermal gradient does
not vary with time and the seasonal
4.1.1 HEAT TRANSFER IN BEDROCK temperature changes of the ground surface
In a solid material the heat is transmitted do not affect the temperature > 10-15
solely by conduction. Therefore it is easy meter. When heat is injected into a
to understand that conduction is the main borehole, the temperature field begins to
heat transfer in bedrock. A rock is usually change, however.
heterogeneous and non- The more heat that is injected
isotropic, however. In cracks The principle of super into the borehole the warmer
and fissures filled with air and positioning: the ground will become
water heat is transmitted both If two different temperature undisturbed ground tem-
by convection and conduction. fields each satisfies the perature will be found further
The transfer depends on the equation then this is also away from the well. If the
size of the fissures and the true for the sum of the injected heat rate is constant,
properties of the medium that temperatures. the temperature field will
fills the fissures. It is usually become stationary again, but
assumed that transfer of When applied on the equation of thermal it will take 20-25
heat between air/water conduction the principle of super years (see section
and bedrock occurs positioning has some limits however: 4.1.5).
between plane surfaces. 1. It is not valid when freezing occurs and The temperature in
Radiation between two the phase change has to be taken into the ground satisfies
surfaces in a crack is account. the three-
usually neglected [3]. 2. It is not applicable to a temperature dimensional, non-
process with running water since this stationary equation
also gives transmission of heat by of thermal
4.1.2 CONDUCTION OF convection. conduction, eq 4.1
HEAT IN A DUCT ENERGY The different forms
SYSTEM of the equation is mainly linear, partial
A duct energy system is associated with differential equations. This means that
complicated thermal processes. In the different solutions can be super positioned
following chapters we will take a look at and complicated temperature processes can
the fundamental processes that occur in a be made quite simple.
detached energy well. These fundamental
thermal processes can then be super The thermal process that takes place in the
positioned to describe interaction between ground when heat is injected can be
a number of wells. divided into three different parts:
Since the thermal response test is 1. A transient process when the
performed on a detached borehole with a temperature of the ground increases.
constant heat injection rate we will not (Figure 4.2). The transient phase
take into consideration nearby wells will eventually turns into
affect each other and that the heat injection 2. A stationary process when the
rate often varies. temperature of the ground no longer
increases since heat leaves the ground
surface at the same rate as injected into
the well (Figure 4.1). When the heat

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THEORY

injection rate varies with time the The real temperature by the borehole wall
stationary temperature field lies as an will be
annual mean value.
3. A pulse that is superimposed on the for the transient process:
stationary temperature when the heat
injection varies with time.
Tr ( t ) = Tsur + Trq ( t ) (4.3)

for the superposed pulsation:

Tr ( t ) = Tr + Trq ( t ) (4.4)

Where:
Figure 4.1During
stationary conditions the
injected heat is balanced Tr (t) - the well temperature at time t
by the atmosphere. Tr - stationary well temperature due to
injected fluid mean temperature
(see section 4.1.4)
Tsur - the undisturbed ground
4.1.3 THE TRANSIENT PROCESS AND
temperature
SUPERPOSED PULSE
Trq (t) - change in well temperature due to
deviation from mean fluid
There are two differences between the temperature
transient process and the superposed
pulsation. Firstly the transient process When injecting heat, an increase in
eventually leads to stationary conditions temperature will occur. But how large will
while the superposed does not since it is this increase be at different locations?
limited in time. Secondly the transient
process of the increase in temperature is From now on we only look at the transient
superimposed to the undisturbed ground process since the superimposed pulse is
temperature, Tsur, while the pulsation is not important to the thermal response test.
superimposed to the stationary mean
temperature, Tr.

Figure 4.2 During the


transient process the
injected power is heating
the ground.

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THEORY

integrating the equation above eq 4.5, the


equation for a line source is achieved:


q
Tq (r , t ) = dz'e r 2 4 at
=
8(t )
32

(4.6)
q
e
{
( x x ') +( y y ')
2 2
} 4 at
4t

The line source goes through the point


(x,y) and is parallel to the z-axis.
WARNING!
The following derivation is quite boring and Now it is necessary to have the heat power
should not be read by persons who already q over a longer period of time, not only at
at this point have trouble keeping awake. t=0. From eq 4.6 we can derive an
Persons not interested in the details of heat expression for a continuos line source. If
conduction should proceed immediately to the power (t) is injected, starting when
section 4.1.6 Important equations - t=0 and the temperature of the rock is zero,
Summary . then at time t the temperature will be:
To find the answer to the question above
t
we begin with the fundamental heat 1 dt '
Tq (r , t ) = (t ')e r 2 4a ( t t ')

4
(4.7)
equation eq 4.1 and an instant point source. t t'
0
The following derivation is taken from [4
and 5]:

The fundamental equation of thermal (t)=q and constant gives:


conduction is satisfied by:

q 1 s q r2
Tq (r , t ) =
4 r 2 4 at s
q e ds = E 1
T = Tq (r , t ) = 4 4at
2
e r 4 at
(4.5)
8(t )
32

(4.8)

where a= 1 s
c where E1 ( r 2 4at ) = e ds
and r 2 4 at
s
r 2 = ( x x') + ( y y ') + ( z z ')
2 2 2

This solution can be represented in two


T(r,t) is the temperature in the point (x,y,z). different ways depending on what one is
The point source has the power q at the looking for. In our case it is most
time t=0 and is located in the point interesting how the temperature changes
(x,y,z). The initial temperature of the with time at a certain radial distance from
material is 0oC. the line source. This gives:
A borehole made through bedrock can not
be approximated with a point source
however, but with a line source. By

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THEORY

q at r2
Tq (r , t ) = Et 2 (4.9) And since = we will have:
4 r at
E t ( ) ln( ) (4.12)
Where:

1 1 With a maximum error of 2 percent we


Et ( ) = E1 = e s ds will have:
4 1 4 s
r2 q 4at
and = Tq ( r , t ) = ln 2
at 4 r

Q 4at
The function Et() gives the temperature = ln 2 (4.13)
4H r
change with time at the radial distance r
from the borehole.

For 0.5 the following equation is valid at 5r 2


with a maximal error of 1 %: When = 2 5 t
r a
11 1
E t ( ) G t ( ) = ln( 4 ) For values not satisfying
4 16 2 the time criteria in eq
4.13the heat capacity of the
Where =0.5772 (Eulers Constant) borehole filling will affect
(4.10) the result.

We are interested in the temperature at the


4,00 borehole wall, i.e. r=r0:
3,00
2,00
1,00 Q 4at
0,00 Gt Tq (r , t ) = Trq ( t ) = ln 2 (4.14)
-1,00
ln(4t)-y
4H r0
-2,00
-3,00 5r02
0,10 1,00 10,00 100,00 For t
a
Figure 4.3 The functions Gt() and ln(4)- Eq 4.14 is for heat injection. When heat is
plotted against . This shows that for larger extracted the equation becomes:
values of the function Gt() can be
approximated with ln(4)-. Q 4 at
Trq ( t ) = ln 2
4 H r0
For 5 there can be further 5r02
simplifications: For t
a
at 4at
Et 2 ln 2 (4.11) By inserting eq 4.14 into eq 4.2 the
r r
temperature at the borehole wall during the
transient process is expressed:

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THEORY

Q 4at
Tr ( t ) = Tsur + ln 2 (4.15)
4H r0 2H ( Tr Tsur )
Q= (4.19)
5r 2
H 1
For t 0 ln
a . 2(1 + 2 Di H )
r0 15

Eq 4.15 shows the connection between the Which can be simplified to:
undisturbed ground temperature, Tsur, and
the temperature at the borehole wall, Tr(t). 2H ( Tr Tsur )
Q= (4.20)
A more interesting connection is the one H D
between the Tsur and the temperature of the ln 0.01 + i
2r0 H
heat carrier fluid, Tf. In the heat exchanger
there exists a thermal resistance, Rb
[K/(W/m)], between the heat carrier fluid And then to:
and the borehole wall. The thermal
resistance is for heat injection defined as: 2H ( Tr Tsur )
Q= (4.21)
H
Tf Tr ( t ) = Rb q (4.16) ln
2r0

Then eq 4.16 into eq 4.15 gives: The error in these equations are a few
percent maximum. They are fundamental
Q 4at
Tf + Rbq Tsur = ln 2 (4.17) since they give the amount of heat that can
4H r0 be injected annually when the temperature
difference is Tr-Tsur.
Which then can be written as:
The fluid temperature, Tf, will be given if
Q 4at QRb
eq 4.21 is inserted into eq 4.16:
Tf = ln 2 + + Tsur (4.18)
4H r0 H
Q H
Tr Tsur = ln =
4.1.4 THE STATIONARY PROCESS 2H 2r0

The connection between the undisturbed Q 1 H


Tf Tsur = ln + Rb (4.22)
ground temperature and the temperature by H 2 2r0
the borehole wall can be derived by
approximating the well with a thin rotation
ellipsoid and using mirroring to consider
the conditions at the ground surface. The
derivation also assumes that the borehole
radius, r0 and the insulated depth, Di, are
small compared to the depth of the
borehole, H. The following derivation is
taken from [4]:

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THEORY

4.1.5 BREAK TIME BETWEEN TRANSIENT 4.1.6 IMPORTANT EQUATIONS - SUMMARY


AND STATIONARY CONDITIONS
When heat first is injected into a borehole
The break time, ts, between transient and a transient process starts. The connection
stationary conditions is obtained by setting between the different parameters involved
eq 4.18 equal to eq 4.22: is described in eq 4.18:

Q 4at QRb Q 4at QRb


ln 2 = Tf = ln 2 + + Tsur
4H r0 H 4H r0 H
14444 4244444 3
Transient
5r0 2
Q 1 H For t
ln Rb a
H 2 2r0 After a certain time, tb, the transient
1444 424444 3 process ends and the conditions become
Stationary
stationary eq 4.23:
This will give:
H2
16at tb =
= 0 9a
H2
H2 Eq 4.22 describes the connection between
t = ts = (4.23)
9a the parameters during stationary
conditions:

Q 1 H
T f Tsur = ln + Rb
H 2 2r0
EXAMPLE:

The break time, ts, is calculated for a


borehole with the following data:

Depth of borehole, H=100 m


Thermal conductivity, =3.5 W/m, K
Thermal capacity, C=2200 kJ/m3, K

H2 100 2
ts = = = 22 years
9a 9 35
. 2200000

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THEORY

c C
4.2 DIMENSIONING OF AN [kg/m3] [w/m,K] [J/kg,K] [kWh/m3,K]
UNDERGROUND THERMAL ENERGY water 1000 0,6 4180 1,2
SYSTEM granite 2700 2,9-4,2 830 0,6
gabbro 3000 2,2-3,3 860
When dimensioning an energy well one gneiss 2700 2,5-4,7 830 0,6
often starts with a given heat injection rate Table 4.1 Density, thermal conductivity and
(or, as the case often is, a heat extraction thermal capacity for some materials. (After
rate ) that varies over the year. There is Ericsson, 1985).
also a limit for how high (or low) the
temperature is allowed to become in the
There are, however, several parameters
borehole. What one wishes to know is the
that affect the temperature of the heat
temperature of the heat carrier fluid during
carrier fluid that can not be seen in
different times of the year.
equations of heatl conduction. Some of the
properties mentioned above are dependent
Several parameters decide how the
of other parameters. The thermal
bedrock temperature is affected by heat
resistance, for example, is a complex factor
injection in a borehole. From the equations
that considerably with the design of the
of heat conduction we realise that the
heat exchanger. Some other properties are
following properties have to be known if
left out of account by the equations
we know the heat injection rate and want
because they are assumed not to exist or to
to know the temperature of the heat carrier
have a negligible influence. Some
fluid:
properties that are not seen in the equations
of thermal conduction are:
Ground properties:
- thermal conductivity1 [W/m, K] Ground properties:
C - thermal capacity1 [J/m3,K] Conditions on the ground surface
Tsur - undisturbed ground mean Geothermal gradient [oC/m]
temperature [oC] Other physical properties, i.e. groundwater
conditions and cracks
Borehole properties:
H - depth [m] Borehole properties:
r0 - radius [m] Thermal insulation of the upper part of the
borehole
Heat exchanger properties:
Rb - thermal resistance between heat Heat exchanger properties:
carrier fluid and borehole wall [K/(W/m)] Type of borehole filling2
Pipe properties:
type2 (coaxial, U-pipe etc)
radius [m]
wall thickness2 [m]
thermal conductivity2 [W/m, K]
Heat carrier fluid properties:
thermal conductivity [W/m, K]
thermal capacity [J/m3,K]
density [kg/m3]
1
This parameter is only needed when
2
calculating a superposed pulse or transient These parameters are only relevant in
phase. closed systems
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THEORY

viscosity [kg/m, s] Thermal conductivity


freezing point [oC]
flow rate [m3/s] The thermal conductivity of a rock mostly
state of flow (laminar/turbulent) depends on the conductivity of the rock
forming minerals. The thermal properties
Miscellaneous: of the minerals depend on the size of the
Convection [W/m2] crystals and possible defects in the lattice
[3]. The thermal conductivity is also
Below follows a perspicuous summary affected by the occurrence of air and water
about how the parameters mentioned in the ground.
above affect the energy well. The
description is not complete but is meant to The thermal conductivity of the bedrock is
give a picture of the problem. of great importance for the energy well. In
the equations of heat conduction the
temperature difference (Tf-Tsur) is
4.2.1 GROUND PROPERTIES inversely proportional to the thermal
The different properties of the ground is of conductivity (). In the equation that
great importance to the energy well. They describes the transient process this
can, however, not be altered and are relationship is complicated by the fact that
sometimes hard to determine. When the coefficient of thermal conductivity (a)
designing a energy well it is important to is a function of both and time - a
chose a location with proper ground changed corresponds to a change in the
properties. time scale. It is however the direct
proportionality that is most important - the
change in the time scale is of less
importance [4].

Perpendicular heat flow: Parallel heat flow:


n

T T z i i
Tsur T
q = surn
i
q=
zi z r

i
i
i

Figure 4.4 Left: When the heat flow is perpendicular to a


number of homogenous layers the heat conduction is
principally determined by the harmonic mean value of the
thermal conductivity of the different layers. Right: When the
heat flow is parallel to a number of homogenous layers the
thermal conduction is determined by the weighted
arithmetic mean value of the thermal conductivities of the
different layers. (After Ericsson, 1985)
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THEORY

Often the ground is not homogenous but


consists of layers with different thermal 4.2.2 CONDITIONS AT GROUND SURFACE,
conductivity. GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND
This affects the energy well, but it is safe UNDISTURBED GROUND MEAN
to use a mean value of the thermal TEMPERATURE.
conductivity when dimensioning (see
Figure 4.4). The undisturbed ground mean temperature
In many cases the bedrock is covered with (Tsur) is an important parameter when
a layer of soil that has different thermal dimensioning an energy well. It is the
properties than the bedrock. This is usually temperature difference between the heat
disregarded. Even a 10 meter thick soil carrier fluid and the ground that creates a
layer gives a small error when determining gradient for the heat flow from the fluid to
the temperature of the heat carrier fluid the ground - a larger gradient gives a larger
without taking into account the different heat flow.
thermal properties [4]. The error becomes
bigger the thicker the soil layer and the The ground temperature is dependent on
shallower the borehole. the availability of solar energy and on the
heat exchange process with the
Heat capacity atmosphere. The heat exchange between
ground and air is a rather complicated
The heat capacity depends, just like the process that depends on several parameters
thermal conductivity, on the mineral such as air temperature, wind, snow and
composition and on the air and water frozen soil.
content of the bedrock.
The thermal capacity of the ground only The annual temperature changes of the
affects the energy well during the transient ground surface only affect the ground
process. The thermal capacity (C) is temperature to a depth of about 10 to 15
inversely proportional to the diffusivity meters. Deeper down it is mainly the
(a). This means that a high thermal geothermal gradient that determines the
capacity gives a low coefficient of thermal temperature. The temperature variations of
conductivity and a larger difference the surface is negligible to an energy well
between the ground temperature and heat with a depth of more than 100 meters [4].
carrier fluid temperature is needed for a
given heat injection into the well. As mentioned previously, the ground
temperature increases with increasing
depth. This geothermal gradient is a result
of the thermal conductivity and radiogenic
heat production of the bedrock.

The undisturbed ground temperature, Tsur,


at a certain depth, z, is given by:

Tsur = T0+qgeo.z/ = T0+Tgeo.z

The geothermal gradient, Tgeo, varies


between 10 and 40 oC/km in Sweden - the
mean geothermal heat flow, qgeo, is 0,056
W/m2 [3].

Figure 4.5 Conversion of heat on the ground


surface (After Ericsson, 1985)
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THEORY

Figure 4.6 An illustration showing the


Figure 4.7 Schematic seasonal
undisturbed temperature conditions for a
energy well.(After Ericsson, 1985)
temperature variation in the ground. The
oscillations are dampened by the depth
and below 15-20 meters the temperature
The undisturbed ground mean temperature is mainly dependent on the geothermal
is quite difficult to measure and is gradient. (After Ericsson, 1985)
therefore often approximated with the
annual mean air temperature - a parameter 4.2.3GROUND WATER FLOW
that is more easily determined. In making
The different analyses of the equations in
this approximation the geothermal gradient
the foregoing chapters have presumed pure
is left out of account and the deeper the
heat conduction in the rock surrounding
borehole, the less accurate the
the borehole. Disturbances because of
approximation becomes. According to
groundwater movements have been
some literature (e.g. [3]) it is not necessary
neglected. It is usually presumed that the
to take the thermal gradient into account,
effect of natural groundwater movements,
while according to other literature (e.g.
homogeneously spread through the
[4]) the thermal gradient affects deep
bedrock, is negligible. The effect of other
energy wells and has to be regarded. In
kinds of groundwater movement is more
general, the thermal gradient has little
difficult to foresee. An inclined crack with
influence on high temperature systems, but
a large water flow may, for example, cool
should be taken into account for low
the energy well. This is difficult to take
temperature systems.
into consideration when dimensioning the
In urban areas the ground temperature is
well but can be of great importance to its
influenced by heat leakage from buildings
efficiency [4].
and district heating pipes. This influence is
often much greater than the geothermal
heat flow and can affect energy wells in
urban areas. When this is the case, it is
necessary to make a more accurate
determination of the ground mean
temperature than the estimation above.

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THEORY

the ground surface and down to the depth,


4.2.4 BOREHOLE PROPERTIES Di - usually a few meters.

4.2.5 HEAT EXCHANGER PROPERTIES


The borehole properties are easily
manipulated to bring out the best of the
energy well. Thermal resistance, borehole filling, pipe
properties and heat carrier fluid
Depth and radius
From the equation of heat conduction The heat transfer between the heat carrier
eq 4.22 it is easy to see the importance of fluid and the surrounding bedrock depends
the borehole depth. The depth, H, is on the design of the heat exchanger, the
inversely proportional to the temperature properties of the heat carrier fluid and on
difference, Tf-Tsur, i.e. the deeper the the state of flow in the pipes [6]. Heat
borehole the smaller the temperature exchange occurs between the different
difference for a constant heat extraction. flow pipes and between the flow pipes and
The relation between the temperature the surrounding rock.
difference and the borehole radius is more
complicated. During transient conditions The heat flow between two surfaces
the temperature difference, Tf-Tsur, is depends on the temperature difference and
proportional to the natural logarithm of the the thermal resistance. The relation
inverse radius raised to second power (ln between the heat flow, q [W/m], and the
(1/r2). This means that the radius has a temperature difference, T [K], over the
greater influence during transient resistance R [K/(W/m)] is (see also eq
conditions than during stationary 4.16):
conditions, where the temperature
difference is proportional to the natural T = q . R
logarithm of the inverse radius (ln(1/r)). In
both cases a larger radius demands a (Observe the similarity to an electrical
smaller temperature difference between the circuit, U = I . R).
heat carrier fluid and the bedrock with a
given heat injection. The thermal resistance in a closed system
consists of several components:
The thermal resistance is measured per - thermal resistance between heat carrier
meter well and is therefore not affected by fluid and flow pipe wall
the borehole depth. The radius, on the - thermal resistance over flow pipe wall
other hand, affects the thermal resistance - thermal resistance between outer
in closed systems since the thermal pipe wall and surrounding rock
resistance is dependent on the distance
between the pipes and the borehole wall. In a closed system there is also a thermal
The thermal resistance is also dependent of resistance between the pipes and in the
the borehole filling (air, water, soil etc.). boreholes.

Thermal insulation of upper part of In an open system the heat carrier fluid is
borehole in contact with the surrounding rock and
the total thermal resistance mainly consists
The upper part of the borehole is usually of one component.
thermally insulated to protect the heat
carrier fluid from chilling during
wintertime. The insulation is applied from

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THEORY

The components mentioned above are used In a closed system the thermal resistance
to determine the total thermal resistance between heat carrier fluid and borehole
between heat carrier fluid and surrounding wall often varies between 0,10 and 0,20
rock - a thermal resistance defined as: K/(W/m). In an open system typical values
Rb = (Tf-TR)/q are 0,01 to 0,1 K/(W/m). When
The heat carrier fluid temperature, Tf, considering the different parameters
varies in the well, but it has been shown determining the thermal resistance for
that Tf, defined as the mean value between open and closed systems it is not difficult
in- and outlet temperature, is a good to understand why the resistance is lower
approximation. in an open system than in a closed. The
advantage of an open system is the low
The borehole filling is only of interest in a thermal resistance, while the advantage of
closed system. Open systems are generally closed system is the possibility of using
filled with water. To decrease the thermal temperatures below 0oC. The closed
resistance and the effect of groundwater system can alway be used.
movements, it is possible to fill the As the thermal resistance between heat
borehole of a closed system with, e.g. carrier fluid and borehole wall is a very
sand. complex parameter it is often
experimentally determined rather than
The thermal properties of the pipes are calculated.
crucial to the thermal resistance. It is
important that the heat is transported easily 4.2.6 MISCELLANEOUS
though the pipe walls and the walls should Convection
therefore not be too thick or have an When using the equation of heat
insulating effect. As mentioned above conduction it is assumed that the
different closed systems have different convective contribution to the heat transfer
thermal resistance. In a closed system it is is negligible. The bedrock however
also important how the pipe is placed in contains fissures and fractures that are
the borehole. For the thermal resistance it filled with air and water and convection
is important that the pipes are centered in occurs when a gas or fluid in movement is
the borehole. transporting heat. When using a UTES
system the temperature and density
The properties of the heat carrier fluid also differences in the fissures of the bedrock
affect the thermal resistance - the thermal are quite small and natural convection
conductivity and the heat capacity of the hardly ever occurs. [3]. On the other hand,
fluid decides how good the fluid really is there are several forms of forced
at carrying heat. To get a low thermal convection that could occur and affect the
resistance it is also important to have a energy well. If the well is bored through a
turbulent state of flow in the pipe. The system of fissures with different
viscosity, geometry and flow rate of the hydrostatic pressure, a flow is created - a
fluid decide this (i.e. Reynolds number, flow that depends on the pressure
Re). differences and the permeability properties
of the bedrock. The temperature of the
In an open system the only available heat water that will enter the well will be about
carrier fluid is water. This means that the the temperature of the surrounding,
temperature in an open system always has undisturbed ground. This may either cool
to be above 0 oC. In a closed system, using or heat the well. The same situation occurs
a heat carrier fluid with freezing point if an open system is created in a well with
below zero, it is possible to use the latent good hydraulic capacity and groundwater
heat of freezing water. is pumped from the well.
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THEORY

Figure 4.8 The ideal conditions of the theory (left) do not often
correspond with the conditions in reality (right)

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THE RESPONSE TEST

Qw Q
Note:
5. THE RESPONSE TEST mh mT

The idea of a thermal response test is to Qw m3 s


determine the thermal properties of a K =
mh m m
borehole in situ. Each type of borehole and
installation (see chapter 2) also gives a Q W
different thermal loss, and by testing = m T m K
various types of installations in the same
borehole, one may compare the thermal As it is often easier to visualise hydraulic
resistance of the installation types. than thermal conditions, we will here give
an example of the hydraulic drawdown
expression, from [7]:
5.1 RESPONSE TEST
In a groundwater aquifer, the groundwater
There is a clear analogy between conditions are described by geometry,
hydrological and thermal response tests. geology and hydraulic parameters. A
The flux that in hydraulic tests consists of disturbance (e.g. pumping water from one
groundwater extraction/injection (Qw or a number of wells) will affect the
[m3/s]) corresponds in the case of a groundwater conditions. The influence in
thermal test with the heat time and space depends on the magnitude
extraction/injection (Q [W]). The of the disturbance and of the properties of
temperature (T) in the ground corresponds the groundwater aquifer. A controlled
to the hydrostatic pressure of the disturbance means that the amount of
groundwater (h). There is a parallel water, being pumped out or injected per
between the thermal conductivity, [W/m, time unit will be held constant and that the
K], and the hydraulic conductivity, K change of groundwater level in the aquifer
[m/s], of the ground. is being observed.

Figure 5.1 Hydraulic drawdown from extraction of groundwater


in a single well.

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THE RESPONSE TEST

When water is pumped out of the well, the d 2 1 d


+ =0 (5.3)
groundwater level can be described as a dr 2 r dr
cone with its point downwards in the well
(Figure 5.1). During the early stage of the where = h T = h K B
pumping, the water will mainly come from
the aquifer close to the well, and the
groundwater pressure will change quickly. d
As the drawdown cone expands to include Derivation of gives that ' =
dr
larger areas, the speed of which the By inserting into eq 5.3 we obtain
groundwater pressure changes decreases.
After a long time the drawdown will not d ' '
change any more. This type of hydraulic + =0 (5.4)
response test is mainly done in order to dr r
study and determine the hydraulic
properties and limits of the aquifer. Integration gives that
The stationary condition of a hydraulic r ' = C1 = const .
profile can be described with the following
expression (see Figure 5.1):
Going back to and anew integrating
eq 5.4 gives:
Q R
s = h = h 0 h W = ln 0 (5.1)
2 T r = h K B
h K B = C1 ln r + C2 (5.5)
where T = K B r' = C1 = C1 ln r + C2
T = Transmissivity [m2/s]
K = Hydraulic conductivity[m/s] Now we are ready to take a look at the
B = Thickness of aquifer [m] geometrical conditions of the well. The
flux from a cylindrical body can be
The expression can be derived as follows: expressed as:

dh d
Thiems equation for a closed homogenous Q = 2r B K = 2 r (5.6)
two-dimensional groundwater aquifer says: dr dr

2 h 2 h S h
+ =
x 2 y 2 T t
(5.2)

For stationary conditions the right side of


the equation is zero, as no changes is to be
seen in the well. As we are studying the
radial flux around the well, it is wise to
rewrite the equation with polar co-
ordinates, where upon the equation obtains Figure 5.2 The mantel area of a
cylindrical body is determined from the
the following form:
radius and the height, which in this
case is the thickness (B) of the aquifer.

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27
THE RESPONSE TEST

d Q
As C1 = r ' = r = (Eq 5.5)
dr 2
the following relation is seen:

Q
C1 = 2 1 Q Q
h = lnr + C2 = lnr + Const.
C = hKB C2 K B 2 2T
1 lnr
(5.7)

If the undisturbed groundwater level in the


well is known, hw, the integration constant
is determined: Figure 5.3 Thermal drawdown at heat
extraction from a single borehole. The low
Q r temperature heat carrier fluid in the pipes is
h= ln + hw (5.8) heated by the warmer surrounding rock, and
2T rw the temperature in the rock decreases with
decreasing distance from the borehole wall.

The equation predicts that the groundwater 5.2 THE IDEA BEHIND THE THERMAL
level will grow to infinity when r
RESPONSE TEST
increases, which of course is not possible
for physical reasons. The equation is only
valid for stationary flux in a cylindrical In section 4.2 we discussed how different
aquifer with the radius R0 and a parameters affect a heat injection well. The
groundwater level h0 by the cylinder wall. idea behind the thermal response test is to
With these parameters inserted, we obtain: inject a constant heat power into a
borehole with known depth and known
Q R radius. By measuring the in- and outlet
h0 h = s = ln 0 (5.9) temperatures of the heat carrier fluid
2T r
during a period of time, the mean
This expression has a very good analogy temperature Tf is determined for different
with the expression for the temperature values of t. The heat injection starts a
around a homogenous two-dimensional transient process and eq 4.18 shows that
thermal borehole when heat is injected: the parameters , Rb, a and Tsur are
Q H unknown The parameters Tsur , and Rb are
Tom Tr ( t ) = ln (5.10) determined by the thermal response test.
2H 2 R0
diffusivity, a, has to be determined in some
other way for the bedrock in question.

As we have mentioned previously it is


necessary that the injected power rate is
constant. It is possible however to use a
stepwise constant heat power, which is
useful if for example a shut down occurs.
In the following chapters we will take a
look at how the undisturbed ground
temperature, the thermal conductivity and

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
28
THE RESPONSE TEST

the thermal resistance for a certain Q Q 1 4a


borehole installation are determined with a Tf = ln( t ) + ln 2 Rb + Tsur
4H H 4 r0
thermal response test, using constant and
stepwise constant heat power. 5r02
For t (With a maximum error of 2%)
a
(5.12)
5.2.1 UNDISTURBED GROUND
TEMPERATURE Now it should be easy to determine the
thermal conductivity and the thermal
The undisturbed ground temperature must resistance:
be determined before the well is taken into
service. The temperature is determined by 1. Determine the time when eq 5.12 is
measuring at several different depths in the valid, i.e. when t 5R0 2 a is satisfied.
well and then calculating a mean value. To determine the parameters a, and cr
Another way is to measure the temperature have to be approximated (e.g. taken
of the heat carrier fluid while circulating it from a table) for the bedrock in
without any heat power supply. This gives question.
a good approximation of the undisturbed 2. Plot Tf against ln(t) for all values
ground mean temperature if the pump is satisfying the time criteria
not heating the fluid too much [4]. 3. Determine the inclination of the line
achieved in step 2. Since eq 5.11 and eq
5.2.2 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND 5.12 give that the inclination k equals
THERMAL RESISTANCE Q/4H and the injected heat power
and the depth of the borehole hopefully
5.2.2.1 CONSTANT HEAT POWER are known, the thermal conductivity is
easily determined.
In section 4.1.3 we derived the following 4. For every pair of Tf and t, a value for
relation between the temperature of the the thermal resistance is determined by
heat carrier fluid, Tf, and the temperature using the determined in step 3. This is
of the undisturbed ground, Tsur: done by using eq 5.13. Suitably a mean
value is then calculated.
Q 4at QRb
Tf = ln 2 + + Tsur H
4H r0 H R
b
= T T
Q f

su r
(5.13)
(4.18)
1
4a
5r 2 ln ( t ) + ln
Where a = , =0.5772 and t 0 4 2
r0
cr a

For further information about calculations


There is a linear relation between Tf and of Rb and see chapter 7 Measurements
ln(t) and we can rewrite eq 4.18 on the and Results.
form [4 and 8]:

Tf = k ln( t ) + m (5.11)

Which becomes:

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29
THE RESPONSE TEST

N
q n q n 1
5.2.2.2 STEPWISE CONSTANT HEAT POWER N (t ) = ln(t t n ) (5.17)
n=1 q ref

Sometimes it is impossible to keep the


power constant during the whole test When t N + r0 2 5a < t < t N +1
period, maybe because of a power failure.
If the heat power is stepwisely constant the
following method is used [8]: This expression for N will change value
for every stepwise change in heat power.
The temperature is a linear function of N
q1 t1 < t < t 2 (t1 = 0)
in each time interval
q 2 t 2 < t < t 3 t N + r0 5a < t < t N +1 . The inclination, k,
2

. of the line will give the thermal


q( t ) = (5.14)
conductivity according to:
.
.
q ref
q N t N < t < t N +1 = (5.18)
4k

Since the parameter qref is only used to get


The principle of super positioning gives the dimension less parameter N, qref can
that the temperature in the bedrock be given any value except 0. The
increases as a sum of the contribution of parameter qref is eliminated when eq 5.17
each power step. is inserted into eq 5.16.
The following equation is used:
5.3 HOW DIFFERENT PARAMETERS
( )
N qn qn 1
T = ln t t + AFFECT THE THERMAL RESPONSE
f
n=1 4 n (5.15)
TEST
1 4a
q N 4 ln 2 + Rb + Tsur
r
0
In section 4.2 Dimensioning of an
underground thermal energy system we
looked at how different properties affect
the energy well. This chapter will show
Which also can be expressed as: how the results from the thermal response
test are affected by different parameters.
qref 1 4a
Tf = N (t ) + q N ln 2 + Rb + Tsur
4 4 r0
When t N + r0 2 5a < t < t N +1 and q0=0
(5.16)

The dimensionless parameter N is defined


as

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30
THE RESPONSE TEST

Ground water flow


5.3.1 GROUND PROPERTIES
The effect of ground water flow on the
Thermal conductivity thermal response test is difficult to predict.
If flowing groundwater cools the well, the
When performing a thermal response test, thermal response test will give a higher
one of the goals is to determine the value for the thermal conductivity than
thermal conductivity. The value of the what is actually true for that certain
thermal conductivity given by the test will bedrock. It may also give a lower thermal
be a mean value for the bedrock around the resistance than would be expected. This is
borehole, and represents the effective not a problem. If the well is going to be
thermal conductivity that includes the used as a heat injection well, the thermal
influence of fractures, groundwater flow, conductivity and the thermal resistance
bedrock etc. given by the response test reflect the real
conditions in the borehole . If the well is to
Heat capacity be used as a heat extraction well or as a
part of heat storage, the given values will
When evaluating a thermal response test it make it seem like the well is more efficient
is necessary to assume a heat capacity, to than it really is. It is also possible that the
be able to calculate the thermal groundwater has a higher temperature then
conductivity and the thermal resistance. the surrounding rock and therefore, in the
Some values for different different types of end, will give a heat contribution to the
bedrock are given in Table 4.1. heat extraction well.
The existence of groundwater movement
Conditions on the ground surface, in the energy well is a very complicated
geothermal gradient and undisturbed issue both when it comes to dimensioning
ground mean temperature. and to the thermal response test.

As we have seen in section 5.2.1 the


thermal response test makes it possible to 5.3.2 BOREHOLE PROPERTIES
determine a value for Tsur. This value will
show the actual mean temperature in the Depth and radius
borehole when the test is made and will
include the effect of the geothermal The depth and radius of the borehole
gradient and the current conditions on the should not affect the outcome of the
ground surface. The question is whether thermal response test if the parameters
the obtained value for Tsur will be the were correctly determined and correctly
annual mean value needed for used when evaluating the test. However, if
dimensioning or not. For a deep well it will the purpose of the response test is to
not make a difference whether the evaluate the thermal resistance of a certain
measurement is made during winter or borehole installation it is important to
summer. In more shallow wells the season remember that the thermal resistance is
might make a difference in regions with dependent on the borehole radius.
big annual differences in the air
temperature. It is necessary to further
investigate this matter.

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THE RESPONSE TEST

Thermal insulation of upper part of However, by using the response test it is


borehole easy to change the different parameters and
determine how each property affects the
The thermal insulation should not affect thermal resistance. Some of the properties
the results of the thermal response test are of less importance than others and can
When performing a thermal response test be neglected.
on a well with the upper part insulated it is
important to take this into account when As mentioned previously the thermal
using the obtained values. resistance is affected by the way that the
pipes are placed in the borehole. This
property is quite difficult to determine and
5.3.3 HEAT EXCHANGER PROPERTIES difficult to recreate in another borehole. It
is important to further investigate the
Thermal resistance, borehole filling, pipe effect that the placing of the pipe in the
properties and heat carrier fluid properties borehole has on the thermal resistance.
Maybe the placing is of no significance at
The value of the thermal resistance given all, maybe it is of great importance.
by the thermal response test only applies to
that certain borehole installation, heat
carrier fluid, state of flow and borehole
filling.

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32
EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

6. EQUIPMENT FOR
THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

6.1 THE MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR


THERMAL RESPONSE TESTS

The basic equipment required for this type


of measurement is very simple; a thermal
response test requires only a normal water
pump, a water heater, a tank, some
temperature sensors for measuring inlet
and outlet temperatures and a data logger
to collect the data. To make the equipment
mobile it should all be set up on a common
car trailer of moderate size. The only claim Figure 6.1 TED. The entire response test equipment is
that must be made upon the test site is that set up on a small trailer.
electricity supply is available.
6.2 TED - A FIRST CONSTRUCTION
The plastic pipes from the borehole are
connected to the quick couplings of the
In order to make the mobile equipment for
pipe ends on the trailer. The pipes are
thermal response test easier to refer to, and
filled with heat carrier fluid from the tanks
also to give it a more personal touch, the
and the fluid in pumped through the system
whole construction was named TED,
via the pump. On its way, the fluid passes
which does not refer to anything in
through the water heater which heats the
particular. We will throughout this paper
fluid at constant power. As the fluid in the
refer to the equipment as TED.
pipes passes the temperature sensors at the
inlet and outlet pipes, the temperatures are
The equipment was designed as a project
recorded by the logger. Date, time and the
in a course in Solar Energy and Heat
two temperatures are logged at the selected
Storage, given by the division of Water
time interval.,
Resources Engineering, LuTH [1]. Based
The expansion tank allows the fluid in the
on this design, the equipment was
pipes to expand as the temperature
constructed by IdArktica in vertorne,
increases due to the heating. The pressure
Sweden. In January 1996 the construction
watch switches off the pump after a certain
was delivered along with some insulated
set time if the pressure has not yet reached
extension pipes of 30 meters length, in
a certain minimum level, and opens the
case of test boreholes being situated far
pressure relief valve if the pressure reaches
from a suitable parking place for the
a maximum level.
trailer.
The whole equipment is powered by the
socket attached to the electrical unit.
The covered trailer was delivered in a very
delightful design. The pumping device was
installed on a board on the trailer. The
electrical unit was bolted to the trailer's
floor. This first construction is shown in
Figure 6.2 and it contained:

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
33
EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

1. An electrical unit
containing timer for the heater and the 6.3 EXPERIENCE AND FURTHER
pressure watch, a data logger for DEVELOPMENT OF TED
collecting the temperature data and a
socket for 16 Ampere electricity supply. Already when TED first arrived to us, one
2. Two plastic tanks of the tank valves was leaking due to
140 litres, coupled in series and used for freezing during the transport. This gave us
the heat carrier fluid a hint of TED being quite sensitive to cold
3. A pump climate when not in operation, and a good
(Movichrom 6 3/12 PN25 62, code action would be to fill the pipe system with
48533049, 1,5 kW, 220V/5,7A) glycol to prevent freezing.
4. A pressure watch
5. An expansion tank When operating the device, we soon made
(ZILMET IPX, Type 000206, 25 litres, some useful notations. The valve to the
Maximum pressure 3.5 bar) upper tank (Tank 2B) must be closed
6. A water heater under operation as the fluid is otherwise
of 9 kW power (VB 9003 F, 9 kW, pumped directly back to the tank which
400V/13A) causes an immediate pressure drop. When
7. A switch for the heater power having finished a test, the heat carrier fluid
8. Two temperature sensors in the system is regained by opening the
9. Two quick couplings valve to the tank and allow the fluid to
for connection to the borehole pipes return to the tanks. (This is also a way to
(LUDECKE SKG 25 and KAG 10) lower the pressure in the system before
releasing the quick couplings).

Figure 6.3 An explanation to


the symbols used in Figure 6.2
and Figure 6.5.
Figure 6.2 A schematic picture of TED. The
measures of the trailer are 2,7 x 1,5 meters.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
34
EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

The valve to the lower tank (Tank 2A) is The pump


used to regulate the pressure in the closed We ran some tests with no heat power
loop, as the fluid from the tank is being injection into the borehole. From the slight
sucked into the system when the valve is incline of the temperature over time, it was
open when operating the equipment. obvious that the pump itself contributes
with a power of approximately 1 kW.
The electrical system had to be altered so These tests also indicated that the air
that the logger could run even when the temperature changes affect the
pump was switched off. A red was measurements and must be taken into
installed to indicate when the logger was in account in some cases (see further section
running mode. 7.1.2).
A power control was installed so the heater
could be run with only half power, 4.5 kW, Some problem occurred when filling the
if necessary. pipe system if the extension pipes to the
borehole connection were not entirely kept
After a disastrous field test at a borehole in in a lower level than TED. It would
Lillpite, when the climate suddenly simplify the measurements if the pump
changed from moderately mild spring would be of a type that could be used for
weather to arctic conditions with suction as well as for pressure. This would
temperature below -20oC, TED got terribly also help to empty the pipes when
frost-bitten. The equipment froze and necessary.
broke down completely as the glycol
mixture was not strong enough to protect The logger
it. We also discovered that the temperature It is necessary to install a direct display of
sensors were out of function and had been the current measurements to see that the
so ever since the device was delivered. logger and the sensors actually work. If
Being repaired, the pump was now running e.g. over-heating etc. occurs, the test can
better than ever, and TED delivered our then be cancelled. This would also be
first meaningful data. useful to supervise the operation.
A suitable measurement frequency for the
logger appeared to be 15-60 minutes.
6.4 RUNNING THE MACHINE
Air in the system
As the groundwater level in northern Considerable problems with air in the
Sweden the winter 1995-96 was very low, system occurred when the equipment was
most of the boreholes drilled were run with a loop that was not vertical like a
groundwater wells. During our study we borehole. Such a situation occurred for
have therefore only had the opportunity example when the borehole pipes were
make successful measurements with TED connected to insulated extension pipes on
at three different sites. One situated outside the ground. The bubbles could easily be
the F-building at the University of Lule observed when we started to use
and the two remaining at two telephone transparent extension pipes. The air was
stations in Stockholm. not easily removed from the system, and
The technical observations described could not, as we had thought, be de-aerated
below are based on these thermal response from the pump. We therefore concluded
tests. Descriptions of the boreholes and that some kind of de-aeration unit must be
results from the measurements are given in added to the construction to make it work
chapter 7 Measurements and Results. properly.

Pipes

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
35
EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

The transparent extension pipes also The pressure relief


helped to discover the suction/pressure During our initial test-runs at the
conditions in the pipes on both sides of the university, we used water as a heat carrier
pump. It appeared to be such a high fluid as a safety detail in case of leakage or
friction in the total system of the 150 splashing, an action which we often came
meters boreholes, that the mechanical to feel grateful for.
resistance in the pipes caused a serious In the Stockholm measurements, the heat
flattening of the soft extension pipe on the carrier fluid was glycol and brineol. Then
suction side and a bulking situation on the we first observed that the outlet from the
pressure side of the pump. This effect pressure relief was not ideally placed- on
could be mastered by reducing the power the side of the trailer - letting the brine out
of the pump, but as no power control was in the surroundings. We first considered it
available, we had to reduce the flow by mainly a pollution problem, but when TED
partly choking the valve on the suction was placed right beside a rather busy foot-
side. We also tried to reduce the power of path, we suddenly got these frightening
the pump by running it backwards, which visions of the pressure relief releasing and
reduced its capacity to 60 %. spitting out warm brine over the
On regard of the suction/pressure problem, unfortunate pedestrians. As an action
this worked out very well, but against this, the outlet from the pressure
unfortunately running the pump backwards relief should be led back to the tank, where
causes the protective motor switch to any excess brine belongs.
release.

Figure 6.4 Teenager TED and his two mothers did not always agree on
things.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
36
EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

Note also that we suggest a stop valve as


6.5 MATURED TED well as reduction valve for both inlet and
outlet pipes, and that the outlet from the
TED has proved to be a machine worth pressure relief is connected to the tank for
developing. For the future we therefore reasons of minimising the emission of the
suggest a couple of improvements. This fluid.
new design will not only simplify the
measurements and evaluations, but will Of course the placement of the units may
also help to track and remedy possible be rearranged.
faults and problems during the
measurements.

The developed design is shown in Figure


6.5 and is suggested to contain:

1. An electrical unit
containing:
timer for the heater and the
pressure watch
logger for collecting the
temperature data, air
temperature, hydraulic pressure,
flow in pipes
socket for 16 Ampere electricity
supply. Figure 6.5 A schematic view of a suggested second
2. Display showing the current data generation TED.(c.f. Figure 6.2).
3. Plastic tank for the heat carrier fluid
with pressure valve on lid 6.6 QUALITIES OF SECOND
4. A pump GENERATION TED
with power control and which can be used
both as a suction pump and as a
The function of the second generation TED
pressure pump
would be:
5. A pressure watch
6. An expansion tank
Pipes
7. A water heater
As before the plastic pipes from the
of about 9 kW maximum power
borehole are connected to the quick
8. A switch for the heater power couplings of the pipe ends on the trailer.
so the heater can be run on full or half
power
A plastic chute under the couplings
9. Two temperature sensors collects any excess fluid from
10.Two manometers disconnected pipes, so it can be drained off
transferring pressure data to logger to a bucket or similar. Stop valves are also
11.Two quick couplings available for both pipes when direct
for connection to the borehole pipes with a closing of the pipes are needed e.g. for
chute for excess fluid when pipes are disconnecting the quick couplings. The
disconnected reduction valves on each pipe is used to
12.De-aeration pipe change the pressure in the system.
13.Pipe and valve for draining the tank

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37
EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

The Tank
The system is filled with heat carrier fluid
from the only tank and the fluid is pumped
through the system via the pump which can
work both as a suction pump and a
pressure pump.
Only one tank is required, because the
borehole system in general is already filled
with fluid when the measurements will be
made. This gives also more space for
extension pipes and electric cable which
must be transported along with the trailer.
In case of TED being used for geothermal
survey or at boreholes that are not yet
filled with heat carrier fluid, it might still Figure 6.6 When releasing the quick couplings,
be useful with a larger tank volume, make sure they are held downwards.
preferably by two tanks connected in series
as on the original TED. In that case a stop
Inspection holes
valve should be installed between the two
Transparent inspection holes are installed
tanks so that only one tank could be used if
on the inlet and outlet pipes so that
required, as in most cases.
occurring gas bubbles can be observed.
The tank is drained from a valve under the
tank so that the it can be entirely emptied.
Measurements
A grading on the tank indicates the
The temperature sensors at the inlet and
contained volume so that the right volume
outlet pipes, collect temperature data for
of brine can be added directly in the tank.
the logger. The logger records date, time
The tank lid has the same diameter as the
and the two temperatures at an interval of
tank itself in order to simplify the cleaning
1-120 minutes. A manometer on each pipe
of the tank after a test. The lid has a valve
collects pressure data to determine the
to control the pressure inside the tank
pressure drop in the borehole.
when the fluid volume in the tank changes.
The atmosphere temperature is also
recorded so that any effect from daily
The Heater
temperature changes can be seen and taken
The fluid passes through the water heater
into account. A flow meter is connected to
and is heated with a constant power of
one or both reduction valves and data is
either 4.5 kW or 9 kW. The power is
sent to the logger.
regulated by two power switches that each
give half power.
A display on the electrical unit shows the
current data, indicating that the logger and
De-aeration
sensors work properly. Any malfunction
Before the test has started and the power
can also be noticed in that way.
has been switched on it is possible to get
Inside the electrical unit the logger is held
rid of air bubbles in the system by
by a snap latch so that it could easily be
pumping the fluid through the tank via the
removed or replaced. The connection
de-aeration pipe ( No12 in Figure 6.5).
between the logger and the computer is
easily accessible.

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38
EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

The Pump pressure relief valve if the pressure reaches


The pump has now a power control for maximum level. The fluid from the
pressure adjustment. This adjustment can pressure relief is led back to the tank in
also be done by the reduction valves on order to minimise pollution.
each pipe.
Maintenance
Pressure Relief To make maintenance of the equipment
The expansion tank allows the fluid in the easier, a possibility would be to set the
pipes to expand as the temperature equipment up on a board on a roller rail. In
increases due to the heating. The pressure that way, the equipment could be rolled
watch switches off the pump after a certain backwards and forwards and so make
set time if the pressure has not yet reached hidden points available.
a certain minimum level, and opens the

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
39
TED
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

F-building, Lule Univ.


7. MEASUREMENTS AND of Technology
RESULTS U-pipe, PEM
Lp = 35 m
The groundwater situation in northern H = 31 m
Sweden was very bad during 1995-96. r0 = 0.038 m
Many groundwater wells dried up, rw = 2.2 m
leaving households without water. Tsur = 13oC
Under these circumstances, the drilling
companies were caused to give priority Table 7.1 Parameters of
borehole at F-building
to groundwater wells instead of thermal
wells. Thus the supply of test holes for In the following chapters the time
TED was scarce. The measurements criterias will be called tb1 and tb2 and
done for this thesis work are therefore they are defined as:
based on three different test holes. The
first borehole was located within the 5r0 2
University area, and the two others in t b1 =
a
Stockholm at two borehole systems
used for cooling of telephone stations. 50r0 2
tb2 =
The time criteria a

When making our calculations we used The maximum error should be about 2%
the equations and methods shown in for tb1 and considerably smaller for tb2.
chapter 4 and 5. In these an
approximation is made and a time 7.1 THE F-BUILDING
criteria is introduced. It was told that eq Our very first measurements were
4.18 is used with an error of maximum performed at the borehole outside the F-
2% if t>5r02/a. building at Lule University of
Technology. The borehole was drilled
It is not difficult to understand that eq 20 years ago as a test for a new bore for
4.18 becomes more accurate the larger t some research project. Its properties
is (see Figure 4.3). When making a have not been documented. Several
thermal response test, however, time is measurements were done at the
money and it is impossible to wait too borehole, but only the most interesting
long for the test. The question is how tests are presented here.
much money it is worth to get a more
accurate result. Since the borehole is located close to
the university building (Entrance F10) it
We decided to use to different time is therefore most likely affected by heat
criterias when making our calculations. leakage and water drainage etc. from
The one mentioned in the theory the building. The radius and depths
chapter, t>5r02/a, was reached pretty were measured and we had a suitable
fast and we were interested in how the plastic loop constructed for it. The data
results would look if we ran the test of the borehole at the F-building are
longer before using the achieved data in shown in Table 7.1.
our calculations.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
40
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

7.1.1 DETERMINING THE THERMAL The values of the thermal conductivity


CONDUCTIVITY are relatively high for a granite
A response test for determining the (standard value for this type of granite
thermal conductivity and thermal is 3.4-3.6 W/m,K). Since the value of
resistance of the installation was the thermal conductivity determined by
performed on April 25th, 1996. Water a response test is regarded as the
was used as heat carrier fluid and as the effective thermal conductivity, it is
borehole depth is only 31 m, half heat likely that the high values indicate the
power (4.5 kW) was used during the occurrence of groundwater flow
test. The temperature limit for PEM affecting the borehole (see section
pipes is about 50oC, and therefore the 5.3.1).
test had to be ended already after 23
hours. This short test time proved to be
sufficient for such a short borehole. 7.1.2 DETERMINING THE THERMAL
RESISTANCE
Figure 7.1 shows the inlet and outlet Now let us take a look at the thermal
temperatures of the borehole. During resistance of the borehole, that the
the first part of the measurement (to the response test will give us. eq 4.18 is
left of to), no power was injected into now used for determining Rb. Using the
the borehole. This was done in order to values from Table 7.1 and inserting the
determine the temperature of the thermal conductivity from above, the
undisturbed ground surrounding the thermal resistance will show as a
borehole. Tsur was estimated to 13 oC. function of time as seen in Figure 7.5
and Figure 7.6. For tb1 the thermal
At the time to, 4.5 kW power is resistance of the borehole is determined
switched on and the temperature of the as 0.06 K/(W/m) and for tb2 as 0.08
fluid increases rapidly. The two break K/(W/m). As shown in the figures, the
times are calculated, tb1=1 h 15 min and resistance appears to be kept rather
tb2 = 12 h 30 min. The linearized constant over time. The values of Rb are
function of Tf (Figure 7.2) also shows fairly good, as a standard value for the
the two different break times. thermal resistance in a borehole system
is normally set to 0.1 K/(W/m). This
may also indicate the presence of
As shown in chapter 5, the linearized groundwater flow.
function of Tf is used as an
approximation of eq 4.18, or Tf =
kln(t)+m
k Rb
[W/m,K] [K/(W/m)]
Q
where k = ln(t ) tb1 3,62 3,9 0,06
4H 1 h 15 min
tb2 3,85 3,7 0,08
Q 12 h 30 min
Thus is given by . The
4Hk Table 7.2 Summary of results from F-building
inclination of the function for tb1 is
shown in Figure 7.3 and for tb2 in Figure
7.4. Using the parameters given in
Table 7.1, the for tb1 is determined as
3.9 W/m,K and for tb2 as 3.7 W/m,K.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
41
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

The Effect of Air Temperature of about 4 m length in free air. That is


about 15% of the total pipe length, as
In another test at the F-building the depth of the borehole was 31 m.
borehole, TED was run without power
injection, just circulating the water in The inlet and outlet temperatures are
the borehole. The idea was originally to following each other with a temperature
determine the power contribution from difference of about 0.7oC, but do also
the pump itself (approximately 1 kW), show a recurrent dip at 2 AM and a
but when drawing the graph we could peak at 3 PM. These correspond very
also see a clear periodic variation of the well with known facts about
temperatures over the days. (Figure 7.7 meteorological variations over the day
and Figure 7.8). By the time of the [9]. Thus we conclude that if the
measurements, the difference between variation of the atmosphere temperature
day and night temperature in the is great, or if the temperature difference
atmosphere was about 10-15 centigrade, between atmosphere and fluid is great,
and the pipes from the borehole were the measurements may be affected. In
connected to TED by un-insulated pipes winter time this may be a problem.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
42
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

In- and outlet temperatures


F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW
50
tb2
40
tb1

30
T, [oC]

Tin
Tout
20
to

10

0
1996-04- 1996-04- 1996-04- 1996-04- 1996-04- 1996-04-
25 09:36 25 14:24 25 19:12 26 00:00 26 04:48 26 09:36
Date

Figure 7.1 Inlet and outlet temperatures. The power (9 kW) is switched on at to. During the
initial stage, the temperatures increase drastically, but already after a few hours, the increase
of temperature is more moderate.

Fluid temperature versus logarithmic time


F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW
50
tb2

40
tb1

30
Tf, [oC]

20

10

0
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
LN(t)

Figure 7.2 The linearized function of the mean fluid temperature (Tf) with the two break times,
tb1 and tb2, marked out. The function is a good approximation of a straight line, but the incline
of the line depends on the break time chosen.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
43
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Inclination for tb1


F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW
45

40

y = 3,6189x + 2,0884
Tf, [oC]

35 2
R = 0,9717

30

25
8,0 8,5 9,0 9,5 10,0 10,5 11,0 11,5
LN(t)

Figure 7.3 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb1 (1 h 15 min) is determined to k
= 3.62. Using the parameters from Table 7.1, the thermal conductivity is calculated to = 3.9
W/m,K.

Inclination for tb2


F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW
44

43
Tf, [oC]

42

41 y = 3,8497x - 0,6441
2
R = 0,8511

40
10,7 10,8 10,9 11,0 11,1 11,2 11,3
LN(t)

Figure 7.4 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb1(12 h 30 min) is determined to
k = 3.85. Using the parameters from Table 7.1, the thermal conductivity is calculated to = 3.7
W/m,K.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
44
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Rb for tb1
F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW
0,10
0,09
0,08
0,07
0,06
Rb

0,05
0,04 y = -0,0018x + 61,685
2
R = 0,0322
0,03
0,02
0,01
0,00
1996-04-25 1996-04-25 1996-04-25 1996-04-26 1996-04-26 1996-04-26
09:36 14:24 19:12 00:00 04:48 09:36
Date

Figure 7.5 The thermal resistance, Rb, is rather constant over time as can be seen in this figure.
The value determined from the thermal conductivity for tb1 is Rb = 0.06 K/(W/m).

Rb for tb2
F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW
0,10

0,09

0,08
Rb

y = 0,0007x - 26,117
0,07 R2 = 0,0033

0,06

0,05
1996-04-25 1996-04-26 1996-04-26 1996-04-26 1996-04-26 1996-04-26
21:36 00:00 02:24 04:48 07:12 09:36
Date

Figure 7.6 The thermal resistance, Rb, is rather constant over time as can be seen in this figure.
The value determined from the thermal conductivity for tb2 is Rb = 0.08 K/(W/m).

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
45
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Periodic change of Tin and Tout


F-building, 960430-0502, 0 kW
17
16
16
14,7 Tin
15

14 14,3 Tout
T, [oC]

13
13,1
12
3 pm 2 am 3 pm 3 am
11

10
1996-04-30 1996-04-30 1996-05-01 1996-05-01 1996-05-02 1996-05-02
00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00
Date

Figure 7.7 The temperature difference between the inlet and outlet is rather constant over time
(about 0.8 oC). The difference is proportional to the power contribution from the pump itself, as
no power from the heater is added in the test.

Periodic change of Fluid Mean Temperature


F-building, 960430-0502, 0 kW
16
15,7 dT peak-dip ca
1,5oC
14,9 Period ca 24 h
15
Peak value ca 3 pm
14,2 Dip value ca 2 am
Tf, [oC]

14
13,6

13
3 pm 2 am 3p 2 am

12
1996-04- 1996-04- 1996-05- 1996-05- 1996-05- 1996-05-
30 00:00 30 12:00 01 00:00 01 12:00 02 00:00 02 12:00
Date

Figure 7.8 The mean temperature shows a periodic change over time. The period is very even
with dips at 2 am and peak values at 3 pm, and is similar to well known periodic changes of
the atmosphere temperature. This indicates that the air temperature affects the
measurements.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
46
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

compare the results with the actual


7.2 A REQUEST FROM TELIA operating capacity and the results from
the computer simulations.
In May we got a request from TELIA,
the Swedish telephone company, if we The two boreholes that we used in our
could perform response tests at two tests had both been used for cooling, but
locations in Stockholm. TELIA have at the time of the measurements they
recently built two borehole systems for had been out of operation for quite a
cooling telephone stations at long time. This made it possible for us
Drevikstrand and ngby, Stockholm. to consider the bedrock surrounding the
The systems have been in operation borehole as thermally undisturbed.
since February 1995, and have been
working very well. In fact better than 7.2.1 DREVIKSTRAND
the computer presimulations predicted. The telephone station Drevikstrand is
Now TELIA asked us to make a located in Skogs, Stockholm. Four
response test with TED at the two boreholes of about 160 m depth and 5 m
locations, to get an explanation to the spacing are placed in a line and
deviation. connected to the machine room by
horizontal pipes in the ground at about
The response tests at Drevikstrand and 0.5 m depth (Figure 7.9). The heat
ngby would give us a perfect carrier fluid used is 38% glycol and the
opportunity to control the accuracy of system is operated to cool the heat
TED's results. The mission was to carrier fluid from 22oC (inlet) to 16oC
determine the capacity of the cooling (outlet). The data of the test hole
systems with a response test and then (borehole 1) are shown in Table 7.3.

Figure 7.9 The boreholes in Drevikstrand, Stockholm. The 4 boreholes


are placed in a line with about 5 m spacing in average. The test hole is
borehole 1. Dotted lines show the horizontal connection pipes from the
boreholes to the machine room.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
47
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Drevikstrand

U-pipe, PEM
H = 163 m
Rb = 0.0653 m
Cr = 0.194*107 J/m3,K
* = 3.4 W/m,K
Tsur = 9.2oC
Table 7.3 Parameters for
test hole at Drevikstrand.

7.2.1.1 DETERMINING THE THERMAL


CONDUCTIVITY

Figure 7.10 TED was connected to the


The Drevikstrand measurements were borehole via the machine room. Extension
performed during one week. After four pipes were led to the machine room through
days the power injection of 9 kW was a ventilator grill in the wall of the telephone
decreased to 4.5 kW. The idea was to station.
investigate the effect of natural curve. Figure 7.11 shows the inclination
convection, due to the temperature of the linearization, based on the two
gradient between fluid and borehole break times, respectively. For tb1 the
wall. If 9 kW gives a lower Rb than 4.5 inclination was determined to 1.35
kW, the improved heat transfer is which gives the thermal conductivity
caused by a density dependent = 3.61 W/m,K, and for tb2 the
convective heat transfer in the borehole. inclination is 1.09, giving = 4.48
This part of the test has not yet been W/m,K. The difference between the two
evaluated and will not be discussed values is partly explained by the
further in this paper. The effect of such unfortunate adjustment of the
a decrease of power during the temperature sensors. Also the last value
measurements is seen in Figure 7.12. is high for a granitic rock, which may
The last three days of the measurements indicate a rather large contribution from
at Drevikstrand (after the heat power groundwater flow (see section 5.3.1).
decrease) has been removed in the rest The assumption of a large groundwater
of the figures shown in this paper. flow is supported by the fact that the
telephone station is located at the foot
Figure 7.13 shows the linearized of a hill with crackled rock which is
function of Tf with the two break times likely to transport groundwater.
tb1 for t>5r2/a (3 h 20 min) and tb2 for
t>50r2/a (33 h 45 min) marked out. 7.2.1.2 DETERMINING THE THERMAL
Unfortunately an adjustment of the RESISTANCE
temperature sensors had to be done The thermal resistance determined from
during the test period, as the the estimated values of the thermal
temperature sensors used for the test conductivity is shown in Figure 7.14.
were not our original sensors, and did Using the values from Table 7.3, the
not fit perfectly at the measuring point. thermal resistance of the borehole was
The time for the adjustment is in Figure found to be for tb1, Rb = 0.07 K/(W/m),
7.13 seen as a discontinuity of the and Rb = 0.09 K/(W/m) for tb2.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
48
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

7.2.1.3 COOLING CAPACITY OF operation will be 30 W/m. In April -96


DREVIKSTRAND the cooling system had been in
operation periodically for about one
Using these values of Rb and , it is year. The mean capacity obtained from
possible to estimate the maximum mean the system was 40 W/m, and the
capacity that is obtained during simulations predicted about 25 W/m.
continuous operation of the system.
Given that the mean value of the heat
carrier fluid must not exceed Tf =
(22+16)/2 = 19oC, the capacity for
stationary conditions of the measured
borehole is 4.3 kW (27 W/m) for the k Rb
values of tb1 and 4.9 kW (30 W/m) for [W/m,K] [K/(W/m)]
the values of tb2. Stationary conditions tb1 1,35 3,61 0,07
will for this type of system be reached 3 h 20 min
in about 30 years. The values from TED tb2 1,09 4,48 0,09
33 h 45 min
show that the mean capacity of the
system after one year of continual Table 7.4 Summary of results from Drevikstrand

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
49
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

In- and outlet temperatures


Drevikstrand, 960514-20
o
dT ~ 20,3-16,9 = 4,6 C
23
Q = 9 kW => Q = 4,5 kW
21

19
Tin
17
T, [oC]

Tout
15 o
dT ~ 18,8-16,9 = 2,1 C
13

11

9
1996- 1996- 1996- 1996- 1996- 1996- 1996- 1996-
05-14 05-15 05-16 05-17 05-18 05-19 05-20 05-21
00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00
Date

Figure 7.12 Inlet and outlet temperatures. The power (9 kW) is switched on at to. In the
initial stage, the temperatures increase drastically, but already after a few hours, the increase
of temperature is more moderate. After four days the power injection is decreased to 4.5 kW in
order to control the effect of natural convection. This part of the test is not further discussed
here.

Fluid Mean Temperature versus logarithmic time


Drevikstrand, 960514-17, 9 kW
25
tb2
20 tb1

15
Tf, [oC]

Adjustment of
10 temperature
sensors
5

0
6,5 7,5 8,5 9,5 10,5 11,5 12,5
LN(t)

Figure 7.11 The linearized function of the mean fluid temperature (Tf) with the two break times,
tb1 and tb2, marked out. The function is a good approximation of a straight line, but the incline
of the line depends on the break time chosen. An adjustment of the temperature sensors is seen
in the figure as a discontinuity of the function.
C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
50
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Inclination for tb1


Drevikstrand, 960514-17, 9 kW
22

20

18 y = 1,3498x + 4,2362
2
Tf, [oC]

R = 0,9778
16

14

12

10
9,0 9,5 10,0 10,5 11,0 11,5 12,0 12,5
LN(t)

Figure 7.13 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb1(3 h 20 min) is determined to
k = 1.35. Using the parameters from Table 7.3, the thermal conductivity is calculated to =
3.61 W/m,K.

Inclination for tb2


Drevikstrand, 960514-17, 9 kW

21,0

20,5
y = 1,0871x + 7,4013
2
R = 0,9395

20,0
11,7 11,8 11,9 12,0 12,1 12,2 12,3 12,4 12,5

Figure 7.14 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb2 (33 h 45 min) is determined
to k = 1.09. Using the parameters from Table 7.3, the thermal conductivity is calculated to =
4.48 W/m,K.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
51
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Thermal Resistance of the Borehole


Drevikstrand, 960514-17, 9 kW
0,10
tb2

0,09
Rb

0,08
tb1

0,07

0,06
1996-05-15 1996-05-15 1996-05-16 1996-05-16 1996-05-17 1996-05-17 1996-05-18
00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00
Date

Figure 7.15 The thermal resistance, Rb, is rather constant over time as is seen in this figure. The
value determined from the thermal conductivity for tb1 is Rb = 0.07 K/(W/m) and tb2 gives Rb = 0.09
K/(W/m .

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
52
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

The time for the adjustment is in Figure


7.2.2 NGBY 7.19 seen as a discontinuity of the
The telephone station ngby is located function.
in Bromma, Stockholm. Thirteen In Figure 7.21 and Figure 7.22 the
boreholes of about 130-160 m depth, inclination of the linearization, based on
placed in an irregular pattern are the respective break times, is seen. For
connected to the machine room by tb1 the inclination is determined to 1.52
horizontal pipes in the ground at 0.6-0.8 which gives the thermal conductivity
m depth (Figure 7.16) Today only 6 = 3.77 W/m,K, and for tb2 the
boreholes are in use, as the capacity of inclination is 1.23, giving = 4.65
the total system of 13 boreholes proved W/m,K. The difference between the two
to exceed the needs. The heat carrier values is partly explained by the
fluid used is 38% brineol and the unfortunate adjustment of the temp
system is operated to keep a Tf of sensors. The values are probably too
maximum 17oC. The data of the testhole high, as the effect of the horizontal
(borehole 3) are shown in Table 7.5. pipes connecting the borehole with the
machine room has not been taken into
account, and would decrease the
7.2.2.1DETERMINING THE THERMAL conductivity.
CONDUCTIVITY
Measurements were done at ngby ngby
during 4 days with 9 kW power U-pipe, PEM
injected. Figure 7.20 shows the H = 139 m
linearized function of Tf with the two Rb = 0.05525 m
break times tb1 for t>5r2/a (2 h 25 min) Cr = 0.194*107 J/m3,K
and tb2 for t>50r2/a (24 h 15 min) * = 3.4 W/m,K
marked out. Unfortunately an adjust- Tsur = 12oC
ment of the temperature sensors had to Table 7.5 Parameters for
be done at this test as well. testhole at ngby.

Figure 7.16 The borehole site at the telephone station at ngby, Stockholm. The 13
boreholes are spread over the area outside the building in an irregular pattern. Only 6 of
the boreholes (borehole 1, 4, 8, 9, 11 and 12) are in use. The test hole is borehole 3.
Dotted lines show the horizontal connection pipes to the machine room in the lower right
C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
53
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

7.2.2.2 DETERMINING THE THERMAL 7.2.2.3 COOLING CAPACITY OF NGBY


RESISTANCE Using the values of Rb and btained
The thermal resistance determined from in section 7.2.2.2, the maximum mean
the estimated values of the thermal capacity is obtained for continual
conductivity is shown in Figure 7.23. operation of the system. Given that the
Using the values from Table 7.5, the mean value of the heat carrier fluid
thermal resistance of the was found to must not exceed Tf = (20+14)/2 = 17oC,
be for tb1, Rb = 0.04 K/(W/m), and Rb = the capacity for stationary conditions of
0.05 K/(W/m) for tb2. the measured borehole is 2.0 kW (15
W/m) for the values of tb1 and 2.4 kW
k Rb (17 W/m) for the values of tb2.
[W/m,K] [K/(W/m)] Stationary conditions will for this type
tb1 1,52 3,77 0,04 of system be reached in about 30 years.
2 h 25 min
In April -96 the cooling system had
tb2 1,23 4,65 0,05 been in operation periodically for about
24 h 15 min
one year. The mean capacity obtained
Table 7.6 Summary of results from ngby from the system was 27 W/m (6
boreholes). The presimulations
predicted about 13 W/m.

Figure 7.18 The trench through which the


horizontal connection pipes are led from
the boreholes to the machine room has a
depth of 0,6-0,8 m. The pipes are placed
side by side with a 30 mm thick board to
Figure 7.17 The test hole at ngby (borehole separate the inlet pipes from the outlet
3) is filled with groundwater. The upper 4,5 pipes. The surrounding material is sand.
meters of the borehole is surrounded by a
soil/clay layer and a moraine layer. The rest of
the borehole is drilled through granite rock to
a total depth of 139 m. A steel pipe protects the
uppermost 6 m of the borehole from any
damage due to frost, settling or violence.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
54
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Tin and Tout,


ngby, 960520-23, 9 kW
30
Adjustment of
temperature tb2 Tin
25
sensors
20 Tout
T, [oC]

15
to
tb1
10

0
1996-05-20 1996-05-21 1996-05-21 1996-05-22 1996-05-22 1996-05-23 1996-05-23
12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00
Date

Figure 7.19 Inlet and outlet temperatures. The power (9 kW) is switched on at to. In the initial
stage, the temperatures increase drastically, but already after a few hours, the increase of
temperature is more moderate. An adjustment of the temperature sensors is seen in the figure as a
discontinuity of the function.

Fluid Mean Temperature versus logarithmic time


ngby, 960520-23, 9 kW
25
tb2
20 tb1

15
Tf, [oC]

10

0
6,5 7,5 8,5 9,5 10,5 11,5 12,5
LN(t)

Figure 7.20 The linearized function of the mean fluid temperature (Tf) with the two break times, tb1
and tb2, marked out. The function is a good approximation of a straight line, but the incline of the
line depends on the break time chosen.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
55
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Inclination for tb1


ngby, 960520-23, 9 kW
25

23

21
Tf, [oC]

y = 1,5245x + 4,2993
2
19 R = 0,983

17

15
9,0 9,5 10,0 10,5 11,0 11,5 12,0 12,5
LN(t)

Figure 7.21 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb1(2 h 25 min) is
determined to k = 1.52. Using the parameters from Table 7.5, the thermal conductivity is
calculated to = 3.77 W/m,K.

Inclination for tb2


ngby, 960520-23, 9 kW
23,5

23
Tf, [oC]

22,5
y = 1,2286x + 7,8123
2
R = 0,9547
22

21,5
11,2 11,4 11,6 11,8 12,0 12,2 12,4
LN(t)

Figure 7.22 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb2 (24 h 15 min) is determined to
k = 1.23. Using the parameters from Table 7.5, the thermal conductivity is calculated to = 4.65
W/m,K.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
56
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Thermal Resistance of the


Borehole ngby, 960520-23, 9 kW
0,06
tb2
0,05

0,04
tb1
Rb

0,03

0,02

0,01

0,00
1996-05-20 1996-05-21 1996-05-21 1996-05-22 1996-05-22 1996-05-23 1996-05-23
12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00
Date

Figure 7.23 The thermal resistance, Rb, is rather constant over time as is seen in this figure. The
value determined from the thermal conductivity for tb1 is Rb = 0.04 K/(W/m) and tb2 gives Rb = 0.05
K/(W/m).

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
57
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

For Drevikstrand, the precalculations


7.3 CONCLUSIONS suggested a mean capacity of about 25
The cooling power capacity of the systems W/m, while the obtained cooling capacity
at Drevikstrand and ngby estimated by of the system is estimated to 40 W/m after
the measurements from TED are shown in operation from February to September
Figure 7.24.The values from TED are 1995. TEDs measurements suggest that the
mean values of the results from the two cooling capacity at stationary conditions is
break times, and are calculated for the 30 W/m.
cooling capacity after 30 years when
stationary conditions are reached. The The precalculations for ngby suggested
values are compared with the precalculated 13 W/m, but after one year of operation,
computer simulations and the obtained the obtained cooling capacity is 27 W/m.
power capacity from the systems by the TEDs measurements suggests 16 W/m at
end of 1995. stationary conditions.

The cooling capacity of the systems The capacities for stationary conditions are
decrease with time until stationary about 20 % better than the precalculations
conditions occur. This is due to the fact predicted. That means that for ngby, the
that the distance to the undisturbed ground number of boreholes may have been
temperature increases until a balance with reduced from 13 to 11 boreholes.
the atmosphere is obtained (see section For the Drevikstrand case, the system was
4.1.2). Therefore it reasonable to assume not dimensioned to cover the whole
that the obtained cooling capacity today is cooling demand, but to be supported by
higher than the stationary cooling capacity. conventional cooling as well. Today
The cooling systems have only been run additional cooling is not needed, because
for a couple of years, yet. the underground cooling system exceeds
the expectations.

Capacity of cooling systems at


40 Drevikstrand and ngby
40
30 Precalculated q
30 25 27
Obtained q
q [W/m]

20 16 TED 30 yr
13
10

0
Drevikstrand ngby

Figure 7.24 The diagram shows the expected cooling capacity (W/m) from the
precalculations, with the obtained cooling capacity and the expected capacity
at stationary conditions, based on the thermal response test.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
58
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

For Drevikstrand, simulations have also the expected temperature from the
been done for the outlet and inlet precalculations. The simulations based on
temperatures from the boreholes. the results from the response test
Comparison has been done between the correspond very well with the measured
expected temperatures from the temperature from the system, and thus we
precalculated computer simulations, the conclude that thermal response test is a
simulated temperatures from the response suitable tool for dimensioning UTES
test, and the measured temperatures of the systems.
system in operation. The simulations have
been done by Dr. G. Hellstrm, LTH, and The improvements of the thermal
are here presented as comparisons between capacities of the boreholes can probably be
the mean fluid temperatures, Tf (figure explained by the occurrence of
7.25). groundwater flow in the rock and natural
convection in the borehole systems.
The comparison shows that the measured
temperature is in average 4oC lower than

Drevikstrand; presimulated, TED, measured

30,0

25,0

20,0

Tf simulations
15,0 Tf response
Tf

Tf Measured

10,0

5,0

0,0
1995-01-01 1995-02-20 1995-04-11 1995-05-31 1995-07-20 1995-09-08

Figure 7.25 Measured mean temperatures at Drevikstrand, compared to simulations using Rb


and from the presimulations and the response test.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
59
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

installation. The reliability of the


8. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS measurements done with TED seem to be
good.
From the measurements at the telephone
As a technical tool for marketing UTES
stations in Stockholm, one can conclude
systems, TED has proved to be worth
that if a response test had been done at one
further developing. There are still a few
borehole before the rest of the system had
technical details to work on, and a general
been constructed, money had been saved
observation is that it is better with too
by reducing the number of boreholes. For
many parameters measured than too few,
the Drevikstrand case, the system is now
at least at the research stage.
covering the total needs for the cooling
TED has a technically very simple
capacity, which was not originally
construction, and is therefore easy to use
planned. It was originally meant as a
and maintain. The results from the
complement to the ordinary freon heat
measurements are simple to evaluate and
exchanger.
understand, which makes TED a useful
tool with many possible applications.
Our conclusion is thus that thermal
response test with mobile equipment
TED makes it possible to determine the
should become a standard tool for
effective thermal conductivity and the total
dimensioning and evaluation of
thermal resistance of a borehole
underground thermal energy systems.

Soaked but proud. TED could sometimes show his special


kind of humour.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
60
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

The development of TED will now telephone stations and have shown a great
continue as a four years research project by interest for the mobile response test
S.Gehlin at the division of Water equipment. With their help, a rough
Resources Engineering, Lule University geothermal survey may also be done for
of Technology, Sweden. There are now Sweden, i.e. a map over the efficient
120 well documented boreholes from a thermal properties of the Swedish bedrock.
previous research project in Lule
available for further research with TED. The Swedish Heat Pump Consortium,
They will be used for studying different SVEP, is supporting the research, based on
types of borehole installations, materials of their interest of using thermal response test
the pipes and fillings, installation for solving juridical controversies with
techniques, heat carrier fluids, natural heat extraction boreholes that do not keep
convection, forced convection, effects of the promised capacity etc. and to avoid
cracks, groundwater flow, soil layers etc. future controversies.
The method can also be used for studying
parameters in soil, clay and complex rock Already has the work with a mobile
species. equipment for thermal response test been
shown interest from several countries,
TELIA is planning to expand the among them Germany and Canada.
application of borehole cooling of

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
61
REFERENCES

REFERENCES
[1] Eklf, Gehlin, Jonsson, Nilsson, 1995. Mobil utrustning fr termisk responstest (A
mobile equipment for thermal response test). Division of Water Resources Engineering,
Lule University of Technology, Sweden.

[2] Nordell, Sderlund, 1991. Solvrme och vrmelagring (Solar heating and heat storage).
Series C no. 16. Divison of Water Resources Engineering, University of Technology,
Lule, Sweden.

[3] Ericsson, 1985. Vrmeutbyte mellan berggrund och borrhl vid bergvrmesystem (Heat
exchange between crystalline bedrock and borehole in an energy well system).
Publication A 52. Department of Geology, Chalmers University of Technology and
University of Gteborg, Gteborg, Sweden.

[4] Claesson, Eftring, Eskilson, Hellstrm, 1985. Markvrme. En handbok om termiska


analyser. Del III Naturvrmekllor (Ground heat systems. A handbook on thermal
analysis. Part III Natural heat sources). T18:1985. Statens rd fr byggforskning,
Stockholm, Sweden.

[5] Carlslaw, Jaeger, 1959. Conduction of heat in solids. University press, Oxford, Great
Britain. Chapt. 10

[6] Claesson, Eftring, Eskilson, Hellstrm, 1985. Markvrme. En handbok om termiska


analyser. Del II Vrmelager (Ground heat systems. A handbook on thermal analysis. Part
II Heat storage ). T17:1985. Statens rd fr byggforskning, Stockholm, Sweden.

[7] Carlsson, Gustafson, 1991. Provpumpning som geohydrologisk underskningsmetodik


(The well pumping test used as a geohydrological research method). R66:1991. Statens
rd fr byggforskning, Stockholm, Sweden.

[8] Eskilson, Hellstrm, Wnggren, 1987. Response test for heat store with 25 boreholes.
Notes of heat transfer 9-1987. Departments of Building Technology and Mathematical
Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden and Monitoring Centre for Energy
Research. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

[9] Nordell, private conversation.

[10] Claesson, Eftring, Eskilson, Hellstrm, 1985. Markvrme. En handbok om termiska


analyser. Del I Allmn del (Ground heat systems. A handbook on thermal analysis.
PartI). T16:1985. Statens rd fr byggforskning, Stockholm, Sweden.

[11] Incropera, de Witt, 1990. Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 3rd edition.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST
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