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MASTERS THESIS 1996:198 E

ISSN 0349 6023

ISRN: HLU TH EX - - 1996/198 E - - SE

TED

A Mobile Equipment for

Thermal Response Test

Testing and Evaluation

CATARINA EKLF

SIGNHILD GEHLIN

LULE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................................................6

1.1 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................................7

1.2 AIM ................................................................................................................................................................7

2. UNDERGROUND THERMAL ENERGY ......................................................................................................8

2.1 TYPES OF BOREHOLE INSTALLATIONS ............................................................................................................9

3. SYMBOLS ........................................................................................................................................................10

3.1 GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ........................................................................................................................10

3.2 PHYSICAL PARAMETERS ...............................................................................................................................10

3.3 THERMAL PARAMETERS ...............................................................................................................................11

3.4 HYDRAULIC PARAMETERS ............................................................................................................................11

3.5 OTHER PARAMETERS ....................................................................................................................................11

3.6 CONSTANTS .................................................................................................................................................11

3.7 STATISTIC PARAMETERS ..............................................................................................................................11

4. THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................12

4.1 HEAT TRANSFER ...........................................................................................................................................12

4.1.1 Heat transfer in bedrock......................................................................................................................13

4.1.2 Conduction of heat in a duct energy system ........................................................................................13

4.1.3 The transient process and superposed pulse .......................................................................................14

4.1.4 The stationary process.........................................................................................................................17

4.1.5 Break time between transient and stationary conditions.....................................................................18

4.1.6 Important equations - Summary ..........................................................................................................18

4.2 DIMENSIONING OF AN UNDERGROUND THERMAL ENERGY SYSTEM ..............................................................19

4.2.1 Ground properties ...............................................................................................................................20

4.2.2 Conditions at ground surface, geothermal gradient and undisturbed ground mean temperature......21

4.2.3 Ground water flow...............................................................................................................................22

4.2.4 Borehole properties .............................................................................................................................23

4.2.5 Heat exchanger properties ..................................................................................................................23

4.2.6 Miscellaneous......................................................................................................................................24

5. THE RESPONSE TEST..................................................................................................................................26

5.1 RESPONSE TEST ............................................................................................................................................26

5.2 THE IDEA BEHIND THE THERMAL RESPONSE TEST .........................................................................................28

5.2.1 Undisturbed ground temperature ........................................................................................................29

5.2.2 Thermal conductivity and thermal resistance .....................................................................................29

5.2.2.1 Constant heat power ......................................................................................................................................29

5.2.2.2 Stepwise constant heat power........................................................................................................................30

5.3 HOW DIFFERENT PARAMETERS AFFECT THE THERMAL RESPONSE TEST ........................................................30

5.3.1 Ground properties ...............................................................................................................................31

5.3.2 Borehole properties .............................................................................................................................31

5.3.3 Heat exchanger properties ..................................................................................................................32

6. EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST...................................................................................33

6.1 THE MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TESTS ..........................................................................33

6.2 TED - A FIRST CONSTRUCTION ...................................................................................................................33

6.3 EXPERIENCE AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF TED ...................................................................................34

6.4 RUNNING THE MACHINE ...............................................................................................................................35

6.5 MATURED TED............................................................................................................................................37

6.6 QUALITIES OF SECOND GENERATION TED....................................................................................................37

7. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS.............................................................................................................40

7.1 THE F-BUILDING ..........................................................................................................................................40

7.1.1 Determining the thermal conductivity .................................................................................................41

7.1.2 Determining the thermal resistance ....................................................................................................41

7.2 A REQUEST FROM TELIA ............................................................................................................................47

7.2.1 Drevikstrand........................................................................................................................................47

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

7.2.1.2 Determining the thermal resistance ...............................................................................................................48

7.2.1.3 Cooling capacity of Drevikstrand..................................................................................................................49

7.2.2 ngby...................................................................................................................................................53

7.2.2.1 Determining the thermal conductivity ...........................................................................................................53

7.2.2.2 Determining the thermal resistance ...............................................................................................................54

7.2.2.3 Cooling capacity of ngby............................................................................................................................54

7.3 CONCLUSIONS ..............................................................................................................................................58

8. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS..........................................................................................................................60

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

2

THANKS

THANKS

This Master Thesis is part of our education of the Civil Engineering program at the division

of Water Resources Engineering, department of Environmental Planning and Design, Lule

University of Technology, Sweden. To work with this thesis has been a very stimulating

challenge, not the least because of all those wonderful people we have met during the process.

Without these people this thesis would never have been done, and therefore we will take the

opportunity to show them our gratitude for all that they have done for us.

First of all we would like to give our special salute for professor Bo Nordell, our dear tutor on

the subject. He has been the best tutor one could ever wish for, showing great patience with us

and catching enthusiasm to our work. We will also give our special thanks to:

Martin Edman, IdArktica, and Thorwald Lundkvist, Anima AB, who helped us by

constructing TED.

Anders Westerlund and Rolf Engstrm, LuTH, who helped us with all the practical

problems we met.

Svante Enlund and Thomas Hallerdt at Telia for giving us the opportunity to use TED at

their telephone stations in Stockholm and for all the assistance with the tests.

Gran Hellstrm, LTH, for help with the theoretical parts of the study.

Frank Cruickshanks, Environment Canada, for letting us present our thesis at the IEA

Conference in Dartmouth/Halifax, June 1996.

Jenny Salmonsson for generously offering to read the report for correction.

Everyone else who has helped us in any possible way, among them Nykers bakery for

their cookies that kept us in good temper during our work.

At last, but not least, we must thank TED, our mobile equipment for thermal response test, for

cooperating with us when he did. Thanks, all of you!

LuTH, June 1996

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

3

SUMMARY

capacity actually obtained from the

systems in use. The results indicate that

Underground Thermal Energy Storage

convection occurs at the locations, which

(UTES) systems have recently been shown

explains why the actual service conditions

an increasing interest. Working groups of

are better than those suggested by the

national as well as international character

simulations that were done for the

have been selected to investigate

dimensioning of the systems.

development potentials for the techniques.

Thus the conclusion is that if a response

An important aspect of the development of

test had been executed at one borehole

UTES is to optimise the systems with

before the rest of the system was

regard to the current conditions at each

constructed, the number of boreholes

specific location. Today a number of

required for the system could have been

computer simulation programs of good

reduced, and the costs for the system

quality for dimensioning of UTES are

would have been less.

available, but the use of thermal response

test for determining the actual thermal

As the tests with the mobile response test

capacity of a UTES in situ, has not yet

equipment have given such positive

been granted its legitimate value.

results, development of the test equipment,

in order to further improve its reliability

The advantage of a response test is that

and simple construction, is suggested.

properties of the installation and local

Today the interest is already large from

conditions that are difficult to estimate, can

leading companies in the field to develop

be measured, and thus taken into account

the method of using a mobile equipment

at the dimensioning process. As the

for thermal response test. The method has

properties of the installation and location

also been paid attention to internationally,

quite often have a positive effect on the

and the market for response test is now

capacity of the system, money can be

being investigated in a number of

saved by determining these properties in an

countries, among them Germany and

early stage of the construction of the

Canada.

system.

Resources Engineering, Lule University

of Technology, the company IdArktica,

vertorne, Sweden, has constructed a

mobile equipment for thermal response

test. The equipment, which mainly consists

of a pump, a water heater, two temperature

sensors for measuring inlet and outlet

temperatures and a logger for collecting

the temperature data, has in this work been

tried with regard to the construction,

function and accuracy. It has been tested at

two cooling systems for telephone stations

in Stockholm, on request from the Swedish

Telephone Company, Telia AB.

The results show that the measured power "TED saves money! Put your money in a

capacity of the two cooling systems Teddybank!"

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

4

SUMMARY - SWEDISH

effekt hos de bda kylsystemen som den

mobila utrustningen ger, vl verens-

Bergvrmesystem fr uppvrmning,

stmmer med den effekt som man erhllit

kylning och vrmelagring har p senare r

under drift. Resultaten indikerar att

visats ett kande intresse. Arbetsgrupper

konvektion frekommer och kan frklara

nationellt svl som internationellt har

varfr de verkliga driftsfrhllandena visat

tillsatts fr att underska utvecklings-

sig vara bttre n de som simuleringarna

potentialer fr tekniken. En viktig del i

frutsade. Slutsatsen r allts att om

utvecklingen av bergvrme r att p ett

responstest utfrts p ett borrhl vid

enkelt stt kunna optimera anlggningarna

anlggningsplatserna innan hela

med avseende p de frhllanden som

borrhlssystemen konstruerades, hade

rder vid respektive anlggningsplats.

anlggningarnas storlek kunnat reduceras

Redan idag finns ett antal vl fungerande

och kostnaderna fr anlggningarna

datorbaserade simuleringsprogram fr

minskats.

dimensionering av bergvrmesystem. Vad

som dock i dagslget nnu inte kommit att

Eftersom frsken med den mobila

utnyttjas i tillrcklig utstrckning r

responstestutrustningen givit s positiva

mjligheten att mer exakt kunna bestmma

resultat, ges i examensarbetet frslag p

en anlggnings termiska kapacitet in situ,

hur utrustningen kan vidareutvecklas.

vilket kan gras med hjlp av ett termiskt

responstest. Frdelen med ett sdant test r

Redan idag finns ett gldjande stort

att egenskaper hos installationen, och

intresse frn ledande svenska fretag inom

lokala frhllanden som i simuleringarna

nrliggande branscher fr att utnyttja

r svra att uppskatta, kan tas med vid

mjligheterna med termisk responstest.

dimensioneringsberkningarna. Eftersom

ven internationellt har uppmrksamhet

det r vanligt att egenskaper hos

riktats t metoden, och marknaden fr

installation och lokal har en positiv effekt

responstest undersks nu i ett flertal lnder

p anlggningens termiska kapacitet, kan

vrlden ver, bland annat Kanada och

pengar sparas genom att dessa egenskaper

Tyskland.

underskts infr dimensioneringen.

Avdelningen fr Vattenteknik, Tekniska

Hgskolan i Lule, konstruerat en mobil

utrustning fr termisk responstest.

Utrustningen som i huvudsak bestr av en

pump, en vrmare, tv temperaturmtare

fr in- och utloppstemperatur samt en

datalogger fr insamling av temperatur-

data, har genom det hr examensarbetet

testats med avseende p utformning,

funktion och tillfrlitlighet.

baserade kylsystem fr AXE-vxlar, som

gs av Telia AB. De tv AXE-stationerna

r bda konstruerade i likartad berggrund

(granit), den ena i Drevikstrand, sder om

Stockholm och den andra i ngby, norr om

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

5

INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION channel, and back upwards in another

channel. The cold borehole extracts heat

from the surrounding rock by heat

Natural heat systems make it possible to

conduction.

utilise solar energy which is stored

passively in air, ground and water. Using a

When the borehole is used for heating as

heat pump, this low temperature heat can

well as cooling, one may speak of heat

be extracted for heating purpose.

storage, i.e. heat is being led through the

borehole for cooling and will later be used

In 1980 the referendum about nuclear

for heating. There are several different

power, which took place in Sweden,

types of UTES storage, but the technique

resulted in a decision to gradually close all

which is said to have the greatest potential

the Swedish nuclear power plants until the

for large stores of thermal energy is the so

year of 2010. As it looks today, this aim

called borehole heat storage. The thermal

will not be fulfilled till then, but still the

energy is then stored in the bedrock

result of the referendum has increased the

between the boreholes.

interest for development of alternative

energy sources and energy saving

Thermal energy storage in boreholes is

techniques. Along with raised taxes on

now shown an increasing international

fossil fuels and a possible closing of

interest. In Sweden there are about 3000

nuclear power plants, energy prices will

UTES systems built every year, while USA

raise and solar heat and heat storage will

produces about 40.000 each year. In USA

see a widened market with an improved

a consortium has been established,

economical potential.

Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium

(GHPC), with the aim of increasing the

There are a great number of Underground

number of installations done each year by

Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) systems

a factor ten. This would mean that by the

available today. One way to extract heat

year 2001, USA would have 400.000

from the ground to support a heat pump for

UTES systems done per year. Also in

domestic heating is to use a deep borehole,

several other countries, an extensive work

preferably in rock with high thermal

is done in this field. (For more information

conductivity. The depth of the borehole

see http://www.ghpc.org/index.html).

may be 40-150 meters. The heat carrier

fluid is heated by the rock, while it flows

Figure 1.1 This picture shows some common types of natural heat systems: 1.

Heat from air, 2. Heat from sea or lake, 3.Heat from ground, 4.Heat from

groundwater, 5. Borehole system. (After Nordell, Sderlund 1991)

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

6

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND equipment would help to improve the

significance of thermal heat systems in

To make UTES even more economically rock as an energy saving technique.

reasonable it is necessary that the capital

cost is not too large. It is therefore of great

importance to develop methods for better 1.2 AIM

optimisation of the systems. This can be The aim of this study is to describe, test

done by measuring the actual thermal and further develop a mobile equipment

conductivity of the bedrock and the for thermal response test in boreholes.

thermal resistance of the borehole

installation before the full scale plant is A preparatory study to this work was done

built. The two parameters mentioned above in 1995 as a part of a course in Solar Heat

are both of general interest for the and Heat Storage given by Division of

efficiency of the heat store. They can be Water Resources Engineering, University

determined in situ by a thermal response of Lule, Sweden. In that study a mobile

test. equipment for response tests in boreholes

was designed [1]. The equipment was later

During a response test, a heat carrier fluid constructed by IdArktica in vertorne,

is circulated through the borehole Sweden.

installation during a few days. While this is

done the inlet and outlet temperatures of

the heat carrier fluid in the borehole are

measured. The test can be done for heat

injection as well as for heat extraction, and

it is also possible to run the test for one

single borehole or for a complete borehole

system. An important condition for the test

is that the heat injection-/extraction rate is

constant and known throughout the test.

The thermal conductivity and thermal

resistance can then be determined if the

mean temperature of the heat carrier fluid

is plotted against the logarithmic time.

out at several occasions at various borehole

heat stores, but as the test requires a pump,

temperature measurements, a heater etc.,

the tests have so far only been performed

at full scale plants. There would be a

considerable advantage if the response test

could be run before the plant is fully

installed. With the help of a mobile

equipment for thermal response test, this

could be done. The thermal conductivity

and thermal resistance are then determined

in situ for one borehole and the rest of the Figure 1.2 TED - the covered trailer contains all that is

plant sized thereafter. The economical needed for the measurements.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

7

UNDERGROUND THERMAL ENERGY

2. UNDERGROUND a duct store. The duct store is very

functional. It is general, simple and

THERMAL ENERGY unexpensive, it has a large volume but

does not require large ground surface

Underground Thermal Energy Storage reservations,.

systems (UTES) require that suitable rock

is available, which is the situation in most Geothermal heat and Groundwater heat

parts of Sweden [2]. For low power

requirements it may be sufficient with one While discussing bedrock heat systems,

single borehole, but more often the stores geothermal heat and groundwater heat are

are constructed for large energy sometimes included. Geothermal heat

requirements, and therefore the boreholes refers to the method of extracting hot water

are placed in suitable multiple from deep boreholes (500 - 2000 meter)

constellations. In this study we will only [2].

discuss detached boreholes.

Groundwater heat utilises wells with the

The UTES system can be operated to possibility of extracting large groundwater

utilise the heat from the sun that is flows. The water is directly pumped to the

passively stored in the bedrock. The evaporator chamber of the heat pump

temperature in the bedrock is low, and where the temperature decreases. The

therefore a cold fluid is circulated in the groundwater is then drained to a recipient

borehole to obtain the necessary or is re-injected to the groundwater

temperature difference between the heat aquifer.

carrier fluid and storage medium (rock). In

most cases this type of thermal energy These two types of UTES systems are not

systems must be recharged with heat from based on the same principals as duct heat,

solar panels, waste heat or similar. and will not be further discussed in this

The systems require boreholes of about study.

100-150 meter of depth [2]. The larger

power extracted from the store, the more

boreholes are required, but as the

boreholes influence each other thermally,

one must take into account that a number

of closely placed boreholes produce less

power than the same number of detached

boreholes.

shows large seasonal changes. In

households the power demand in

summertime is mainly used for tapwater

heating, while the energy demand during

Figure 2.1 Geothermal energy is extracted

the coldest Swedish winter days will be

from very deep boreholes (500-2000 m). (After

considerably larger due to space heating. Nordell, Sderlund 1991).

For natural energy systems the lowest

energy supply coincide with the periods of

the largest energy needs. A way to

compensate for this seasonal problem is to

balance the energy supply over the year by

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

8

UNDERGROUND THERMAL ENERGY

2.1 TYPES OF BOREHOLE conditions are often unfavourable to an

INSTALLATIONS open system. By inserting one or more

closed U-shaped loops of plastic tubing, a

There is a distinction between open and so called closed system is obtained. The

closed borehole systems, with regard to the heat carrier fluid that is circulated through

arrangement of the tubes through which the system is then entirely separated from

the heat carrier fluid flows in the borehole. the surrounding medium (Figure 2.2 b,c

and d). This circumstance makes it

In an open system the groundwater, which possible to use other heat carriers than

fills the borehole, is extracted from the water (e.g. glycol mixtures), so that

borehole via a single plastic tube. After temperatures below 0oC can be used. The

cooling/heating the water in a heat pump, heat transfer is not as good as for the open

the water is reinjected into the well (Figure system though, as the heat transfer from

2.2 a). the heat carrier fluid to the surrounding

The main advantage of this arrangement is rock takes place via the tube material and

that the heat carrier fluid is in direct the medium which fills the borehole (e.g.

contact with the surrounding rock in the groundwater or sand). This means that the

borehole. This leads to a good heat transfer closed system will have a greater thermal

between the heat carrier fluid and the resistance between the heat carrier fluid

surrounding rock. The heat extraction and the borehole wall, something that will

temperature must, however, be above 0oC reduce the capacity of the system. (see

in order to avoid freezing. section 4.2.5).

installation. b, c and d are all closed installation. b is a common U-loop, c is

an open system enveloped by a 'sock', d is called coaxial system.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

9

SYMBOLS

3. SYMBOLS

3.2 PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

Before explaining the theory of the

response test, we would like to introduce

the symbols and definitions used in this [W/m, K] Thermal conductivity

thesis. The symbols defined below are of rock

used throughout this work: * [W/m, K] Assumed thermal

conductivity of rock

cr [J/kg, K] Heat capacity of

rock

cf [J/kg, K] Heat capacity of

heat carrier fluid

Cr [J/m3,K] Volumetric heat

capacity of rock,

Cr = cr r

3

Cf [J/m ,K] Volumetric heat

capacity of heat

carrier fluid,

Cf = cf f

a = /C [m2/s] Diffusivity

2

qgeo [W/m ] Geothermal heat flow

Rb [K/(W/m)] Thermal resistance

between heat carrier

fluid and borehole

wall

Figure 3.1

part of borehole

Dm=Di + H/2 [m] Mean depth of

borehole

H [m] Efficient depth of

borehole

Hb= Di + H [m] Total depth of

borehole

r [m] Radius

r0 [m] Borehole radius

rw [m] Radius of

groundwater

well

Lp [m] Total lenght of pipe

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

10

SYMBOLS

3.4 HYDRAULIC PARAMETERS

K [m/s] Hydraulic

conductivity

s [m] Hydraulic drawdown

in a groundwater well

B [m] Thickness of

groundwater aquifer

Taq = K*B [m2/s] Hydraulic gradient

h [m] Hydrostatic pressure

hw [m] Groundwater level in

well

t [s] Time

ts [s] Break time from transient to

stationary conditions

tb [s] Break time for time criteria

temperature of

ground surface

Tsur [oC] Mean temperature of 3.7 STATISTIC PARAMETERS

undisturbed rock

Tr [oC] Temperature of rock R2 Standard deviation

at borehole wall

Tf [oC] Mean temperature of

heat carrier fluid

Tin [oC] Temperature of the

heat carrier fluid

going into the

borehole

Tout [oC] Temperature of the

heat carrier fluid

going out of

the borehole

Q [W] Heat injection

/extraction rate

q = Q/H [W/m] Heat

injection/extraction

per meter

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

11

THEORY

4. THEORY stationary conditions the heat capacity

looses importance and so does the time

In this chapter we briefly the theory to

derivative. The equation of heat

understand the response test. If you are

conduction can then be represented by the

already accustomed to heat transmission,

Laplace equation [10]:

super positioning, transient and stationary

conditions, and dimensioning of under-

ground heat systems, you may well 2T 2T 2T

+ + =0 (4.2)

proceed to the next chapter. x 2 y 2 z 2

Transfer of heat can occur in three

The two equations above are valid for a

different ways, through conduction, con-

infinite, solid material in a Cartesian co-

vection and radiation.

ordinate system. The material has to be

If there is to be a transfer of heat there has

homogenous and isotropic.

to be a temperature

difference within the A medium is

Convection of heat

medium (conduction) or homogenous when a

between media (convection certain property is equal

Natural convection occurs

and radiation). in every point. Otherwise

when density differences cause

the medium is

circulation. Forced convection

Conduction of heat heterogeneous. If a

occurs when external forces

certain property of a

affect the medium to such

The diffusivity, a, depends medium is independent of

extent that the density

entirely on material direction, the medium is

differences can be neglected (in

properties and shows isotropic in this point.

running water, for example).

whether a material is a good

To determine the transfer of heat by

thermal conductor or not - the better heat

convection it is necessary to define a heat

conductor the higher the parameter a. The

transfer index. The heat transfer index is

diffusivity is expressed: a=/C. not a material constant as the diffusivity,

but an index that depends on the properties

The fundamental equation of heat of the medium and on the state of flow.

conduction shows how the temperature The heat transfer index is calculated with

depends on a: the aid of dimensionless numbers and can

also be expressed as an equivalent -value.

2 T 2 T 2 T 1 T

+ + = (4.1)

x 2 y 2 z 2 a t

ordinate (x,y,z) is determined by the time,

t, and by the diffusivity, a.

occur , for example, when there is a sudden

change of temperature in a body, a

periodically altering temperature or a time

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

12

THEORY

increasing depth. This is called the

Transfer of heat by radiation occurs when geothermal gradient. The temperature field

the energy is transported by that under normal conditions exists

electromagnetic waves. beneath the ground surface is considered

stationary. The geothermal gradient does

not vary with time and the seasonal

4.1.1 HEAT TRANSFER IN BEDROCK temperature changes of the ground surface

In a solid material the heat is transmitted do not affect the temperature > 10-15

solely by conduction. Therefore it is easy meter. When heat is injected into a

to understand that conduction is the main borehole, the temperature field begins to

heat transfer in bedrock. A rock is usually change, however.

heterogeneous and non- The more heat that is injected

isotropic, however. In cracks The principle of super into the borehole the warmer

and fissures filled with air and positioning: the ground will become

water heat is transmitted both If two different temperature undisturbed ground tem-

by convection and conduction. fields each satisfies the perature will be found further

The transfer depends on the equation then this is also away from the well. If the

size of the fissures and the true for the sum of the injected heat rate is constant,

properties of the medium that temperatures. the temperature field will

fills the fissures. It is usually become stationary again, but

assumed that transfer of When applied on the equation of thermal it will take 20-25

heat between air/water conduction the principle of super years (see section

and bedrock occurs positioning has some limits however: 4.1.5).

between plane surfaces. 1. It is not valid when freezing occurs and The temperature in

Radiation between two the phase change has to be taken into the ground satisfies

surfaces in a crack is account. the three-

usually neglected [3]. 2. It is not applicable to a temperature dimensional, non-

process with running water since this stationary equation

also gives transmission of heat by of thermal

4.1.2 CONDUCTION OF convection. conduction, eq 4.1

HEAT IN A DUCT ENERGY The different forms

SYSTEM of the equation is mainly linear, partial

A duct energy system is associated with differential equations. This means that

complicated thermal processes. In the different solutions can be super positioned

following chapters we will take a look at and complicated temperature processes can

the fundamental processes that occur in a be made quite simple.

detached energy well. These fundamental

thermal processes can then be super The thermal process that takes place in the

positioned to describe interaction between ground when heat is injected can be

a number of wells. divided into three different parts:

Since the thermal response test is 1. A transient process when the

performed on a detached borehole with a temperature of the ground increases.

constant heat injection rate we will not (Figure 4.2). The transient phase

take into consideration nearby wells will eventually turns into

affect each other and that the heat injection 2. A stationary process when the

rate often varies. temperature of the ground no longer

increases since heat leaves the ground

surface at the same rate as injected into

the well (Figure 4.1). When the heat

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

13

THEORY

injection rate varies with time the The real temperature by the borehole wall

stationary temperature field lies as an will be

annual mean value.

3. A pulse that is superimposed on the for the transient process:

stationary temperature when the heat

injection varies with time.

Tr ( t ) = Tsur + Trq ( t ) (4.3)

Tr ( t ) = Tr + Trq ( t ) (4.4)

Where:

Figure 4.1During

stationary conditions the

injected heat is balanced Tr (t) - the well temperature at time t

by the atmosphere. Tr - stationary well temperature due to

injected fluid mean temperature

(see section 4.1.4)

Tsur - the undisturbed ground

4.1.3 THE TRANSIENT PROCESS AND

temperature

SUPERPOSED PULSE

Trq (t) - change in well temperature due to

deviation from mean fluid

There are two differences between the temperature

transient process and the superposed

pulsation. Firstly the transient process When injecting heat, an increase in

eventually leads to stationary conditions temperature will occur. But how large will

while the superposed does not since it is this increase be at different locations?

limited in time. Secondly the transient

process of the increase in temperature is From now on we only look at the transient

superimposed to the undisturbed ground process since the superimposed pulse is

temperature, Tsur, while the pulsation is not important to the thermal response test.

superimposed to the stationary mean

temperature, Tr.

transient process the

injected power is heating

the ground.

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THEORY

equation for a line source is achieved:

q

Tq (r , t ) = dz'e r 2 4 at

=

8(t )

32

(4.6)

q

e

{

( x x ') +( y y ')

2 2

} 4 at

4t

(x,y) and is parallel to the z-axis.

WARNING!

The following derivation is quite boring and Now it is necessary to have the heat power

should not be read by persons who already q over a longer period of time, not only at

at this point have trouble keeping awake. t=0. From eq 4.6 we can derive an

Persons not interested in the details of heat expression for a continuos line source. If

conduction should proceed immediately to the power (t) is injected, starting when

section 4.1.6 Important equations - t=0 and the temperature of the rock is zero,

Summary . then at time t the temperature will be:

To find the answer to the question above

t

we begin with the fundamental heat 1 dt '

Tq (r , t ) = (t ')e r 2 4a ( t t ')

4

(4.7)

equation eq 4.1 and an instant point source. t t'

0

The following derivation is taken from [4

and 5]:

conduction is satisfied by:

q 1 s q r2

Tq (r , t ) =

4 r 2 4 at s

q e ds = E 1

T = Tq (r , t ) = 4 4at

2

e r 4 at

(4.5)

8(t )

32

(4.8)

where a= 1 s

c where E1 ( r 2 4at ) = e ds

and r 2 4 at

s

r 2 = ( x x') + ( y y ') + ( z z ')

2 2 2

T(r,t) is the temperature in the point (x,y,z). different ways depending on what one is

The point source has the power q at the looking for. In our case it is most

time t=0 and is located in the point interesting how the temperature changes

(x,y,z). The initial temperature of the with time at a certain radial distance from

material is 0oC. the line source. This gives:

A borehole made through bedrock can not

be approximated with a point source

however, but with a line source. By

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THEORY

q at r2

Tq (r , t ) = Et 2 (4.9) And since = we will have:

4 r at

E t ( ) ln( ) (4.12)

Where:

Et ( ) = E1 = e s ds will have:

4 1 4 s

r2 q 4at

and = Tq ( r , t ) = ln 2

at 4 r

Q 4at

The function Et() gives the temperature = ln 2 (4.13)

4H r

change with time at the radial distance r

from the borehole.

with a maximal error of 1 %: When = 2 5 t

r a

11 1

E t ( ) G t ( ) = ln( 4 ) For values not satisfying

4 16 2 the time criteria in eq

4.13the heat capacity of the

Where =0.5772 (Eulers Constant) borehole filling will affect

(4.10) the result.

4,00 borehole wall, i.e. r=r0:

3,00

2,00

1,00 Q 4at

0,00 Gt Tq (r , t ) = Trq ( t ) = ln 2 (4.14)

-1,00

ln(4t)-y

4H r0

-2,00

-3,00 5r02

0,10 1,00 10,00 100,00 For t

a

Figure 4.3 The functions Gt() and ln(4)- Eq 4.14 is for heat injection. When heat is

plotted against . This shows that for larger extracted the equation becomes:

values of the function Gt() can be

approximated with ln(4)-. Q 4 at

Trq ( t ) = ln 2

4 H r0

For 5 there can be further 5r02

simplifications: For t

a

at 4at

Et 2 ln 2 (4.11) By inserting eq 4.14 into eq 4.2 the

r r

temperature at the borehole wall during the

transient process is expressed:

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THEORY

Q 4at

Tr ( t ) = Tsur + ln 2 (4.15)

4H r0 2H ( Tr Tsur )

Q= (4.19)

5r 2

H 1

For t 0 ln

a . 2(1 + 2 Di H )

r0 15

Eq 4.15 shows the connection between the Which can be simplified to:

undisturbed ground temperature, Tsur, and

the temperature at the borehole wall, Tr(t). 2H ( Tr Tsur )

Q= (4.20)

A more interesting connection is the one H D

between the Tsur and the temperature of the ln 0.01 + i

2r0 H

heat carrier fluid, Tf. In the heat exchanger

there exists a thermal resistance, Rb

[K/(W/m)], between the heat carrier fluid And then to:

and the borehole wall. The thermal

resistance is for heat injection defined as: 2H ( Tr Tsur )

Q= (4.21)

H

Tf Tr ( t ) = Rb q (4.16) ln

2r0

Then eq 4.16 into eq 4.15 gives: The error in these equations are a few

percent maximum. They are fundamental

Q 4at

Tf + Rbq Tsur = ln 2 (4.17) since they give the amount of heat that can

4H r0 be injected annually when the temperature

difference is Tr-Tsur.

Which then can be written as:

The fluid temperature, Tf, will be given if

Q 4at QRb

eq 4.21 is inserted into eq 4.16:

Tf = ln 2 + + Tsur (4.18)

4H r0 H

Q H

Tr Tsur = ln =

4.1.4 THE STATIONARY PROCESS 2H 2r0

Tf Tsur = ln + Rb (4.22)

ground temperature and the temperature by H 2 2r0

the borehole wall can be derived by

approximating the well with a thin rotation

ellipsoid and using mirroring to consider

the conditions at the ground surface. The

derivation also assumes that the borehole

radius, r0 and the insulated depth, Di, are

small compared to the depth of the

borehole, H. The following derivation is

taken from [4]:

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THEORY

AND STATIONARY CONDITIONS

When heat first is injected into a borehole

The break time, ts, between transient and a transient process starts. The connection

stationary conditions is obtained by setting between the different parameters involved

eq 4.18 equal to eq 4.22: is described in eq 4.18:

ln 2 = Tf = ln 2 + + Tsur

4H r0 H 4H r0 H

14444 4244444 3

Transient

5r0 2

Q 1 H For t

ln Rb a

H 2 2r0 After a certain time, tb, the transient

1444 424444 3 process ends and the conditions become

Stationary

stationary eq 4.23:

This will give:

H2

16at tb =

= 0 9a

H2

H2 Eq 4.22 describes the connection between

t = ts = (4.23)

9a the parameters during stationary

conditions:

Q 1 H

T f Tsur = ln + Rb

H 2 2r0

EXAMPLE:

borehole with the following data:

Thermal conductivity, =3.5 W/m, K

Thermal capacity, C=2200 kJ/m3, K

H2 100 2

ts = = = 22 years

9a 9 35

. 2200000

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THEORY

c C

4.2 DIMENSIONING OF AN [kg/m3] [w/m,K] [J/kg,K] [kWh/m3,K]

UNDERGROUND THERMAL ENERGY water 1000 0,6 4180 1,2

SYSTEM granite 2700 2,9-4,2 830 0,6

gabbro 3000 2,2-3,3 860

When dimensioning an energy well one gneiss 2700 2,5-4,7 830 0,6

often starts with a given heat injection rate Table 4.1 Density, thermal conductivity and

(or, as the case often is, a heat extraction thermal capacity for some materials. (After

rate ) that varies over the year. There is Ericsson, 1985).

also a limit for how high (or low) the

temperature is allowed to become in the

There are, however, several parameters

borehole. What one wishes to know is the

that affect the temperature of the heat

temperature of the heat carrier fluid during

carrier fluid that can not be seen in

different times of the year.

equations of heatl conduction. Some of the

properties mentioned above are dependent

Several parameters decide how the

of other parameters. The thermal

bedrock temperature is affected by heat

resistance, for example, is a complex factor

injection in a borehole. From the equations

that considerably with the design of the

of heat conduction we realise that the

heat exchanger. Some other properties are

following properties have to be known if

left out of account by the equations

we know the heat injection rate and want

because they are assumed not to exist or to

to know the temperature of the heat carrier

have a negligible influence. Some

fluid:

properties that are not seen in the equations

of thermal conduction are:

Ground properties:

- thermal conductivity1 [W/m, K] Ground properties:

C - thermal capacity1 [J/m3,K] Conditions on the ground surface

Tsur - undisturbed ground mean Geothermal gradient [oC/m]

temperature [oC] Other physical properties, i.e. groundwater

conditions and cracks

Borehole properties:

H - depth [m] Borehole properties:

r0 - radius [m] Thermal insulation of the upper part of the

borehole

Heat exchanger properties:

Rb - thermal resistance between heat Heat exchanger properties:

carrier fluid and borehole wall [K/(W/m)] Type of borehole filling2

Pipe properties:

type2 (coaxial, U-pipe etc)

radius [m]

wall thickness2 [m]

thermal conductivity2 [W/m, K]

Heat carrier fluid properties:

thermal conductivity [W/m, K]

thermal capacity [J/m3,K]

density [kg/m3]

1

This parameter is only needed when

2

calculating a superposed pulse or transient These parameters are only relevant in

phase. closed systems

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THEORY

freezing point [oC]

flow rate [m3/s] The thermal conductivity of a rock mostly

state of flow (laminar/turbulent) depends on the conductivity of the rock

forming minerals. The thermal properties

Miscellaneous: of the minerals depend on the size of the

Convection [W/m2] crystals and possible defects in the lattice

[3]. The thermal conductivity is also

Below follows a perspicuous summary affected by the occurrence of air and water

about how the parameters mentioned in the ground.

above affect the energy well. The

description is not complete but is meant to The thermal conductivity of the bedrock is

give a picture of the problem. of great importance for the energy well. In

the equations of heat conduction the

temperature difference (Tf-Tsur) is

4.2.1 GROUND PROPERTIES inversely proportional to the thermal

The different properties of the ground is of conductivity (). In the equation that

great importance to the energy well. They describes the transient process this

can, however, not be altered and are relationship is complicated by the fact that

sometimes hard to determine. When the coefficient of thermal conductivity (a)

designing a energy well it is important to is a function of both and time - a

chose a location with proper ground changed corresponds to a change in the

properties. time scale. It is however the direct

proportionality that is most important - the

change in the time scale is of less

importance [4].

n

T T z i i

Tsur T

q = surn

i

q=

zi z r

i

i

i

number of homogenous layers the heat conduction is

principally determined by the harmonic mean value of the

thermal conductivity of the different layers. Right: When the

heat flow is parallel to a number of homogenous layers the

thermal conduction is determined by the weighted

arithmetic mean value of the thermal conductivities of the

different layers. (After Ericsson, 1985)

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THEORY

consists of layers with different thermal 4.2.2 CONDITIONS AT GROUND SURFACE,

conductivity. GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT AND

This affects the energy well, but it is safe UNDISTURBED GROUND MEAN

to use a mean value of the thermal TEMPERATURE.

conductivity when dimensioning (see

Figure 4.4). The undisturbed ground mean temperature

In many cases the bedrock is covered with (Tsur) is an important parameter when

a layer of soil that has different thermal dimensioning an energy well. It is the

properties than the bedrock. This is usually temperature difference between the heat

disregarded. Even a 10 meter thick soil carrier fluid and the ground that creates a

layer gives a small error when determining gradient for the heat flow from the fluid to

the temperature of the heat carrier fluid the ground - a larger gradient gives a larger

without taking into account the different heat flow.

thermal properties [4]. The error becomes

bigger the thicker the soil layer and the The ground temperature is dependent on

shallower the borehole. the availability of solar energy and on the

heat exchange process with the

Heat capacity atmosphere. The heat exchange between

ground and air is a rather complicated

The heat capacity depends, just like the process that depends on several parameters

thermal conductivity, on the mineral such as air temperature, wind, snow and

composition and on the air and water frozen soil.

content of the bedrock.

The thermal capacity of the ground only The annual temperature changes of the

affects the energy well during the transient ground surface only affect the ground

process. The thermal capacity (C) is temperature to a depth of about 10 to 15

inversely proportional to the diffusivity meters. Deeper down it is mainly the

(a). This means that a high thermal geothermal gradient that determines the

capacity gives a low coefficient of thermal temperature. The temperature variations of

conductivity and a larger difference the surface is negligible to an energy well

between the ground temperature and heat with a depth of more than 100 meters [4].

carrier fluid temperature is needed for a

given heat injection into the well. As mentioned previously, the ground

temperature increases with increasing

depth. This geothermal gradient is a result

of the thermal conductivity and radiogenic

heat production of the bedrock.

at a certain depth, z, is given by:

between 10 and 40 oC/km in Sweden - the

mean geothermal heat flow, qgeo, is 0,056

W/m2 [3].

surface (After Ericsson, 1985)

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THEORY

Figure 4.7 Schematic seasonal

undisturbed temperature conditions for a

energy well.(After Ericsson, 1985)

temperature variation in the ground. The

oscillations are dampened by the depth

and below 15-20 meters the temperature

The undisturbed ground mean temperature is mainly dependent on the geothermal

is quite difficult to measure and is gradient. (After Ericsson, 1985)

therefore often approximated with the

annual mean air temperature - a parameter 4.2.3GROUND WATER FLOW

that is more easily determined. In making

The different analyses of the equations in

this approximation the geothermal gradient

the foregoing chapters have presumed pure

is left out of account and the deeper the

heat conduction in the rock surrounding

borehole, the less accurate the

the borehole. Disturbances because of

approximation becomes. According to

groundwater movements have been

some literature (e.g. [3]) it is not necessary

neglected. It is usually presumed that the

to take the thermal gradient into account,

effect of natural groundwater movements,

while according to other literature (e.g.

homogeneously spread through the

[4]) the thermal gradient affects deep

bedrock, is negligible. The effect of other

energy wells and has to be regarded. In

kinds of groundwater movement is more

general, the thermal gradient has little

difficult to foresee. An inclined crack with

influence on high temperature systems, but

a large water flow may, for example, cool

should be taken into account for low

the energy well. This is difficult to take

temperature systems.

into consideration when dimensioning the

In urban areas the ground temperature is

well but can be of great importance to its

influenced by heat leakage from buildings

efficiency [4].

and district heating pipes. This influence is

often much greater than the geothermal

heat flow and can affect energy wells in

urban areas. When this is the case, it is

necessary to make a more accurate

determination of the ground mean

temperature than the estimation above.

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THEORY

4.2.4 BOREHOLE PROPERTIES Di - usually a few meters.

The borehole properties are easily

manipulated to bring out the best of the

energy well. Thermal resistance, borehole filling, pipe

properties and heat carrier fluid

Depth and radius

From the equation of heat conduction The heat transfer between the heat carrier

eq 4.22 it is easy to see the importance of fluid and the surrounding bedrock depends

the borehole depth. The depth, H, is on the design of the heat exchanger, the

inversely proportional to the temperature properties of the heat carrier fluid and on

difference, Tf-Tsur, i.e. the deeper the the state of flow in the pipes [6]. Heat

borehole the smaller the temperature exchange occurs between the different

difference for a constant heat extraction. flow pipes and between the flow pipes and

The relation between the temperature the surrounding rock.

difference and the borehole radius is more

complicated. During transient conditions The heat flow between two surfaces

the temperature difference, Tf-Tsur, is depends on the temperature difference and

proportional to the natural logarithm of the the thermal resistance. The relation

inverse radius raised to second power (ln between the heat flow, q [W/m], and the

(1/r2). This means that the radius has a temperature difference, T [K], over the

greater influence during transient resistance R [K/(W/m)] is (see also eq

conditions than during stationary 4.16):

conditions, where the temperature

difference is proportional to the natural T = q . R

logarithm of the inverse radius (ln(1/r)). In

both cases a larger radius demands a (Observe the similarity to an electrical

smaller temperature difference between the circuit, U = I . R).

heat carrier fluid and the bedrock with a

given heat injection. The thermal resistance in a closed system

consists of several components:

The thermal resistance is measured per - thermal resistance between heat carrier

meter well and is therefore not affected by fluid and flow pipe wall

the borehole depth. The radius, on the - thermal resistance over flow pipe wall

other hand, affects the thermal resistance - thermal resistance between outer

in closed systems since the thermal pipe wall and surrounding rock

resistance is dependent on the distance

between the pipes and the borehole wall. In a closed system there is also a thermal

The thermal resistance is also dependent of resistance between the pipes and in the

the borehole filling (air, water, soil etc.). boreholes.

Thermal insulation of upper part of In an open system the heat carrier fluid is

borehole in contact with the surrounding rock and

the total thermal resistance mainly consists

The upper part of the borehole is usually of one component.

thermally insulated to protect the heat

carrier fluid from chilling during

wintertime. The insulation is applied from

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THEORY

The components mentioned above are used In a closed system the thermal resistance

to determine the total thermal resistance between heat carrier fluid and borehole

between heat carrier fluid and surrounding wall often varies between 0,10 and 0,20

rock - a thermal resistance defined as: K/(W/m). In an open system typical values

Rb = (Tf-TR)/q are 0,01 to 0,1 K/(W/m). When

The heat carrier fluid temperature, Tf, considering the different parameters

varies in the well, but it has been shown determining the thermal resistance for

that Tf, defined as the mean value between open and closed systems it is not difficult

in- and outlet temperature, is a good to understand why the resistance is lower

approximation. in an open system than in a closed. The

advantage of an open system is the low

The borehole filling is only of interest in a thermal resistance, while the advantage of

closed system. Open systems are generally closed system is the possibility of using

filled with water. To decrease the thermal temperatures below 0oC. The closed

resistance and the effect of groundwater system can alway be used.

movements, it is possible to fill the As the thermal resistance between heat

borehole of a closed system with, e.g. carrier fluid and borehole wall is a very

sand. complex parameter it is often

experimentally determined rather than

The thermal properties of the pipes are calculated.

crucial to the thermal resistance. It is

important that the heat is transported easily 4.2.6 MISCELLANEOUS

though the pipe walls and the walls should Convection

therefore not be too thick or have an When using the equation of heat

insulating effect. As mentioned above conduction it is assumed that the

different closed systems have different convective contribution to the heat transfer

thermal resistance. In a closed system it is is negligible. The bedrock however

also important how the pipe is placed in contains fissures and fractures that are

the borehole. For the thermal resistance it filled with air and water and convection

is important that the pipes are centered in occurs when a gas or fluid in movement is

the borehole. transporting heat. When using a UTES

system the temperature and density

The properties of the heat carrier fluid also differences in the fissures of the bedrock

affect the thermal resistance - the thermal are quite small and natural convection

conductivity and the heat capacity of the hardly ever occurs. [3]. On the other hand,

fluid decides how good the fluid really is there are several forms of forced

at carrying heat. To get a low thermal convection that could occur and affect the

resistance it is also important to have a energy well. If the well is bored through a

turbulent state of flow in the pipe. The system of fissures with different

viscosity, geometry and flow rate of the hydrostatic pressure, a flow is created - a

fluid decide this (i.e. Reynolds number, flow that depends on the pressure

Re). differences and the permeability properties

of the bedrock. The temperature of the

In an open system the only available heat water that will enter the well will be about

carrier fluid is water. This means that the the temperature of the surrounding,

temperature in an open system always has undisturbed ground. This may either cool

to be above 0 oC. In a closed system, using or heat the well. The same situation occurs

a heat carrier fluid with freezing point if an open system is created in a well with

below zero, it is possible to use the latent good hydraulic capacity and groundwater

heat of freezing water. is pumped from the well.

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THEORY

Figure 4.8 The ideal conditions of the theory (left) do not often

correspond with the conditions in reality (right)

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THE RESPONSE TEST

Qw Q

Note:

5. THE RESPONSE TEST mh mT

determine the thermal properties of a K =

mh m m

borehole in situ. Each type of borehole and

installation (see chapter 2) also gives a Q W

different thermal loss, and by testing = m T m K

various types of installations in the same

borehole, one may compare the thermal As it is often easier to visualise hydraulic

resistance of the installation types. than thermal conditions, we will here give

an example of the hydraulic drawdown

expression, from [7]:

5.1 RESPONSE TEST

In a groundwater aquifer, the groundwater

There is a clear analogy between conditions are described by geometry,

hydrological and thermal response tests. geology and hydraulic parameters. A

The flux that in hydraulic tests consists of disturbance (e.g. pumping water from one

groundwater extraction/injection (Qw or a number of wells) will affect the

[m3/s]) corresponds in the case of a groundwater conditions. The influence in

thermal test with the heat time and space depends on the magnitude

extraction/injection (Q [W]). The of the disturbance and of the properties of

temperature (T) in the ground corresponds the groundwater aquifer. A controlled

to the hydrostatic pressure of the disturbance means that the amount of

groundwater (h). There is a parallel water, being pumped out or injected per

between the thermal conductivity, [W/m, time unit will be held constant and that the

K], and the hydraulic conductivity, K change of groundwater level in the aquifer

[m/s], of the ground. is being observed.

in a single well.

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THE RESPONSE TEST

+ =0 (5.3)

groundwater level can be described as a dr 2 r dr

cone with its point downwards in the well

(Figure 5.1). During the early stage of the where = h T = h K B

pumping, the water will mainly come from

the aquifer close to the well, and the

groundwater pressure will change quickly. d

As the drawdown cone expands to include Derivation of gives that ' =

dr

larger areas, the speed of which the By inserting into eq 5.3 we obtain

groundwater pressure changes decreases.

After a long time the drawdown will not d ' '

change any more. This type of hydraulic + =0 (5.4)

response test is mainly done in order to dr r

study and determine the hydraulic

properties and limits of the aquifer. Integration gives that

The stationary condition of a hydraulic r ' = C1 = const .

profile can be described with the following

expression (see Figure 5.1):

Going back to and anew integrating

eq 5.4 gives:

Q R

s = h = h 0 h W = ln 0 (5.1)

2 T r = h K B

h K B = C1 ln r + C2 (5.5)

where T = K B r' = C1 = C1 ln r + C2

T = Transmissivity [m2/s]

K = Hydraulic conductivity[m/s] Now we are ready to take a look at the

B = Thickness of aquifer [m] geometrical conditions of the well. The

flux from a cylindrical body can be

The expression can be derived as follows: expressed as:

dh d

Thiems equation for a closed homogenous Q = 2r B K = 2 r (5.6)

two-dimensional groundwater aquifer says: dr dr

2 h 2 h S h

+ =

x 2 y 2 T t

(5.2)

the equation is zero, as no changes is to be

seen in the well. As we are studying the

radial flux around the well, it is wise to

rewrite the equation with polar co-

ordinates, where upon the equation obtains Figure 5.2 The mantel area of a

cylindrical body is determined from the

the following form:

radius and the height, which in this

case is the thickness (B) of the aquifer.

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27

THE RESPONSE TEST

d Q

As C1 = r ' = r = (Eq 5.5)

dr 2

the following relation is seen:

Q

C1 = 2 1 Q Q

h = lnr + C2 = lnr + Const.

C = hKB C2 K B 2 2T

1 lnr

(5.7)

well is known, hw, the integration constant

is determined: Figure 5.3 Thermal drawdown at heat

extraction from a single borehole. The low

Q r temperature heat carrier fluid in the pipes is

h= ln + hw (5.8) heated by the warmer surrounding rock, and

2T rw the temperature in the rock decreases with

decreasing distance from the borehole wall.

The equation predicts that the groundwater 5.2 THE IDEA BEHIND THE THERMAL

level will grow to infinity when r

RESPONSE TEST

increases, which of course is not possible

for physical reasons. The equation is only

valid for stationary flux in a cylindrical In section 4.2 we discussed how different

aquifer with the radius R0 and a parameters affect a heat injection well. The

groundwater level h0 by the cylinder wall. idea behind the thermal response test is to

With these parameters inserted, we obtain: inject a constant heat power into a

borehole with known depth and known

Q R radius. By measuring the in- and outlet

h0 h = s = ln 0 (5.9) temperatures of the heat carrier fluid

2T r

during a period of time, the mean

This expression has a very good analogy temperature Tf is determined for different

with the expression for the temperature values of t. The heat injection starts a

around a homogenous two-dimensional transient process and eq 4.18 shows that

thermal borehole when heat is injected: the parameters , Rb, a and Tsur are

Q H unknown The parameters Tsur , and Rb are

Tom Tr ( t ) = ln (5.10) determined by the thermal response test.

2H 2 R0

diffusivity, a, has to be determined in some

other way for the bedrock in question.

necessary that the injected power rate is

constant. It is possible however to use a

stepwise constant heat power, which is

useful if for example a shut down occurs.

In the following chapters we will take a

look at how the undisturbed ground

temperature, the thermal conductivity and

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28

THE RESPONSE TEST

borehole installation are determined with a Tf = ln( t ) + ln 2 Rb + Tsur

4H H 4 r0

thermal response test, using constant and

stepwise constant heat power. 5r02

For t (With a maximum error of 2%)

a

(5.12)

5.2.1 UNDISTURBED GROUND

TEMPERATURE Now it should be easy to determine the

thermal conductivity and the thermal

The undisturbed ground temperature must resistance:

be determined before the well is taken into

service. The temperature is determined by 1. Determine the time when eq 5.12 is

measuring at several different depths in the valid, i.e. when t 5R0 2 a is satisfied.

well and then calculating a mean value. To determine the parameters a, and cr

Another way is to measure the temperature have to be approximated (e.g. taken

of the heat carrier fluid while circulating it from a table) for the bedrock in

without any heat power supply. This gives question.

a good approximation of the undisturbed 2. Plot Tf against ln(t) for all values

ground mean temperature if the pump is satisfying the time criteria

not heating the fluid too much [4]. 3. Determine the inclination of the line

achieved in step 2. Since eq 5.11 and eq

5.2.2 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND 5.12 give that the inclination k equals

THERMAL RESISTANCE Q/4H and the injected heat power

and the depth of the borehole hopefully

5.2.2.1 CONSTANT HEAT POWER are known, the thermal conductivity is

easily determined.

In section 4.1.3 we derived the following 4. For every pair of Tf and t, a value for

relation between the temperature of the the thermal resistance is determined by

heat carrier fluid, Tf, and the temperature using the determined in step 3. This is

of the undisturbed ground, Tsur: done by using eq 5.13. Suitably a mean

value is then calculated.

Q 4at QRb

Tf = ln 2 + + Tsur H

4H r0 H R

b

= T T

Q f

su r

(5.13)

(4.18)

1

4a

5r 2 ln ( t ) + ln

Where a = , =0.5772 and t 0 4 2

r0

cr a

There is a linear relation between Tf and of Rb and see chapter 7 Measurements

ln(t) and we can rewrite eq 4.18 on the and Results.

form [4 and 8]:

Tf = k ln( t ) + m (5.11)

Which becomes:

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THE RESPONSE TEST

N

q n q n 1

5.2.2.2 STEPWISE CONSTANT HEAT POWER N (t ) = ln(t t n ) (5.17)

n=1 q ref

power constant during the whole test When t N + r0 2 5a < t < t N +1

period, maybe because of a power failure.

If the heat power is stepwisely constant the

following method is used [8]: This expression for N will change value

for every stepwise change in heat power.

The temperature is a linear function of N

q1 t1 < t < t 2 (t1 = 0)

in each time interval

q 2 t 2 < t < t 3 t N + r0 5a < t < t N +1 . The inclination, k,

2

q( t ) = (5.14)

conductivity according to:

.

.

q ref

q N t N < t < t N +1 = (5.18)

4k

The principle of super positioning gives the dimension less parameter N, qref can

that the temperature in the bedrock be given any value except 0. The

increases as a sum of the contribution of parameter qref is eliminated when eq 5.17

each power step. is inserted into eq 5.16.

The following equation is used:

5.3 HOW DIFFERENT PARAMETERS

( )

N qn qn 1

T = ln t t + AFFECT THE THERMAL RESPONSE

f

n=1 4 n (5.15)

TEST

1 4a

q N 4 ln 2 + Rb + Tsur

r

0

In section 4.2 Dimensioning of an

underground thermal energy system we

looked at how different properties affect

the energy well. This chapter will show

Which also can be expressed as: how the results from the thermal response

test are affected by different parameters.

qref 1 4a

Tf = N (t ) + q N ln 2 + Rb + Tsur

4 4 r0

When t N + r0 2 5a < t < t N +1 and q0=0

(5.16)

as

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THE RESPONSE TEST

5.3.1 GROUND PROPERTIES

The effect of ground water flow on the

Thermal conductivity thermal response test is difficult to predict.

If flowing groundwater cools the well, the

When performing a thermal response test, thermal response test will give a higher

one of the goals is to determine the value for the thermal conductivity than

thermal conductivity. The value of the what is actually true for that certain

thermal conductivity given by the test will bedrock. It may also give a lower thermal

be a mean value for the bedrock around the resistance than would be expected. This is

borehole, and represents the effective not a problem. If the well is going to be

thermal conductivity that includes the used as a heat injection well, the thermal

influence of fractures, groundwater flow, conductivity and the thermal resistance

bedrock etc. given by the response test reflect the real

conditions in the borehole . If the well is to

Heat capacity be used as a heat extraction well or as a

part of heat storage, the given values will

When evaluating a thermal response test it make it seem like the well is more efficient

is necessary to assume a heat capacity, to than it really is. It is also possible that the

be able to calculate the thermal groundwater has a higher temperature then

conductivity and the thermal resistance. the surrounding rock and therefore, in the

Some values for different different types of end, will give a heat contribution to the

bedrock are given in Table 4.1. heat extraction well.

The existence of groundwater movement

Conditions on the ground surface, in the energy well is a very complicated

geothermal gradient and undisturbed issue both when it comes to dimensioning

ground mean temperature. and to the thermal response test.

thermal response test makes it possible to 5.3.2 BOREHOLE PROPERTIES

determine a value for Tsur. This value will

show the actual mean temperature in the Depth and radius

borehole when the test is made and will

include the effect of the geothermal The depth and radius of the borehole

gradient and the current conditions on the should not affect the outcome of the

ground surface. The question is whether thermal response test if the parameters

the obtained value for Tsur will be the were correctly determined and correctly

annual mean value needed for used when evaluating the test. However, if

dimensioning or not. For a deep well it will the purpose of the response test is to

not make a difference whether the evaluate the thermal resistance of a certain

measurement is made during winter or borehole installation it is important to

summer. In more shallow wells the season remember that the thermal resistance is

might make a difference in regions with dependent on the borehole radius.

big annual differences in the air

temperature. It is necessary to further

investigate this matter.

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THE RESPONSE TEST

borehole easy to change the different parameters and

determine how each property affects the

The thermal insulation should not affect thermal resistance. Some of the properties

the results of the thermal response test are of less importance than others and can

When performing a thermal response test be neglected.

on a well with the upper part insulated it is

important to take this into account when As mentioned previously the thermal

using the obtained values. resistance is affected by the way that the

pipes are placed in the borehole. This

property is quite difficult to determine and

5.3.3 HEAT EXCHANGER PROPERTIES difficult to recreate in another borehole. It

is important to further investigate the

Thermal resistance, borehole filling, pipe effect that the placing of the pipe in the

properties and heat carrier fluid properties borehole has on the thermal resistance.

Maybe the placing is of no significance at

The value of the thermal resistance given all, maybe it is of great importance.

by the thermal response test only applies to

that certain borehole installation, heat

carrier fluid, state of flow and borehole

filling.

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EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

6. EQUIPMENT FOR

THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

THERMAL RESPONSE TESTS

of measurement is very simple; a thermal

response test requires only a normal water

pump, a water heater, a tank, some

temperature sensors for measuring inlet

and outlet temperatures and a data logger

to collect the data. To make the equipment

mobile it should all be set up on a common

car trailer of moderate size. The only claim Figure 6.1 TED. The entire response test equipment is

that must be made upon the test site is that set up on a small trailer.

electricity supply is available.

6.2 TED - A FIRST CONSTRUCTION

The plastic pipes from the borehole are

connected to the quick couplings of the

In order to make the mobile equipment for

pipe ends on the trailer. The pipes are

thermal response test easier to refer to, and

filled with heat carrier fluid from the tanks

also to give it a more personal touch, the

and the fluid in pumped through the system

whole construction was named TED,

via the pump. On its way, the fluid passes

which does not refer to anything in

through the water heater which heats the

particular. We will throughout this paper

fluid at constant power. As the fluid in the

refer to the equipment as TED.

pipes passes the temperature sensors at the

inlet and outlet pipes, the temperatures are

The equipment was designed as a project

recorded by the logger. Date, time and the

in a course in Solar Energy and Heat

two temperatures are logged at the selected

Storage, given by the division of Water

time interval.,

Resources Engineering, LuTH [1]. Based

The expansion tank allows the fluid in the

on this design, the equipment was

pipes to expand as the temperature

constructed by IdArktica in vertorne,

increases due to the heating. The pressure

Sweden. In January 1996 the construction

watch switches off the pump after a certain

was delivered along with some insulated

set time if the pressure has not yet reached

extension pipes of 30 meters length, in

a certain minimum level, and opens the

case of test boreholes being situated far

pressure relief valve if the pressure reaches

from a suitable parking place for the

a maximum level.

trailer.

The whole equipment is powered by the

socket attached to the electrical unit.

The covered trailer was delivered in a very

delightful design. The pumping device was

installed on a board on the trailer. The

electrical unit was bolted to the trailer's

floor. This first construction is shown in

Figure 6.2 and it contained:

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EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

1. An electrical unit

containing timer for the heater and the 6.3 EXPERIENCE AND FURTHER

pressure watch, a data logger for DEVELOPMENT OF TED

collecting the temperature data and a

socket for 16 Ampere electricity supply. Already when TED first arrived to us, one

2. Two plastic tanks of the tank valves was leaking due to

140 litres, coupled in series and used for freezing during the transport. This gave us

the heat carrier fluid a hint of TED being quite sensitive to cold

3. A pump climate when not in operation, and a good

(Movichrom 6 3/12 PN25 62, code action would be to fill the pipe system with

48533049, 1,5 kW, 220V/5,7A) glycol to prevent freezing.

4. A pressure watch

5. An expansion tank When operating the device, we soon made

(ZILMET IPX, Type 000206, 25 litres, some useful notations. The valve to the

Maximum pressure 3.5 bar) upper tank (Tank 2B) must be closed

6. A water heater under operation as the fluid is otherwise

of 9 kW power (VB 9003 F, 9 kW, pumped directly back to the tank which

400V/13A) causes an immediate pressure drop. When

7. A switch for the heater power having finished a test, the heat carrier fluid

8. Two temperature sensors in the system is regained by opening the

9. Two quick couplings valve to the tank and allow the fluid to

for connection to the borehole pipes return to the tanks. (This is also a way to

(LUDECKE SKG 25 and KAG 10) lower the pressure in the system before

releasing the quick couplings).

the symbols used in Figure 6.2

and Figure 6.5.

Figure 6.2 A schematic picture of TED. The

measures of the trailer are 2,7 x 1,5 meters.

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EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

used to regulate the pressure in the closed We ran some tests with no heat power

loop, as the fluid from the tank is being injection into the borehole. From the slight

sucked into the system when the valve is incline of the temperature over time, it was

open when operating the equipment. obvious that the pump itself contributes

with a power of approximately 1 kW.

The electrical system had to be altered so These tests also indicated that the air

that the logger could run even when the temperature changes affect the

pump was switched off. A red was measurements and must be taken into

installed to indicate when the logger was in account in some cases (see further section

running mode. 7.1.2).

A power control was installed so the heater

could be run with only half power, 4.5 kW, Some problem occurred when filling the

if necessary. pipe system if the extension pipes to the

borehole connection were not entirely kept

After a disastrous field test at a borehole in in a lower level than TED. It would

Lillpite, when the climate suddenly simplify the measurements if the pump

changed from moderately mild spring would be of a type that could be used for

weather to arctic conditions with suction as well as for pressure. This would

temperature below -20oC, TED got terribly also help to empty the pipes when

frost-bitten. The equipment froze and necessary.

broke down completely as the glycol

mixture was not strong enough to protect The logger

it. We also discovered that the temperature It is necessary to install a direct display of

sensors were out of function and had been the current measurements to see that the

so ever since the device was delivered. logger and the sensors actually work. If

Being repaired, the pump was now running e.g. over-heating etc. occurs, the test can

better than ever, and TED delivered our then be cancelled. This would also be

first meaningful data. useful to supervise the operation.

A suitable measurement frequency for the

logger appeared to be 15-60 minutes.

6.4 RUNNING THE MACHINE

Air in the system

As the groundwater level in northern Considerable problems with air in the

Sweden the winter 1995-96 was very low, system occurred when the equipment was

most of the boreholes drilled were run with a loop that was not vertical like a

groundwater wells. During our study we borehole. Such a situation occurred for

have therefore only had the opportunity example when the borehole pipes were

make successful measurements with TED connected to insulated extension pipes on

at three different sites. One situated outside the ground. The bubbles could easily be

the F-building at the University of Lule observed when we started to use

and the two remaining at two telephone transparent extension pipes. The air was

stations in Stockholm. not easily removed from the system, and

The technical observations described could not, as we had thought, be de-aerated

below are based on these thermal response from the pump. We therefore concluded

tests. Descriptions of the boreholes and that some kind of de-aeration unit must be

results from the measurements are given in added to the construction to make it work

chapter 7 Measurements and Results. properly.

Pipes

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35

EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

helped to discover the suction/pressure During our initial test-runs at the

conditions in the pipes on both sides of the university, we used water as a heat carrier

pump. It appeared to be such a high fluid as a safety detail in case of leakage or

friction in the total system of the 150 splashing, an action which we often came

meters boreholes, that the mechanical to feel grateful for.

resistance in the pipes caused a serious In the Stockholm measurements, the heat

flattening of the soft extension pipe on the carrier fluid was glycol and brineol. Then

suction side and a bulking situation on the we first observed that the outlet from the

pressure side of the pump. This effect pressure relief was not ideally placed- on

could be mastered by reducing the power the side of the trailer - letting the brine out

of the pump, but as no power control was in the surroundings. We first considered it

available, we had to reduce the flow by mainly a pollution problem, but when TED

partly choking the valve on the suction was placed right beside a rather busy foot-

side. We also tried to reduce the power of path, we suddenly got these frightening

the pump by running it backwards, which visions of the pressure relief releasing and

reduced its capacity to 60 %. spitting out warm brine over the

On regard of the suction/pressure problem, unfortunate pedestrians. As an action

this worked out very well, but against this, the outlet from the pressure

unfortunately running the pump backwards relief should be led back to the tank, where

causes the protective motor switch to any excess brine belongs.

release.

Figure 6.4 Teenager TED and his two mothers did not always agree on

things.

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EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

6.5 MATURED TED well as reduction valve for both inlet and

outlet pipes, and that the outlet from the

TED has proved to be a machine worth pressure relief is connected to the tank for

developing. For the future we therefore reasons of minimising the emission of the

suggest a couple of improvements. This fluid.

new design will not only simplify the

measurements and evaluations, but will Of course the placement of the units may

also help to track and remedy possible be rearranged.

faults and problems during the

measurements.

6.5 and is suggested to contain:

1. An electrical unit

containing:

timer for the heater and the

pressure watch

logger for collecting the

temperature data, air

temperature, hydraulic pressure,

flow in pipes

socket for 16 Ampere electricity

supply. Figure 6.5 A schematic view of a suggested second

2. Display showing the current data generation TED.(c.f. Figure 6.2).

3. Plastic tank for the heat carrier fluid

with pressure valve on lid 6.6 QUALITIES OF SECOND

4. A pump GENERATION TED

with power control and which can be used

both as a suction pump and as a

The function of the second generation TED

pressure pump

would be:

5. A pressure watch

6. An expansion tank

Pipes

7. A water heater

As before the plastic pipes from the

of about 9 kW maximum power

borehole are connected to the quick

8. A switch for the heater power couplings of the pipe ends on the trailer.

so the heater can be run on full or half

power

A plastic chute under the couplings

9. Two temperature sensors collects any excess fluid from

10.Two manometers disconnected pipes, so it can be drained off

transferring pressure data to logger to a bucket or similar. Stop valves are also

11.Two quick couplings available for both pipes when direct

for connection to the borehole pipes with a closing of the pipes are needed e.g. for

chute for excess fluid when pipes are disconnecting the quick couplings. The

disconnected reduction valves on each pipe is used to

12.De-aeration pipe change the pressure in the system.

13.Pipe and valve for draining the tank

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EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

The Tank

The system is filled with heat carrier fluid

from the only tank and the fluid is pumped

through the system via the pump which can

work both as a suction pump and a

pressure pump.

Only one tank is required, because the

borehole system in general is already filled

with fluid when the measurements will be

made. This gives also more space for

extension pipes and electric cable which

must be transported along with the trailer.

In case of TED being used for geothermal

survey or at boreholes that are not yet

filled with heat carrier fluid, it might still Figure 6.6 When releasing the quick couplings,

be useful with a larger tank volume, make sure they are held downwards.

preferably by two tanks connected in series

as on the original TED. In that case a stop

Inspection holes

valve should be installed between the two

Transparent inspection holes are installed

tanks so that only one tank could be used if

on the inlet and outlet pipes so that

required, as in most cases.

occurring gas bubbles can be observed.

The tank is drained from a valve under the

tank so that the it can be entirely emptied.

Measurements

A grading on the tank indicates the

The temperature sensors at the inlet and

contained volume so that the right volume

outlet pipes, collect temperature data for

of brine can be added directly in the tank.

the logger. The logger records date, time

The tank lid has the same diameter as the

and the two temperatures at an interval of

tank itself in order to simplify the cleaning

1-120 minutes. A manometer on each pipe

of the tank after a test. The lid has a valve

collects pressure data to determine the

to control the pressure inside the tank

pressure drop in the borehole.

when the fluid volume in the tank changes.

The atmosphere temperature is also

recorded so that any effect from daily

The Heater

temperature changes can be seen and taken

The fluid passes through the water heater

into account. A flow meter is connected to

and is heated with a constant power of

one or both reduction valves and data is

either 4.5 kW or 9 kW. The power is

sent to the logger.

regulated by two power switches that each

give half power.

A display on the electrical unit shows the

current data, indicating that the logger and

De-aeration

sensors work properly. Any malfunction

Before the test has started and the power

can also be noticed in that way.

has been switched on it is possible to get

Inside the electrical unit the logger is held

rid of air bubbles in the system by

by a snap latch so that it could easily be

pumping the fluid through the tank via the

removed or replaced. The connection

de-aeration pipe ( No12 in Figure 6.5).

between the logger and the computer is

easily accessible.

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EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

The pump has now a power control for maximum level. The fluid from the

pressure adjustment. This adjustment can pressure relief is led back to the tank in

also be done by the reduction valves on order to minimise pollution.

each pipe.

Maintenance

Pressure Relief To make maintenance of the equipment

The expansion tank allows the fluid in the easier, a possibility would be to set the

pipes to expand as the temperature equipment up on a board on a roller rail. In

increases due to the heating. The pressure that way, the equipment could be rolled

watch switches off the pump after a certain backwards and forwards and so make

set time if the pressure has not yet reached hidden points available.

a certain minimum level, and opens the

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39

TED

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

7. MEASUREMENTS AND of Technology

RESULTS U-pipe, PEM

Lp = 35 m

The groundwater situation in northern H = 31 m

Sweden was very bad during 1995-96. r0 = 0.038 m

Many groundwater wells dried up, rw = 2.2 m

leaving households without water. Tsur = 13oC

Under these circumstances, the drilling

companies were caused to give priority Table 7.1 Parameters of

borehole at F-building

to groundwater wells instead of thermal

wells. Thus the supply of test holes for In the following chapters the time

TED was scarce. The measurements criterias will be called tb1 and tb2 and

done for this thesis work are therefore they are defined as:

based on three different test holes. The

first borehole was located within the 5r0 2

University area, and the two others in t b1 =

a

Stockholm at two borehole systems

used for cooling of telephone stations. 50r0 2

tb2 =

The time criteria a

When making our calculations we used The maximum error should be about 2%

the equations and methods shown in for tb1 and considerably smaller for tb2.

chapter 4 and 5. In these an

approximation is made and a time 7.1 THE F-BUILDING

criteria is introduced. It was told that eq Our very first measurements were

4.18 is used with an error of maximum performed at the borehole outside the F-

2% if t>5r02/a. building at Lule University of

Technology. The borehole was drilled

It is not difficult to understand that eq 20 years ago as a test for a new bore for

4.18 becomes more accurate the larger t some research project. Its properties

is (see Figure 4.3). When making a have not been documented. Several

thermal response test, however, time is measurements were done at the

money and it is impossible to wait too borehole, but only the most interesting

long for the test. The question is how tests are presented here.

much money it is worth to get a more

accurate result. Since the borehole is located close to

the university building (Entrance F10) it

We decided to use to different time is therefore most likely affected by heat

criterias when making our calculations. leakage and water drainage etc. from

The one mentioned in the theory the building. The radius and depths

chapter, t>5r02/a, was reached pretty were measured and we had a suitable

fast and we were interested in how the plastic loop constructed for it. The data

results would look if we ran the test of the borehole at the F-building are

longer before using the achieved data in shown in Table 7.1.

our calculations.

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MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

CONDUCTIVITY are relatively high for a granite

A response test for determining the (standard value for this type of granite

thermal conductivity and thermal is 3.4-3.6 W/m,K). Since the value of

resistance of the installation was the thermal conductivity determined by

performed on April 25th, 1996. Water a response test is regarded as the

was used as heat carrier fluid and as the effective thermal conductivity, it is

borehole depth is only 31 m, half heat likely that the high values indicate the

power (4.5 kW) was used during the occurrence of groundwater flow

test. The temperature limit for PEM affecting the borehole (see section

pipes is about 50oC, and therefore the 5.3.1).

test had to be ended already after 23

hours. This short test time proved to be

sufficient for such a short borehole. 7.1.2 DETERMINING THE THERMAL

RESISTANCE

Figure 7.1 shows the inlet and outlet Now let us take a look at the thermal

temperatures of the borehole. During resistance of the borehole, that the

the first part of the measurement (to the response test will give us. eq 4.18 is

left of to), no power was injected into now used for determining Rb. Using the

the borehole. This was done in order to values from Table 7.1 and inserting the

determine the temperature of the thermal conductivity from above, the

undisturbed ground surrounding the thermal resistance will show as a

borehole. Tsur was estimated to 13 oC. function of time as seen in Figure 7.5

and Figure 7.6. For tb1 the thermal

At the time to, 4.5 kW power is resistance of the borehole is determined

switched on and the temperature of the as 0.06 K/(W/m) and for tb2 as 0.08

fluid increases rapidly. The two break K/(W/m). As shown in the figures, the

times are calculated, tb1=1 h 15 min and resistance appears to be kept rather

tb2 = 12 h 30 min. The linearized constant over time. The values of Rb are

function of Tf (Figure 7.2) also shows fairly good, as a standard value for the

the two different break times. thermal resistance in a borehole system

is normally set to 0.1 K/(W/m). This

may also indicate the presence of

As shown in chapter 5, the linearized groundwater flow.

function of Tf is used as an

approximation of eq 4.18, or Tf =

kln(t)+m

k Rb

[W/m,K] [K/(W/m)]

Q

where k = ln(t ) tb1 3,62 3,9 0,06

4H 1 h 15 min

tb2 3,85 3,7 0,08

Q 12 h 30 min

Thus is given by . The

4Hk Table 7.2 Summary of results from F-building

inclination of the function for tb1 is

shown in Figure 7.3 and for tb2 in Figure

7.4. Using the parameters given in

Table 7.1, the for tb1 is determined as

3.9 W/m,K and for tb2 as 3.7 W/m,K.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

41

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

about 15% of the total pipe length, as

In another test at the F-building the depth of the borehole was 31 m.

borehole, TED was run without power

injection, just circulating the water in The inlet and outlet temperatures are

the borehole. The idea was originally to following each other with a temperature

determine the power contribution from difference of about 0.7oC, but do also

the pump itself (approximately 1 kW), show a recurrent dip at 2 AM and a

but when drawing the graph we could peak at 3 PM. These correspond very

also see a clear periodic variation of the well with known facts about

temperatures over the days. (Figure 7.7 meteorological variations over the day

and Figure 7.8). By the time of the [9]. Thus we conclude that if the

measurements, the difference between variation of the atmosphere temperature

day and night temperature in the is great, or if the temperature difference

atmosphere was about 10-15 centigrade, between atmosphere and fluid is great,

and the pipes from the borehole were the measurements may be affected. In

connected to TED by un-insulated pipes winter time this may be a problem.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

42

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW

50

tb2

40

tb1

30

T, [oC]

Tin

Tout

20

to

10

0

1996-04- 1996-04- 1996-04- 1996-04- 1996-04- 1996-04-

25 09:36 25 14:24 25 19:12 26 00:00 26 04:48 26 09:36

Date

Figure 7.1 Inlet and outlet temperatures. The power (9 kW) is switched on at to. During the

initial stage, the temperatures increase drastically, but already after a few hours, the increase

of temperature is more moderate.

F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW

50

tb2

40

tb1

30

Tf, [oC]

20

10

0

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

LN(t)

Figure 7.2 The linearized function of the mean fluid temperature (Tf) with the two break times,

tb1 and tb2, marked out. The function is a good approximation of a straight line, but the incline

of the line depends on the break time chosen.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

43

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW

45

40

y = 3,6189x + 2,0884

Tf, [oC]

35 2

R = 0,9717

30

25

8,0 8,5 9,0 9,5 10,0 10,5 11,0 11,5

LN(t)

Figure 7.3 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb1 (1 h 15 min) is determined to k

= 3.62. Using the parameters from Table 7.1, the thermal conductivity is calculated to = 3.9

W/m,K.

F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW

44

43

Tf, [oC]

42

41 y = 3,8497x - 0,6441

2

R = 0,8511

40

10,7 10,8 10,9 11,0 11,1 11,2 11,3

LN(t)

Figure 7.4 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb1(12 h 30 min) is determined to

k = 3.85. Using the parameters from Table 7.1, the thermal conductivity is calculated to = 3.7

W/m,K.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

44

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Rb for tb1

F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW

0,10

0,09

0,08

0,07

0,06

Rb

0,05

0,04 y = -0,0018x + 61,685

2

R = 0,0322

0,03

0,02

0,01

0,00

1996-04-25 1996-04-25 1996-04-25 1996-04-26 1996-04-26 1996-04-26

09:36 14:24 19:12 00:00 04:48 09:36

Date

Figure 7.5 The thermal resistance, Rb, is rather constant over time as can be seen in this figure.

The value determined from the thermal conductivity for tb1 is Rb = 0.06 K/(W/m).

Rb for tb2

F-building, 960425-26, 4.5 kW

0,10

0,09

0,08

Rb

y = 0,0007x - 26,117

0,07 R2 = 0,0033

0,06

0,05

1996-04-25 1996-04-26 1996-04-26 1996-04-26 1996-04-26 1996-04-26

21:36 00:00 02:24 04:48 07:12 09:36

Date

Figure 7.6 The thermal resistance, Rb, is rather constant over time as can be seen in this figure.

The value determined from the thermal conductivity for tb2 is Rb = 0.08 K/(W/m).

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

45

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

F-building, 960430-0502, 0 kW

17

16

16

14,7 Tin

15

14 14,3 Tout

T, [oC]

13

13,1

12

3 pm 2 am 3 pm 3 am

11

10

1996-04-30 1996-04-30 1996-05-01 1996-05-01 1996-05-02 1996-05-02

00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00

Date

Figure 7.7 The temperature difference between the inlet and outlet is rather constant over time

(about 0.8 oC). The difference is proportional to the power contribution from the pump itself, as

no power from the heater is added in the test.

F-building, 960430-0502, 0 kW

16

15,7 dT peak-dip ca

1,5oC

14,9 Period ca 24 h

15

Peak value ca 3 pm

14,2 Dip value ca 2 am

Tf, [oC]

14

13,6

13

3 pm 2 am 3p 2 am

12

1996-04- 1996-04- 1996-05- 1996-05- 1996-05- 1996-05-

30 00:00 30 12:00 01 00:00 01 12:00 02 00:00 02 12:00

Date

Figure 7.8 The mean temperature shows a periodic change over time. The period is very even

with dips at 2 am and peak values at 3 pm, and is similar to well known periodic changes of

the atmosphere temperature. This indicates that the air temperature affects the

measurements.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

46

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

7.2 A REQUEST FROM TELIA operating capacity and the results from

the computer simulations.

In May we got a request from TELIA,

the Swedish telephone company, if we The two boreholes that we used in our

could perform response tests at two tests had both been used for cooling, but

locations in Stockholm. TELIA have at the time of the measurements they

recently built two borehole systems for had been out of operation for quite a

cooling telephone stations at long time. This made it possible for us

Drevikstrand and ngby, Stockholm. to consider the bedrock surrounding the

The systems have been in operation borehole as thermally undisturbed.

since February 1995, and have been

working very well. In fact better than 7.2.1 DREVIKSTRAND

the computer presimulations predicted. The telephone station Drevikstrand is

Now TELIA asked us to make a located in Skogs, Stockholm. Four

response test with TED at the two boreholes of about 160 m depth and 5 m

locations, to get an explanation to the spacing are placed in a line and

deviation. connected to the machine room by

horizontal pipes in the ground at about

The response tests at Drevikstrand and 0.5 m depth (Figure 7.9). The heat

ngby would give us a perfect carrier fluid used is 38% glycol and the

opportunity to control the accuracy of system is operated to cool the heat

TED's results. The mission was to carrier fluid from 22oC (inlet) to 16oC

determine the capacity of the cooling (outlet). The data of the test hole

systems with a response test and then (borehole 1) are shown in Table 7.3.

are placed in a line with about 5 m spacing in average. The test hole is

borehole 1. Dotted lines show the horizontal connection pipes from the

boreholes to the machine room.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

47

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Drevikstrand

U-pipe, PEM

H = 163 m

Rb = 0.0653 m

Cr = 0.194*107 J/m3,K

* = 3.4 W/m,K

Tsur = 9.2oC

Table 7.3 Parameters for

test hole at Drevikstrand.

CONDUCTIVITY

The Drevikstrand measurements were borehole via the machine room. Extension

performed during one week. After four pipes were led to the machine room through

days the power injection of 9 kW was a ventilator grill in the wall of the telephone

decreased to 4.5 kW. The idea was to station.

investigate the effect of natural curve. Figure 7.11 shows the inclination

convection, due to the temperature of the linearization, based on the two

gradient between fluid and borehole break times, respectively. For tb1 the

wall. If 9 kW gives a lower Rb than 4.5 inclination was determined to 1.35

kW, the improved heat transfer is which gives the thermal conductivity

caused by a density dependent = 3.61 W/m,K, and for tb2 the

convective heat transfer in the borehole. inclination is 1.09, giving = 4.48

This part of the test has not yet been W/m,K. The difference between the two

evaluated and will not be discussed values is partly explained by the

further in this paper. The effect of such unfortunate adjustment of the

a decrease of power during the temperature sensors. Also the last value

measurements is seen in Figure 7.12. is high for a granitic rock, which may

The last three days of the measurements indicate a rather large contribution from

at Drevikstrand (after the heat power groundwater flow (see section 5.3.1).

decrease) has been removed in the rest The assumption of a large groundwater

of the figures shown in this paper. flow is supported by the fact that the

telephone station is located at the foot

Figure 7.13 shows the linearized of a hill with crackled rock which is

function of Tf with the two break times likely to transport groundwater.

tb1 for t>5r2/a (3 h 20 min) and tb2 for

t>50r2/a (33 h 45 min) marked out. 7.2.1.2 DETERMINING THE THERMAL

Unfortunately an adjustment of the RESISTANCE

temperature sensors had to be done The thermal resistance determined from

during the test period, as the the estimated values of the thermal

temperature sensors used for the test conductivity is shown in Figure 7.14.

were not our original sensors, and did Using the values from Table 7.3, the

not fit perfectly at the measuring point. thermal resistance of the borehole was

The time for the adjustment is in Figure found to be for tb1, Rb = 0.07 K/(W/m),

7.13 seen as a discontinuity of the and Rb = 0.09 K/(W/m) for tb2.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

48

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

DREVIKSTRAND the cooling system had been in

operation periodically for about one

Using these values of Rb and , it is year. The mean capacity obtained from

possible to estimate the maximum mean the system was 40 W/m, and the

capacity that is obtained during simulations predicted about 25 W/m.

continuous operation of the system.

Given that the mean value of the heat

carrier fluid must not exceed Tf =

(22+16)/2 = 19oC, the capacity for

stationary conditions of the measured

borehole is 4.3 kW (27 W/m) for the k Rb

values of tb1 and 4.9 kW (30 W/m) for [W/m,K] [K/(W/m)]

the values of tb2. Stationary conditions tb1 1,35 3,61 0,07

will for this type of system be reached 3 h 20 min

in about 30 years. The values from TED tb2 1,09 4,48 0,09

33 h 45 min

show that the mean capacity of the

system after one year of continual Table 7.4 Summary of results from Drevikstrand

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

49

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Drevikstrand, 960514-20

o

dT ~ 20,3-16,9 = 4,6 C

23

Q = 9 kW => Q = 4,5 kW

21

19

Tin

17

T, [oC]

Tout

15 o

dT ~ 18,8-16,9 = 2,1 C

13

11

9

1996- 1996- 1996- 1996- 1996- 1996- 1996- 1996-

05-14 05-15 05-16 05-17 05-18 05-19 05-20 05-21

00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00

Date

Figure 7.12 Inlet and outlet temperatures. The power (9 kW) is switched on at to. In the

initial stage, the temperatures increase drastically, but already after a few hours, the increase

of temperature is more moderate. After four days the power injection is decreased to 4.5 kW in

order to control the effect of natural convection. This part of the test is not further discussed

here.

Drevikstrand, 960514-17, 9 kW

25

tb2

20 tb1

15

Tf, [oC]

Adjustment of

10 temperature

sensors

5

0

6,5 7,5 8,5 9,5 10,5 11,5 12,5

LN(t)

Figure 7.11 The linearized function of the mean fluid temperature (Tf) with the two break times,

tb1 and tb2, marked out. The function is a good approximation of a straight line, but the incline

of the line depends on the break time chosen. An adjustment of the temperature sensors is seen

in the figure as a discontinuity of the function.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

50

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Drevikstrand, 960514-17, 9 kW

22

20

18 y = 1,3498x + 4,2362

2

Tf, [oC]

R = 0,9778

16

14

12

10

9,0 9,5 10,0 10,5 11,0 11,5 12,0 12,5

LN(t)

Figure 7.13 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb1(3 h 20 min) is determined to

k = 1.35. Using the parameters from Table 7.3, the thermal conductivity is calculated to =

3.61 W/m,K.

Drevikstrand, 960514-17, 9 kW

21,0

20,5

y = 1,0871x + 7,4013

2

R = 0,9395

20,0

11,7 11,8 11,9 12,0 12,1 12,2 12,3 12,4 12,5

Figure 7.14 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb2 (33 h 45 min) is determined

to k = 1.09. Using the parameters from Table 7.3, the thermal conductivity is calculated to =

4.48 W/m,K.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

51

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Drevikstrand, 960514-17, 9 kW

0,10

tb2

0,09

Rb

0,08

tb1

0,07

0,06

1996-05-15 1996-05-15 1996-05-16 1996-05-16 1996-05-17 1996-05-17 1996-05-18

00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00

Date

Figure 7.15 The thermal resistance, Rb, is rather constant over time as is seen in this figure. The

value determined from the thermal conductivity for tb1 is Rb = 0.07 K/(W/m) and tb2 gives Rb = 0.09

K/(W/m .

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

52

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

7.2.2 NGBY 7.19 seen as a discontinuity of the

The telephone station ngby is located function.

in Bromma, Stockholm. Thirteen In Figure 7.21 and Figure 7.22 the

boreholes of about 130-160 m depth, inclination of the linearization, based on

placed in an irregular pattern are the respective break times, is seen. For

connected to the machine room by tb1 the inclination is determined to 1.52

horizontal pipes in the ground at 0.6-0.8 which gives the thermal conductivity

m depth (Figure 7.16) Today only 6 = 3.77 W/m,K, and for tb2 the

boreholes are in use, as the capacity of inclination is 1.23, giving = 4.65

the total system of 13 boreholes proved W/m,K. The difference between the two

to exceed the needs. The heat carrier values is partly explained by the

fluid used is 38% brineol and the unfortunate adjustment of the temp

system is operated to keep a Tf of sensors. The values are probably too

maximum 17oC. The data of the testhole high, as the effect of the horizontal

(borehole 3) are shown in Table 7.5. pipes connecting the borehole with the

machine room has not been taken into

account, and would decrease the

7.2.2.1DETERMINING THE THERMAL conductivity.

CONDUCTIVITY

Measurements were done at ngby ngby

during 4 days with 9 kW power U-pipe, PEM

injected. Figure 7.20 shows the H = 139 m

linearized function of Tf with the two Rb = 0.05525 m

break times tb1 for t>5r2/a (2 h 25 min) Cr = 0.194*107 J/m3,K

and tb2 for t>50r2/a (24 h 15 min) * = 3.4 W/m,K

marked out. Unfortunately an adjust- Tsur = 12oC

ment of the temperature sensors had to Table 7.5 Parameters for

be done at this test as well. testhole at ngby.

Figure 7.16 The borehole site at the telephone station at ngby, Stockholm. The 13

boreholes are spread over the area outside the building in an irregular pattern. Only 6 of

the boreholes (borehole 1, 4, 8, 9, 11 and 12) are in use. The test hole is borehole 3.

Dotted lines show the horizontal connection pipes to the machine room in the lower right

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

53

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

RESISTANCE Using the values of Rb and btained

The thermal resistance determined from in section 7.2.2.2, the maximum mean

the estimated values of the thermal capacity is obtained for continual

conductivity is shown in Figure 7.23. operation of the system. Given that the

Using the values from Table 7.5, the mean value of the heat carrier fluid

thermal resistance of the was found to must not exceed Tf = (20+14)/2 = 17oC,

be for tb1, Rb = 0.04 K/(W/m), and Rb = the capacity for stationary conditions of

0.05 K/(W/m) for tb2. the measured borehole is 2.0 kW (15

W/m) for the values of tb1 and 2.4 kW

k Rb (17 W/m) for the values of tb2.

[W/m,K] [K/(W/m)] Stationary conditions will for this type

tb1 1,52 3,77 0,04 of system be reached in about 30 years.

2 h 25 min

In April -96 the cooling system had

tb2 1,23 4,65 0,05 been in operation periodically for about

24 h 15 min

one year. The mean capacity obtained

Table 7.6 Summary of results from ngby from the system was 27 W/m (6

boreholes). The presimulations

predicted about 13 W/m.

horizontal connection pipes are led from

the boreholes to the machine room has a

depth of 0,6-0,8 m. The pipes are placed

side by side with a 30 mm thick board to

Figure 7.17 The test hole at ngby (borehole separate the inlet pipes from the outlet

3) is filled with groundwater. The upper 4,5 pipes. The surrounding material is sand.

meters of the borehole is surrounded by a

soil/clay layer and a moraine layer. The rest of

the borehole is drilled through granite rock to

a total depth of 139 m. A steel pipe protects the

uppermost 6 m of the borehole from any

damage due to frost, settling or violence.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

54

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

ngby, 960520-23, 9 kW

30

Adjustment of

temperature tb2 Tin

25

sensors

20 Tout

T, [oC]

15

to

tb1

10

0

1996-05-20 1996-05-21 1996-05-21 1996-05-22 1996-05-22 1996-05-23 1996-05-23

12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00

Date

Figure 7.19 Inlet and outlet temperatures. The power (9 kW) is switched on at to. In the initial

stage, the temperatures increase drastically, but already after a few hours, the increase of

temperature is more moderate. An adjustment of the temperature sensors is seen in the figure as a

discontinuity of the function.

ngby, 960520-23, 9 kW

25

tb2

20 tb1

15

Tf, [oC]

10

0

6,5 7,5 8,5 9,5 10,5 11,5 12,5

LN(t)

Figure 7.20 The linearized function of the mean fluid temperature (Tf) with the two break times, tb1

and tb2, marked out. The function is a good approximation of a straight line, but the incline of the

line depends on the break time chosen.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

55

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

ngby, 960520-23, 9 kW

25

23

21

Tf, [oC]

y = 1,5245x + 4,2993

2

19 R = 0,983

17

15

9,0 9,5 10,0 10,5 11,0 11,5 12,0 12,5

LN(t)

Figure 7.21 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb1(2 h 25 min) is

determined to k = 1.52. Using the parameters from Table 7.5, the thermal conductivity is

calculated to = 3.77 W/m,K.

ngby, 960520-23, 9 kW

23,5

23

Tf, [oC]

22,5

y = 1,2286x + 7,8123

2

R = 0,9547

22

21,5

11,2 11,4 11,6 11,8 12,0 12,2 12,4

LN(t)

Figure 7.22 The inclination for the linearized function of Tf after tb2 (24 h 15 min) is determined to

k = 1.23. Using the parameters from Table 7.5, the thermal conductivity is calculated to = 4.65

W/m,K.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

56

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Borehole ngby, 960520-23, 9 kW

0,06

tb2

0,05

0,04

tb1

Rb

0,03

0,02

0,01

0,00

1996-05-20 1996-05-21 1996-05-21 1996-05-22 1996-05-22 1996-05-23 1996-05-23

12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00 00:00 12:00

Date

Figure 7.23 The thermal resistance, Rb, is rather constant over time as is seen in this figure. The

value determined from the thermal conductivity for tb1 is Rb = 0.04 K/(W/m) and tb2 gives Rb = 0.05

K/(W/m).

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

57

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

7.3 CONCLUSIONS suggested a mean capacity of about 25

The cooling power capacity of the systems W/m, while the obtained cooling capacity

at Drevikstrand and ngby estimated by of the system is estimated to 40 W/m after

the measurements from TED are shown in operation from February to September

Figure 7.24.The values from TED are 1995. TEDs measurements suggest that the

mean values of the results from the two cooling capacity at stationary conditions is

break times, and are calculated for the 30 W/m.

cooling capacity after 30 years when

stationary conditions are reached. The The precalculations for ngby suggested

values are compared with the precalculated 13 W/m, but after one year of operation,

computer simulations and the obtained the obtained cooling capacity is 27 W/m.

power capacity from the systems by the TEDs measurements suggests 16 W/m at

end of 1995. stationary conditions.

The cooling capacity of the systems The capacities for stationary conditions are

decrease with time until stationary about 20 % better than the precalculations

conditions occur. This is due to the fact predicted. That means that for ngby, the

that the distance to the undisturbed ground number of boreholes may have been

temperature increases until a balance with reduced from 13 to 11 boreholes.

the atmosphere is obtained (see section For the Drevikstrand case, the system was

4.1.2). Therefore it reasonable to assume not dimensioned to cover the whole

that the obtained cooling capacity today is cooling demand, but to be supported by

higher than the stationary cooling capacity. conventional cooling as well. Today

The cooling systems have only been run additional cooling is not needed, because

for a couple of years, yet. the underground cooling system exceeds

the expectations.

40 Drevikstrand and ngby

40

30 Precalculated q

30 25 27

Obtained q

q [W/m]

20 16 TED 30 yr

13

10

0

Drevikstrand ngby

Figure 7.24 The diagram shows the expected cooling capacity (W/m) from the

precalculations, with the obtained cooling capacity and the expected capacity

at stationary conditions, based on the thermal response test.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

58

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

For Drevikstrand, simulations have also the expected temperature from the

been done for the outlet and inlet precalculations. The simulations based on

temperatures from the boreholes. the results from the response test

Comparison has been done between the correspond very well with the measured

expected temperatures from the temperature from the system, and thus we

precalculated computer simulations, the conclude that thermal response test is a

simulated temperatures from the response suitable tool for dimensioning UTES

test, and the measured temperatures of the systems.

system in operation. The simulations have

been done by Dr. G. Hellstrm, LTH, and The improvements of the thermal

are here presented as comparisons between capacities of the boreholes can probably be

the mean fluid temperatures, Tf (figure explained by the occurrence of

7.25). groundwater flow in the rock and natural

convection in the borehole systems.

The comparison shows that the measured

temperature is in average 4oC lower than

30,0

25,0

20,0

Tf simulations

15,0 Tf response

Tf

Tf Measured

10,0

5,0

0,0

1995-01-01 1995-02-20 1995-04-11 1995-05-31 1995-07-20 1995-09-08

and from the presimulations and the response test.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

59

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

8. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS measurements done with TED seem to be

good.

From the measurements at the telephone

As a technical tool for marketing UTES

stations in Stockholm, one can conclude

systems, TED has proved to be worth

that if a response test had been done at one

further developing. There are still a few

borehole before the rest of the system had

technical details to work on, and a general

been constructed, money had been saved

observation is that it is better with too

by reducing the number of boreholes. For

many parameters measured than too few,

the Drevikstrand case, the system is now

at least at the research stage.

covering the total needs for the cooling

TED has a technically very simple

capacity, which was not originally

construction, and is therefore easy to use

planned. It was originally meant as a

and maintain. The results from the

complement to the ordinary freon heat

measurements are simple to evaluate and

exchanger.

understand, which makes TED a useful

tool with many possible applications.

Our conclusion is thus that thermal

response test with mobile equipment

TED makes it possible to determine the

should become a standard tool for

effective thermal conductivity and the total

dimensioning and evaluation of

thermal resistance of a borehole

underground thermal energy systems.

kind of humour.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

60

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

The development of TED will now telephone stations and have shown a great

continue as a four years research project by interest for the mobile response test

S.Gehlin at the division of Water equipment. With their help, a rough

Resources Engineering, Lule University geothermal survey may also be done for

of Technology, Sweden. There are now Sweden, i.e. a map over the efficient

120 well documented boreholes from a thermal properties of the Swedish bedrock.

previous research project in Lule

available for further research with TED. The Swedish Heat Pump Consortium,

They will be used for studying different SVEP, is supporting the research, based on

types of borehole installations, materials of their interest of using thermal response test

the pipes and fillings, installation for solving juridical controversies with

techniques, heat carrier fluids, natural heat extraction boreholes that do not keep

convection, forced convection, effects of the promised capacity etc. and to avoid

cracks, groundwater flow, soil layers etc. future controversies.

The method can also be used for studying

parameters in soil, clay and complex rock Already has the work with a mobile

species. equipment for thermal response test been

shown interest from several countries,

TELIA is planning to expand the among them Germany and Canada.

application of borehole cooling of

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

61

REFERENCES

REFERENCES

[1] Eklf, Gehlin, Jonsson, Nilsson, 1995. Mobil utrustning fr termisk responstest (A

mobile equipment for thermal response test). Division of Water Resources Engineering,

Lule University of Technology, Sweden.

[2] Nordell, Sderlund, 1991. Solvrme och vrmelagring (Solar heating and heat storage).

Series C no. 16. Divison of Water Resources Engineering, University of Technology,

Lule, Sweden.

[3] Ericsson, 1985. Vrmeutbyte mellan berggrund och borrhl vid bergvrmesystem (Heat

exchange between crystalline bedrock and borehole in an energy well system).

Publication A 52. Department of Geology, Chalmers University of Technology and

University of Gteborg, Gteborg, Sweden.

analyser. Del III Naturvrmekllor (Ground heat systems. A handbook on thermal

analysis. Part III Natural heat sources). T18:1985. Statens rd fr byggforskning,

Stockholm, Sweden.

[5] Carlslaw, Jaeger, 1959. Conduction of heat in solids. University press, Oxford, Great

Britain. Chapt. 10

analyser. Del II Vrmelager (Ground heat systems. A handbook on thermal analysis. Part

II Heat storage ). T17:1985. Statens rd fr byggforskning, Stockholm, Sweden.

(The well pumping test used as a geohydrological research method). R66:1991. Statens

rd fr byggforskning, Stockholm, Sweden.

[8] Eskilson, Hellstrm, Wnggren, 1987. Response test for heat store with 25 boreholes.

Notes of heat transfer 9-1987. Departments of Building Technology and Mathematical

Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden and Monitoring Centre for Energy

Research. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

analyser. Del I Allmn del (Ground heat systems. A handbook on thermal analysis.

PartI). T16:1985. Statens rd fr byggforskning, Stockholm, Sweden.

[11] Incropera, de Witt, 1990. Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 3rd edition.

C EKLF AND S GEHLIN: TED - A MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL RESPONSE TEST

62

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