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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 54 (2016) 2533

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Biogas potential for electric power generation in Pakistan: A survey


Waqar Uddin a, B. Khan a,n, Neelofar Shaukat a, Muhammad Majid b, G. Mujtaba a,
Arshad Mehmood a, S.M. Ali a, U. Younas a, Muhammad Anwar b, Abdullah M. Almeshal c
a
Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan
b
Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Telecommunication and Information Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila,
Pakistan
c
Electronics Engineering Technology department, College of Technological studies, Public Authority for applied Education and Training (PAAET), Kuwait

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: From last decade, Pakistan is facing the severe problems of energy deciency. Every year Pakistan's
Received 25 February 2015 government is spending more than 14.5 billion US dollars to import crude oil in order to fulll the energy
Received in revised form gap. Energy demand is increasing rapidly but exploration and use of renewable energy is not meeting the
1 June 2015
needs of requirements. The unavailability of power in Pakistan lasts for 1420 h per day. In this paper, the
Accepted 18 September 2015
potential of biogas is reviewed to meet the energy requirement of Pakistan. One cubic meter of biogas
can generate an electrical energy of 2.5 KWh. The annual growth rate of livestock sector is 4% in Pakistan
Keywords: and its dung can produce 35.625 million KWh of electric energy per day. We can overcome the energy
Biogas crisis by efciently using biogas as an alternative energy source. The installation cost of biogas plant is
Electric Power Generation
not only economical but also benecial in reducing respiratory and eye infections. PCRET has installed
Renewable Energies
4109 biogas plants across the country which saves average of Rs. 37.925 million per month in terms of
Biomass
kerosene oil, wood, liqueed petroleum gas and bio fertilizer.
& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2. Biogas generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3. Schemes for enhancing biogas production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1. Thermal scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.2. Chemical scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.3. Mechanical scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.4. Biological scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4. Applications of biogas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.1. Live stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.2. Contributions of biogas in power generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.3. Current and future prospects of biogas in Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5. Economic and environmental impact of biogas plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6. Biogas plant model applied in Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7. Conclusion and future prospects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

1. Introduction

Pakistan is facing a signicant challenge in energy sector and


n
Corresponding author. demand is growing at a rate of 1113% per year. The energy
E-mail address: bilalkhan@ciit.net.pk (B. Khan). requirement of Pakistan was 57.9 million tons of oil equivalent

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.09.083
1364-0321/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
26 W. Uddin et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 54 (2016) 2533

Electricity Generation From Different Sources

35.70% 29%
Gas
Oil
Coal
35%
Hydel, Nuclear, or imported
0.10%

Fig. 1. Shares of conventional energy sources for electric power generation in Pakistan [2].

(TOEs) in 2006 and it is estimated to reach 179 million TOEs in biogas is its utilization as a substitute of coal in power generation,
2020. In 2012, Pakistan electricity crisis short falls to 8500 MW which helps in minimizing greenhouse gases, as coal is the pri-
during summer due to inductive loads and the entire country faces mary cause of carbon dioxide emission [14].
1420 h load shedding per day. This shortfall conversely affects the Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET),
exports of Pakistan due to severe underproduction in industries as Pakistan Council for Appropriate Technologies (PCAT) and Pakistan
electricity generation of Pakistan shrunk to half during past recent Renewable Energy Society (PRES) works for the research and
years [1]. In order to fulll the energy requirement, Pakistan development of biogas in Pakistan. Currently 5357 biogas plants
imports crude oil of worth 1400 million US dollars that was just are installed in different areas of Pakistan. The estimated biogas
530 million US dollar in 1996, which has negative impact in the potential is 1216 million m3/day [15]. These renewable energy
economic growth. Pakistan spent approximately 20 percent of resources not only help in mitigation of the energy crisis but also
foreign exchange for the import of fossil fuels [2] and almost 14.5 create new employment opportunities with positive impact on
billion US dollars for conventional energy resources that is 40 environment. Therefore, Pakistan should introduce renewable
percent of total import of country [3]. Energy demand of Pakistan energy resources like biogas to fulll its energy demand to a sig-
is expected to be three times more by 2050. However, the growth nicant level. Pakistan is an agricultural country. Therefore, it is
rate of energy production is far less than the demand [4,5]. rich in biogas resources. Comparative analysis of biogas to over-
Pakistan is currently dependent on only conventional energy come electrical energy problems is listed in Table. 1.
resources to meet its energy demand as shown in Fig. 1. However, The main contributions of our survey are listed as:
Pakistan is facing serious energy crisis from last decade. Therefore,
to mitigate the energy crisis we have to explore alternative green  We present the biogas as an alternative energy source and its
energy resources along with conventional resources. impact on Pakistan economy and health related issues. In the
Due to natural endowment and location, Pakistan has potential aforementioned feature of the biogas power generation will
for alternative renewable resources like solar, wind, geothermal overcome the Pakistan energy crises.
and biogas. Mostly, solar and wind energy is used as alternative  We discuss in detail the biogas production from different sub-
sources for production of electricity. However, these two sources strate and chemical decomposition.
are not enough to reduce the energy crisis of Pakistan. Therefore,  We elaborate schemes of enhancing bio gas production from the
too fulll the country power needs, initiative is required for other recently published literature in the eld of the biogas
energy sources i.e. biomass, biogas, geothermal, micro, hydro and production.
biodiesel [6]. Shortfall of conventional energy resources is an  We also survey the applications of biogas power generation in
indication to increase dependency on renewable resources to the prospects of Pakistan. Moreover, we quantitatively analyze
revive economic growth of Pakistan [3]. the current and future prospects of biogas generation in
Pakistan is an agricultural country, which plays an important Pakistan.
role in economic growth and contributes 22% to Gross Domestic  The survey also presents economic and environmental impact
Products (GDP) of Pakistan. It is further explained by economic of biogas plants. Moreover, different biogas plant models
survey of 20122013, Pakistan livestock department contributes applied in Pakistan are also surveyed.
56% to agriculture which is 12% of the GDP. During 20122013,
there are total of 72 million livestock animals that produce 1140 The remainder of the survey is organized as follows. In Section
million tons of dung [3]. Currently all of this manure is stored in 2, the biogas production from various substrate and chemical
outdoor place for decomposition, which leads to diseases, decomposition is discussed. The different schemes of enhancing
unpleasant odors and air pollutions. According to Ref. [7], the biogas production are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, biogas
chemical composition of the livestock waste is discussed and current and future generation prospects of Pakistan are analytical
shows that the waste has gases like ammonia, hydrogen sulde analyzed. Economic growth and environmental impact of
and some other dangerous gases which cause serious health pro- biogas plants are reviewed in Section 5. In Section 6, different
blems. Ammonia also leads to the contamination of ground water. biogas plant models applied in Pakistan are presented. Section 7
In the light of aforementioned problems, efcient utilization of the concludes the survey with brief summary and proposal for
manure in the form of alternative renewable energy is required. future work.
Biogas is a process in which livestock manure is converted to
methane gas [8,9] via anaerobic digestion, that is odorless [10] and
can be utilized as fertilizer [11]. So being a valuable fuel biogas can 2. Biogas generation
be utilized in variety of applications like domestic, industrial,
heating, as a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (by scrubbing pro- Biogas is the result of anaerobic bio-degradation process of
cess) [12,13] and for electricity generation. One major advantage of organic materials. Livestock wastes, agriculture biomass residue,
W. Uddin et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 54 (2016) 2533 27

Table 1
Comparative analysis of biogas surveys for electric power generation in Pakistan.

Ref no. Renewable Installed Pretreatment/Control Cost analysis Power ow Case Biogas sources Country
comparison plants policies study

[16] Spent Wash Pakistan


[17] All Ethiopia
[18] Palm Oil Developing
[19] Animal Manure Pakistan
[20] Livestock Manure Pakistan
[21] All Nigeria
[22] Wood and Forest Pakistan
Residue
[23] PBD China
[24] Industrial Hemp Pakistan
[25] Organic Weight Thailand
[26] All Pakistan
[27] All Pakistan
[28] All Pakistan
[29] Grassland Pakistan
[4] Dung, crop residue Pakistan
[Our Survey] All Pakistan

Table 2 Hydrolysis is simple step of adding water to the livestock waste.


Biogas production from various substrates [31]. In Acidogenesis stage, the organic material decomposed to acid,
alcohol and sugar by fermenting bacteria. In acetogenesis, these
Substrate DMn Biogas Yield [m3 kg  1of TS]nn
(%) compounds are further decomposed into acetic acid, carbon
dioxide and hydrogen. Final decomposition is carried out by
Excreta from cattle (fresh) 2530 0.60.8 methane bacteria in the process of methanogenesis which produce
Excreta from sheep (fresh) 1825 0.30.4 methane and carbon dioxide [32]. Flow chart representing the
Excreta from poultry 1029 0.30.8
Blood liquid 18 0.30.6
production of biogas from different substrates is shown below. In
Rumen contents 1216 0.30.6 addition, there are also some traces of other compounds and gases
along with methane and carbon dioxide from methanogenesis
n
DM Dry matter. step which are presented in Table 3. In order to achieve desired
nn
TS Total solids.
goal of biogas production, the main parameters should be under
consideration are: (1) anaerobic (Absence of oxygen) atmosphere
Table 3 (2) Heat. Anaerobic fermentation is process of breakdown of
Composition of biogas [16,17]. organic material in absence of oxygen. On the other hand tem-
perature should be 3540 C for proper growth of bacteria to
Gases Percentage (%) generate biogas [6]. Monomers and Oligomers.
Methane (CH4) 5075
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 2550
Nitrogen (N2) 010 3. Schemes for enhancing biogas production
Hydrogen (H2) 001
Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) 003
Due to some environmental factors the production of gas from
Oxygen (O2) 002
a biogas plant is insufcient. The production of biogas can be
increased by treating the raw material before use. In a biogas plant
the raw material on commercial scale is pretreated using various
Table 4
techniques i.e. thermal, chemical, thermochemical, mechanical,
Biogas production from various solid organic substrates.
ultrasonic, electronic beam pre-treatment and biological in order
Substrate Gas yields (Liters/kg VS) References to make rapid anaerobic digestion and hence enhance biogas
production [39].
Wheat straw 200300 [33]
Agricultural waste 310430
Sewage system 310740 3.1. Thermal scheme
Fallen leaves 210290
Algae 420500 Biogas plants are treated with heat that enhances the gas
Vegetable residue 330360 production and results in low amount of slurry [40]. Plant is most
Flax 360
Potato tops (greens) 280490
commonly treated with temperature range from 60 to 180 C.
Poultry droppings 310620 Biogas production efciency can be improved by applying
Cow dung 90310 70 C after each 9 h by means of thermophilic digestion of slurry
Municipal solid waste 200530 [3436] [41]. Microthermal treatment is also used to increase the biogas
Food waste 396 [37]
production by providing temperature up to 170 C [42].
Household waste 350 [38]

3.2. Chemical scheme


kitchen waste, animal waste and waste from industry are the
appropriate raw material for biogas production [30]. Biogas pro- Pretreatment with acid causes biodegradation of organic sub-
duction from various substrate is listed in Tables 2 and 3 [31] and stance which will be easily converted to biogas by further degra-
Table 4. dation through bacterial action. Lignocellulose substrate can also
28 W. Uddin et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 54 (2016) 2533

be degraded by using sodium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide. It is 30 min increases methane production by 64% [46].
benecial for the formation of smaller molecular compounds. On
the other hand it degrades carbon which increases the formation 3.4. Biological scheme
of carbon dioxide [43]. Biogas yield can be improved by combine
action of heat and alkaline [44]. The thermochemical pretreatment Biogas production can also be increase by biological treatment
with applied temperature of 147 C and heating time of e.g. raped straw is mixed with substrate that increase biogas
25.3 min results in high methane production [45]. production rate by 29.54% through the rapid break down of cel-
lulose, hemicellulose and lignin [47].
3.3. Mechanical scheme There are many merits and de-merits of pretreatment control
schemes for improvement in biogas production. Some important
Substrate size also matter in biogas production. Smaller the size schemes with their pros and cons are listed in Table 5.
of the substrate, higher will be the rate of bacterial activity and
hence rapid production of biogas. On the other hand larger sized
substrate also leads digester blockage [46]. Smaller substrate size 4. Applications of biogas
can be achieved by milling which will convert larger substrate to
smaller pieces. Mechanical pretreatment diminishes digestion Biogas can be used for different purposes i.e. for the production
time by 2359% mostly [43]. Ultrasonic pretreatment for of heat and electricity (cogeneration), heat only, electricity only,

Table 5
Merits and de-merits of anaerobic treatments processes for biogas plants.

Treatment processes Advantages Disadvantages References

Aerobic Ponding  Cheap, stable and simple design  Large land area is required [48]
System  Sludge production and nutrients requirements are low  H2S and CO2 directly release in atmosphere
 Large amount of digested POME can be handled  Control is difcult due to size and structure
 Biogas and emission of CH4 are low
 This contain long startup and HRT

Aerobic Filtration  Suspended solids can be removed efciently  Constant source of water is required [49]
 Small reactor volume can handle larger loads  Long start up time is required
 Low construction, operation and maintenance cost  Incompatible for high suspended solids

AFBR  At long SRT, it maintain high biomass concentration  High energy requirement [50]
 Large surface area for biomass transfer  Inappropriate for high suspended solids
 Less sludge production  Unable to capture produced biogas

UASB  CH4 emission rate is high  High dependency on sludge concentration [51]
 Minimum nutrients requirements  Biogas quality is low due to poor separation between bio-
 High degree of waste stabilization mass and efuent
 Biomass washout is prominent at lower HRTs  Large start up time is required

EGSB Efuent recirculation is possible At high up ow velocity, removal of particulate organic matter [52]
Removal of suspended solids is directly proportional to the up is difcult
ow velocity It is used to treat low strength wastewater
Separation of sludge is possible Active biomass is needed for anaerobic sludge

ABR  High cell retention time can be achieved  Recycling is required for reactor stability [53]
 Simple and economical structure  Nutrients stability is required
 High degree of waste stabilization

ASBR  Low cost and energy demand  Nutrient supplementation is required to improve treatment [54]
 Produce less environmental emissions of the wastewater
 Flexible and simple operation and no separate classier  Low efciency at high OLR
is needed  Shapes of reactor impose extra pressure on biological
 High biomass retaining reactor components of biomass

CSTR  Cheap, simple and has more biogas production  At low HRT, it is less efcient [55]
 Less biomass retention
 It is well controllable therefore large heat transfer areas can be  Extra added reactant effects the quality
installed. It has low maintenance

UASFF  At low HRT CH4 emission is high  Pretreatment of suspended solids is needed for incompre- [56]
 Higher biomass retention and less clogging hensive solids
 Able to tolerate shock loading  Poor separation
W. Uddin et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 54 (2016) 2533 29

bio methane up gradation for gas grid, fuel for vehicles, high tech percentage of electricity produced in Pakistan by different energy
process energy and in chemical industry as a raw material [5759]. sources. It can be seen that the share of hydel (35.7%) and oil (35%)
Biogas has many advantages for the producer, society and the is very high as compared to other sources. Conventional energy
environment because it doesnt contribute to global warming. The sources cost a lot more as compared to non-conventional which
wastes used as feeding material decrease risk of diseases and are not used in Pakistan on large scale for generation of green
become useful after being processed in the digester i.e. animal
energy. A step towards generating electric power from biogas has
waste become a good fertilizer after being handled in biogas plant
already taken by installing biogas plants of 10 M3, 15 M3, 20 M3 in
[59]. Carbon dioxide released from biogas can be used by plant for
Sialkot, Narowal, Jhang and other places that are producing
the process of photosynthesis; hence the production of carbon
dioxide is again used for the formation of organic compound in enough electricity to run a tube wells. Currently PCRET has
plants [60]. installed 92 Biogas plants for generation of electric power ranging
from 5 KW to 100 KW [67]. The details of the biogas plants
4.1. Live stock installed greater than 5 M3 is given in the Tables 6 and 7 below:
A biogas plant with the aid of New Zealand is under con-
In rural areas of Pakistan most of the people are self-employed struction in Karachi which with initial capacity of generating
by adopting livestock animals. About 3035 million people get 250 KW of electric power that will be modied to achieve the limit
their 3040% of their income from livestock [61]. It can be clearly of 30 MW [68]. Alternative energy development board (AEDB) is
observed from the census reports of livestock for the year 1996 planning to setup a biogas plant for generation of 9 MW electric
and 2006 that the populations of cattle increased by 44% while the power at Pak Ethanol (Pvt.) Limited Sindh. Biogas from sugar mills
populations of buffalo is increased by 34% [62]. In year 2011 live-
are generating 700 MW of electric power although 3000 MW of
stock contributes 55.3% to agriculture and 11.9% to the GDP of the
electric power can be generated through biogas generation from
country. This ratio is increased in subsequent year to 55.4% and
85 Sugar mills [3,69]. In Punjab 4 MW electric power is being
12.1% respectively which results into an increase a cost from Rs.
735 billion to Rs. 756 billion [3]. In year 20122013 there are total generated from biogas [70].
of 172.2 million livestock animals that produce 652 million kg An already mentioned assumption in [6] that 2.5 KWh energy
dung per day and can be used for the production of biogas. Table 4 is generated from 1 m cube of biogas. Using that assumption
shows the population of livestock animals in Pakistan from 2010 to 51.3625 MWh/day energy can be generated from biogas in Paki-
2014 provided by Ministry of National Food and Security Research stan with the help of currently installed plant by PCRET, while
[3]. Livestock contributes in fertilizer industry in the form of bio 35.625 million kWh/day energy can be generated by utilizing the
fertilizers. Around 21 million tons of biofertilizer is produced per total potential of dung.
year from livestock sector [4]. Besides electrical power generation biogas can also play an
Apart from animal dung biogas can be also produce from important role in providing energy in other sectors of country.
wastage of slaughter houses, paper industry, street waste, banana Fig. 3 shows the energy consumption of the country from different
stem waste and poultry waste [31,63]. A cow/buffalo can produce sources. It can be seen that natural gas is providing major portion
15 kg average dung per day. 1 m3 can be produced from 6 kg of
of energy. Biogas can also be used in this way to provide energy on
dung, so an average of 2.5 m3 biogas can be produce by single cow/
almost daily basis at negligible cost as compared to other sources
buffalo in a day [64]. Poultry waste is considered ideal substrate
[3]. In order to meet the shortage of electricity and gas PCRET us
for production of Biogas [65]. Poultry sector in Pakistan also has a
robust growth of 78% annually [3]. initiating a mega project of installing 25,000 biogas plants across
the country.
4.2. Contributions of biogas in power generation

People of Pakistan are currently facing the worst energy crisis 72.20% 75.60%
in the history of country. Although there is improvements in 80%
power generation but still demand of power is exceeding the 60%
supply limit after every passing year [3]. In May 2011, demand
40%
exceed the generation by 7000 MW [2]. Load shedding recorded in 13.40%
8.70% 11.70%
cities is up to 14 h/day while in rural areas load shedding is up to 20% 4%
8.70%
5.70%
20 h/day [66]. To overcome these crisis National Transmission and
0%
Dispatch Company (NTDC) has planned to establish 6100 MVA, Severe Moderate Minimal No Pollution
500/220 KV grid in coming two years and similarly connecting
Pollution Before Use of Biogas PollutionAfter Use of Biogas
6400 MVA, 220/132 KV grid to power system in till 2015. But the
estimated demand by that time is around 56% in the coming 10 Fig. 3. Level of pollution before and after use of bBiogas [81].
years [3]. With current electricity sources it is not possible to
overcome the demand using natural gas, oil, coal, hydel, and
Table 6
nuclear energy as source to produce electricity. Fig. 3 shows the Live stock population in Pakistan from 2010 to 2014.

Monthly Savings by Using Biogas Energy Resources Species 201011 201112 201213
[VALUE]
[VALUE] [VALUE] Cattles 35.6 36.9 38.3
60 Buffalo 31.7 32.7 33.7
Rs. (Million)

40 Sheep 28.1 28.4 28.8


[VALUE] Goat 61.5 63.1 64.9
20 Camels 1 1 1
Rs.(Million) Horses 0.4 0.4 0.4
0
LPG Kerosene Oil Wood Fertilizer Asses 4.7 4.8 4.9
Mules 0.2 0.2 0.2
Fig. 2. Monthly saving of money in term of LPG, kerosene oil, wood and fertilizer.
30 W. Uddin et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 54 (2016) 2533

4.3. Current and future prospects of biogas in Pakistan 14.25 million meter cube per day [68]. The plants are installed in
two phases. In 1st Phase, 1596 plants were installed in four pro-
Biogas can be used as an alternative source of energy to over- vinces including Islamabad, while in 2nd phase the number of
come the current energy crisis of Pakistan. First biogas plant was plant installed in country including AJK & Islamabad were 2513.
installed in the country in 1959 in Sindh [71,72]. In 1974 Gov- Most of these plants are used for cooking purpose. For the year
ernment of Pakistan gave attention to biogas plant and 21 plants 20142015 PCRET have submitted Project under the name
were installed across the country by Pakistan Council for Appro- Installation of Biogas, A substitute of natural gas and chemical
priate Technology (PCAT) followed by 10 units installed in Azad Fertilizer with cost of 481.66 million whose objective is to install
Jammu & Kashmir. In the same year a project was launched by 10,100 Biogas plants throughout Pakistan that provide cheaper
Directorate General of New and Renewable Energy Resources with energy. Details of biogas plants installed in the country are given
the aim to establish 4000 biogas plants by 1986. Later in year 2000 in Table 8.
Biogas Support Program (BSP) was launched in order to install
1200 biogas plants in that year and 10,000 plants were expected to
be established till 2006. Pakistan Dairy Development Company 5. Economic and environmental impact of biogas plant
(PDDC) also took a part in biogas plant installation and 556 plants
are installed under this program by 2009 [46]. 14,000 biogas According to PCRET report a 5 m3 of biogas plant saves 64 kg of
plants with the cost of Rs. 356 million are installed by Rural LPG, 93 l of kerosene oil and 800 kg of wood monthly. This cal-
Support Program Network (RSPN) starting from 2009 [3]. PCRET is culation is based on the assumption made by PCRET [67]. Savings
contributing in overcoming the energy crisis in Pakistan through in terms of cost are listed in Tables 8, 9 and 10. Estimated cost on
installing different renewable energy technologies. Since 2002 conventional fuel i.e. wood, dung cakes, LPG, chemical fertilizer
and health maintenance cost are Rs. 3550 and Rs. 1000. Chemical
PCRET installed 4016 biogas plants across the country. The dis-
fertilizer is substituted by bio slurry for amount of Rs. 600 [73].
cussed biogas plant installed by PCRET is producing 20,545 m3/day
10 m3 biogas plant can save Rs.92,062/- per year instead of buying
gases [67]. The total potential of biogas available in the country is
other fuels for daily use [74]. Due to high caloric value 6 kWh/m3
that is equivalent to 20 MJ biogas is best option as compared to
Table 7 other conventional biomass fuel [75,76]. 1 m3 of biogas result in
Biogas plant producing electric power in Pakistan [67]. 1278 kg reduction in re wood hence reduces the rate of defor-
estation [72,77,78]. People using biogas can save 2.5 hours per day
Size of biogas No of Generated power Applications
in m3 plants KW/ plant
that can be utilized in other activities rather than collecting wood
and spending more time on cooking [77,79].
1012 33  Generator, Tube well As earlier, it is stated that, Pakistan is heavily dependent on the
1415 36  Commercial Cooking conventional energy sources. Therefore, Pakistan has to invest
2022 4  Commercially use for
huge cost to import petroleum product to fulll energy demand.
Restaurant
25 8 50 However, Pakistan can save money by using biogas energy
30 2 5 resources as depicted in Fig. 2.
40 3 100 The survey held in Bangladesh in 2010 clearly reveals that
60 1 5
biogas plant reduces air pollution and diseases. The smoke
120 1
150 1
180 1 25
200 2 60 Table 10
Total 92 790 KW Cost comparison and monthly saving of biogas plants PCRET [40].

Biogas Source Equivalent Estimated cost Cost (  106) Rs/


energy (ZMK) month
Table 8
Biogas plant Installed by PCRET in Pakistan. 20022012 [67]. 1 Kerosene oil 0.67 L Kerosene (4109)  93  (Rs 45
oil 120)
Province Bio gas plants installed Bio gas plants installed (2007 Wood 5.5 kg wood (4109)  800  (Rs 57
(200207) 12) 17.6)
LPG 0.55 kg LPG (4109)  64  (Rs 44
Islamabad 258 30 170)
Punjab 820 1700
KPK 194 155
Sindh 264 300
Baluchistan 60 80
AJK 00 50 30% 23%
22.70%
Total 1596 2513 19.10%
17.70% 16.70%
20%
11.70%
9.40%
Table 9 8% 6%
10% 5.40% 4.70%
Competitive cost analysis of 1 m3 biogas [80]. 4%

Biogas (m3) Equivalent energy Estimated cost (ZMK) 0%


Typhoid
Eye infection

Tuberculosis
Respiratory in

Diarrhea

Gastro-Intestinal

1 3.47 kg Firewood 3500


fection

0.52 L Diesel 2600


4.70 KWh Electricity 4700
0.80 L Petrol 4570
1.40 kg Charcoal 5000 Before After
0.62 L Kerosene 3100
Fig. 4. Percentage decrease in diseases before and after biogas use [81].
W. Uddin et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 54 (2016) 2533 31

Fig. 5. Floating drum model biogas plant.

Fig. 6. Fixed domed model biogas plant.

produced from burning of wood, dung etc. result in increase in efciency of plant i.e. 1 l water with 1 kg dung is optimal value to
pollution in the kitchen. Use of biogas showed signicant reduc- achieve maximum efciency [26].
tion in smoke and pollution that can be clearly observed
from Fig. 3 [81].
Moreover smoke cause's severe problem of eye infection as 7. Conclusion and future prospects
well as respiratory diseases. Drastic decrease in diseases has been
observed after use of biogas as a fuel in kitchen instead of wood or Unlike non-renewable energy resources, biogas is providing
other fuel. The percentage reduction of various diseases is shown greener energy and has no contribution to global warming. Keeping
in Fig. 4 [81]. in view the current situation of energy shortage it becomes
necessary to fully utilize biogas potential in Pakistan to fulll energy
demand in the country. Study shows that biogas is economical in
6. Biogas plant model applied in Pakistan term of expenses and having positive environmental impact.
Farmers should be educated to the use and benets of biogas in
The selection of model is based on different factor i.e. climate order to reduce burden on non-renewable energies and animal
condition, affordability, usage and existing model performance excretes should be used properly to make it useful for producing
[71]. Biogas plants used worldwide have different shapes and biogas and bio fertilizer. The biogas provides greener energy which
models i.e. Chinese xed dome model, Nepalese model, Floating will keep the planet green and will help to stabilize ecosystem.
Drum model and Deenbandhu model, while in Pakistan moveable Biogas plant should be installed on commercial scale for generation
gas holder, balloon type and xed dome are commonly used [67]. of electricity to overcome shortfall of electric power and production
The Floating Drum type is used for maintaining constant gas of bio fertilizer. Pretreatment techniques should be adopted to
pressure while on the other side its metal gas holder is prone to improve the efciency of biogas plant on commercial scale.
rusting [82]. Floating Drum model and xed domed model is given There are various domains in biogas power generation which
in Figs. 5 and 6 respectively. Nepalese xed dome is constructed are still open for the research community to work. One such
underground with afxed dome on the earth surface. Due to its domain is related to the available biogas potential i.e. how this
underground construction it is well-organized and less exposed to potential will be used to supply energy to various loads, such as
damage or failure. Since 2002 PCRET is installing 3 m3 and residential and farm? Further study and simulation will be con-
5 m3 biogas plants in all region of country due to their maximum ducted for biogas generation system with grid interface to balance
efciency and better performance [67]. Size of plant is indirectly demand-supply management. The aforesaid research work is open
related to efciency, smaller the sizes better the efciency and vice for incorporating power system issues e.g. the quality of service,
versa. Water and dung ratio is also having signicant effect on the synchronization etc. More surveys will be carried out for the
32 W. Uddin et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 54 (2016) 2533

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