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Archaeologia Transylvanica

Studia in honorem Stephani Bajusz

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OPITZ ARCHAEOLOGICA
8.

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Archaeologia Transylvanica
Studia in honorem Stephani Bajusz

Transylvanian Museum Society Mure County Museum Martin Opitz Publishing House
Cluj-Napoca Trgu Mure Budapest, 2015

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A ktet megjelenst tmogatta / Volum publicat cu sprijinul nanciar al / Published with the nancial support of
Ministry of National Education, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-ID-PCE-2012-4-0618:
Digitizing the Roman Limes. Sector: Brncoveneti-Sreni;
Debreceni Egyetem, Blcsszettudomnyi Kar, Trtnelmi s Nprajzi Doktori Iskola;
Bethlen Gbor Alap.

Szerkesztk / Editori / Editors:


Dobos Alpr, Petru Dvid, Berecki Sndor, Vass Lrnt, Pnczl Szilamr Pter,
Molnr-Kovcs Zsolt, Forisek Pter

Technikai szerkeszt / Tehnoredactare / Page layout:


Bertk Krisztina

Nyelvi lektorok / Lectori / Linguistic revision:


Kovcs Margit (magyar / maghiar / Hungarian)
Petru Dvid (angol / englez / English)
Marie-Hlne Grunwald (nmet / german / German)

Bortterv / Design copert / Cover design:


auri graka
(Karcsony Istvn tervnek felhasznlsval)
(cu contribuia lui / with the contribution of Karcsony Istvn)

Bort fotja / Fotograa de pe copert / Cover photo:


Dan Deac

A bort trkpe / Harta de pe copert / Cover map:


Johann Baptist Homann, Principatus Transilvaniae, Noribergae 1714 (?)
(magngyjtemny / colecie privat / private collection)

ISBN 978-963-9987-15-9
ISSN 2060-6370

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei


OMAGIU. BAJUSZ, STEPHANI
Archaeologia Transylvanica : studia in honorem Stephani Bajusz / ed.: Dobos Alpr,
Petru Dvid, Berecki Sndor, .... - Cluj-Napoca : Societatea Muzeului Ardelean, 2015
Conine bibliograe
Index
ISBN 978-606-739-036-0
I. Dobos, Alpr (ed.)
II. Petru, Dvid (ed.)
III. Berecki, Sndor (ed.)
902(498.4) Bajusz,S.
929 Bajusz,S.

Transylvanian Museum Society


Mure County Museum
Martin Opitz Publishing House
a ktet szerzi / autorii / the authors

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TARTALOM / CUPRINS / CONTENTS

SIPOS Gbor: Bajusz Istvn kszntse / Omagiu lui Istvn Bajusz / Celebrating Istvn Bajusz ........................... 8
BAJUSZ Istvn: Vlogatott bibliogra / Bibliograe selectiv / Selective bibliography ..................................... 11

AZ SKORTL A RMAI HDTSIG / DIN PREISTORIE PN LA CUCERIREA ROMAN /


FROM PREHISTORY TO THE ROMAN CONQUEST .................................................................................... 15
SZKELY Zsolt: Az alsrkosi agyagkocsi / Clay wagon model from Alsrkos ................................................. 17
Malvinka URK Victor SAVA Mdlina DIMACHE: Bringing to Light an Ancient Miscarriage.
A Late Bronze Age Jar with Human Remains from the Lower Mure.......................................................... 23
MDER Lrnt Lszl: Jegyzetek a Csernton tpus bula margjra /
Notes concerning the Cernat type brooches .................................................................................................. 35
Sndor BERECKI: An Early Iron Age clay object from Trgu Mure .................................................................... 43
NMETI Jnos: A Nagykrolybobldi ks Latne (LT D1) telepls / The late La Tne (LT D1)
settlement from CareiBobald ....................................................................................................................... 49
Aurel RUSTOIU: Pierdute dar recuperate. Descoperiri de la sfritul celei de-a doua vrste a erului
n sud-vestul Transilvaniei / Lost but recovered. Discoveries of the end of the Late Iron Age
in south-western Transylvania ....................................................................................................................... 65

GRG-RMAI ANTIKVITS / ANTICHITATEA GRECO-ROMAN /


GRAECO-ROMAN ANTIQUITY ........................................................................................................................ 73
Ligia RUSCU: The places of display of public documents in the western Pontic cities ......................................... 75
SZKELY Melinda: Szegnysg s szegnygondozs Rmban / Poverty and poor-relief in Rome .................... 85
Istvn FBIN: Sic vis pacem, para bellum. Vegetius and his legacy in European warfare ................................. 91
ISTVNOVITS Eszter KULCSR Valria: A szarmatk s Dacia provincia megszervezse
(a trtneti forrsok fnyben) / Sarmatians and constitution of province Dacia
(in the light of historical sources) .................................................................................................................. 97
Ana CTINA: Elemente de urbanism la Potaissa. Descoperiri vechi i noi /
Elements durbanisme a Potaissa. Nouvelles et vieilles dcouvertes .......................................................... 107
Csaba SZAB: Mapping Apulum. Reconstructing a Roman city ......................................................................... 115
Doina BENEA Adrian CNTAR: Arterele de comunicaie din vicus-ul militar de la Tibiscum /
Communication routes of the military vicus at Tibiscum ............................................................................ 125
BAJUSZ Mtys: Egy plet szletse mennyisgekben: A porolissumi amtetrum /
The birth of a building in quantities: The amphitheatre from Porolissum .................................................. 133
Britta BURKHARDT: Creating heritage. Some aspects of archaeological heritage preservation
in Transylvania concerning Roman baths and bathhouses .......................................................................... 139
gnes GZDAC-ALFLDY: Monede din contexte funerare particulare studii de caz din Dacia roman /
Coins in particular funerary contexts Case studies from Roman Dacia ................................................... 147
FERENCZ-MTFI gota: Temetkezsi sajtossgok Porolissum temetjben /
Particular features of the Roman necropolis from Porolissum (Dacia Porolissensis) ................................. 153
Radu ARDEVAN: Some remarks about a veterans family from Troesmis .......................................................... 161
Ioan PISO: Une famille de prgrins Potaissa..................................................................................................... 165
NMETH Gyrgy: Varzslatos Dacia / Magical Dacia ......................................................................................... 169
Katalin SID Koppny Bulcs TVS: New types of Roman stamped tiles from Clugreni ....................... 175
Andrs SZAB: Magical(?) Rings from Pannonia................................................................................................ 189
Constanze HPKEN Manuel FIEDLER: Zu Form und Verbreitung glatter, ovaler Glastabletts
Typ Isings 97c im Rmischen Reich ........................................................................................................... 195
Silvia MUSTA: Roman bronze vessels from the notes of Istvn Tgls .......................................................... 205
VASS Lrnt: Szarvasagancsrzsa-amulettek a rmai Dacia terletrl /
Antler roundel pendants from Roman Dacia ............................................................................................... 213
Mariana EGRI: One little mouse, two little mice ............................................................................................... 225
Monica GUI: Button-and-loop fasteners from Porolissum and the rest of Dacia .................................................. 231
Dumitru Gheorghe TAMBA: Instrumentar i practici medicale antice la Porolissum / Roman medical instrumen-
tarium and medical practices in Porolissum ............................................................................................ 239

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TARTALOM / CUPRINS / CONTENTS

GABLER Dnes: Terra sigillatk az aquincumi canabae szaki rszn feltrt luxuspletbl /
Terra Sigillaten aus dem ausgegrabenen Luxusgebude im nrdlichen Teil der Canabae von Aquincum
(Budapest III, Folyamr Strasse) ................................................................................................................. 249
Imola KELEMEN: The archaeozoological analysis of the faunistical material coming
from the Roman site of Brncoveneti (Mure County).............................................................................. 267
Nicolae GUDEA: ber die Wurf- und Wurfmaschinengeschosse von Orova und Gornea ................................. 279
GESZTELYI Tams: Szsznida pecstkvek magyarorszgi gyjtemnyekben /
Sasanian seals in Hungarian collections ...................................................................................................... 289
T. BR MRIA: Zarndokok a Rmai Birodalomban. Szent Menas kultusza s a
savariai Menas ampulla / Pilgrims in the Roman Empire. The cult of Saint Menas
and the Menas ampoule from Savaria ......................................................................................................... 293

NPVNDORLS KOR / EPOCA MIGRAIILOR / THE MIGRATION PERIOD ................................... 301


KRSFI Zsolt: A MarosszentannaCsernyahov kultra trtnetfldrajzi krnyezete a
Krpt-medencben / Die historisch-geographische Umwelt der MarosszentannaTschernjachow-
Kultur im Karpatenbecken........................................................................................................................... 303
GLL Erwin ROMT Sndor: Bnsg avar kornak krdsei (69. szzad).
Rgszeti eltanulmny / Fragestellungen der Awarenzeit des Banats (6.9. Jahrhundert).
Archologische Vorstudie ............................................................................................................................ 315
Alpr DOBOS: Finds from the Late Avar Age at Cmpia Turzii (Cluj County) ................................................... 337

KZPKOR S JKOR / EPOCA MEDIEVAL I MODERN /


THE MIDDLE AGES AND THE MODERN PERIOD ..................................................................................... 351
Clin COSMA: Spurs identied in the medieval fortress at SolotvinoCetate (Transcarpathian Ukraine) .......... 353
Zsolt NYRDI: Arpadian Age Churches of Bgz ............................................................................................ 359
Andrea DEMJN Florin GOGLTAN: Cercetri arheologice la contumaz Pricske (20092013) /
Archologische Forschungen am Kontumaz Pricske (20092013) ............................................................ 369
ZSIGMOND Attila: Szilgynagyfalu kegyszersszersai a 1718. szzadbl. Megjegyzsek
egy formld szilgysgi kegyszerkataszter vonatkozsban / Registers of Szilgynagyfalus
devotional objects (18th and 19th century). Remarks referring to a planned cadaster of devotional
objects from Szilgysg ............................................................................................................................... 379

ANTIKVITS-RECEPCI S KUTATSTRTNET /
REPREZENTRI ALE ANTICHITII I ISTORICUL CERCETRILOR /
ANTIQUITY RECEPTION AND RESEARCH HISTORY ............................................................................. 389
Dvid PETRU: Dialogul imperiilor. Interferene ideologice n cercetarea Daciei romane n perioada
Monarhiei Austro-Ungare (18671918) / Dialogue of the empires. Imperial thought and the
research concerning Roman Dacia during the time of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (18671918)...... 391
Aurora PEAN: Valoarea documentar a schielor de la Grditea Muncelului atribuite lui
Johann Ferdinand Neigebaur / The documentary value of the drawings related to Grditea
Muncelului credited to Johann Ferdinand Neigebaur.................................................................................. 401
Zsolt VISY: Blint Kuzsinszky und Dakien ........................................................................................................... 411

RVIDTSEK / ABREVIERI / ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................... 417

A KTET SZERZI / AUTORII VOLUMULUI / THE AUTHORS ......................................................... 421

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BAJUSZ ISTVN KSZNTSE

Mivel nem vagyok szakmabli, meg a csaldi kapcsolatok okn is, inkbb ktetlenebbre hangolnm az albbi soro-
kat. A csaldi nyaralsok jutnak eszembe, desanym tordai lvn az ottani ssfrdkben tltttnk egy-kt hetet,
mikzben az kedves gyermekkori bartai, a Bajusz-csald vendgszeretett lvezhettk. Ekkor volt alkalmam
megcsodlni a nlam pr vvel atalabb Istvn pnzgyjtemnyt, amelyben szp szmmal voltak olyan rmai
rmk, amik az n gyjtemnyembl teljessggel hinyoztak. Kzenfekv volt persze a magyarzat, aki a potaissai
castrum terletn nap mint nap stlhat, igazn knnyen szert tehet ilyen rmekre. (Mris sietek hangslyozni, hogy
az nnepelt, kzgyjtemnyi munkjnak kezdetn felhagyott kollekcijnak gyaraptsval.) Ugyanakkor szve-
sen hallgattam a felnttek emlkezseit az Istvn anyai ddapja, a tuds tanfelgyel, Tgls Istvn alaptotta hzi
mzeumrl, st egykori plett is flkerestk.
Ilyen indts alapjn felsfok tanulmnyait termszetesen a kolozsvri egyetem trtnelem szakn folytatta,
ahol az 1970-es vek msodik felben mg hallgathatta a neves professzorok, Jak Zsigmond, Pataki Jzsef s Bo-
dor Andrs eladsait. Mivel kezdettl fogva az kortudomnyok, kzelebbrl a rmai rgszet rdekeltk, Bodor
professzor eladsai meg az kortudomnyi szeminriumok vonzottk elssorban, s a nyri rgszeti gyakorlato-
kon volt alkalma megismerkedni vlasztott szakmja mhelytitkaival.
Egyetemi oklevelnek megszerzse utn 1979-ben a zilahi mzeumhoz kerlt; nagy kivltsgnak szmtott ak-
koriban, hogy egy atal magyar szakember azt a munkt vgezhette, amire kpestst szerzett ez mg akkor is igaz,
ha f munkakre a kulturlis rksg nyilvntartshoz kttte. De egy Zilahon dolgoz, rmai korral foglalkoz
rgsz hamar megtallta a kivl munkaterepet a mojgrdi hegyen, Porolissum romjainl, tudomnyos plyja az
amtetrum feltrsa rvn teljesedett ki, ez a kutatprogramja ma is tart. Ms porolissumi helyszneken is vgzett
satsokat, terepbejrsaival pedig a szilgysgi rgszeti lelhelyek megismershez jrult hozz. Kzremkdtt
a feltrt romok konzervlsban, a rgszeti szabadtri mzeum kialaktsban.
1990 utn a Babe-Bolyai Tudomnyegyetemen lassan jrapl magyar trtnszkpzsben is szerepet kapott,
amikor a nyugdjazsbl visszahvott professzora, Bodor Andrs mr nem vllalt eladsokat, 1995-ben adjunktusi
beosztsban tartotta az kortudomnyi rkat, majd pedig nagy lelkesedssel vetette bele magt az jonnan indul
rgszkpzsbe. Tantvnyainak termszetesen Porolissumon rendezett nyri gyakorlatokat, gy a castrum s kr-
nyke az erdlyi rgsz-utnptls nevel iskoljv vlt. Egyik mltatjnak megllaptst idznm itt: A Tanr
r karizmatikus szemlyisge, csendes humora, tudsa s szakmai tapasztalata is hozzjrult ahhoz, hogy egyetemi
hallgatk generciival sikerlt megszerettetni a rgszet s az kortrtnet tudomnyt.
Hadd tegyem mindehhez hozz, hogy a kulturlis rksg hivatalnl vgzett munkt sem knyszer hivatali
teendnek, hanem igazi tudomnyos kihvsnak tekintette, beledolgozta magt a kora jkor tvssg kutatsba, s
a szilgysgi egyhzkzsgek klendiumairl tbb tanulmnyt is megjelentetett.
Csaldi rksgnek kzreadst is ktelessgnek rezte, Tgls Istvn rajzokkal ksrt rgszeti fljegyzseit
ktetbe foglalta csakgy, mint a dl-erdlyi hmes tojsokrl 1900 krl ksztett mintarajzait.
Ahogyan egykor ddapja tallt otthonra s munkaterletre Tordn, gy vlt Bajusz Istvn zilahiv, s az Erd-
lyi Mzeum-Egyeslet flkrsre vllalta a Zilah s vidke kegyeslet ltrehozst. Ms helybli trtnszekkel,
nprajzosokkal egytt szorgalmazza a helyismereti kutatsokat, s minden vben megtartjk a Szilgysgkutats napjt.
Bodor Andrstl tudjk az erdlyi trtnszek, merthogy a barti kszntsekkor mindig elhangzott: a hatvan v
a blcsessg kezdete. Egyben pedig alkalom a szmvetsre is, amolyan visszatekints az emberlet tjnak mond-
juk ktharmadnl, s aztn mindjrt neki lehet fogni immr a blcsessg birtokban a munka folytatsnak.

Sipos Gbor

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OMAGIU LUI ISTVN BAJUSZ

Deoarece nu sunt arheolog, dar i datorit relaiilor familiale pe care le am cu cel omagiat, prefer s ofer rnduri-
lor de mai jos un caracter informal. mi aduc aminte cu plcere de vacanele de var petrecute la bile srate de la
Turda, oraul de batin al mamei mele, unde an de an, timp de o sptmn sau dou, ne bucuram de ospitalitatea
prietenilor ei dragi, familia Bajusz. Am avut atunci prilejul s admir colecia numismatic a lui Istvn, care includea
i numeroase monede romane ce lipseau, n schimb, din colecia mea. Explicaia este desigur simpl. Cine se plimb
n mod regulat pe teritoriul castrului legionar de la Potaissa descoper cu uurin astfel de obiecte (m grbesc s
specic c, imediat dup angajare, a ncetat s mreasc aceast colecie). Tot atunci am avut plcerea de a asculta
numeroase poveti i amintiri legate de strbunicul matern al omagiatului, inspectorul colar pasionat de arheologie
Istvn Tgls. Am vizitat inclusiv cldirea care gzduia odinioar colecia sa personal de antichiti.
Cluzit de pasiunile sale din copilrie, a urmat cursurile seciei de istorie a universitii clujene, unde n a doua
parte a anilor 70 s-a numrat printre studenii unor profesori celebri, precum Zsigmond Jak, Jzsef Pataki i An-
drs Bodor. Deoarece nc de la nceput a fost pasionat de antichitatea clasic, mai ales de arheologia roman, a fost
atras, n primul rnd, de cursurile de studii clasice ale profesorului Bodor i de practica arheologic anual, unde a
avut prilejul de a se familiariza cu secretele meseriei alese.
La scurt timp dup obinerea diplomei de licen, n 1979, a fost angajat la muzeul din Zalu. Faptul c un tnr
cercettor maghiar a putut s-i nceap cariera n domeniul n care s-a specializat a reprezentat, pe vremea aceea,
un mare privilegiu, cu toate c iniial atribuiile sale au vizat domeniul proteciei patrimoniului cultural. Pentru un
arheolog specializat n epoca roman, aat la nceputul carierei de la muzeul zluan, situl arheologic de la Poro-
lissum a fost alegerea reasc n vederea derulrii unui program sistematic de cercetri de teren. Una din realizrile
importante din cariera profesional a omagiatului este legat de dezvelirea amteatrului roman de la Porolissum.
n acelai timp, a efectuat numeroase cercetri n alte puncte ale sitului cu pricin, respectiv campanii extinse de
perieghez, care au contribuit la sporirea considerabil a cunotinelor legate de arheologia regiunii Slaj. n paralel,
s-a implicat i n conservarea obiectivelor arheologice i organizarea unor muzee n aer liber.
Dup 1990, a jucat un rol important n recldirea seciei maghiare de istorie de la Universitatea Babe-Bolyai.
Odat cu retragerea de la catedr a fostului su profesor, Andrs Bodor, i-a asumat, n calitate de lector, predarea
cursurilor de istorie antic, mai apoi a participat activ la fondarea i consolidarea specializrii de arheologie. Practica
arheologic organizat anual la Porolissum a reprezentat unul din principalele locuri de formare a viitorilor arheologi
din ntreaga Transilvanie. Parafrazndu-l pe unul din omagiatori: personalitatea sa carismatic, hazul calm, cunotin-
ele i experiena sa profesional au fcut ca generaii ntregi de studeni s ndrgeasc arheologia i istoria antic.
Activitatea lui Istvn Bajusz la Ociul Patrimoniului Cultural arat c acesta a fcut cinste meseriei i n acest
caz, considernd aceast nsrcinare drept o provocare profesional. n consecin, s-a afundat n cercetarea orfe-
vrriei ecleziastice din epoca premodern, semnnd numeroase studii importante referitoare la argintria mai multor
parohii din regiunea Slajului.
Caietele cu consemnri arheologice ilustrate, ntocmite de ctre strbunicul su Istvn Tgls, nu reprezint doar o
valoroas motenire de familie, ci i o bogat surs de informaii arheologice. Publicarea lor n dou volume poate
considerat o realizare monumental, aa cum este i editarea volumului care a cuprins repertoriului oulor ncondeiate
din Transilvania de Sud, ntocmit de Tgls n 1900, Asemntor strbunicului su, care i-a gsit att un cmin, ct i
o carier la Turda, Istvn Bajusz s-a stabilit n oraul Zalu. Dup 1990 a fost mandatat de ctre Societatea Muzeului
Ardelean s nineze aici liala regional a asociaiei. De atunci, alturi de ali istorici i etnogra locali, organizeaz
anual ziua cercetrii Slajului, eveniment care i propune s stimuleze cunoaterea istoriei i a tradiiilor locale.
Cugetarea expus n mod repetat de ctre profesorul Andrs Bodor, conform creia nelepciunea ncepe la 60
de ani, a devenit bine-cunoscut de-a lungul anilor n rndul istoricilor ardeleni. Aceast etap a vieii reprezint,
totodat, un prilej de a privi napoi i de auto-reecie, urmat de continuarea muncii ncepute, de data aceasta sub
semnul nelepciunii.
Gbor Sipos
9

Bajusz_kotet.indb 9 2016. 12. 07. 15:37:23


CELEBRATING PROFESSOR ISTVN BAJUSZ

Since I am not an archaeologist, and considering our family ties, I wish to strike a personal note in the following lines.
Before anything else the family summer vacations spent in Turda spring to mind. We used to spend one or two weeks
in the salt lake resort of my mothers hometown, enjoying the hospitality of her childhood friends, the Bajusz family.
It was then that I had the opportunity to admire Istvns (who was a couple of years younger than me) numismatic
collection, which contained quite a few Roman coins missing from my own collection. The explanation of course is
simple. Whoever takes regular strolls on the territory of the Roman legionary fortress from Potaissa, is likely to come
across such objects. (I wish to quickly clarify that he stopped expanding his personal collection upon entering pro-
fessional archaeology). I also remember enjoying the accounts regarding Istvns great-grandfather, the scholar and
antiquarian school inspector Istvn Tgls, and visiting the building which formerly housed his personal museum.
In accordance with his childhood pursuits, he went on to study at the History Faculty of the Babe-Bolyai Uni-
versity in Cluj, where in the latter half of the 70s he became the student of a number of famous professors, the likes
of Zsigmond Jak, Jzsef Pataki and Andrs Bodor. From the beginning he was passionately interested in classical
antiquity, especially the Roman period. Accordingly, the courses and seminars of Professor Bodor, as well as the
numerous archaeological eld schools that he attended had a substantial inuence on the novice archaeologist, pro-
viding valuable insight into the secrets of the profession he has chosen.
After obtaining his BA degree in 1979, he started working at the museum from Zalu. It was a privilege for a
young Hungarian professional to nd employment in this eld, although at this stage, ocially his position was
linked to cultural heritage registration. For the young archaeologist specialised in the Roman period and working
for the museum in Zalu, systematic eld research in the hills near the village of Moigrad, the site of the ruins of
Porolissum was an obvious choice. Istvn Bajusz became an acclaimed archaeologist during his excavation of the
amphitheatre in Porolissum, which is still an ongoing research programme. In addition to this he undertook exca-
vations in various parts of the aforementioned site as well as numerous eld surveys throughout the county which
contributed to the better understanding of the archaeology of the region. His work also extended to the conservation
of the ruins and development of open air museums.
After 1990 he took part in the gradual re-establishment of Hungarian historian training at the Babe-Bolyai
University. Upon the retirement of Professor Andrs Bodor in 1995, he took over the classical antiquity courses
as a lecturer, and later played a central part in the newly founded archaeologist training programme. The archaeo-
logical eld schools organized by him in Porolissum became one of the best training grounds for young archaeol-
ogists throughout Transylvania. In the words of one of his acclaimers: His charismatic personality, quiet humour,
knowledge and professional experience contributed to the fact that entire generations of students fell in love with
archaeology and classical studies.
It is important to stress that he did not regard his position at the Cultural Heritage Centre as an inconvenience,
but rather as a professional challenge, inspiring his fascination with Early Modern silversmithing. His studies on
the religious silverware of various parishes of the Slaj region (Szilgysg) are proof of his expertise in this eld.
The illustrated archaeological diary of his great-grandfather Istvn Tgls was a valuable piece of family herit-
age as well as a nds corpus of the outmost importance. Its publication in two volumes was a monumental achieve-
ment by Istvn Bajusz, as was the publication of Tglss collection of drawings illustrating South Transylvanian
painted Easter eggs from around 1900.
Similarly to his great-grandfather, who found a home and a carrier in Turda, Istvn Bajusz settled down in Zalu,
where he founded the local branch of the Transylvanian Museum Society. Along with other historians and ethnogra-
phers he stimulated research in local knowledge, organizing the annual research day of the Slaj region.
Thanks to Professor Andrs Bodor, the phrase Wisdom begins at 60 became well known among Transylvanian
historians. This age is also a good opportunity for self-reection, a brief look back from what is perhaps two thirds
of a lifetime and the resuming of work, this time with the added benet of wisdom.
Gbor Sipos

10

Bajusz_kotet.indb 10 2016. 12. 07. 15:37:23


MAPPING APULUM. RECONSTRUCTING A ROMAN CITY
Csaba SZAB

The conurbation of Apulum was one of the most important urban centers of the Danubian provinces. Laying under
the modern city of Alba Iulia (H: Gyulafehrvr, G: Karlsburg), the reconstructed topography of the Roman city is
still a missing page in the historiography. In this article the author presents the cartographic historiography of the
city together with the topographic representations and reconstructions of Apulum, suggesting a new, interdisciplin-
ary approach for mapping the Roman city.

Keywords: Apulum, Roman cities, topography, cartography, digital maps

A historian must deal with maps this is an almost axiomatic statement in historiography. Recreating ancient
landscapes is indeed, very useful to visualize and express in a much more dynamic and realistic way all the data
which we possess from the archaeological and historical research. Nowadays, urban archaeology and the study of
Roman cities are flourishing again, creating new, interdisciplinary maps and digital reconstructions of Roman cities
and urban landscapes1. While some cities such as Aquincum, Carnuntum, Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium
or Londinium are recreated through digital maps and breathtaking reconstructions, the topography of Apulum is
still a blank page of historiography. In this study I will present the cartographic history, the main literary and ar-
chaeological sources with topographic relevance and the maps created during the last one hundred years concerning
the ancient city of Apulum. As a perspective for further studies, I will present a possible approach for mapping the
Roman city.

From the Tabula to Csernis map: the cartographic tradition

There is no detailed map of Apulum from Antiquity. The city itself appears on the majority of the Roman itinerar-
ies and imperial maps (Tabula Peutingeriana seg. VIII. 1. as Apula) and is mentioned also by Ptolemy (3.8.4.) as
and by Ulpian (L 15.1.8.)2. Due to the visible ruins and the ancient sources, the memory of the ancient
city survived also in the Medieval times, however the ancient topography of the conurbation was not documented3.
A few passages of the antiquarian literature and scholars from the 15th18th century mentioned some notable exca-
vations or ruins4. The major publications from this period which mentioned the ancient history and laconically the
topography of the city did not publish any maps about Apulum. The plans and possible maps of Giacomo Resti,
Castaldo and other Italian architects of the 16th17th centuries are missing5.
The major urban developments of the Medieval and pre-Modern city of Alba Iulia (H: Gyulafehrvr,
G: Karlsburg) created the first topographical and geographical maps of the city. The first known map of Alba Iulia
(Pianta dAlba Iulia) was created in the 17th century by an unknown Italian architect, before the Vauban fortress was
built6 (Fig. 1). The map presents clearly the rectangular form of the castrum, mentioned also by numerous foreign
visitors and scholars before it7. No ruins of the Municipium Septimium are represented on the plan, however the
direction of the urban development and the centuration of the city could help to reconstruct at least the dimensions of
the municipium. The next map was created by Giovanni Visconti in 1711, representing the same area of the fortress

1
Concerning the study of Roman cities and the new tendencies in the research, see: S 2014a, 4258.
2
S -G 2006, 314315; 812813. See also: TLL II. 346. About Apulum as an important road network node, see:
F 2013, 4345.
3
For many centuries, Apulum was identied with the ruins of the Parto area, the existence and evolution of the Septimian city was claried
only in the 20th century: B 1993, 176178.
4
S 2014b, 5358.
5
A 1975, 259. The litographs and engraves from the 1718th centuries represents the fortress and its main buildings without any ancient
ruin: F 2006.
6
A 1985, 114122. In some new publications, the map appears as being from 1687 made by Marsigli: F 2006, 24. The exact
dating of the map is not sure, but most probably came from the time of Gyrgy Rkczi II (16481660).
7
Martin Opitz and Wolfgang Bethlen mentioned also the rectangular form of the fortress built on the Roman castrum. Their statement
was proved by the excavations of Bla Cserni in 1897 in the castrum and by Vasile Moga in 1987: A 1975, 246. Recently, new
sections of the wall of the Roman fort were identied during the research in the Palace of the Prince in Alba Iulia: http://alba24.ro/foto-vid-
eo-proiect-de-20-milioane-euro-pentru-palatul-principilor-din-alba-iulia-descoperiri-arheologice-importante-in-centrul-cetatii-396513.
html. (03.06.2015).

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Fig.1. Pianta dAlba Iulia. First map of the city from the 17th century (http://adevarul.ro/locale/alba-iulia/foto-document-pianta-d-alba-iulia-cea-
mai-veche-imagine-orasului-cetatii-medievale-1_52c9898bc7b855563bb58e/index.html. 03.06.2015). Notice the centuriation around the castrum

and its strict neighborhood8 (Fig. 2). An important, circular form appears in the southwestern part of the castrum,
interpreted by Bla Cserni and later by Vasile Moga as the military amphitheatre9. The 18th century was marked by
three important phenomena: the building of the Vauban fortress10, which modified radically the territory of the muni-
cipium, the first noted archaeological excavations and the creation of the first military maps11. The Josephine or the

Fig. 2. Map of G. Visconti from 1711 (after ANGHEL 1975). Notice the rectangular form of the fortress and the circular form near it

8
One of the most important roads leading from the fort and curving to the south, later named as the B-dul ncoronrii, today B-dul 1
Decembrie 1918, can be identied on the map of Visconti. In this area, numerous altars and two mithraea were identied: S 2015a. The
map shows, that this area was populated in this period and in the Medieval times, proved by the excavations, too: R 2014, 17.
9
M 1983, 86; Szab 2016, 96.
10
G 2007.
11
S 2013, 4565.

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Csaba SZAB: Mapping Apulum. Reconstructing a Roman city

first military survey (17631785) mapped for the first time the whole territory of the Roman conurbation of Apulum.
On the map (Fig. 3) appear two important details: a bridge on a backwater of the Ompoly (Ampoi), where later an

Fig. 3. Map of the first Austrian Survey from 1785. Observe the bridge and the form of the colonia in Marospartos (http://mapire.eu/hu/map/
collection/firstsurvey/?zoom=5&lat=47.89034&lon=14.76556. 03.06.2015)

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inscription was found mentioning the rebuilding of a Roman bridge12. In the same area was also the Asclepeion13.
A rectangular shape between the words Mhlenbach and Porto is visible on the map which could represent the
form of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. Similarly, the brown high ground near the word Porto could be the remains
of the city wall, identified only in the 20th century. In this map we can observe, the main road between the bridges
and a huge, free space north to the salt office, which was the center part of the Roman city. Another important map
was made fifty years later, representing Alba Iulia and its territory between March 25 and August 12, 1849, during
the time of the revolution14 (Fig. 4). In this map the city walls (north and east and in some extent, also in the south)
of the colonia are much more visible. The map is important also because it is the last one before the building of
the railway system, which destroyed an important part of the colonia15. The maps of the second (18061869) and
the third (18691889) Austrian surveys are much more accurate, but do not t give new topographic clues about the
ancient city16. Even in the case of important synthesis concerning the history of the ancient city in the 19th century17,
the authors neglected to use maps or reconstructions representing the topography of Apulum.

Fig. 4. Map from 1849 (after G 2007). Observe the form of the city walls (north, east and partially south)

Bla Csernis activity18 and the first systematic excavations in the fortress (1897), in the palace of the governor
(18881908) and in the colonia (1904 and 19111912) urged the creation of a topographic map with the major
findspots and excavations. Bla Cserni was the first scholar who created two different maps about the conurbation

12
IDR III/5, 36.
13
S 2004, 95.
14
G 2007, 155, Fig. 46.
15
Concerning the destruction of the Roman ruins during the building of the railway system: C 1912a, 109, S 2014b.
16
On the map from 1887 the city walls are still visible represented there as centuriations.
17
G 1872; K 1892.
18
About his importance in development of urban archaeology in Transylvania, see: S 2015b; S 2016.

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Csaba SZAB: Mapping Apulum. Reconstructing a Roman city

of Apulum in 1901 and 1912 (Fig. 56) publishing also numerous plans about his excavations19. He identified
34 Roman buildings on his map from 1901, marking for the first time the limits and the extension of the colonia, and
identifying the municipium and the canabae as well as giving an approximate representation of the castrum. On his
map from 1912 he marked more than 50 Roman buildings or findspots, 14 being from the territory of the colonia.
Important to mention, that his excavations identified the canabae and the municipium north and northwest from the
castrum and not in the south as later was accepted by the scholars.

Fig. 5. Map of Cserni from 1901 (updated version by: M C 2000, 169, fig. 1)

19
C 1901, annex. 1. His map is not only the rst one containing the delimitation of the ancient conurbation but also the rst map with
archaeological nds and references (34 places marked on the map). He also identied the north wall of the colonia: D M
2006, 12, Fig. 5. His map was used until 1993 as the only relevant source for the topography of the ancient city. See: M 1983, 85, Fig. 3;
A 1998, 619. In many cases, modern studies still use his map as a reference: G 2009, 23, map nr. 3.

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ARCHAEOLOGIA TRANSYLVANICA. STUDIA IN HONOREM STEPHANI BAJUSZ

Fig. 6. Map of Cserni (after C 1912b, 258, nr. 1). The rectangular, black dots are Roman buildings or findspots

From Cserni to the digital era: the archaeological research in the 20th century

The archaeological excavations between 1920 and the 1980s revealed many important buildings and artefacts of the
city, however few of them could be georeferenced on a map. The cadastral maps, aerial photographs and ortopho-
toplans from the interwar and communist period represent also an important source for further studies20. The urban
development of Alba Iulia urged the creation of new city maps21 mainly for military and public use (1914, 1935,
1959)22, but the scholarly publications did not manage to bring to date the map of Cserni. Many of the publication
from this period reused his map marking the new discoveries on it. The excavations of Ion Berciu, Alexandru Popa

20
D P 1993, 70; C 2000, 137139. She mentions the aerial photographs from 1961 and 1963.
21
P -M 2012.
22
The map from 1914 was created for military use, in 1935 the rst topographic map was created by the Romanian authorities about Alba Iulia
in 1:200 000. In 1959 the city maps were published in the Gauss-Krger system. Topographical maps from 1970 and 1982 serves for a better
delimitation of the excavations of that period. Modern ortophotoplans and the Google Maps surfaces are the latest maps created about the city.

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Csaba SZAB: Mapping Apulum. Reconstructing a Roman city

and Vasile Moga in the palace of the governor and in the castrum in the 60s and in the 80s clarified many details
changing slightly Csernis map23.
The next useful map of Apulum was published in 1993 after an intensive, four year fieldwork focusing on the
identification of the limits and walls of the two cities24. The most important contribution of this map was the appro-
ximate delimitation and repositioning of the Septimian city south to the castrum25. A slightly corrected, but basically
identical map was published in 2004 and 200526. Another map was published in 1998 with the hypothetical insulae
system of the colonia27. Similarly, the maps published in 2000 use the map of Cserni or Diaconescu from 199328.
New maps of the ancient city were also published in 2009, with new topographic details29. An updated version of
this map was published recently, presenting the sacred topography of the conurbation30.
The important geophysical survey made by the Apulum Project between 1997 and 2003 which could change
radically our view on the topography of the colonia is still unpublished31. Almost all of the archaeological exca-
vations after 2000 from the city are georeferenced and shortly reported in the Romanian Archaeological Database
(CiMEC)32, however a detailed, topographical map of Apulum is still missing33. The new international projects and
excavations in Apulum could urge the necessity of a complete topographic map of the ancient city34.

New perspectives: The digital map of Roman Apulum (DMA)

The high number of rescue excavations in Alba Iulia, the international tendencies of digitizing ancient cities and
their topography35 and the new digital technologies create the opportunity and also the urgent necessity of a digital
and interactive map of ancient Apulum, representing all the topographically relevant finds of the Roman city.
The projects first step is to present on a Google Maps surface all the votive finds from Apulum later expending
it to all the Roman monuments and archaeological excavations with topographic relevance. The projects main re-
sult (DMA Digital Map of Apulum (36) will be the first, publicly accessible map of the ancient city : dealing with
more than 1000 articles and books published on the history of Apulum from the short remarks of Bonfini up till the
works from 2016 (37), our aim is to represent on the map all of the finds and excavations which have an exact or
an approximate find-spot (1. in situ, 2. possibly in situ, 3. Roman secondary position and 4. post-Roman position).
The work will be based on excavations reports, publications of the museums (especially the journals of Apulum,
Patrimonium Apulense) but also the Cimec, Cronica Cercetrilor Arheologice and other archaeological databases.
The work will be followed by intensive fieldwork in Alba Iulia and a revision of the excavations of Bla Cserni.
The main aim of the project is to present for first time on a modern and dynamic map the topography of the largest
conurbation of Dacia.

23
Csernis map appears also in articles of Ion Berciu, but the dimensions of the castrum are slightly modied: B 1961, 172, Fig. 1.
24
D P 1993, 7678, Fig. 13. Same map reproduced with topographical references: IDR III/5, XIX, Pl. III.
25
On the map of Cserni and the previous maps the Septimian city appears in the east or the north-eastern part of the castrum. See: M 1983, 85.
26
D 2004, 107108, Fig. 4.13 and 4.14; A -D 2005, 33. A new theory on the position and extent of the municipium and
the canabae: O 2012.
27
A 1998, 619. A revised version of this map: S 2004, 94, Fig. 1 and 104, Fig. 3; SchferDiaconescuHaynes 2006, 196, Abb. 3.
28
C 2000, 133, Fig. 3, 138, Fig. 8, M C 2000, 169, Fig. 1.
29
G 2009, 2527, maps nr. 57. The maps are the updated and English versions of Csernis and Diaconescus maps with import-
ant topographic details regarding the coin hoards of Apulum.
30
Szab 2014b. See also Fig. 7; Szab 2015a, 152.
31
http://www.ncl.ac.uk/historical/research/project/2372 (29.07.2014). See also: O H 2003, 110111; Haynes 2014, 89, Fig. 11/1.
32
http://cronica.cimec.ro/ and http://ran.cimec.ro/. The map of the website gives only the city as a ndspot (http://map.cimec.ro/).
33
The recent publications usually use only a google map platform representing the recent nds and discoveries for a particular part of the city:
O 2012, 215, Fig. 1.
34
Concerning the new excavations see: S 2013, 5460; Szab 2015a, 129133; Szab 2016, 139, Fig. 113 and 146, Fig. 117. Concerning
the georeferenced map of the numismatic nds of the city: RoTez Project: http://www.jaha.org.ro/index.php/JAHA/article/view/18
(23.08.2014). Another important project is the Atlasul Digital al Romniei (Ro.A.D.): https://www.romaniadigitala.ro/ (23.08.2014).
35
As the latest example see the LEA (London Evolution Animation Roman Period). For other examples: http://szabocsaba.blogspot.
ro/2014/05/roman-cities-and-their-modern-heritage.html. (23.08.2014).

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Fig. 7. A: geophysical survey of the Apulum Project from 2003; B: aerial photograph of the Apulum Project by W. Hanson and I. Oltean;
C: area examined by K. Gooss in 1867 and excavated by Cserni. Nr. 1: the big house excavated in 1911; Nr. 2: Roman spring and possible
shrine of Silvanus; Nr. 3: Liber Pater shrine; Nr. 4: Asclepieion or the so-called Locus Apulensis; Nr. 5: Roman Forum, findspot of the
Hercules Apulensis; Nr. 6: Deus Aeternus shrine; Nr. 7: house with mosaic representing the winds; Nr. 8: possible mithraeum of Kroly Pap;
Nr. 9: possible Iseum; Nr. 10: temple of Jupiter described by K. Gooss; Nr. 11: temple ruin in the garden of Gligor Sas. Nr. 12: Roman house
with mosaic. Nr. 13: Roman house with a kiln

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Csaba SZAB: Mapping Apulum. Reconstructing a Roman city

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AA Archologischer Anzeiger, Berlin.


AABW Archologische Ausgrabungen in Baden-Wrttemberg, Stuttgart.
AAC Acta Archaeologica Carpathica, Krakw.
AAntHung Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Budapest.
AArchHung Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Budapest.
AB Analele Banatului Serie Nou, Arheologie-Istorie, Timioara.
ACD Acta classica Universitatis Scientiarum Debreceniensis, Debrecen.
ActMuz Din activitatea muzeelor, Cluj-Napoca.
ActaMN Acta Musei Napocensis, Cluj-Napoca.
ActaMP Acta Musei Porolissensis, Zalu.
ActaMV Acta Musei Varnaenis, Varna.
ActaSic Acta Siculica, Sfntu Gheorghe/Sepsiszentgyrgy.
ActaTS Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis, Sibiu.
ACD Acta Classica Universitatis Scientiarum Debreceniensis, Debrecen.
ACMIT Anuarul Comisiunii Monumentelor Istorice. Secia pentru Transilvania, Cluj.
AEMOU Archologisch-Epigraphische Mittheilungen aus Oesterreich-Ungarn, Prag Wien
Leipzig.
Aetas Aetas. Trtnettudomnyi folyirat, Szeged.
Agria Agria. Annales Musei Agriensis, Eger.
AISC Anuarul Institutului de Studii Clasice, Cluj-Napoca.
AJ The Archaeological Journal, London.
AJA American Journal of Archaeology, Boston.
Alba Regia Alba Regia. Annales Musei Stephani Regis, Szkesfehrvr.
Aluta Aluta, Sfntu Gheorghe.
Angustia Angustia, Sfntu Gheorghe.
AnMed Analecta Mediaevalia, Piliscsaba.
ANRW Aufstieg und Niedergang der rmischen Welt, Berlin New York.
Antaeus Antaeus. Communicationes ex Instituto Archaeologico Academiae Scientiarium
Hungaricae, Budapest.
AntNat Antiquits Nationales. Bulletin publi par le Muse par le Muse des Antiquits
Nationales et par la Socit des Amis du Muse et du Chteau de Saint-Germain-en-
Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
AntTan Antik Tanulmnyok. Studia Antiqua, Budapest.
AntTard Antiquit tardive. Revue internationale dhistoire et darchologie (IVeVIIIe s.),
Turnhout.
Apulum Apulum. Acta Musei Apulensis, Alba Iulia.
Arctos Arctos. Acta Philologica Fennica, Helsinki.
ArchAust Archaeologia Austriaca, Wien.
ArchBulg Archaeologia Bulgarica, Soa.
Archrt Archaeologiai rtest, Budapest.
ArchHung Archaeologia Hungarica, Budapest.
ArchKzl Archaeologiai Kzlemnyek, Budapest.
ArhOlt Arhivele Olteniei, Craiova.
Arrabona Arrabona, Gyr.
ASNP Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Pisa.
Athenaeum Athenaeum. Studi di letteratura e storia dellantichit, Como.
Atti CRDAC Atti del Centro Ricerche e Documentazione sullAntichit Classica, Roma.
AVSL Archiv des Vereins fr Siebenbrgische Landeskunde, Hermannstadt.
Banatica Banatica, Reia.
BAR BritSer British Archaeological Reports, British Series, Oxford.
BAR IntSer British Archaeological Reports, International Series, Oxford.
BCH Bulletin de correspondance hellnique, Athnes Paris.
BHAUT Biblioteca Historica et Archaeologica Universitatis Timisensis, Timioara.
BJb Bonner Jahrbcher des Rheinischen Landesmuseums in Bonn im Landschaftsverband
Rheinland und des Vereins von Altertumsfreunden im Rheinlande, Bonn.
BRGK Bericht der Rmisch-Germanischen Kommission, Frankfurt am Main.
Britannia Britannia. A Journal of Romano-British and Kindred Studies, London.
BudRg Budapest Rgisgei, Budapest.
BUSAMV Buletinul Universitii de tiine Agricole i Medicin Veterinar Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-
Napoca.

417

Bajusz_kotet.indb 417 2016. 12. 07. 15:40:23


RVIDTSEK / ABREVIERI / ABBREVIATIONS

BVbl Bayerische Vorgeschichtsbltter, Mnchen.


CAANT Cercetri arheologice n aria nord-trac, Bucureti.
CarnuntumJb Carnuntum Jahrbuch. Zeitschrift fr Archologie und Kulturgeschichte des
Donauraumes, Wien.
Carpica Carpica, Bacu.
CCA Cronica cercetrilor arheologice din Romnia, Bucureti.
CIL Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Berlin.
CJ The Classical Journal, Ashland, Va.
CMAS Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, London.
ComArchHung Communicationes Archaeologicae Hungariae, Budapest.
Conservation Bulletin Conservation Bulletin. A bulletin of the Historic Environment, London.
Context Context. Institute of Historic Building Conservation, Kent.
CRAI Comptes rendus de lAcadmie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, Paris.
Crisia Crisia, Oradea.
Dacia N.S. Dacia. Revue darchologie et dhistoire ancienne, Nouvelle srie, Bucureti.
DenkmPfBW Denkmalpege in Baden-Wrttemberg. Nachrichtenblatt des Landesdenkmalamtes,
Stuttgart.
DissArch Dissertationes Pannonicae ex Instituto Archaeologico Universitatis de Rolando Etvs
nominatae / Rgszeti Dolgozatok az Etvs Lornd Tudomnyegyetem Rgszeti
Intzetbl, Budapest.
DissPann Dissertationes Pannonicae, Budapest.
DM A debreceni Dri Mzeum vknyve, Debrecen.
Dolgozatok S Dolgozatok az Erdlyi Mzeum rem- s Rgisgtrbl, j Sorozat, Kolozsvr.
DolgSzeg Dolgozatok a M. Kir. Ferencz Jzsef Tudomnyegyetem Archaeolgiai Intzetbl,
Szeged.
DP Documenta Praehistorica, Ljubljana.
Drobeta Drobeta, Drobeta-Turnu Severin.
EAA Enciclopedia dellarte antica classica e orientale, Roma.
EM Erdlyi Mzeum, Kolozsvr.
EM Erdlyi Mzeum Egylet vknyve, Kolozsvr.
EME-BNyT Az Erdlyi Mzeum-Egylet Blcselet-, Nyelv- s Trtnettudomnyi Szakosztlynak
Kiadvnyai, Kolozsvr.
Empries Empries. Revista de mn clssic i antiguitat tardana, Barcelona.
Eos Eos. Commentarii Societatis Philologiae Polonorum, Warszawa Krakw Wrocaw.
EPhK Egyetemes Philolgiai Kzlny, Budapest.
EphNap Ephemeris Napocensis, Cluj-Napoca.
EPRO tudes prliminaires aux religions orientales dans lEmpire Romain, Leiden.
Erdvidki Lapok Erdvidki Lapok, Bart.
ESz Egyhztrtneti Szemle, Miskolc.
Sz ptszeti Szemle, Budapest.
ETF Erdlyi Tudomnyos Fzetek, Kolozsvr.
TK rtekezsek a trtnettudomny krbl, Budapest.
FBW Fundberichte aus Baden-Wrttemberg, Stuttgart.
FolArch Folia Archaeologica, Budapest.
Forschungen in Augst Forschungen in Augst, Augst.
F Fundberichte aus sterreich, Wien.
FPA Fontes Pannoniae Antiquae, Budapest.
G&R Greece and Rome, Oxford.
Gallia Gallia. Archologie de la France antique, Paris.
Germania Germania. Anzeiger der Rmisch-Germanischen Komission des Deutschen
Archologischen Instituts, Berlin.
Gnomon Gnomon. Kritische Zeitschrift fr die gesamte klassische Altertumswissenschaft,
Mnchen.
Godinjak Godinjak. Centar za balkanoka ispitivanja, Sarajevo.
HA Helvetia Archaeologica, Basel.
Hepehupa Hepehupa. Szilgysgi mveldsi folyirat, Zilah.
Hesperia Hesperia. The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton
New Jersey.
Historia Historia. Zeitschrift fr alte Geschichte, Stuttgart.
HTRT A Hunyadmegyei Trtnelmi s Rgszeti Trsulat vknyve, Dva.
IEC Interferene etnice i culturale n mileniile I a. Chr. I p. Chr., Cluj-Napoca.
ILS Dessau, H., Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, Berlin, 18921916.
IstMitt Istanbuler Mitteilungen, Tbingen.
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RVIDTSEK / ABREVIERI / ABBREVIATIONS

Instrumentum Instrumentum. Bulletin du Groupe de travail europen sur lartisanat et les productions
manufactures de lAntiquit lpoque moderne, Chauvigny.
Isis Isis. Erdlyi Magyar Restaurtor Fzetek, Szkelyudvarhely.
Istros Istros, Brila.
Izvestia MSB , .
JAM A nyregyhzi Jsa Andrs Mzeum vknyve, Nyregyhza
JAS Journal of Archaeological Science.
JEP The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Pittsburgh.
JGS Journal of Glass Studies, Corning.
JHS The Journal of Hellenic Studies, London.
JAI Jahreshefte des sterreichischen Archologischen Institutes in Wien, Wien.
JRA Journal of Roman Archaeology, Portsmouth, Rhode Island.
JRGZM Jahrbuch des Rmisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz, Mainz am Rhein.
JRMES Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies, Oxford.
JRS The Journal of Roman Studies, London.
Julius-Khn-Archiv Julius-Khn-Archiv, Quedlinburg.
Kernos Kernos. Revue internationale et pluridisciplinaire de religion grecque antique, Lige
Athnes.
KJ Klner Jarbuch, Berlin.
Klio Klio. Beitrge zur alten Geschichte, Leipzig.
KMB Klner Museums Bulletin, Kln.
KMMK Komrom-Esztergom Megyei Mzeumok Kzlemnyei, Tata.
Korunk Korunk. Frum kultra tudomny, Kolozsvr.
LEC Les tudes classiques, Namur.
Limesforschungen Limesforschungen. Studien zur Organisation der Rmischen Reichsgrenze am Rhein
und Donau, Berlin Mainz.
Lucrri tiinice Medicin Lucrri tiinice. Medicin Veterinar. Universitatea de tiine Agricole i Medicin
Veterinar USABT Veterinar a Banatului Timioara, Timioara.
MAA Monumenta Avarorum Archaeologica, Budapest.
Magazin Istoric Magazin Istoric, Bucureti.
Magyar Memlkvdelem Magyar Memlkvdelem, Budapest.
Man Man. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, London.
Marisia Marisia. Studii i materiale, Trgu Mure.
MBVF Mnchner Beitrge zur Vor-und Frhgeschichte, Kallmnz/Opf.
MCA Materiale i cercetri arheologice, Bucureti.
MDAI Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts, Mainz am Rhein.
MFM A Mra Ferenc Mzeum vknyve, Szeged.
MFMStudArch A Mra Ferenc Mzeum vknyve Studia Archaeologica, Szeged.
MK Mzeumi s Knyvtri rtest. A mzeumok s knyvtrak orszgos ffelgyelsgnek
s orszgos tancsnak hivatalos kzlnye, Budapest.
MHNH MHNH. Revista Internacional de Investigacin sobre Magia y Astrologa Antiguas,
Mlaga.
MIA , .
MIMK Molnr Istvn Mzeum Kiadvnyai, Szkelykeresztr.
MittArchInst Mitteilungen des Archologischen Instituts derUngarischen Akademie der
Wissenschaften, Budapest.
Mnemosyne Mnemosyne. Bibliotheca classica Batava, Leiden.
MuzNa Muzeul Naional, Bucureti.
Memlkvdelem Memlkvdelem. Kulturlis rksgvdelmi folyirat, Budapest.
MZ Mainzer Zeitschrift, Mainz.
NA Northamptonshire Archaeology, Northampton.
NumKzl Numizmatikai Kzlemnyek, Budapest.
OAth Opuscula Atheniensia. Annual of the Swedish Institute at Athens, Svedalen.
kor kor. Folyirat az antik kultrkrl, Budapest.
OMROL Oudheidkundig Mededelingen uit het Rijksmuseum van Oudheden te Leiden, Leiden.
Jh Die Jahreshefte des sterreichischen Archologischen Instituts, Wien.
rksgnk rksgnk. Trtnelem Nplet Nphagyomny, Szkelyudvarhely.
PAT Patrimonium Archaeologicum Transylvanicum, Cluj-Napoca.
Patrimonium Apulense Patrimonium Apulense. Anuar de: arheologie, istorie, cultur, etnograe, muzeologie,
conservare, restaurare, Alba Iulia.
PBF Prhistorische Bronzefunde, Mainz.
PBSACR Patrimoine. Bulletin de la Socit archologique de Corseul-la-Romaine, Corseul.
Peuce Peuce. Rapoarte, studii i comunicri de istorie i arheologie, Tulcea.

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RVIDTSEK / ABREVIERI / ABBREVIATIONS

Pontica Pontica, Constana.


PZ Prhistorische Zeitschrift, Berlin.
RAComo Rivista Archeologica dellAntica Provincia e Diocesi di Como, Como.
RAE Revue Archologique de lEst: du Palolithique au Moyen ge, Dijon.
RE Real-Encyclopdie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Stuttgart.
ReDIVA Revista doctoranzilor n istorie veche i arheologie / The Postgraduate Journal of
Ancient History and Archaeology, Cluj-Napoca.
RefSz Reformtus Szemle, Kolozsvr.
REG Revue des tudes grecques, Paris.
RgFz Rgszeti Fzetek, Budapest.
RevBist Revista Bistriei, Bistria.
RGA Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, Berlin New York.
RHDFE Revue historique de droit franais et tranger, Paris.
RIHA Journal of the International Association of Research Institutes in the History of Art.
Online journal: http://www.riha-journal.org.
RL Der Rmische Limes in sterreich, Wien.
RMV Rad Muzeja Vojvodine, Novi Sad.
RPh Revue de philologie, de literature et dhistoire anciennes, Paris.
RSP Rivista di scienze preistoriche, Firenze.
SAA Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica, Iai.
SAC Sussex Archaeological Collections, Lewes.
SAH Southern African Humanities, Pietermaritzburg.
Sargetia Sargetia. Acta Musei Devensis, Deva.
Savaria Savaria. A Vas Megyei Mzeumok rtestje, Szombathely.
SCA Studii i cercetri de antropologie, Bucureti.
SCIV(A) Studii i cercetri de istorie veche (i arheologie), Bucureti.
SFECAG Socit Franaise dtude de la Cramique Antique en Gaule, Marseille.
SJ Saalburg Jahrbuch, Mainz.
SlovArch Slovensk Archeolgia, Nitra.
SMMIM Studii i materiale de muzeograe i istorie militar, Bucureti.
SoSchrAI Sonderschriften des sterreichischen Archologischen Institutes, Wien.
SP Studii de Preistorie, Trgovite.
Specimina Nova Specimina nova dissertationum ex Institutio Historiae Antiquae et Archaeologiae
Universitatis Quinqueecclesiensis, Pcs.
StCom Satu Mare Satu Mare. Studii i comunicri, Satu Mare.
StIstBan Studii de istorie a Banatului, Timioara.
StudCom Studia Comitensia, Szentendre.
tZv ASAV tudijn Zvesti. Archeologickho stavu Slovenskej Akadmie Vied, Nitra.
SUBB Historia Studia Universitatis Babe-Bolyai. Historia, Cluj-Napoca.
SympThrac Symposia Thracologica, Bucureti.
Szzadok Szzadok. A Magyar Trtnelmi Trsulat Folyirata, Budapest.
Thraco-Dacica Thraco-Dacica, Bucureti.
TLMAS Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. London.
Transsylvania Nostra Transsyilvania Nostra, Kolozsvr.
Tribuna Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca.
Tyche Tyche. Beitrge zur Alten Geschichte, Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Wien.
UPA Universittsforschungen zur prhistorischen Archologie, Bonn.
VAH Varia Archaeologica Hungarica, Budapest.
VAMZ Vjesnik arheolokog Muzeja u Zagrebu, Zagreb.
VDI , .
VSz Vallstudomnyi Szemle, Budapest.
WA World Archaeology, London New York.
ZfO Zeitschrift fr Ostforschung, Marburg.
Ziridava StudArch Ziridava. Studia Archaeologica, Arad Cluj-Napoca.
ZPE Zeitschrift fr Papirologie und Epigraphik, Bonn.

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A KTET SZERZI / AUTORII VOLUMULUI / THE AUTHORS

Radu ARDEVAN GABLER Dnes


Babe-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca MTA Blcsszettudomnyi Kutatkzpont,
rardevan@gmail.com Rgszeti Intzet, Budapest
gabler.denes@btk.mta.hu
BAJUSZ Mtys
Maros Megyei Mzeum, Marosvsrhely GLL Erwin
bajusz.matyas@gmail.com Vasile Prvan Rgszeti Intzet, Bukarest
ardarichus9@yahoo.com
Doina BENEA
Universitatea de Vest, Timioara GZDAC ALFLDY gnes
doinabenea@yahoo.co.uk Muzeul Naional de Istorie a Transilvaniei,
Cluj-Napoca
BERECKI Sndor
alfoldyagnes@yahoo.com
Mure County Museum, Trgu Mure
sberecki@yahoo.com GESZTELYI Tams
Debreceni Egyetem,
BURKHARDT Britta
Klasszika-filolgiai s kortrtneti tanszk
Babe-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca
gesztelyi.tamas@arts.unideb.hu
brittaburkhardt@gmail.com
Florin GOGLTAN
Ana CTINA
Institutul de Arheologie i Istoria Artei,
acatinas05@yahoo.com
Cluj-Napoca
Turda
floringogaltan@gmail.com
Adrian CNTAR
Nicolae GUDEA
Universitatea de Vest, Timioara
Institut fr Archologie und Kunstgeschichte,
adrian.cintar@gmail.com
Klausenburg
Clin COSMA
Monica GUI
Institute of Archaeology and History of Art,
Institute of Archaeology and History of Art,
Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca
cosma.calin@yahoo.com
monica_gui@ymail.com
DEMJN Andrea
Constanze HPKEN
Muzeul Tarisznys Mrton, Gheorgheni
Kreismuseum Mure, Trgu Mure
demjenandi@yahoo.com
hoepkenc@uni-koeln.de
Mdlina DIMACHE
ISTVNOVITS Eszter
University of Bucharest, Bucharest
Jsa Andrs Mzeum, Nyregyhza
dimachemadalina@yahoo.com
istvanov@jam.nyirbone.hu
DOBOS Alpr
KELEMEN Imola
Mure County Museum, Trgu Mure
Szekler Museum of Ciuc, Miercurea Ciuc
alpardobos@yahoo.com
kelemenimola@csikimuzeum.ro
Mariana EGRI
KRSFI Zsolt
Babe-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca
Jsa Andrs Mzeum, Nyregyhza
marianaegri@yahoo.com
korosfoi@gmail.com
FBIN Istvn
KULCSR Valria
Petru Maior University, Trgu Mures
Szegedi Tudomnyegytem, Szeged
stefabius@hotmail.com
vkulcsar@iif.hu
FERENCZ-MTFI gota
MDER Lrnt Lszl
Pcsi Tudomnyegyetem, Pcs
Sepsiszentgyrgy
agotaferenczmatefi@gmail.com
archymeder@yahoo.com
Manuel FIEDLER
Silvia MUSTA
Winckelmann Institut, Humboldt-Universitt
Mure County Museum, Trgu Mure
zu Berlin
silvia_mustata@yahoo.com
mfiedler1999@yahoo.com

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A KTET SZERZI / AUTORII VOLUMULUI / THE AUTHORS

NMETH Gyrgy SZAB Andrs


Etvs Lornd Tudmnyegyetem, Budapest Hungarian National Museum
nemeth.gyorgy@btk.elte.hu szabo.andras.022@gmail.com
NMETI Jnos SZAB Csaba
Nagykrolyi Vrosi Mzuem, Nagykroly University of Pcs Erfurt University
szabo.csaba.pte@mail.com
NYRDI Zsolt
Haz Rezs Museum, Odorheiul Secuiesc SZKELY Melinda
nyaradi_zsolt@yahoo.com Szegedi Tudomnyegyetem
mszekely11@gmail.com
TVS Koppny Bulcs
Mure County Museum, Trgu Mure SZKELY Zsolt
koppanybulcsu@gmail.com Babe-Bolyai Tudomnyegyetem,
Sepsiszentgyrgy
Aurora PEAN
szekely.zsolt@fspac.ro
Universitatea Babe-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca
apetan@gmail.com T. BR Mria
Kroli Gspr Reformtus Egyetem, Budapest
PETRU Dvid
tothbiro@gmail.com
Muzeul Judeean Mure, Trgu Mure
petrutdavid@gmail.com Dumitru Gheorghe TAMBA
Muzeul de Istorie i Art Zalu
Ioan PISO
tambadan@hotmail.com
Universit Babe-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca
piso_ioan@yahoo.com URK Malvinka
Babe-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca
ROMT Sndor
urak.malvinka@yahoo.com
Babe-Bolyai Tudomnyegyetem, Kolozsvr
s_romat@yahoo.com VASS Lrnt
Aquincumi Mzeum, Budapest
Ligia RUSCU
v_lorant@yahoo.com
Babe-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca
ligia.ruscu@ubbcluj.ro VISY Zsolt
Universitt Pcs
Aurel RUSTOIU
zs.visy@gmail.com
Institutul de arheologie i istoria artei,
Cluj-Napoca ZSIGMOND Attila
aurelrustoiu@yahoo.com Fugyi Reformtus Egyhzkzsg
azsigmond@gmail.com
Victor SAVA
Museum of Arad, Arad
sava_vic@yahoo.com
SID Katalin
Mure County Museum, Trgu Mure
benjikatka@yahoo.com

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