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IIT JAM

Mathematics (MA)
SAMPLE THEORY
GROUP THEORY-I

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

Unit-11 Group Theory-I

1. PRELIMINARIES

The basics of set theory : sets, , , , etc. should be familiar to the reader. Our notation for
subsets of a given set A will be
B = {a A | . . . (conditions on a) . . . }.
The order or cardinality of a set A will be denoted by |A|. If A is a finite set, the order of A is simply
the number of elements of A.
It is important to understand how to test whether a particular x A lies in a subset B of A. The
Cartesian product of two sets A and B is the collection A B = {(a, b) | a A, b B}, of ordered pairs
of elements from A and B.
We shall use the following notation for some common sets of numbers:
(1) = {0, 1, 2, 3, ...} denotes the integers (the is for the German word for numbers:
Zahlen).
(2) = {a/b | a, b , b 0} denotes the rational numbers (or rationales).
(3) = {all decimal expansions d1d2 ... dn.a1a2a3 ...} denotes the real numbers (or reals).
(4) = {a + bi | a, b , i2 = 1} denotes the complex numbers.
(5) +, + and + will denote the positive (nonzero) elements in , and , respectively.
f
We shall use the notation f : A B or A B to denote a function f from A to B and the value
of f at a is denoted f(a) (i.e., we shall apply all our functions on the left). We use the words function and
map interchangeably. The set A is called the domain of f and B is called the codomain of f. The notation
f : a b or a b if f is understood indicates that f(a) = b, i.e., the function is being specified on
elements.
The set
f(A) = {b B | b = f(a), for some a A}
is a subset of B, called the range or image of f (or the image of A under f). For each subset C
of B the set
f1(C) = {a A | f(a) C}
consisting of the elements of A mapping into C under f is called the preimage or inverse image
of C under f. For each b B, the preimage of {b} under f is called the fiber of f over b. Note that f1 is
not in general a function and that the fibers of f generally contain many elements since there may be
many elements of A mapping to the element b.
If f : A B and g : B C, then the composite map g o f : A C is defined by
(g o f)(a) = g(f(a)).
Let f : A B.
(1) f is injective or is an injection if whenever a1 a2, then f(a1) f(a2).
(2) f is surjective or is a surjection if for all b B there is some a A such that f(a) = b,
i.e., the image of f is all of B. Note that since a function always maps onto its range (by
definition) it is necessary to specify the codomain B in order for the question of subjectivity
to the meaningful.

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(3) f is bijective or is a bijection if it is both injective and surjective. If such a bijection f exists
from A to B, we say A and B are in bijective correspondence.
(4) f has a left inverse if there is a function g : B A such that g o f : A A is the identity
map on A, i.e., (g o f)(a) = a, for all a A.
(5) f has right inverse if there is a function h : B A such that f o h : B B is the identity
map on B.
Proposition : Let f : A B.
(1) The map f is injective if and only if it has a left inverse.
(2) The map f is surjective if and only if f has a right inverse.
(3) The map f is a bijection if and only if there exists g : B A such that f o g is the identity
map on B and g o f is the identity map on A.
(4) If A and B are finite sets with the same number of elements (i.e., |A| = |B|), then f : A
B is bijective if and only if f is injective if and only if f is surjective.
A permutation of a set A is simply a bijection from A to itself.
If A B and f : B C, we denote the restriction of f to A by f|A. When the domain we are
considering is understood we shall occasionally denote f|A again simply as f even though these are
formally different functions (their domains are different).
If A B and g : A C and there is a function f : B C such that f|A = g, we shall say f is an
extension of g to B (such a map f need not exist nor be unique).
Let A be a nonempty set.
(1) A binary relation on set A is a subset of A A and we write a ~ b if (a, b) R.
(2) The relation ~ on A is said to be:
(a) reflexive if a ~ a, for all a A,
(b) symmetric if a ~ b implies b ~ a for all a, b A,
(c) transitive if a ~ b and b ~ c implies a ~ c for all a, b, c A.
A relation is an equivalence relation if it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
(3) If ~ defines an equivalence relation on A, then the equivalence class of aA is defined to
be {x A | x ~ a}. Elements of the equivalence class of a are said to be equivalent to a.
If C is an equivalence class, any element of C is called a representative of the class C.
(4) A partition of A is any collection {Ai | i I} of nonempty subsets of A (I some indexing set)
such that
(a) A = iI Ai, and
(b) Ai Aj = , for all i, j I with i j
i.e., A is the disjoint union of the sets in the partition.
The notations of an equivalence relation on A and a partition of A are the same:
Proposition : Let A be a nonempty set.
(1) If ~ defines an equivalence relation on A then the set of equivalence classes of ~ form a
partition of A.
(2) If {Ai | i I} is a partition of A then there is an equivalence relation on A whose equivalence
classes are precisely the sets Ai, i I.
Properties of The Integers
The following properties of the integers (many familiar from elementary arithmetic)
(1) (Well Ordering of ) If A is any nonempty subset of +, there is some element m A such
that m a, for all a A (m is called a minimal element of A).

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(2) If a, b with a 0, we say a divides b if there is an element c such that b = ac.


In this case we write a | b; if a does not divide b we write a | b.
(3) If a, b {0}, there is a unique positive integer d, called the greatest common divisor
of a and b (or g.c.d. of a and b), satisfying:
(a) d | a and d | b (so d is a common divisor of a and b), and
(b) if e | a and e | b, then e | d (so d is the greatest such divisor).
The g.c.d. of a and b will be denoted by (a, b). If (a, b) = 1, we say that a and b are
relatively prime.
(4) The a, b {0}, there is a unique positive integer l, called the least common multiplie
of a and b (or l.c.m. of a and b), satisfying:
(a) a | l and b | l (so l is a common multiple of a and b), and
(b) if a | m and b | m, then l | m (so l is the least such multiple).
The connection between the greatest common divisor d and the least common multiple
l of two integers a and b is given dl = a.
(5) The Division Algorithm: if a, b {0}, then there exist unique q, r such that
a = qb + r and 0 r < |b|,
(6) The Euclidean Algorithm is an important procedure which produces a greatest common
divisor of two integers a and b by iterating the Division Algorithm: if a, b {0}, then
we obtain a sequence of quotients and remainders
a = q0b + r0 ...(0)
b = q1r0 + r1 ...(1)
r0 = q2r1 + r2 ...(2)
r1 = q3r2 + r3 ...(3)

rn2 = qnrn1 + rn ...(n)
rn1 = qn+1rn (n+1)
where rn is the last nonzero remainder. Such an rn exists since |b| > |r0| > |r1| > ... > |rn| is a
decreasing sequence of strictly positive integers if the remainders are nonzero and such a sequence
cannot continue indefinitely. Then rn is the g.c.d. (a, b) of a and b.
Example : Suppose a = 57970 and b = 10353. Then applying the Euclidean Algorithm we obtain:
57970 = (5)10353 + 6205
10253 = (1)6205 + 4148
6205 = (1)4148 + 2057
4148 = (2)2057 + 34
2057 = (60)34 + 17
34 = (2)17
which shows that (57970, 10353) = 17.
Modular Arithmetic
Another application of the division algorithm that will be important to us is modular arithmetic.
Modular arithmetic is an abstraction of a method of counting that you often use.
If a and b are integers and n is a positive integer, we often write a = b mod n whenever n divides
a b.
(ab) mod n = ((a mod n)(b mod n)) mod n.
Similarly.

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(a + b) mod n = ((17 mod 10) + (23 mod 10)) and 10


Examples
= (7 + 3) mod 10 = 10 mod 10 = 0,
(17 23) and 10 = ((17 mod 10)(23 mod 10)) mod 10
= (7 3) mod 10 = 21 mod 10 = 1.
Mathematical Induction
First Principle of Mathematical Induction
Let S be a set of integers containing a. Suppose S has the property that whenever some integer
n a belongs to S, then the integer n + 1 also belongs to S. Then, S contains every integer greater than
or equal to a.
Second Principle of Mathematical Induction
Let S be a set of integers containing a. Suppose S has the property that n belongs to S whenever
every integer less than n and greater than or equal to a belongs to S. Then, S contains every integer
greater than or equal to a.
Definition Partition
A partition of a set S is a collection of nonempty disjoint subsets of S whose union is S. Figure
illustrates a partition of a set into four subsets.

Fig. : Partition of S into four subsets


Equivalence Classes Partition
The equivalence classes of an equivalence relation on a set S constitute a partition of S. Conversely,
for any partition P of S, there is an equivalence relation on S whose equivalence classes are the
elements of P.
Definition
(1) A binary operation * on a set G is a function * : G G G. For any a, b G we shall
write a * b for *(a, b).
(2) A binary operation * on a set G is associative if for all a, b, c G we have a * (b * c)
= (a * b) * c.
(3) If * is a binary operation on a set G we say elements a and b of G commute if a * b =
b * c. We say * (or G) is commutative if for all a, b G, a * b = b * a.
Examples :
(1) + (usual addition) is a commutative binary operation on (or on , , or respectively).
(2) (usual multiplication) is a commutative binary operation on (or on , , or
respectively).
(3) (usual subtraction) is a noncommutative binary operation on , where (a, b) = a b.
The map a a is not a binary operation (not binary).
(4) is not a binary operation on + (nor +, +) because for a, b + with a < b, a b
+, that is, does not map + + into +.
(5) Taking the vector cross-product of two vectors in 3-space 3 is a binary operation which
is not associative and not commutative.
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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

2. GROUP

Definition :
(1) A group is an ordered pair (G, *) where G is a set and * is a binary operation on G
satisfying the following axioms:
(i) (a * b) * c = a * (b * c), for all a, b, c G, i.e., * is associative,
(ii) there exists an element e in G, called an identity of G, such that for all a G we
have a * e = e * a = a,
(iii) for each a G there is an element a1 of G, called an inverse of a, such that
a * a1 = a1 * a = e.
Examples
(1) , Q, and C are groups under + with e = 0 and a1 = a, for all a.
1
(2) Q {0}, {0}, C {0}, Q+, + are groups under with e = 1 and a1 = , for all. Note
a
however that {0} is not a group under because although is an associative binary
operation on {0}, the element 2 (for instance) does not have an inverse in {0}.
Example : The set of integers Z (so denoted because the German word for numbers is Zahlen),
the set of rational numbers Q (for quotient), and the set of real numbers R are all groups under ordinary
addition. In each case, the identity is 0 and the inverse of a is a.
Example : The set of integers under ordinary multiplication is not a group. Since the number 1
is the identity, property 3 fails. For example, there is no integer b such that 5b = 1.
Example : The subset {1, 1, i, i} of the complex numbers is a group under complex multiplication.
Note that 1 is its own inverse, whereas the inverse of i is i, and vice versa.
Example : The set Q+ of positive rationals is a group under ordinary multiplication. The inverse
of any a is 1/a 5 a1.
Example : The set S of positive irrational numbers together with 1 under multiplication satisfies
the three properties given in the definition of a group but is not a group. Indeed, 2 2 2, so S is not
closed under multiplication.
a b
Example : A rectangular array of the form is called 2 2 matrix. The set of all 2 2
c d
matrices with real entries is a group under component wise addition. That is,

a1 b1 a2 b2 a1 a2 b1 b2
c d c
d2 c1 c 2 d1 d2
1 1 2

0 0 a b a b
The identity is , and the inverse of is .
0 0 c d c d
Example : The set Zn = {0, 1, ..., n 1} for n 1 is a group under addition modulo n. For any
j > 0 in Zn, the inverse of j is n j.
This group is usually referred to as the group of integers modulo n.
As we have seen, the real numbers, the 2 2 matrices with real entries, and the integers modulo
n are all groups under the appropriate addition. But what about multiplication? In each case, the existence
of some elements that do not have inverses prevents the set from being a group under the usual
multiplication. However, we can form a group in each case by simply throwing out the rascals. Examples
illustrate this.

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

Example : The set of all symmetries of the infinite ornamental pattern in which arrowheads are
spaced uniformly a unit apart along a line is an Abelian group under composition. Let T denote a
translation to the right by one unit, T1 a translation to the left by one unit, and H a reflection across the
horizontal line of the figure. Then, every member of the group is of the form x1x2 . . . xn, where each xi
{T, T1, H}. In this case, we say that T, T1, and H generate the group.

Table summarizes many of the specific groups that we have presented thus far.
As the examples above demonstrate, the notion of a group is a very broad one indeed. The goal
of the axiomatic approach is to find properties general enough to permit many diverse examples having
these properties and specific enough to allow one to deduce many interesting consequences.
The goal of abstract algebra is to discover truths about algebraic systems (that is, sets with one
or more binary operations) that are independent of the specific nature of the operations. All one knows
or needs to know is that these operations, whatever they may be, have
Table : Summary of Group Examples (F can be any of Q, R, C, or Zp; L is a reflection)

Form of
Group Operation Identity Inverse Abelian
Element
Z Addition 0 k k Yes
m / n,
Q Multiplication 1 n/m Yes
m,n 0
Zn Addition mod n 0 k nk Yes
*
R Multiplication 1 x 1/ x Yes

a b d b
Matrix 1 0 c d ad bc ad bc
GL(2,F) 0 1 No
multiplication c a
ad bc 0
ad bc ad bc
Multiplication k, Solution to
U(n) 1 Yes
mod n ged(k,n) 1 kx mod n 1
Componentwise
Rn (0,0,...,0) (a1,a 2 ,...,an ) ( a1, a 2 ,..., an ) Yes
addition
Matrix 1 0 a b d b
SL(2,F) 0 1 c d c a No
multiplication
Dn Composition R0 R ,L R 360 , L No

certain properties. We then seek to deduce consequences of these properties. This is why this
branch of mathematics is called abstract algebra. It must be remembered, however, that when a specific
group is being discussed, a specific operation must be given (at least implicitly).
Elementary Properties of Groups
Now that we have seen many diverse examples of groups, we wish to deduce some properties
that they share. The definition itself raises some fundamental questions. Every group has an identity.
Could a group have more than one? Every group element has an inverse. Could an element have more
than one? The examples suggest not. But examples can only suggest. One cannot prove that every
group has a unique identity by looking at examples, because each example inherently has properties that
may not be shared by all groups. We are forced to restrict ourselves to the properties that all groups
have; that is, we must view groups as abstract entities rather than argue by example.

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Theorem : Uniqueness of the Identity


In a group G, there is only one identity element.
Proof. Suppose both e and e are identities of G. Then,
1. ae = a for all a in G, and
2. ea = a for all a in G.
The choices of a = e in (1) and a = e in (2) yield ee = e and ee = e. Thus, e and e are both
equal to ee and so are equal to each other.
Because of this theorem, we may unambiguously speak of the identity of a group and denote
it by e (because the German word for identity is Einheit).
3. ABELIAN GROUP

The group G is said to be abelian if a b = b a for all a, b G.


An abelian group is a nonempty set A with a binary operation + defined on A such that the
following conditions hold:
(i) (Associativity) for all a, b, c A, we have a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c;
(ii) (Commutativity) for all a, b A, we have a + b = b + a;
(iii) (Existence of an additive identity) there exists an element 0 A such that 0 + a = a for
all a A;
(iv) (Existence of additive inverses) for each a A there exists an element a A such that
a + a = 0.

G1 Associativity Semi Group

G2 Existence of Identity Monoid

G3 Existence of Inverse Group

G4 Commutativity Commutative or Abelian Group

4. NON-ABELIAN GROUP

In mathematics, a nonabelian group, also sometimes called a noncommutative group, is a


group (G, *) in which there are at least two elements a and b of G such that a * b b * a. The term
nonabelian is used to distinguish from the idea of an abelian group, where all of the elements of the group
commute.

Example : Show that the set {1, 1, i, 1} where i = ( 1) is a finite abelian group for multiplication
of complex numbers.
Solution. G = {1, 1, i i}.
We prepare the composition table for (G, ) as follows :

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1 1 i i
1 1 1 i i
1 1 1 i i
i i i 1 1
i i i 1 1

On observing the table, it is clear that :


(1) All the entire in the table are elements of G. So multiplication of complex numbers has
induced a binary composition in G.
(2) The number 1 is the identity element for the multiplication composition.
(3) The inverses of 1, 1, i, i are 1, 1, i and i respectively.
Since the associativity and commutativity of the multiplication of numbers is obvious, so G is a
finite (of order 4) abelian group for multiplication.
Example : Show that the set {z C : |z| = 1} is a multiplicative group.
Solution. Let G = {z C : |z| = 1} and z1, z2 G; then
z1, z2 G |z1| = 1, |z2| = 1
|z1||z2| = 1.1 = 1
|z1z2| = 1 [ |z1z2| = |z1||z2|]
z1z2 G
G is closed for multiplication.
Verification of group axioms in (G, ) :
[G1] Since multiplication operation is associative in numbers, therefore this operation will also
be associative in G.
[G2] |1| = 1 1 G, which is the identity for multiplication.
[G3] For any element z of G
z G |z| = 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 G
z 1 z z

which is the multiplicative inverse of z.


Thus there exist inverse of every element in G.
Hence G is a multiplicative group.
Example : Prove that the set of n, nth roots of unity is a multiplicative finite abelian group.
Solution. Here 11/n = (1 + i0)1/n = (cos 0 + i sin 0)1/n
= (cos 2r + i sin 2r)1/na, where r is any integer
2r 2r
= cos i sin [by DeMoivres theorem]
n n
= ei(2r)/n r = 0, 1, 2, .... (n 1)
i(2r)/n
If we take e = , then the set of n complex roots
G = {1, , 2, 3, ..., n1}
If a, b G, then an = 1 and bn = 1
Now (ab)n = an bn = 1.1 = 1

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ab is also the nth root of unity, therefore ab G


i.e., a,b G ab G
Hence G is closed for multiplication.
[G1] Associativity : Complex roots are associative for multiplication.
[G2] Identity element 1 for multiplication is in G.
[G3] If any element r, 0 r (n 1) is in G, then there exist an element nr in G such that
nrr = n = 1 (identity) [ is the nth root of 1]
nr r
i.e., there exist inverse of
[G4] Commutativity : Complex numbers are commutative for multiplication. Hence (G, ) is a
finite abelian group of order n.
Example : Show that Z5 = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} is an abelian group for the operation +5 defined as
follows :

a b, if a b 5
a 5b
a b 5, if a b 5
Solution. The composition table of (Z5, +5) is as follows :

5 0 1 2 3 4
0 0 1 2 3 5
1 1 2 3 4 0
2 2 3 4 0 1
3 3 4 0 1 2
4 4 0 1 2 3
From the table it is observed that
(1) All the elements are members of Z5 therefore +5 is a binary composition in Z5.
(2) 0 is the identity element for the composition.
(3) The inverse of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 are 0, 4, 3, 2, and 1 respectively.
Again the base of +5 is the addition composition of numbers which is associative and commutative.
Therefore +5 is also associative and commutative.
Hence (Z5,+5) is a commutative group.
Example : Show that the set {f1,f2,f3,f4,f5,f6} is a finite non-abelian group for the operation composite
of functions where fi, i = 1,2,...6 are transformations on the infinite complex plane defined by:
1 z 1 z 1
f1 z z, f2 z , f3 z 1 z, f4 z , f5 z , f6 z
z z 1 1 z z
Solution. Let G = {f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6} and o denote composite of functions. Now calculating all the
possible products under this operation, we have the following :

1 1
f1of2 z f1 f2 z f1 f2 z
z z

1
f2of3 z f2 f3 z f2 1 z f5 z
1 z

z z
f3of4 z f3 f4 z f3 1
z 1 z 1

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1 1
f4 of5 z f4 f5 z f4 f2 z
1 z z

z 1
f5of6 z f5 f6 z f5 z f1 z etc.
z
From these we obtain the following composition table of (G, o) :

o f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6
f1 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6
f2 f2 f1 f5 f6 f3 f4
f3 f3 f6 f1 f5 f4 f2
f4 f4 f5 f6 f1 f2 f3
f5 f5 f4 f2 f3 f6 f1
f6 f6 f3 f4 f2 f1 f5
The group axioms can be easily verified from the above composition table. Therefore (G, o) is a
finite group.
Moreover since the table is not symmetrical about the leading diagonal so it is a non commutative
finite group.
Example : Show that the set Q+ of the positive relational numbers forms an abelian group for the
operation *defined as :
ab
a*b a, b Q+
2
ab
Solution. a Q+, b Q+ a b = Q+
2
* is a binary composition in Q+
Verification of group axioms in (Q+, ) :
[G1] Associativity : Let a, b Q+, then

ab 1 ab abc
(a * b) * c * c c
2 2 2 4

bc 1 bc abc
and a*(b*c) = a* a
2 2 2 4

(a*b)*c = a*(b*c)
[G2] Existence of identity :
2 Q+ is the identity element of the operation *
a.2
because for a Q +, 2*a = a*2 = = a
2
[G3] Existence of Inverse :

4
For every a Q+, Q+ ( a 0) which is the inverse of a
a

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4
a
4 4 a
Since *aa* 2
a a 2

So every element of Q+ is invertible.


[G4] Commutativity : For any a, b Q+

ab ba
a*b [ multiplication is commutative]
2 2
= b*a
the composition * is commutative.
Hence (Q+, ) is an abelian group.
Example : If G = {(a, b) | a, b R, a 0} and o is the operation defined in G as
(a, b)o(c, d) = (ac, bc + d) ;
then show that (G, o) is a non-abelian group.
Solution. Verification of group axioms in (G, o) :
[G1] : Let (a,b); (c,d); (e,f) be any elements of G, then
[(a,b) o (c,d)] o (e,f) = (ac,bc + d) o (e,f)
= ((ac)e, (bc + d)e + f)
= (ace, bce + de + f)
and (a,b) o [(c,d) o (e,f)] = (a,b) o (ce,de + f)
= (a(ce),b(ce) + de + f)
= (ace,bce + de + f)
[(a,b) o (c,d)] o (e,f) = (a,b) o [(c,d) o (e,f)]
Therefore o is associative.
[G2] : Here (1,0) G is the identity element of the operation because for every (a,b) G
(1,0) o (a,b) = (1a,0a + b) = (a,b)
and (a,b) o (1,0) = (a1,b1 + 0) = (a,b)
[G3] : If (a,b) G, then a 0
1 b 1 b
a 0, a, b R R, R , G
a a a a

1 b a 1 b
Again (a,b)o , a ,b 1,0
a a a a a

1 b 1 b
and a , a o(a,b) a a, a a b (1,0)

1 b
a , a G is the inverse of (a, b)

Thus the inverse of every element of G also exist in G.
Hence (G, o) is a group.
[G4] : The composition of the group is not commutative because if a, b, c, d are different real
numbers, then
(a,b) o (c,d) = (ac,bc+d)

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

(ca,da + b) = (c,d) o (a,d)


(a,b) o (c,d) (c,d) o (a,b)
As such (G, o) is a non abelian group.

a 0
Example : Show that G = : a R0 is a commutative group under matrix multiplication.
0 0

a 0 b 0
Solution. Let A = ,B be any two elements of G, where a,b R0; then
0 0 0 0

ab 0
AB = a R0, b R0 ab R0
0 0
AB = G which shows that G is closed for matrix multiplication.
Verification of group axioms in (G, ) :
[G1] : Since Matrix multiplication is associative.
Therefore this is associative in G also.

1 0
[G2] : E = G is the identity element because
0 0

a 0 1 0 a 0
EA AE A, A G
0 00 0 0 0

a 0 1/ a 0
[G3] : For every A = G, A1 G ( a R0 1/a R0)
0 0 0 0
which is inverse of A because

a 0 1/ a 0 1 0
A1 A A A1 E (Identity)
0 0 0 0 0 0

ab 0 ba 0
[G4] : Since AB = , BA
0 0 0 0
and ab = ba (by commutativity of multiplication of real numbers),
Therefore AB = BA
As such matrix multiplication is commutative in G.
Hence G is a commutative group for matrix multiplication.
Example : Show that the set of all the matrices of the form

cos sin
A , R
sin cos
is an abelian group for matrix multiplication.

cos sin
Solution. Let G = , R
sin cos
and A, A G, where , R, then,
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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

cos sin cos sin


A A
sin cos sin cos

cos cos sin sin cos sin sin cos



sin cos cos sin sin sin cos cos

cos( ) sin( )

sin( ) cos( )
= A + G [ + R]
A G, A G A A G
Consequently G is closed for matrix multiplication.
Verification of group axioms in (G, ) :
[G1] : Matrix multiplication is associative.
Therefore this is associative in G also.
[G2] : For = 0

cos 0 sin 0 1 0
A0 1 G
sin 0 cos 0 0 1
which is the identity for matrix multiplication.
[G3] : For every A G, A() G which is the inverse of A,
because A A() = A = A0
and A() A = A( + ) = A0
Therefore the inverse of every element of G exists in G.
[G4] : For any two elements A and A of G
A A = A+ [proved above]
= A+ [ , R + = + ]
Therefore matrix multiplication is commutative in G.
As such G is a commutative group for matrix multiplication.
Example : The set G = {1, 2, 3, 4...(p 1)}, p.p being prime is an abelian group of order (p
1) with respect to multiplication modulo p.
Solution. Let a,b G, then 1 a (p 1), 1 b (p 1)
By definition, a p b = r, where r is the least non negative remainder when ordinary product is
divided by p.
Now since p is prime, therefore ab is not divisible by p
Consequently, r 0, 1 r (p 1)
therefore a p b G a,b G
G is closed for the multiplication modulo p.
[G1] : Associativity : Let a,b,c G then
a p (b p c) = a p (bc) [ b p c = bc (mod p)]
= the least non-negative remainder obtained on dividing a(bc) by p
= the least non-negative remainder obtained on dividing (ab)c by p
= (ab) p c = (a p b) p c [ ab = a p b(mod p)]

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

Therefore multiplication modulo p is associative.


[G2] : 1 G is the identity element because for every a G
1 p
a = a p
1 = a
[G3] : Let s G then 1 s (p 1).
Consider the following (p 1) products :
1 p s, 2 p s, 3 p s, ... (p 1) p s
All these are elements of G and no two of these are equal
since if 1 i (p 1), 1 j (p 1) and i > j, then
i p s = j p s
(i s) and (j s) leave the same non-negative remainders when divided by p
(i s j s) is divisible by p
(i j)s is divisible by p
But this is not possible because
1 (i j) (p 1), 1 s (p 1) and p is prime.
i p s j p s
Therefore 1 p s, 2 p s, ..., (p 1) p s
and (p 1) distinct elements of G and so one of the products must be equal to 1.
Let r p s = 1 r is the inverse of s
Therefore every element of G is invertible.
and (p 1) distinct elements of G and so one of the products must be equal to 1.
Let r p s = 1 r is the inverse of s
Therefore every element of G is invertible.
[G4] : a p b = the least non-negative remainder obtained on dividing ab by p
= the least non-negative remainder obtained on dividing (ba) by p
= b p a ( ba = ab)
Therefore multiplication modulo p is commutative.
Hence G is an abelian group of order (p 1).
Remark. If p is not prime, then G will not be a group because G will not be closed for multiplication.
Example : The set of residue classes modulo m is an abelian group with respect to the addition
of residue classes.
Solution. Let Im be the set of residue class modulo m. Therefore
Im = {[0], [1], [2]..., [m 1]}
Let [a],[b] Im, then by definition of addition of modulo classes
[a] + [b] = [a + b]
but a Z, b Z a + b Z
and corresponding to every integer, there is a residue class in Im
[a] + [b] = [a + b] Im
Therefore Im is closed wrt the addition of residue classes.
Verification of group axioms in Im :
[G1] : For any [a], [b], [c] Im
([a] + [b]) + [c] = [a + b] + [c] [by definition of addition in Im]
= [(a + b) + c] [by definition of addition in Im]
= [a + (b + c)] [by associativity of addition in Z]

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

= [a] + [b + c]
= [a] + ([b] + [c])
The addition of modulo classes is associative.
[G2] : [0] Im is the additive identity because for all [a] Im
[0] + [a] = [0 + a] = [a]
and [a] + [0] = [a + 0] = [a]
[G3] : Let [a] Im, then [m a] Im is the inverse of [a], because
[m a] + [a] = [m a + a] = [m] = [0]
[a] + [m a] = [a + m a] = [m] = [0]
Therefore the inverse of every element also exist in Im.
[G4] : For any [a], [b] Im
[a] + [b] = [a + b]
= [b + a] [by commutativity for addition in Z]
= [b] + [b]
The addition for residue classes is commutative.
Therefore (Im, +) is an abelian group.
Elementary Properties of Groups
1. Uniqueness of the Identity
In a group G, there is only one identity element.
Proof. Suppose both e and e are identities of G. Then,
1. ae = a for all a in G, and
2. ea = a for all a in G.
The choice of a = e in (1) and a = e in (2) yields e e = e and e e = e. Thus, e and e are both
equal to e e and so are equal to each other.
Theorem : (Uniqueness of inverse)
The inverse of an element in a group is unique.
Proof. Let a be any element of the group (G, ) which has two inverses b and c in the group.
a1 = b ba = e = ab
and a1 = c ca = e = ac
Now ba = e (ba) c = ec
b(ac) = c [by G1 and G2]
be = c [by (2)]
b = c [by G3]
Therefore the inverse of every element of a group is unique.
Remark. The inverse of the identity of a group is itself.
Theorem : If G is a group then for a, b G:
(a) (a1)1 = a (b) (ab)1 = b1 a1
i.e. the inverse of the produced of two elements is the product of their inverses in the reverse
order.
Proof. (a) Since a1 is the inverse of a, therefore
aa1 = e = a1 a
a1 a = e = aa1

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

inverse of a1 = a, i.e. (a1)1 = a.


Remark. For the additive operation (a) = a.
(b) Since a,b,a1,b1,ab,b1 a1 all are element of G, therefore
(ab)(b1a1) = a(bb1)a1 [by G1]
= aea 1
[by G3]
= aa1 [by G2]
= e
(ab)(b a ) = e
1 1
...(1)
Again (b a )(ab) = b (a a)b
1 1 1 1

= b1eb [by G1]


= b1b [by G3]
= e [by G2]
(b a )(ab) = e
1 1
...(2)
From (1) and (2),
(ab)(b1a1) = e = (b1a1)(ab)
(ab)1 = b1 a1
Generalised reversal law :
By principle of induction, the above theorem can be generalised as :
(abc...p)1 = p1 ...c1 b1 a1
Remark : If the composition is addition (+) then this can be
written as : (a + b) = (b) + (a)
Remark : If G is a commutative group, then for a,b G
(ab)1 = a1 b1
Theorem : Cancellation law :
If a,b,c are elements of a group G, then :
(a) ab = ac b = c (b) ba = ca b = c
Proof. a G a 1
G [by G3]
ab = ac a (ab) = a (ac)
1 1

(a1 a)b = (a1 a)c [by G1]


eb = ec [by G3]
b = c [by G2]
Similarly it can be proved that
ba = ca b = c
Theorem : If a, b are elements of a group G, then the equations ax = b and ya = b have unique
solutions in G.
Proof. a G a1 G [by G3]
a G, b G a b G 1

Now a(a1 b) = (aa1)b [by G1]


= eb [by G3]
= b
Therefore x = a1 b is a solution of the equation ax = b in G.
Uniqueness : Let the equation ax = b have two solutions x = x1 and x = x2 in G, then
ax1 = b and ax2 = b

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

ax1 = ax2
x1 = x2 [by left cancellation law]
Therefore the solution of ax = b is unique in G.
Similarly its can also be proved that the solution of the equation ya = b is unique in G.
Theorem : Alternate definition of a group :
If for all elements a, b of a semigroup G, equations ax = b and ya = b have unique solutions in
G, then G is a group.
Proof. G being semi group, is a non empty set. Therefore let
a G, then the equations ax = a and ya = a will have unique solutions in G. Let these solutions
be denoted by e1 and e2 respectively, then
ae1 = a and e2a = a ...(i)
Again if b be any other element of g, then by the given property
x, y G so that ax = b and ya = b ...(ii)
Now ya = b (ya)e1 = be1
y(ae1) = be1 [by associativity in G]
ya = be1 [by (i)]
b = be1 [by (ii)]
e1 is the right identity in G.
Again ax = b e2(ax) = e2b
(e2a)x = e2b [by associativity in G]
ax = e2b [by (i)]
b = e2b [by (ii)]
e2 is the left identity in G.
Since e1 is right identity in G and e2 is in G e2e1 = e2
Also e2 is left identity in G and e1 is in G e2e1 = e1 e1 = e1
Hence there exists an identity e1 = e2 = e (say) in G.
Again using the given property for the elements a, e G we find that the equations ax = e and
ya = e have unique solutions in G.
Let these solutions be xa and ya respectively. So
axa = e and yaa = e ...(iii)
xa and ya are right and left inverses of a in G.
Now axa = e ya(axa) = yae
(yaa)xa = ya [by associativity in G]
exa = ya [by (iii)]
xa = ya
there exist the inverse of a in G.
Since the identity exist and every element of G is invertible in the semigroup G, therefore G is a
group.
Remark. If G is a semi group such that for a,b in G, only the equation ax = b (or ya = b) has
a unique solution in G, then G may not be a group.
This can be observed by the following example :
Example : Let G be any non-empty set having atleast two elements.
Define a binary operation (*) in G as follows :

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

a*b = b a, b G
For a,b,c G (a*b)*c = b*c = c
and a*(b*c) = a*c = c
(a*b)*c = a*(b*c)
Therefore the composition * of G is associative.
Hence (G,*) is a semi group.
Again we see that a * b = b x = b is a solution of ax = b in G.
But trivially (G, *) is not a group as there is a no right identity in G.
Theorem : If G is finite semigroup such that for any a, b, c G
(a) ab = ac b = c
and (b) ba = ca b = c
then G is a group.
Proof. Since G is a non void finite set, so let
G = {a1, a2, a3, ..., an}
If a G, then the n products aa1, aa2, ..., aan ...(1)
are all elements of G ( G is a semi group)
Again all these are distinct elements because
if aai = aaj, then by the given property
aai = aaj ai = aj
So all elements of (1) are n distinct elements of G, placed possibly in a different order i.e.
G = {aa1, aa2, ..., aan}
Now if b G, then b is one of the above n products.
Therefore let aar = b, ar G
Hence we see that for any a, b G, the equation ax = b has a unique solution in G.
Similarly by considering the n products a1a,a2a,...,ana
it can be shown that for every pair a,b G, the equation ya = h
has a unique solution in G.
Hence by theorem G is a group.
Remark : If G is an infinite semi group satisfying cancellation law but it is not a group.
Theorem : Definition of a group based on left axioms.
A finite semigroup G is a group iff :
(i) there exists e G such that ea = a, a G (Left Identity)
(ii) there exists b G such that ba = e, a G (Left Inverse)
Proof. If G is a group, then by the definition of a group the above properties (i) and (ii) must
obviously hold true.
Conversely, if a semi group G satisfies both the properties (i) and (ii), then we have to prove that
G is a group. For this we have to show that e is the identity in G and b is the inverse of a i.e.
ea = a = ae, a G
and ba = e = ab
Let a G, then by the given property (ii), there exists an element b such that
ba = e ...(1)
Again by the same property there exists c such that
cb = e ...(2)

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

Now for a,b G ab = e(ab) [by property (i)]


= (cb)(ab) [by (2)]
= c(ba)b [by associativity inG]
= (ce)b [by property (ii)]
= c(eb)
= cb [by property (i)]
= e [by (2)]
ba = e = ab which prove that b is the inverse of a.
Further we see that ae = a(ba) [ e = ab]
= (ab)a [by associativity inG]
= ea [ ab = e]
= a [by property (i)]
ea = a = ea which proves that e is the identity in G.
Therefore G is a group.
Theorem : Definition of a group based on right axioms :
A semigroup G is group iff :
(i) e G such that ae = a, a G
(ii) b G such that ab = e, a G
This can be proved similar to theorem.
Caution : It should be noted that a semi group G may be such that G contains a left identity e
and each element a in G has a right inverse related to e. In such a case G may fail to be a group. This
will be clear by the following example :
Example : Let G be a set containing atleast two elements.
Define a composition () in G as follows :
a b = b, a,b G
Obviously G is a semi group. Let e be any fixed element of G. Then by definition, for every a
G, ea = a. So e is a identity of a.
Also for each a G, ae = e e is a right inverse of a wrt e.
But G is not a group as G does not have any right identity.
Finite and Infinite group
A group (G, ) is said to be finite if its underlying set G is a finite set and a group which is not
finite is called an infinite group.
Order of a Group
The number of elements of a group (finite or infinite) is called its order. We will use |G| to denote
the order of G.
Thus, the group of integers under addition has infinite order, whereas the group U(10) = {1, 3,
7, 9} under multiplication modulo 10 has order 4.
Integral powers of an element in a group
Let (G, *) be a group and a G, then
aa, aaa, aaa,
are all elements of G and shall be written as a2, a3, a4 respectively.
Thus (a) for any positive integer n,
an = aaa...a (n times)

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

(b) If n is a negative integer : Let n = n where m is a positive integer, then an can be defined
as follows :
an = am = (a1)m = a1 a1 ... a1 (m times)
Therefore a2 = a1 a1, a3 = a1 a1 a1a1 etc.
More over we define a0 = e, a G where e is the identity in G.
Law of indices : If a G and m, n are integers, then by mathematical induction, the following
laws can be easily established :
(a) am + n = am an (b) (am)n = an m
Note. When the composition of a group is addition (+), then an is written as n and in that case
if m and n are positive integers, then na = a + a + ... + a (n times)
(m)a = (a) +...+ (a) (m times)
(m + n)a = ma + na
and n(ma) = (nm)a
Order of an Element
The order of an element g in a group G is the smallest positive integer n such that gn = e. (In
additive notation, this would be ng = 0). If no such integer exists, we say g has infinite order. The order
of an element g is denoted by |g|.
So, to find the order of a group element g, you need only compute the sequence of products
2 3
g,g ,g ,..., until you reach the identity for the first time. The exponent of this product (or coefficient if the
operation is addition) is the order of g. If the identity never appears in the sequence, then g has infinite order.
Remark. From the above definition, it is clear that for any element a of a group if an = e then O(a)
n.
Example : In the group (Z,+), the order of 0 is 1 and the order of every non zero integer a is
infinite, because for any a Z(a 0) there exists no positive integer n such that na = 0.
Example : In the group (Q0, ), O(1) = 1, O(1) = 2 and order of all the remaining elements in
infinite.
Example : In the multiplicative group {1, , 2} (3 = 1)
O(1) = 1, O() = 3, O(2) = 3.
Example : In the multiplicative group {1, 1, i, i} since 11 = 1, (1)2 = 1, i4 = 1, and (i)4 = 1 so
O(1) = 1, O(1) = 2, O(i) = 4 and O(i) = 4.
Example : In the group [{0, 1, 2, 3} + 4]
1(0) = 0 O(0) = 1
1(1) = 1,2(1) = 2,3(1) = 3,4(1) = 0 O(1) = 4.
1(2) = 2,2(2) = 0 O(2) = 2.
1(3) = 3,2(3) = 2,3(3) = 1,4(3) = 0 O(3) = 4.
Example : In Kleins 4 group every element except identity is of order 2.
Properties of the order of an element of a group
Theorem : The order of the identity of every group is 1 and it is the only element of order 1.
Proof. Let e be the identity of any group G.
e1 = e, O(e) = 1
Again if a G and O(a) = 1, then
1
O(a) = 1 a = e a = e
Therefore O(a) = 1 a = e
Theorem : The order of every element of a finite group is finite and less than or equal to the order

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

of the group i.e.,


O(a) O(G), a G
Proof. Let G be a finite group of order n and a G.
We see that a0, a1, a2, ..., an
are all elements of G. But G contains n elements and the number of these elements is (n + 1),
so all can not be distinct. Therefore atleast two of these elements are equal.
Let ai = aj, 0 j i n
ai aj = aj aj
aij = a0 = e
ar = e, where 0 < r = i j n
O(a) r n = O(G)
Hence O(a) is also finite and less than or equal to O(G).
Remark : The above theorem can also be stated as follows :
If G is a finite group of order n, then for any a G, there exists a positive integer r n such that
r
a = e.
Theorem : If order of an element a of a group (G, ) is n, then am = e, iff m is a multiple of n.
Proof. First of all, suppose that am = e
Now since m and n are integers, so by division algorithm in integer, there exist integers q and
r such that
m = nq + r, 0 r < n
m nq+r
a = e a = e anq ar = e
(an)q ar = e [ (am)n = amn]
eqar = e [ O(a) = n an = e]
ar = e r = 0 [ 0 r < n]
m = nq i.e., m is a multiple of n.
Conversely : Let m be a multiple of n i.e. m = nq(q Z), then
m = nq am = anq = (an)q = eq = e
Therefore am = e m is a multiple of O(a).
Cor. : The order of any integral power of an element a of a group (G,) can not exceed the order
of the element.
Proof. Let a be any element of a group G and O(a) = n.
Then for any k Z,
(ak)n = ank = (an)k = ek = e
O(ak) n O(ak) O(a)
Cor. : The order of an element a of a group (G, ) is equal to that of its inverse a1 i.e., O(a) =
O(a ).
1

Proof. Let O(a) = n and O(a1) = m


Now a1 is an integral power of a O(a1) O(a)
m n ...(1)
Again a = (a ) a is the integral power of a
1 1

O(a) O(a1)
n m ...(2)
(1) and (2) m = n, i.e. O(a1) = O(a)
Cor. : If any element of a group G is of order n, then order of ap is n/d where d is g.c.d. of n
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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

and p.
Theorem : For any element a of a group G :
O(a) = O(x1 ax), x G
Proof. Let a G, x G, then
(x1 ax)2 = (x1 ax)(x1 ax)
= x1 (xx1)ax [by associativity]
= x1 aeax = x1 (aea)x
= x1 a2x
Again let (x1ax)n1 = x1 an1x, where(n 1) N
(x1 ax)n1 (x1 ax) = (x1 an1x) (x1 ax)
(x1 ax)n = x1an1 (xx1)ax = x1an1 (eax)
= x1an1ax = x1 anx
Therefore by induction method,
(x1 ax)n = x1 an x, n N
Now let O(a) = n and O(x1 ax) = m,
then (x1 ax)n = x1anx = x1 ex = e
O(x1 ax) n m n ...(1)
Again O(x1 ax) = m (x1ax)m = e x1 am x = e
x(x1 amx)x1 = xex1 = e
(xx1) am(xx1) = e
eam e = e am = e
O(a) m n m ...(2)
(1) and (2) n = m O(a) = O(x ax)
1

If O(a) is infinite, then O(x 1


ax) will also be infinite.
Cor. : If a and b are elements of a group G; then O(ab) = O(ba)
Proof. b1 (ba)b = (b1b)(ab) [by associativity]
= e(ab) = ab
Therefore by the above theorem,
O(ba) = O(b1(ba) b) = O(ab)
Theorem : If the order of an element a of a group G is n, then the order of ap is also n provided
p and n are relatively prime.
Proof. Let O(ap) = m
O(a) = n an = e anp = ep = e
(ap)n = e O(ap) n
m n ...(1)
Again since p and n are relatively prime,
therefore GCD of p and n = 1
there exist two integers x and y such that px + ny = 1
a1 = apx+ny = apx any
= apx .(an)y = apx.ey
= apx .e = apx
am = (apx)m = ampx = (amp)x = ex = e
O(a) m

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

n m ...(2)
(1) and (2) n m O(a) = O(ap)
Example : If for every element a of a group G, a2 = e; then prove that G is abelian.
Solution. Let a, b G, then by the given property
a G a2 = e aa = e
a1 = a ...(1)
Similarly b G b 1
= b ...(2)
Now a G, b G ab G
(ab)1 = ab [by the given property]
b1a1 = ab [by reversal law]
ba = ab [by (1) and (2)]
G is an abelian group.
Example : If a, b are any two elements of a group G; then show that G is an abelian group iff
(ab) = a2 b2.
2

Solution. Let G be an abelian group, then


G is abelian ab = ba, a, b G
(ab)(ab) = (ba)(ab)
(ab)2 = b(aa)b [by associativity]
(ab)2 = (ba2)b
(ab)2 = (a2b)b [ G is abelian]
2 2
(ab) = a (bb)
(ab)2 = a2 b2
Conversely : For a,b G, (ab)2 = a2 b2, then
(ab)2 = a2 b2 (ab) (ab) = (aa) (bb)
a(ba)b = a(ab)b [by associativity]
G is an abelian group.
Therefore G is an abelian group (ab)2 = a2 b2.
Example : If a is an element of a group G, then show that :
a2 = a a = e
Solution. Let a G and a2 = a then
a2 = a aa = ae
a = e [by left cancellation law]
Conversely : If a = e, then
a = e aa = ea
a2 = a
Therefore a2 = a a = e
Remark. For any element a of a group G, if a2 = a, then a is called an idempotent.
Solution. The identity element of the given group is 1, therefore O(a) = 1. For other elements,
we see that
22 = 4, 23 = 3, 24 = 1 O(2) = 4.
32 = 4, 33 = 2, 34 = 1 O(3) = 4.
and 42 = 2 O(4) = 2.

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

Example : If a, b are two elements of a group G such that am bn = ba, m, n Z; then prove
that :
ambn2, am2bn, ab1
are element of the same order in G.
Solution. ambm2 = ambnb2 = (ambn)b2 = (ba)b2
= (ba)(b1b1) [ ambn = ba]
= b(ab1)b1 = (b1)1 (ab1)(b1)
O(ambn2) = O(ab1) [ O(a) = O(x1 ax), x G] ...(1)
m2 n m n m n
Again a b = a 2
a b = a a 1 1
ba [ a b = ba]
= a (a b)a
1 1

m2 n
O(a b ) = O(a1b) = O(a1 b)1 [ O(x) = O(x1)]
= O(b1a) = O(eb1 a)
= O(a1 ab1 a)
= O(a1 (ab1)a) = O(ab1) ...(2)
From (1) and (2),
O(ambn2) = O(am2bn) = O(ab)1
Example : If a is the only element of order 2 in a group G, then show that ax = xa, x G.
Solution. We know that for any element a in a group G.
O(a) = O(x1 ax), x G
O(a) = 2 O(x1 ax) = 2
But a is the only element of order 2 in G, therefore
O(a) = O(x1 ax) a = x1 ax
xa = x(x1 ax)
xa = ax, x G
Example : If G is a group such that (ab)m = ambn for three consecutive integers m, m + 1, m +
2 for all a, b G; show that G is abelian.
Solution. a,b G, then as given
(ab)m = ambm ...(i)
m+1 m+1 m+1
(ab) = a b ...(ii)
(ab)m+2 = am+2 bm+2 ...(iii)
m+2 m+1
Now (ab) = (ab) ab
m+2 m+2 m+1
a b = a bm+1 ab [by (ii) and (iii)]
am+1 abm+1 b = bm+1 bm+1 ab
abm+1 = bm+1 a [by cancellation law]
m m+1 m m+1
a (ab ) = a (b a)
m m+1 m m
(a a)b = a (b b)a
am+1bm+1 = ambm(ba)
(ab)m+1 = (ab)m (ba)
(ab)m (ab) = (ba)m (ba)
ab = ba
G is an abelian group.
Example : If a, b are elements of an abelian group G, then prove that :
(ab)n = anbn, n Z

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Mathematics (Group Theory-I)

Solution. Case (i) When n = 0, then (ab)0 = e = ee [by definition]


= a0 b0
Case (ii) when n > 0; If n > 1, then (ab)1 = ab = a1 b1
The result is true for n = 1.
Let the result be true for n = k, then (ab)k = ak bk
(ab)(ab)k = (ab)(ak bk)
(ab)k+1 = a(bak)bk [by associativity]
k k
= a(a b)b [by commutativity in G]
k k k+1 k+1
= (aa )(bb ) = a b
Thus if the result is true for n = k, it is also true for n = k + 1.
Hence by principle of induction it is true for all integers.
Case (iii) When n < 0, then let n = m, where m Z+, then
(ab)n = (ab)m = [(ab)m]1
= (ambm)1 [by case (ii)]
m m 1
= (b a ) [by commutativity in G]
m 1 m 1
= (a ) (b ) = a m
bm

= an bn
Combining all the three cases, we conclude that
G is commutative (ab)n = anbn, n Z
Example : Prove that every group of order 4 is an abelian group.
Solution. Let G = {e, a, b, c} be a group of order 4 with e as its identity. Its composition table
is as under :

e a b c
e e a b c
2
a a a ab ac
2
b b ba b bc
c c ca cb c2
Since every element of the group appears only once in each row of the composition table,
therefore in the second row
ab = e or ab = b or ab = c
But ab = b a = e which is not possible ( a e)
ab b, Hence ab = e or, ab = c
Similarly in the third row ba a
ba = e or ba = c
Since every element of the group appears only once in each column of the composition table,
therefore

ab e ba e
and ab ba
ab c ba c

Similarly it can be seen that ac = ca and bc = cb


Hence G is an abelian group.
Example : Consider 10 under addition modulo 10. Since 12 = 2, 22 = 4, 32 = 6, 42 = 8, 52
= 0, we know that |2| = 5. Similar computations show that |0| = 1, |7| = 10, |5| = 2, |6| = 5.
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