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Calculation of Deuteron Interaction

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Calculation of Deuteron Interaction

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TEMPERATURE

Frisone Fulvio

Abstract - This paper describes the results obtained analysing the process of deuteron

fusion, catalysed by the plasmons (quasi-particle due to collective excitation on metallic

lattice) of a metallic lattice with CFC (Cubic Face Centred) structure, on varying the

temperature. The increased probability of fusion, a consequence of raising the

temperature, promotes the hypothesis that a sort of chain reaction, catalysed by

microcracks formed in the structure as a result of D2 loading, may favour the process. In

fact evaluating the fusion probability of deuteron-plasmon system within microcrack, it has

been computed a increasing of fusion probability respect with fusion probability on lattice

surface .

I. INTRODUCTION stress, this metal has been seen to give results which

are interesting from both the theoretical and

This study has the aim of analysing the possible experimental points of view.

influence, which variations in temperature and energy Further, it is assumed that the phenomenon of fusion

could have on the phenomenon of deuterium fusion is not only conditioned by structural characteristics

because of micro-deformations or micro-cracks and the thermodynamic conditions of the system, but

produced in the lattice. Working on cubic lattice, let also by the concentration of impurities present in the

us to better handle any topology change as lattice metal, correlated with the deuterium loading within

stress or deformation. Moreover working on the lattice itself.

palladium it is very interesting since many The analysis has attempted to determine whether, in

experiments has been performed regarding the fusion the case of the three-dimensional isotrope, D2 loading

of D2 system within the palladium lattice1. These can lead to the formation of micro-cracks in an

could in fact be able to concentrate in their vicinity a analogous manner to that suggested for temperature

significant fraction of the deuterons present in the variation in reference3. This would constitute an

metal. In particular2, the author has suggested that ulterior verification of the hypotheses proposed.

deuteron-plasmon coupling could increase the rate of

fusion by acting as an effective interaction attractive

to deuterium nuclei, reducing the distance at which II. THREE DIMENSIONAL MODEL

Coulomb repulsion becomes dominant. With this in

mind, a study was made of crystalline lattices with The aim is to determine whether, and within what

certain structural characteristics: in particular, the limits, deuterium loading can condition the rate of

analysis focused on lattices with ten or more electrons fusion within a generic cubic lattice, trying to isolate

in the d band. The present work will concentrate on the D2 contribution from any other possible effects

Palladium because, when subjected to thermodynamic caused by lattice defects, or by other characteristics or

1

thermodynamic conditions, or even by any micro- q2 kT R (3)

V ( r ) int = k V (r) M J

deformations of the crystalline lattice caused by r r

temperature variations. This type of phenomenon can

be considered as a perturbation external to the where k = 1 / 4 0 , q is the deuton charge, R

system and should be distinguished from internal the nuclear radius, a parameter which depends on

perturbations. the structural characteristics of the lattice (number of

In the case of external perturbations, the interaction d band electrons and type of lattice symmetry),

between the impurities present and the dislocation4 varying between 0.015 - 0.025, T the absolute

produced in the metal during micro-deformation can temperature of the metal under experimental

distinctly modify the electrical properties of the conditions and

material. Because of the different arrangement of the

atoms with respect to the unperturbed lattice, some (4)

particular reactions can then occur so that the J = J 0 exp

bkT

impurities become incorporated in the nucleus of the

dislocations.

The results presented here were obtained using a where Jo is the concentration of impurities in the zone

numerical simulation to determine the trend of the with a null internal pressure, b3 ~ vi the volume of the

barrier penetration factor, K, as a function of the ions making up the lattice, while is proportional to

temperature and the concentration of impurities the difference vd - vi between the volume of the atoms

present in the metal under examination. of impurities and the volume of the lattice ions.

In a precedent paper we have showed some results

regarding a one-dimensional model1 but in this model

we didnt take into account the reduction of coulomb III. THE PRESENCE OF IMPURITIES IN

barrier due to impurities concentration. Now we want THE CRYSTALLINE LATTICE

treat this topic, but to easily execute the calculation it

is better use an isotropic tree-dimensional model. In this case the Morse potential will be:

In a three-dimensional model, the probability of fusion

between not-free deuterium nuclei, i.e. deuterium

nuclei on metal surface no inside of metal bulk5, ( ) ( ( ))

( )M=( J/ ) exp 2( r r0 ) 2exp r r0

Vr (5)

within the crystalline lattice is equal to the probability

of penetrating a Coulomb potential barrier V ( r ) , In this equation, the parameters and depend on

given by: the dynamic conditions of the system, while r0 is the

classic point of inversion.

(1) Equations (1) and (2) refer to the process of not free

= exp 2 K (r ) int dr

2

P int

0 fusion, i.e. fusion within the crystalline lattice.

The catalysing effect of the lattice has been studied

from the theoretical point of view: in particular, it was

0.11 and K ( r ) int is given by:

showed2 that, considering the interaction between

deuterium nuclei and collective plasmonic excitation

(r )int = 2 [ V (r ) ]/ h 2 (2) in the metal, rate fusion f in a gas consisting of

deuterons with density is given by:

E is the initial total energy, principally thermal in

nature; in eV; is reduced mass of the deuteron; h is f =

4 h 1

(6)

Planks constant. d p

The interaction potential can then be further extended

to the three-dimensional isotropic case. where d is the mass of the deuterium nuclei, p is

The potential V ( r ) int will then be expressed in the their impulse, and where the parentheses

following way: represent the thermal mean.

The aim of this work is to demonstrate the possibility

of a further effect enhancing the probability of fusion,

2

principally due to the presence of impurities in the stress within the lattice, is proportional to the

metal. thermal increment and represents the effect of the

The effect of vibrational energy, which is typically of sudden variations in temperature to which the lattice is

the order of some eV for the quantum states under subjected and which lead to the formation of

consideration, will be ignored here. microcracks, 2 is the vibration frequency of the

Electronic screening, a result of the metallic lattice, 2

deuterons in the metal, considered constant here, b

represents an important effect on the fusion reaction.

the stress line which dampens the transformation of

Already studied by Rabinowitz et al6, this effect can

the crystalline lattice and

be taken into account using a model in which the

negative charge is distributed over a thin shell of

radius R. (

U 0 = 2U j Dbd i ) 0 (11)

Because of the interaction potential within the metal,

the shifted Coulomb potential can be written as: is the activation energy.

the small dislocations to a good approximation

where q is the charge of the deuteron, r1 is the

nuclear radius and k =1/ 4 0 . b (12)

i ~_

2 l

This gives V = 0 per r > R.

The solution for the semi-classic tunneling factor

and l has the dimensions of a wavelength, while is

is6:

an elastic constant which depends on the

characteristics of the lattice. In the equation (11) we

{

= D exp 2 ( r1 ) } (8) have

( r1 ) = ( / 2 h) [( 2 q 2 / 4 0 ) r2 ] 1/ 2 (9) 0 = tm (13)

In (8), D is a numerical constant of the order of unity, depends on the temperature and m is a variable

is the effective reduced mass of the deuton, r2 is the which depends on the lattice (in this case it is equal to

classic point of inversion and h is Planks constant. 1/3).

To take into account the effect of the impurities

present, the product J is substituted for D in (8), 2U j ~

kTc ln( / & ) (14)

where J represents the concentration of impurities and

is a numerical constant. is obtained from the comparison of two curves with

It is now possible to consider a cubic lattice structure deformation velocity & , Tc is the critical

subjected to micro-deformations and calculate the temperature for the formation of the microcracks and

probability of fusion within a micro-crack, , on

~ 105 in the CGS system. d indicates the distance

varying the temperature.

between dislocations which have not undergone

Indicating the volume of a single cell by d , the

internal splitting, b can be associated with the inter-

deformation of the entire lattice is given by: atomic distance and D depends on the time of

movement of the dislocations. The aim here is to

l 2 b 2

U (10) determine the probability of fusion within a deuterium

DL = J exp 0 d

2hR kT loaded metal.

Further, the same problem will be treated from the

is the density of the mobile dislocation within the aspect of the concentration of impurities contained in

2 the metal.

lattice at a non-constant lattice temperature, l is the If (1) is divided by (6) and multiplied by (10), it

area between the lines of separation between two follows that:

adjacent dislocations, caused by a curving of the

lattice7 R is a coefficient whose value depends on the

3

~

0.15 E 237.2 eV

exp 2 K(r)int dr

(15)

J = 0.25% T = 250.2 K.

D

0

4 h 1 L

The result is Pd 10-45, Pint 0-48.

d p

Other values of T , and P are reported in Tables 1

Equation (15) represents the probability of deuteron and 2.

fusion within a micro-crack: it is inversely

proportional to the number of nuclei absorbed by the

metal.

Using (15) and adopting the Morse potential to

calculate K(r)int, the probability of fusion, normalized

to the number of events per minute, was obtained by

means of a numerical simulation program which

utilizes the WKB method. The results are reported

in Table 1. Within the metal, the probability of fusion

given by (1) was evaluated numerically, making use

of (3) and (5) and taking the center of mass system as

the reference system1. In the particular case of impure Table 1 - For impure Pd (J 0.75% ), using the Morse potential,

Palladium with: the probability of fusion within a micro-crack in the presence of

D2 loading, normalized to the number of events per minute, was

~

0.15 , E 237.2 eV calculated for different values of temperature (varying from 100 K

to 300 K) and energy (varying from 150 eV to 250 eV). It should be

J = 0.75%, T = 250.2 K noted that the probability generally increases with T and E, and is

systematically several orders greater than the probability of surface

The result is pd 10-41, Pint 10-46. fusion P.

For this result, and also for those obtained using the

WKB method incorporated in numerical simulation

programs, a range of temperatures between 100 and

300 Kelvin were considered. The potential (3), for Pd

pure to 0.25%, was substituted by the shell

potential, as follows:

(16)

V = ( k q 2 ) (1 / r ) ,

r1 r R

J R

is the vibrational energy (typically of the order of Table 2 - For pure Pd (J 0.25% ), adopting the shell

some eV for the quantum states considered) and q is potential, the probability of fusion within a microcrack,

normalized to the number of events per minute, was calculated

the deuton charge. Under these particular dynamic under the same dynamic conditions as in Table 1. Also here is

conditions, the probability of fusion normalized to a systematically several orders of magnitude greater than the

number of events per minute was obtained for probability of fusion on the surface P, but the values are

systematically lower than those of the previous case.

Palladium.

V. CONCLUDING REMARKS

obtain relatively high values for the probability of

The probability of fusion within pure Palladium, fusion for D2 loaded impure metals at room

under the same dynamic conditions as the previous temperature. On the other hand, results very close to the

example, is then given by: experimental data have already been obtained without

imposing the D2 loading5 (for example, for J 0.75%, E

4

250 eV, T = 300 K, = 10-21, P 10-25). Judging by

the comparison between the two theoretical

calculations, it would seem that the experimental

procedure reduces the rate of fusion rather than

amplifies it. To verify the influence of the concentration

of impurities on the process from another point of view,

the trend of the potential within the pure lattice (J

0.25) was evaluated and a very high curve obtained.

Therefore, crossing the barrier would require a total

energy greater than the potential, as shown in Figure 1

for Palladium. If the potential barrier is evaluated for

the same metal with a higher level of impurity (J

0.75%), under the same thermodynamic conditions of

the system, it is seen that the probability of fusion may

be greater than that observed for pure metals, with a

total energy lower than the potential so that the Fig.1. Semi-classic tunneling appears increased for those metals,

tunneling effect is amplified. which have a concentration of impurity J 0.75%. The Morse

The principal aim of the present theoretical analysis was potential was calculated at T = 290 K. The Coulomb barrier

seems very high in the case of pure metals with J 0.25%. The

to demonstrate whether and how the coefficient of

shell potential was calculated at T = 290 K.

lattice deformation, linked to the formation of

microcracks at room temperature and low energy, could

The results of the research show that, in effect, the

effect the process of fusion.

values of the probability of fusion with D2 loading, for

More precisely, the probability of fusion within a

impure metals at room temperature, are quite elevated.

microcrack was calculated numerically and compared

For all the temperatures over the 150-350 K range and

with that calculated on the surface to evidence a

for all the energies over the 150-250 eV range, the

possible amplification of the tunneling effect. With this

formation of microcracks increases the probability of

aim, we associated the probability of fusion within a

fusion compared to the case of non-deformed lattices,

microcrack with the coefficient of deformation, , as a

and also reduces the thickness of the Coulomb barrier.

function of deuterium loading, and performed a WKB

To verify the influence of the concentration of

numerical simulation in the case of a model with CFC

impurities on the process, we also evaluated the trend of

structure.

the potential, within the pure lattice (J0.25%),

obtaining a very high curve (Fig 1).

If the potential barrier is evaluated for the same metal

with a higher concentration of impurities (J0.75%),

with the system under the same thermodynamic

conditions, it is possible demonstrate that the

probability of fusion could be greater than that found

for pure metals, with a total energy lower than the

potential so amplifying the tunneling effect.

REFERENCES

1. F. Frisone, Study on the Probability of 2. F. Frisone, Can variations in temperature

interaction between the plasmons of metal influence deuteron interaction within

and deuterons, Il Nuovo Cimento. Vol. 18 D crystalline lattices? Il Nuovo Cimento D,

Nov.1996. pp.1279 1285 (1996). Vol.20 D.N.10, 1998, pp. 1567-1580.

5

3. Chambers G., Evidence for MeV particle 6. Rabinowitz M, High temperature super-

emission from Ti charged with low-energy conductivity and cold fusion, Mod. Phys.

Deuterium ions, NRL Memorandum Report Lett. B 4, pag. 233 (1990).

6927, Naval Research Laboratory,

Washington, D.C. 20375-5321 (1991). 7. F. Frisone Deuteron interaction within a

microcrack in a lattice at room temperature

4. Hirt, J.Price and Lothe J., Theory of Fusion Tecnology vol.39 (2001).

dislocation, McGraw Hill, Z. Phys., pp. 116-

129 (1960).

microcrack in a lattice at room temperature,

Fusion Technology vol.39 (2001).

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