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Putting Safety First.

First .

CHEMICAL HANDLING SAFETY

Gulf Test Safety Consultancies, Dubai.


Approved by: Ministry of Labor,
Department of Economic Development, Govt. of Dubai,
Dubai Municipality, Dubai Accreditation Center IB 021,
Jebel Ali Free Zone Authority
P.O. Box: 184518, Dubai, U.A.E,
Phone: 04 - 2734038, Fax: 04 - 2734039,
Website: www.gulftest.org, Email: admin@gulftest.org
CHEMICAL HANDLING
 SAFETY PROGRAM
Contents
 Basic Rules For Safe Chemical Handling
 Health Hazards Of Chemicals
 Physical Properties Of Chemicals
 General Concepts Of Toxicology
 Employee Protective Measures
 Hazard Rating Systems
 Chemical Warning Labels
 Chemical Storage Requirements
 Safety recordkeeping
 Course Test
Steps in Chemical Handling
Ten (10) Basic Rules For Safe Chemical Handling

 Never use a product that doesn't have a label to reference.


 It's a good idea to visit a product manufacturer's Web site
and download the material safety data sheet, which
provides information on safety and health issues.
 Don't mix chemicals without specific authorization from the
formulator. Mixing incompatible products can render them
ineffective, or it can produce toxic materials that present
unsafe exposure conditions.
 Always use personal protective equipment. Protect your
eyes and hands from exposure to harsh chemicals; gloves
gloves,,
goggles or whatever is appropriate.
 When pouring chemicals, pour concentrates into the water
and not vice-
vice-versa. This way whatever splashes out will be
primarily water and not concentrated chemicals.
Ten (10) Basic Rules For Safe Chemical Handling

 Never pour chemicals into an empty, unlabeled container.


 Don't store flammable chemicals near a source of heat.
 Pesticides, fungicides, etc. always must be stored in a safe
and elevated position.
 Ventilate when engaging in cleaning or other applications
using strong chemicals, especially dry solvents.
 Always test a product on an item being worked on in an
inconspicuous location before applying an item overall.
Health Hazards Of Chemicals
 Although safety hazards related to the physical
characteristics of a chemical can be objectively
defined in terms of testing requirements (e.g.
flammability), health hazard definitions are less
precise and more subjective. Health hazards may
cause measurable changes in the body - such as
decreased pulmonary function. These changes are
generally indicated by the occurrence of signs and
symptoms in the exposed employees - such as
shortness of breath, a non-
non-measurable, subjective
feeling.

 Employees exposed to such hazards must be apprised


of both the change in body function and the signs and
symptoms that may occur to signal that change.
Health Hazards Of Chemicals - Carcinogen

 1. "Carcinogen:" A chemical is considered to be a


carcinogen if:
 (a) It has been evaluated by the International
Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and
found to be a carcinogen or potential carcinogen;
or
 (b) It is listed as a carcinogen or potential
carcinogen in the Annual Report on Carcinogens
published by the National Toxicology Program
(NTP) (latest edition); or,
 (c) It is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen.
Health Hazards Of Chemicals - Corrosive

 2. "Corrosive:" A chemical that


causes visible destruction of, or
irreversible alterations in, living
tissue by chemical action at the site
of contact.
Health Hazards Of Chemicals - Toxic

 3. "Highly
"Highly toxic:"
toxic:" A chemical falling within any of the
following categories:
 (a) A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD(50)) of 50
milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when
administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200
and 300 grams each.
 (b) A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD(50)) of
200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when
administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if
death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino
rabbits weighing between two and three kilograms each.
 (c) A chemical that has a median lethal concentration
(LC(50)) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of
gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume,
or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for
one hour (or less if death occurs within one hour) to albino
rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
Health Hazards Of Chemicals - Irritant

 4. "Irritant:" A chemical, which is not


corrosive, but which causes a
reversible inflammatory effect on
living tissue by chemical action at
the site of contact.
Health Hazards Of Chemicals - Sensitizer

 5. "Sensitizer:" A chemical that


causes a substantial proportion of
exposed people or animals to
develop an allergic reaction in
normal tissue after repeated
exposure to the chemical.
Health Hazards Of Chemicals - Toxic

 6. "Toxic
"Toxic."
." A chemical falling within any of the following
categories:
 (a) A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD(50)) of more
than 50 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 500 milligrams
per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino
rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
 (b) A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD(50)) of more
than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 1,000
milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered by
continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24
hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between two
and three kilograms each.
 (c) A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) in
air of more than 200 parts per million but not more than 2,000
parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than two
milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams per liter of
mist, fume, or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation
for one hour (or less if death occurs within one hour) to albino
rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
Health Hazards of Chemicals - "Target organ effects."

 "Target organ effects."


 The following is a target organ categorization of
effects which may occur, including examples of
signs and symptoms and chemicals which have
been found to cause such effects. These
examples are presented to illustrate the range
and diversity of effects and hazards found in the
workplace, and the broad scope employers must
consider in this area, but are not intended to be
all-
all-inclusive.
Health Hazards of Chemicals - "Target organ effects."

 a. Hepatotoxins: Chemicals which


produce liver damage
 Signs & Symptoms: Jaundice; liver
enlargement
 Chemicals: Carbon tetrachloride;
nitrosamines
Health Hazards of Chemicals - "Target organ effects."

 b. Nephrotoxins: Chemicals which


produce kidney damage
 Signs & Symptoms: Edema;
proteinuria
 Chemicals: Halogenated
hydrocarbons; uranium
Health Hazards of Chemicals - "Target organ effects."

 c. Neurotoxins: Chemicals which


produce their primary toxic effects
on the nervous system
 Signs & Symptoms: Narcosis;
behavioral changes; decrease in
motor functions
 Chemicals: Mercury; carbon disulfide
Health Hazards of Chemicals - "Target organ effects."

 d. Agents which act on the blood or


hemato--poietic system: Decrease
hemato
hemoglobin function; deprive the
body tissues of oxygen
 Signs & Symptoms: Cyanosis; loss of
consciousness
 Chemicals: Carbon monoxide;
cyanides
Health Hazards of Chemicals - "Target organ effects."

 e. Agents which damage the lung:


Chemicals which irritate or damage
pulmonary tissue
 Signs & Symptoms: Cough; tightness
in chest; shortness of breath
 Chemicals: Silica; asbestos
Health Hazards of Chemicals - "Target organ effects."

 f. Reproductive toxins: Chemicals


which affect the reproductive
capabilities including chromosomal
damage (mutations) and effects on
fetuses (teratogenesis)
 Signs & Symptoms: Birth defects;
sterility
 Chemicals: Lead; DBCP
Health Hazards of Chemicals - "Target organ effects."

 g. Cutaneous hazards: Chemicals


which affect the dermal layer of the
body
 Signs & Symptoms: Defatting of the
skin; rashes; irritation
 Chemicals: Ketones; chlorinated
compounds
Health Hazards of Chemicals - "Target organ effects."

 h. Eye hazards: Chemicals which


affect the eye or visual capacity
 Signs & Symptoms: Conjunctivitis;
corneal damage
 Chemicals: Organic solvents; acids
Physical Properties Of Chemicals

 Physical properties are those that


can be observed without changing
the identity of the substance.

 The general properties of matter


such as color, density, hardness, are
examples of physical properties.
Chemical Properties Of Chemicals

 Properties that describe how a


substance changes into a completely
different substance are called
chemical properties. Flammability
and corrosion/oxidation resistance
are examples of chemical properties.
Phase is a Physical Property

 The difference between a physical and chemical


property is straightforward until the phase of the
material is considered. When a material changes
from a solid to a liquid to a vapor it seems like
them become a difference substance. However,
when a material melts, solidifies, vaporizes,
condenses or sublimes, only the state of the
substance changes. Consider ice, liquid water,
and water vapor, they are all simply H2O. Phase
is a physical property of matter and matter can
exist in four phases solid, liquid, gas and
plasma.
General Concepts Of Toxicology

 Toxicology is the study of harmful


effects to living organisms from
substances which are foreign to
them. The toxins may be naturally
occurring in the environment or
synthetic chemicals.
General Concepts Of Toxicology

 The following definitions will describe


some basic concepts in toxicology.
 Toxicity can be generally broken down into two
categories::
categories
 acute toxicity refers to the rapid development of
symptoms/effects after the intake of relatively high doses
of the toxicant. Acute toxicity refers to immediate harmful
effects generated by sufficiently large doses.
 chronic toxicity refers to the harmful effects of long-
long-term
exposure to relatively low doses of toxicant. This would
include traces of pesticides in foods, air pollution, etc.
General Concepts Of Toxicology

 A single compound may generate both acute and chronic toxic


effects depending on the dose and duration of exposure.


 There are two general types of toxic effect:


effect:
 Lethal Effects: resulting in the death of individuals
 Sublethal Effects: other effects not directly resulting in death

 There are four basic types of damage caused by toxic


materials::
materials
 Physiological damage: reversible/irreversible damage to the health of
the organism
 Carcinogenesis: induction of cancer
 Mutagenesis: induction of genetic damage / mutation(s)
 Teratogenesis:: induction of birth defects
Teratogenesis
Employee Protective Measures Risk Assessment

Physical Hazards you may face are:


- Flammable liquids or solids
- Combustible liquids
- Compressed gases
- Explosive materials
- Unstable materials
- Water reactive materials
Employee Protective Measures Risk Assessment

 There are an estimated 650,000 existing hazardous chemical


products -- and hundreds of new ones are being produced each
year. Employees of all kinds work with these chemicals in a pure
form or in a mixture.
 Dealing with the Risks
In order to work safely with these materials, workers must
understand the risks of working with them and what can be done
to stay safe.
 Recognition
Before you can know how dangerous the chemical hazards are in your workplace,
you must know what chemicals are present and have safety information in regards to
them.
 Here are some questions to ask:
 Is there a current and complete inventory of the chemicals in the workplace?
 Is the location of each of these chemicals known?
 Is it known what they are used for?
 Are all the containers clearly labeled?
 Are the labels complete and informative?
Employee Protective Measures Risk Assessment

 Evaluation
Once the inventory is complete, there should be reference
materials available with information on each product.
Manufacturers must provide this information, and
employers must make it available. A review of the
documents and labels should provide at basic information
as to the types and levels of chemical hazards they may
present. If you don't understand, ask!
 Simply reviewing a data sheet (MSDS) may not be enough.
It is important to assess real exposures in the actual
workplace. Work practices and how the products are used
can make a great deal of difference as to the real hazard.
Air or other testing may need to be performed to determine
if airborne exposures exceed recommended or legal levels.
Employee Protective Measures Risk Assessment

 Control
Once the assessment has been made, control measures
may be required, and may include:
 Additional employee training in recognition and use of the
products
 Appropriate personal protective equipment such as gloves,
eyewear, respiratory protection, and protective clothing
 Replacement of hazardous products with another product
which has less hazard
 Engineering controls such as capture and exhaust
ventilation
 Administrative controls - i.e. work scheduling
 Process changes of changes in how the work is done.
Materials Safety Data Sheets

 Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). Manufacturers and


importers of chemical products are required to evaluate the
hazards their products and prepare labels and material safety data
sheets (MSDSs) with hazard information to their customers and to
employers that purchase their products. The information
contained in the MSDS is specified.
MSDS
MSDS
MSDS
Do you Know.
 More than 30 million workers are
potentially exposed to one or more
chemical hazards.
Employee Protective Measures

 Employees must know how chemicals enter


and affect the body. Each chemical has a
certain way of entering the body through
the:
 Nose
 Mouth
 Skin Contact
 Eye Contact
Employee Protective Measures

 Employees must be trained in ways to protect


themselves from hazardous chemicals that they work
with. Their training must include:
 Appropriate work practices in the safe handling and use of chemicals
 Prevention of injury from mixing incompatible chemicals such as mixing
bleach with an ammonia cleaning product
 Proper dilution of concentrated chemicals
 Appropriate labeling and safe storage of chemicals
Employee Protective Measures
Use Proper PPE
Employee Protective Measures

 Employees must know how and when to use Personal


Protective Equipment(PPE).
 Gloves
 Rubber Apron or Protective Clothing
 Safety Glasses with side shields
 Splash Goggles
 Face Shield
 Nonslip safety shoes
Employee Protective Measures
Exposure Limits
PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit)
STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit)
TLV (Threshold Limit Value)
Employee Protective Measures

 Qualified personnel should be the only ones to clean


up chemical spills. There should be a spill kit
designed specifically for the work place and the
chemicals in use there. Spill kits may include:
 Materials to absorb liquids such as a chemical spill powder
 An absorbent Material such as a chemical spill pad
 A neutralizing agent
 Waste Containers
 A brush and scoop
 Personal protective Equipment (PPE)
 Any other products necessary specific to neutralizing on site
chemicals
Employee Protective Measures

 In addition, to reduce the chances of exposure to hazardous


chemicals, further steps may be taken by:
 Providing a dispensing station that automatically dilutes and mixes the
correct amount of chemicals for the job.
 Avoiding the use of aerosol spray products to reduce airborne
contaminants whenever possible
 Using less toxic materials such as green seal certified products or
environmentally safe products which have a reduced amount of harmful
solvents
 Educate all employees on the importance of good hand washing
techniques before eating, drinking to reduce the chance of chemical
contamination.
 Storage of food and beverages in an area where there is no chemical
storage.
 Prohibition of eating in an area where there could be chemical
contamination.
Employee Protective Measures
Hazard Rating Systems

 The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) system


uses a diamond-
diamond-shaped diagram of symbols and numbers
to indicate the degree of hazard associated with a particular
chemical or material.
 These diamond shaped symbols are placed on containers of
chemicals or materials to identify the degree of hazard
associated with the chemical or material.
 The diagram identifies three color-
color-coded categories of
hazard for each material. Each category is divided in levels
of hazard potential with increasing numbers indicating
increasing hazards.
The abbreviated degrees of hazard in each of these
categories are given as follows:
NFPA Diamond - Health
 HEALTH - The degree of health hazard of a chemical or material is based on the
form or condition of the material, as well as its inherent properties. The degree of
health hazard of a material should indicate the degree of personal protective
equipment required for working safety with the material.
 1 is for slightly hazardous (toxic) material which requires only minimal
protection (for example, safety glasses and gloves) in addition to normal work
clothing to work with safely.
 2 is for moderately toxic or a hazardous or moderately toxic material which
requires additional PPE or equipment (e.g. chemical goggles, lab/work smock, local
ventilation) in addition to that required for less toxic material. Consult the MSDS for
specific health hazard and proper PPE to use with this material.
 3 or 4 is for highly to extremely toxic (deadly) materials (and any
carcinogen, mutagen, or teratogen).
teratogen). These materials will require specialized
equipment (e.g. respirator or exhaust hood, full face shield, rubber apron, specialized
glove, handling tongs, etc) beyond that required for moderately toxic material. You
must consult the MSDS and/or other safety information to determine the hazard
(acute or chronic) and the proper PPE and engineering controls to safely use this
material.
NFPA Diamond - FLAMMABILITY

 FLAMMABILITY or FIRE HAZARD - The flammability or fire hazards deal


with the degree of susceptibility of the material to ignite and burn. The
form or condition of the materials, as well as their properties, affects the
extent of the hazard.
 Many hazardous materials such as acetone and gasoline, have a flash
point (ignition temperature) far below freezing and will readily ignite with
a spark if the vapor concentration is sufficient.
 1 is for materials with a flash point above 200
200F.
 2 is for materials with a flash point below 200
200F but above 100
100F.
 3 is for materials with a flash point below 100
100F but above 73
73F.
 4 is for materials with a flash point below 73
73F.
NFPA Diamond - REACTIVITY
 REACTIVITY - The reactivity hazards deal with the potential of a material
or chemical to release energy. Some materials are capable of rapid
energy release without any catalyst, while others can undergo violent
eruptive or explosive reactions if they come in contact with water or other
materials.
 Generally this rating is used to indicate the potential to react if the
material is heated, jarred, or shocked.
 1 indicates a material that may be reactive if heated and one that
reacts with water.
 2 indicates a material that may react violently without detonation.
 3 indicates a material that may detonate or explode if subjected to
a strong initiating force or heating under confinement.
 4 indicates a material that readily detonates or explodes.
NFPA Diamond SPECIFIC HAZARD

 SPECIFIC HAZARD - An open space at the bottom of the NFPA diagram


can be used to indicate additional information about the chemical or
material.
 This information may include the chemical or material's radioactivity,
proper fire extinguishing agent, skin hazard, its use in pressurized
containers, protective equipment required, or unusual reactivity with
water.
 OX or OXY indicates a material that is an oxidizer.
 W or W indicates a material that is water reactive.
 ALK indicates a material that is alkali.
 COR indicates a material that is corrosive.
 RAD indicates a material that is radioactive.
Rating Summary Danger, Warning, Caution

 Health
 Use the most severe rating code regardless of volume.
 Health (Blue) Detailed Description of Health Rating
 4 Danger - May be fatal on short exposure. Specialized protective equipment
required
 3 Warning - Corrosive or toxic. Avoid skin contact or inhalation
 2 Warning May be harmful if inhaled or absorbed
 1 Caution May be irritating
 0 No unusual hazard
Rating Summary Danger, Warning, Caution

 Flammability (Red)
 Detailed Description of Flammable Rating
 4 Danger Flammable gas or extremely flammable liquid
 3 Warning Flammable liquid flash point below 100
100F
 2 Caution Combustible liquid flash point of 100
100 to 200
200F
 1 Combustible if heated
 0 Not combustible
Rating Summary Danger, Warning, Caution

 Reactivity
 Use the most severe rating code regardless of volume.
 Reactivity (Yellow) Detailed Description of Reactivity Rating
 4 Danger Explosive material at room temperature
 3 Danger May be explosive if shocked, heated under confinement or
mixed with water
 2 Warning Unstable or may react violently if mixed with water
 1 Caution May react if heated or mixed with water but not violently
 0 Stable Not reactive when mixed with water
Rating Summary
 Special Information - Indicate the presence of the following regardless of volume
 Special Information Key (White)
 Detailed Description of Special Information Rating
 Oxy Oxidizing Agent
 W Water Reactive
 G Compressed Gas
 LN2 Liquid Nitrogen
 LHE Liquid Helium
 Special Signage Key (These are signs that shall or must be posted in addition to
the NFPA diamond)
 LAS Laser
 BL Biosafety Level
 RAD Radioactive Material
 MAG Magnetic Fields
 HVO High Voltage
Hazard Communication
Forms
Forms
Chemical Warning Labels
Labeling
Labeling
Fire and Explosion Data
 Flashpoint
 Flammability limits
 Hazardous combustion
products
 Extinguishing media
 Firefighting protective
equipment and instructions
Fume hood
Emergency
Always know your Nearest Emergency Exit
Forms
Chemical Storage Requirements
 General Requirements, Storage Cabinets and Shelves
 Segregate incompatible chemicals (e.g., storing oxidizing acids and flammable
solvents in separate locations). This is to prevent inadvertent mixing of incompatible
chemicals which can produce harmful gases/vapors, heat, fire and explosions.
 Store hazardous materials away from heat and direct sunlight. Heat and sunlight
may impact and degrade chemicals, deteriorate storage containers and labels.
 Do not store hazardous materials (except cleaners) under sinks.
 Ensure caps and lids are securely tightened on containers. This prevents leaks and
evaporation of contents.
 Use approved flammable storage lockers or flammable storage containers to store
flammable and combustible liquids exceeding 10 gallons in one room. Flammable and
combustible liquids kept in squeeze bottles and other secondary containers may be
kept on counter and bench tops provided they do not exceed the 10 gallon limit and
are kept in secondary containment.
 Store inorganic acids in corrosive or acid storage cabinets. Their interiors and
hardware (door hinges and shelf brackets) are corrosion resistant. Corrosive storage
cabinets can be located under fume hoods or exist as stand-
stand-alone units. Flammable
storage cabinets are not corrosion resistant and shall not be used for inorganic acid
storage.
 Install Plexiglas lips or use equivalent means to prevent materials from falling off
open storage shelves.
Chemical Storage Requirements
Chemical Storage Requirements

 Refrigerators Used for Hazardous Material Storage

 Refrigerators used for storing flammable and combustible liquids shall be


designed for that purpose. Do not use ordinary domestic units.
 Do not store food in refrigerators located in technical areas.
areas.
 Label refrigerators used for storing chemicals, samples or media as
follows: Caution
CautionDo Not Store Food or Beverages in This
Refrigerator. Labels may be fabricated by users provided they are legible
and securely affixed to the refrigerator.
 Refrigerators used for food and beverages outside of technical areas
require no posting.
Chemical Storage Requirements
Chemical Storage Requirements

 Squeeze Bottles, and Wash Bottles

 Hazardous materials are often transferred to squeeze bottles and


other plastic containers. These are made of plastics, such as high-
high-
density polyethylene, low-
low-density polyethylene and polypropylene
and may exhibit varying degrees of resistance to different
chemicals. Moreover, they may deteriorate over time, especially
when exposed to sunlight or UV sources.
Chemical Storage Requirements Secondary Containment
Chemical Storage Requirements Secondary Containment

 Secondary Containment for Liquids


 Store liquid hazardous materials (including squeeze and wash bottles) in secondary
containment. This is to minimize the impact and spread of spills resulting from broken/leaking
containers. Secondary containment capacity must be 110% of the largest container or 10% of the
aggregate volume of all containers, whichever is larger.
 Secondary containment is available in different materials which provide varying resistance to
different chemicals.
Photo Trays
 Generally, these provide good resistance for aqueous solutions and some organic
solvents. But they may not be a good choice for halogenated solvents.
Polypropylene and Hi Density Polyethylene Trays
 These may be affected by some aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons.
Stainless Steel and Pyrex Trays
 Stainless steel and Pyrex trays are resistant to a broader spectrum of
chemicals. However they are more costly than plastic trays and arent available in as
many different sizes and configurations.
Larger Capacity Containers
 Containers are acceptable for larger volumes of liquids provided they are resistant to the
chemicals stored in them. They are constructed of high density polyethylene


Chemical Storage Requirements

 General Recommendations

 Shelves and racks should have enough clearance to accommodate the


largest container that allows it to be removed and returned without
tipping. Tipping containers when returning them to shelves, cabinets and
refrigerators may cause the contents to drip or leak.

 Limit hazardous materials kept in fume hoods to the amount that is in use
or needed for an activity.

 Avoid stockpiling chemicals.

 Purchase only what is needed.

 Conduct periodic cleanouts to minimize accumulating unwanted chemicals.


Chemical Storage Requirements
Chemical Storage Requirements
Chemical Storage Requirements
Chemical Storage Requirements
Poor Storage
Bad HouseKeeping
First Aid
 Some of the more common symptoms of
 exposure include
 Nausea
 Vomiting
 Dizziness
 Rashes
 Respiratory distress
 Eye irritation
 Disorientation
 Double vision
 Loss of consciousness
 Headache
First--Aid Measures
First
 Eyes: Flush with
water for 15 minutes
 Skin: Wash with soap
and water
 Inhalation: Move
to fresh air
 Ingestion: Get emergency
medical assistance
 Notes to physician
First--Aid Measures
First
Safety Record Keeping
Safety Record Keeping
Safety Record Keeping - Tracking
Safety Record Keeping Prompt Traceability, Labeling
Hazcom Quiz
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Revision
Be Safe Always

Thanks

Gulf Test Safety Consultancies, Dubai.


Approved by: Ministry of Labor,
Department of Economic Development, Govt. of Dubai,
Dubai Municipality, Dubai Accreditation Center IB 021,
Jebel Ali Free Zone Authority
P.O. Box: 184518, Dubai, U.A.E,
Phone: 04 - 2734038, Fax: 04 - 2734039,
Website: www.gulftest.org, Email: admin@gulftest.org