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Homework #3

Due: 11:58pm on Monday, April 21, 2014


You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Two Blocks and Two Pulleys

Learning Goal:
To be able to calculate the tension in a string and the acceleration of each of two blocks in a two-pulley system.
As shown, a block with mass m1 is attached to a massless ideal string. The string wraps around a massless pulley and then wraps around a second massless
pulley that is attached to a block with mass m2 and ultimately attaches to a wall. The whole system is frictionless.

A coordinate system is given in the figure.

Part A - Tension in the string


Given that a2 is the magnitude of the horizontal acceleration of the block with mass m2 , what is T , the tension in the string?
Express the tension in terms of m2 and a2 .

Hint 1. Which physical principle to use

Use Newton's second law,


F2 = m2 a2
where F2 is the sum of the forces acting on the block with mass m2 . Recall that the whole system is frictionless.

Hint 2. Identify the force diagram for the block with mass m2
Which figure correctly illustrates the forces acting on the block with mass m2 ?

The vectors n, W, T, and f k denote the normal force, the gravitational force, the tension in
the string, and the frictional force, respectively.

ANSWER:

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3

Correct

ANSWER:

T = m2 (0.5a2 )

Correct
Part B - Acceleration of suspended block

Given T , the tension in the string, calculate a1 , the magnitude of the vertical acceleration of the block with mass m1 .

Express the acceleration's magnitude, a1 , in terms of m1 , g, and T .


Hint 1. Which physical principle to use

Use Newton's second law,


F1 = m1 a1
where F 1 is the sum of the forces acting on the block with mass m1 .

Hint 2. Identify the force diagram for the block of mass m1


Which figure correctly illustrates the forces acting on the block with mass m1 ?

The vectors W, T, and Fi denote the gravitational force, the tension in the string, and the
inertial force, respectively.

ANSWER:

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3

ANSWER:

T
a1 = g m1
Correct

Part C - Relative acceleration between blocks

Given the magnitude a1 of the acceleration of the block with mass m1 , find a2 , the magnitude of the horizontal acceleration of the block with mass m2 .
Express a2 in terms of a1 .

Hint 1. How to solve the problem using the string constraint (with calculus)

Define y1 (t) and x2 (t) as the vertical coordinate (as a function of time) of the block with mass m1 and the horizontal coordinate (as a function of time)
of the block with mass m2 , respectively. The length of the string, l, is

l = 2x2 (t) + y1 (t) + C


where C is a constant that accounts for the length of the wound portions of the string and the
length of string between the y axis and the wall. By differentiating this equation twice with
respect to time, you will obtain the relationship between a1 and a2 . The variables C and l
vanish during differentiation.

Hint 2. How to solve the problem using your intuition (without calculus)

While the block of mass m1 descends a height h, the other block moves only half of h. Hence, at each instant, v1 = 2v2 , where v1 and v2 are the
speeds of the blocks with masses m1 and m2 , respectively.

ANSWER:

a
a2 = 21
Correct

Part D

Using the result from Part C in the equation for T from Part A, express T as a function of a1 .
Express your answer in terms of m2 and a1 .
ANSWER:

T = m2 (.25a1 )

Correct

Part E

Having solved the previous parts, you have all the pieces needed to calculate a1 , the magnitude of the acceleration of the block with mass m1 . Enter an
expression for a1 .

Express the acceleration's magnitude a1 in terms of m1 , m2 , and g.

Hint 1. How to approach this problem

In Part B, using Newton's second law, you derived a relationship between a1 and the tension in the string, T . In Part D, you found T as a function of a1 .
Eliminate T from this system of two linear equations and solve for a1 .

ANSWER:

4m1 g
a1 =
m2 +4m1

Correct
Video Solution Problem for Chapter 13 Sections 1-4 - Particle Kinetics with Friction.

Watch the following video and answer the question.

Part A
A 1.5-lb brick is released from rest A and slides down the inclined roof. If the coefficient of friction between the roof and the brick is = 0.3, determine the
speed at which the brick strikes the gutter G.

ANSWER:

v = 15.23 ft/s
v = 2.68 ft/s
v = 3.00 ft/s
v = 5.61 ft/s

Correct

Equation of Motion for a System of Particles


Learning Goal:
To be able to set up and analyze the free-body diagrams and equations of motion for a system of particles.
Consider the mass and pulley system shown. Mass m1 = 40 kg and mass m2 = 10 kg . The angle of the inclined plane is given, and the coefficient of kinetic
friction between mass m2 and the inclined plane is k = 0.12. Assume the pulleys are massless and frictionless.

Part A - Finding the acceleration of the mass on the inclined plane


What is the acceleration of mass m2 on the inclined plane? Take positive acceleration to be up the ramp.

Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.

Hint 1. Determining the acceleration


Use the free-body diagram of m1 to find the tension in the rope between the pulley and mass m2 . Use this tension in the free-body diagram of m2 to
find the net force acting on m2 parallel to the plane. Establish the relation between the acceleration of the two masses. Finally, use Newton's second law
to find the acceleration.

Hint 2. Identify the tension in the rope


What is the tension in the rope between the pulley supporting the hanging mass and mass m2 ?

Hint 1. The free-body diagram of the hanging mass


Consider the free-body diagram of mass m1 .
ANSWER:

T = m1 (g a)
T= 1 m 1 (g a)
2
T = m1 (g + a)
T= 1 m 1 (g + a)
2

Hint 3. Calculate the normal force on the mass on the inclined plane

What is the magnitude of the normal force on mass m2 ?


Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.

Hint 1. The free-body diagram of the mass on the inclined plane


Consider the free-body diagram of mass m2 .
ANSWER:

N = 90.6 N

Hint 4. Calculate the friction force on the mass on the inclined plane

What is the magnitude of the friction force on mass m2 ?


Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

f = 10.9 N

Hint 5. Identify the relation between the accelerations of the two masses

Which of the following equations correctly states the relation between the magnitudes of the accelerations of the two masses?
ANSWER:

1
a2 = 2
a1
a2 = 2a1
a2 = 2 a2
3
3
a2 = 2
a2
a2 = a1

ANSWER:

a2 = 7.38 m2
s

Answer Requested
Part B - Finding the speed of the mass moving up the ramp after a given time

If the system is released from rest, what is the speed of mass m2 after 3 s ?
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.

Hint 1. Calculating the final speed

Because the force on mass m2 is constant, the kinematics equations for constant acceleration can be used to find the speed at a given time.

Hint 2. Select the appropriate kinematics equation


Which of the kinematics equations can be used to solve the problem?
ANSWER:

x = x0 + ( )t
v+v0
2
v = at + v0
x = x0 + v 0 t + 1 at2
2
v2 = v20 + 2a(x x0 )

ANSWER:

v(3 s) = 22.1 m
s

Correct

Part C - Finding the distance moved by the hanging mass


When mass m2 moves a distance 4.44 m up the ramp, how far downward does mass m1 move?
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Set up and solve an equation that relates the two distances. Pick a datum that is fixed in space, then relate all changing rope lengths to that datum.

Notice that the length of the segment between the ceiling bracket and the datum remains constant
when the system is in motion; the same is true for the segment parallel to the ramp between the
top pulley and the datum (provided the mass does not move up far enough to reach the datum).

Hint 2. Find the equation of the segment lengths

What is the equation for the total length of the segments of the rope that vary when the system moves?
Express your answer in terms of the segment lengths s 1 and s 2 .

ANSWER:

l = 2s 1 + s 2

Correct
Note that the change in segment length s 1 is equal to the distance moved by the hanging mass.

ANSWER:

2.22 m

Answer Requested

Fundamental Problem 13.4


The 1.1-Mg car is being towed by a winch.

Part A

If the winch exerts a force of T = 100(s + 1) N on the cable, where s is the displacement of the car in meters, determine the speed of the car when s = 10
m, starting from rest. Neglect rolling resistance of the car.
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

v = 3.30 m
s

Correct

Problem 13.11

The safe S has a weight of 188lb and is supported by the rope and pulley arrangement shown.
Part A
If the end of the rope is given to a boy of weight 87lb , determine his acceleration if in the confusion he doesn't let go of the rope. Neglect the mass of the
pulleys and rope.
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

aB = 1.68 ft2
s

Correct

Problem 13.17

The double inclined plane supports two blocks A and B, each having a weight of 18lb .
Part A

If the coefficient of kinetic friction between the blocks and the plane is 0.11, determine the acceleration of each block.
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

a = 3.47 ft2
s

Correct

Problem 13.18

A 40-lb suitcase slides from rest 20 ft down the smooth ramp.

Part A
Determine the point where it strikes the ground at C.
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

R = 5.30 ft

Correct

Part B

How long does it take to go from A to C?


Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

t = 1.82 s

Correct

Problem 13.20

The 370-kg mine car is hoisted up the incline using the cable and motor M . For a short time, the force in the cable is F = (3200 t2 ) N, where t is in seconds.
Part A

If the car has an initial velocity v1 = 2 m/ s when t = 0, determine its velocity when t = 3s .

Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

v = 66.0 m
s

Correct

Video Solution Problem for Chapter 13 Section 5 - Particle Kinetics--Normal/Tangential Components.

Watch the following video and answer the question.


Part A
A toboggan and rider have a total mass of 100 kg and travel down along the (smooth) slope defined by the equation y = 0.2x2. At the instant x = 8 m, the
toboggan's speed is 4 m/s. At this point, determine the rate of increase in speed and the normal force which the toboggan exerts on the slope. Neglect the size
of the toboggan and rider for the calculation.
ANSWER:

at = 9.36 m/s2 , N = 310 N


at = 8.32 m/s2 , N = 537 N
at = 8.32 m/s2 , N = 520 N
at = 9.36 m/s2 , N = 293 N

Correct
Problem 13.65

Part A

Determine the constant speed of the passengers on the amusement-park ride if it is observed that the supporting cables are directed at = 30 from the
vertical. Each chair including its passenger has a mass of 80 kg.

Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

v = 6.30 m
s

Correct

Part B
Also, what are the components of force in the n, t, and b directions which the chair exerts on a 50-kg passenger during the motion?

Enter the n, t, and b components of the force separated by commas. Express your answer using three significant figures.
ANSWER:

Fn , Ft , Tb = 283,0,491 N
Correct

Problem 13.72

The ball has a mass of 30 kg and a speed v = 4m/ s at the instant it is at its lowest point, = 0 .

Part A
Determine the tension in the cord at the instant = 20 . Neglect the size of the ball.
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

T = 361 N

Correct

Part B
Determine rate at which the ball's speed is decreasing at the instant = 20 .
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

m
at = 3.36 s 2

Correct

Problem 13.82

The 890kg motorbike travels with a constant speed of 80 km/h up the hill.

Part A

Determine the normal force the surface exerts on its wheels when it reaches point A. Neglect its size.
Express your answer with the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

N = 8.55 kN
Correct

Equations of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

Learning Goal:
To be able to analyze the motion of a particle using the equations of motion in cylindrical coordinates.
Cylindrical, or polar, coordinates are useful for describing the motion of particles that involve angular positions and radial distances. When the forces acting on a
particle are along the unit vectors ur , u , and uz , the scalar equations of motion are

Fr = mar
F = ma
Fz = maz
where m is the particle's mass and ar , a , and az are the accelerations in the r (radial), (transverse), and z directions, respectively. If the particle only moves in
the r plane, then only the first two equations are used to describe the motion.

Part A
A particle P moves along a curve. Its position is described by the three cylindrical coordinates: r, , and z. Although the components of the velocity and
acceleration (in rectangular coordinates) are the first and second time derivatives of the rectangular coordinates x, y, and z, this is not the case in cylindrical
coordinates. Match the appropriate component equations to the appropriate targets to complete the equations for the position vector, r P , the velocity vector, v,
and the acceleration vector, a. The terms ur , u, and uz are the unit vectors in the r, , and z directions, respectively. The terms r , , and z are the first time
derivatives of r, , and z, respectively. The terms r , , and z are the second time derivatives of r, , and z, respectively.
Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.
ANSWER:

Answer Requested

Part B

As shown, a cam has a shape that is described by the function r = r0 (2.00 cos ), where r0 = 2.40ft .
A slotted bar is attached to the origin and rotates in the horizontal plane with a constant angular velocity of 0.425radians/s . The bar moves a roller weighing
32.3lb along the cam's perimeter. A spring holds the roller in place; the spring's spring constant is 0.527lb/ft . The friction in the system is negligible. When =
124 , what are Fr and F , the magnitudes of the cylindrical components of the total force acting on the roller?
Express your answers numerically in pounds to three significant figures separated by a comma.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Use the definition of acceleration (in cylindrical coordinates) to find ar and a , the acceleration components in the r and directions. Use them in the
equations for the force components.

Hint 2. Find an expression for a

What is a , the acceleration component in the direction, in terms of some or all of the following variables: the angular velocity of the bar, 0 ; the spring
constant, k; the constant r0 ; and the angle ?

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables 0 , k, r0 , and .

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

The acceleration in the direction is defined as follows:

a = r + 2 r
The expression for r is given in the problem statement and = 0 .

Hint 2. Find an expression for r


What is r , the first time derivative of the r coordinate, in terms of some or all of the following variables: the angular velocity of the bar, 0 ; the
spring constant, k; the constant r0 ; and the angle ?

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables 0 , k, r0 , and .


ANSWER:

r = r0 0 sin()

Hint 3. Find the value of


What is the value of , the second time derivative of the coordinate?
Express your answer numerically in radians per second squared to three significant figures.
ANSWER:

= 0.000 radians/s2

ANSWER:

a = 2r0 0 2 sin()

Hint 3. Find an expression for ar

What is ar , the acceleration component in the r direction, in terms of some or all of the following variables: the angular velocity of the bar, 0 ; the spring
constant, k; the constant r0 ; and the angle ?

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables 0 , k, r0 , and .

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


The acceleration in the r direction is defined as follows:
2
ar = r r
The expression for r is given in the problem statement and = 0 .

Hint 2. Find an expression for r


What is r , the second time derivative of the coordinate, in terms of some or all of the following variables: the angular velocity of the bar, 0 ; the
spring constant, k; the constant r0 ; and the angle ?

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables 0 , k, r0 , and .


ANSWER:

r = r0 0 2 cos()

ANSWER:

ar = 2r0 0 2 (cos() 1)

ANSWER:

Fr ,F = 1.36,0.721 lb

All attempts used; correct answer displayed


In cylindrical coordinates, the r component is positive when directed away from the origin and negative when directed toward the origin. The negative value
for Fr , therefore, means that the component of the force in the r direction is toward point O.

Part C
What are Ft and N , the magnitudes of the tangential force, Ft, and the normal force, N, acting on the roller by the path when = 124 ?
Express your answers numerically in pounds to three significant figures separated by a comma.
Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Draw the free-body diagram of the roller. The tangential force is always tangential to the path of a particle. The normal force exerted by the path is
always perpendicular to the path's tangent. The spring is aligned with the slotted bar and only exerts a force in the ur direction. is the angle between
the extended radial line and the path's tangent; it is found using the following equation:
r
tan = dr/d
where r is the particle's path and dr/d is the path's derivative with respect to . After finding , the components of the tangential force and the normal
force in the ur and u directions can be related to Fr and F .

Hint 2. Draw the free-body diagram of the roller

Complete the free-body diagram of the roller by adding the missing forces that act on it.
Draw the missing vectors starting at the appropriate black dot. The location and orientation of the vectors will be graded. The length of the
vectors will not be graded.
ANSWER:

Hint 3. Find

What is , the angle between the tangential force and the extended radial line?

Express your answer numerically in degrees to four significant figures.

Hint 1. Find an expression for dr/d

The equation for is as follows:


r
tan = dr/d
What is dr/d, the path's derivative with respect to , in terms of r0 and ?

Express your answer in terms of r0 and .

ANSWER:
dr/d = r0 sin()

ANSWER:

= 72.05 degrees

ANSWER:

Ft ,N = 0.876,0.365 lb

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Problem 13.89

Rod OA rotates counterclockwise with a constant angular velocity of = 5rad/s. The double collar B is pin-connected together such that one collar slides over
the rotating rod and the other slides over the horizontal curved rod, of which the shape is described by the equation r = 1.5(2 cos) ft.
Part A

If both collars weigh 0.85lb , determine the normal force which the curved rod exerts on one collar at the instant = 110 . Neglect friction.
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

N = 2.86 lb

Correct

Problem 13.96

The particle has a mass of 0.5 kg and is confined to move along the smooth horizontal slot due to the rotation of the arm OA.

Part A
Determine the force of the rod on the particle and the normal force of the slot on the particle when = 30 . The rod is rotating with a constant angular velocity
= 2 rad/ s. Assume the particle contacts only one side of the slot at any instant.

Express your answers using three significant figures separated by a comma.


ANSWER:

F , N = 1.78,5.79 N

Correct

Score Summary:
Your score on this assignment is 99.7%.
You received 99.7 out of a possible total of 100 points.