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Chapter 1

1.1, Write an equation that relates the speed of light, c, to carrier frequency, f, and wavelength,
1.2, If 0dBm is equal to 1mW (10 W) over a 50load, express 10W in units 0f dBm.
Given 0dBm=10-3W
3 4
10W=10 33 10 4 W=0dBm+40dB=40dBm.
1.3 Why do paging systems need to provide low data rates? How does a low data rate lead to
better coverage?
Paging systems are designed to provide ultra-reliable coverage, even inside buildings. Since
buildings can attenuate radio signals by 20 or 30dB, to maximize the SNR at each paging receiver,
we need to reduce the noise level. This can be achieved by reducing the RF bandwidth to witch
the noise level is proportional. The small RF band thus results in low data rate.
In a paging system, the signal level in a receiver degrades when the distance between the
receiver and the BS becomes large. If the coverage of a paging system is defined by the coverage
area at which the SNR is above a certain threshold, for a low data rate, the noise level in a receiver
will be smaller, thus for a fixed threshold, the coverage will be larger.
1.4, Qualitatively describe how the power supply requirements differ between mobile and
portable cellular phones, as well as the difference between pocket pagers and cordless phones.
How does coverage range impact battery life in a mobile radio system?
Since the coverage area of mobile cellular phone is generally larger than that of portable
phones, the power supply requirement of the mobile cellular phone is higher than that of the
portable cellular phone. The coverage range of pocket pagers is larger than that of the cordless
phones, however, pagers are receiver only, whereas cordless phones use both a transmitter and
receiver. The power supply requirement of pocket pagers is much smaller than that of cordless
phones. A pager typically has a battery life of a week or more, whereas a cordless phone may have
a battery life of a few days.
1.7, Between a pager, a cellular phone, a cordless phone, which device will have the longest
battery life between charging? Why?
A pager has the longest battery life between charging. Because pager only receives, doesnt
1.8 Cell phone, since a cell phone transmits over longer distance than cordless phone.
1.13 Why is FM, Rather than AM, used in most mobile radio system today? List as many
reasons as you can think of, and justify your responses. Consider issues such as fidelity, power
consumption, and noise.
FM has several advantages over AM. The most important advantage is the FMs superior
noise suppression characteristics. With conventional AM, the modulating signal is impressed onto
the carrier in the form of amplitude variations. However, noise introduced into the system also
produces changes in the amplitude of the envelope. Therefore, the noise cannot be removed from
composite waveform without also removing a portion of the information signal. With FM, the
information is impressed onto the carrier in the form of frequency variations. Therefore, with FM
receivers, amplitude variations caused by noise can be removed from the composite waveform
simply by limiting the peaks of the envelope prior to detection. With FM, an improvement in the
SNR is achieved during the demodulation process. Thus system performance in the presence of
noise can be improved by limiting.
Another advantage that FM has over the AM is the fact that low-level modulation can be used
with subsequent highly efficient class C power amplifier. Since the FM waveform does not vary in
amplitude, the information is not lost by class C amplification as it is for AM, which requires class
A amplifier which are less power efficient.