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IOPSY is often mistaken as combined branches, but it is not. It is just related. It is defined as the
application of psychological theories and concepts at the workplace.

>How can we apply these psych theories at work?

Few examples include rewards for exemplary behavior of an employee, and a punishment for a
unacceptable attitude of a worker. (Reinforcement concept introduced by Skinner)

It is important for a human resource employee to have a psychological education background,

because it will affect a subordinates future career and acquired skills.

Below is a table showing the differences of western and eastern culture of social behavior.
Western (USA, Europe) Eastern (Asia)
1. Individualist (self-centered) 1. Collectivist
-People in western countries focus on -Our core value is KAPWA. We care
themselves INDIVIDUALLY; basically about what people say about us. We
not caring about others care about other people too.
Eg. Kitty Genovese case
Her case is the birth of studies about 2. Self-esteem (temporary)
bystander effect -Eastern people are conscious of what
other people say: If they can please
2. Self-concept (permanent) other people, they are pleased of
-Westerners are more conscious of themselves too.
what they think about themselves
Eg. Liberalism 3. Transcendence
They would dress whatever they want -This is easterners top need. It is the
because they dont care what people way of going beyond self, meaning,
may say about them giving back to others. If I reached this
high point of my life, I must help others
3. Self-actualization to achieve it too.
-This is the top most need in Maslows
hierarchy of needs. Since western 4. Euphemism
people only care about themselves, if -It is the circumferential way of
they are to be successful, it is all thanks speaking. Easterners (especially
to their potential. Filipinos) care about other peoples
-This is their top most need because feelings, so they try their best to not
they are focused on honing their skills hurt them by sugar coat speaking, or
so theyll be able to achieve what they conveying (negative) thoughts sound
want in life. pleasing as possible.

4. Frank in speaking
-May be considered rude in eastern
countries, but it is just their way of
addressing thoughts.

Note that, Maslows hierarchy of need is mentioned here. Since its a westernized concept, do
you think its affirmative to all?
In Filipinos perspective, we do not religiously follow this concept of Maslow. Our core values,
which are entirely different from western countries, make our needs in life vary too. This means
that every Filipino in the country prioritize their need according to what they think or need at
that certain time. Example, is when a hungry street settlers most need is physiological, including
food, water and shelter. Most of us value the belongingness, which actually reflects the strong
family ties of Filipinos.


Industrial and organizational psychology are independent of each other.

(In order) 1. Socialization
1. Recruitment
-in which we identify who will be 2. Motivation
endorsed to upper management
3. Occupational Stress
2. Selection
-in which we select the most qualified 4. Leadership
5. Group Performance
3. Classification
-according to the skills acquired by the 6. Organizational Development
hired worker, we put him in a most
appropriate department and position

4. Compensation

5. Performance and Appraisal

6. Training

FACTORS that affect the WORK BEHAVIOR:

1. Family issues
2. Personality
3. Events
4. Health and Mood

Important reminder: An HR officer cannot (in any way!) intervene with the personal life of his
employee, except on such cases when the behavior affects the company and his work

While we know that IOPSY did not start spontaneously, we recall the beginnings of psychology
and branch out how IOPSY is formed.

Psychology, is derived from philosophy because of peoples demands to know the things in an
observable way. We use empiricism and at the same time, rationalism to explain such things.
Philosophy is exactly different from philosophy, as philosophy owns armchair approach. Your
question, your own answer is what philosophers say. However, psychology adapted
introspection from philosophy, which is the process of looking within oneself.

As the demand for explanation of phenomena increase, ancient people each developed their
ways of explaining, verbally and in action. Shamans (an equivalent of babaylan in Filipino culture)
utilized trephining, a procedure in which they dig holes in a persons skull, believing that a devil
spirit that possessed that person will come out. They thought that everything that they act comes
from their head, so they gave a heads up on that procedure that time. Trephining lasted from
stone age until the end of metal age.

Now, on the real thing!

If we are going to observe old records, well definitely see a pattern in every civilization. It is that
each has their own form of government of sort. During the medieval times, there is already a
hierarchy of people within an area. It is called the European feudal system.


Lord Vassal



The figure above shows the order of social status during medieval times. The king on the top is
the most superior among people. He owns several lands, which he cannot manage on his own,
so his Lord vassals below him get to manage each piece of land. Knights guard the land managed
of a lord vassal. They are assigned to provide security services to the Lord vassal and to his land.
Peasants, who are the workers of the land, are on the bottom of the hierarchy. They comprise
most of the population within an area, and are considered the lowest people during the medieval


Goals include: time conservation, cost, efficiency

1. Division of Labor
-A major work is divided to smaller units of work assignments; improves verstatility
Eg. Assignation of household chores among siblings
2. Specialization of labor
-Enhances a persons skill but decreases the versatility
3. Delegation of Authority
-giving authority to subordinate
Eg. A king gives the authority to manage his land to lord vassal
President > VP of Internal affairs, VP for academic affairs, VP for scholarships
4. Decentralization of Power
-Replicating yourself; same service is provided; primary concern is accessibility
Eg. Feudalism, Franchise of a certain fast food chain
5. Leadership selection
-The leader belongs to the team while the boss is detached from the team

In the corporate world, a person who has good communication skills, pleasing personality, good
sense of leadership, is considered as a whole package. Companies look for these people because
they believe people with these immense capacity are the ones wholl make their company reach
even greater heights.


1. Niccolo Machiavelli
-He is famous for introducing the Machiavellian Doctrine and going against the church for
his concept of separation of church and state. (We can see this concept on the 1987
Philippine Constitution Art II Sec 6)
-Involved in Revolution of Organizational Development

2. John Locke
-He believed that human is born without any sort of knowledge, in which he termed
tabula rasa or literally means blank slate.
-He went against Plato who believes in reincarnation, and that people are innately good
-He also said that leadership is granted by the governed, a concept adapted by democracy.
He also went against Platos belief that democracy is the worst form of government.

3. Thomas Hobbes
-He emphasize the disharmony in the society. He believed that an order will emerge from
a chaos. (Ordo ab chao) He is one of the proponents of conflict theory.

4. Jean Jacques Rousseau

5. Karl Marx
-Workers of the world unite