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KINGDOM OF THAILAND

MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT
MASS RAPID TRANSIT AUTHORITY OF THAILAND

BLUE LINE EXTENSION PROJECT

CONTRACT 1 : UNDERGROUND CIVIL WORKS

HUA LAMPHONG SANAM CHAI SECTION

TENDER DOCUMENTS

VOLUME 4

OUTLINE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

Bangkok Mass Transit Consultants Consortium

TESCO Ltd. Thai Engineering Consultants Co., Ltd.

MAA Consultants Co., Ltd. IT International Co., Ltd


Chotichinda Mouchel Consultants Limited Norconsult Civil Engineering Co., Ltd.

D2 Consult Asia Co., ltd. Transport East West Expert Team GmbH

December 2009
Volume 4 Outline Design Specifications ODS- i

MASS RAPID TRANSIT AUTHORITY OF THAILAND

BLUE LINE EXTENSION PROJECT

CONTRACT 1 : UNDERGROUND CIVIL WORKS

HUA LAMPHONG SANAM CHAI SECTION

TENDER DOCUMENTS

VOLUME 4

OUTLINE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

A. GENERAL

1. General ........................................................................................................................... ODS - 1

2. Codes and Standards ..................................................................................................... ODS - 1

B. GEOMETRIC DESIGN CRITERIA

3. Railway Alignments ...................................................................................................... ODS - 10


3.1 Criteria ............................................................................................................. ODS - 10
3.2 Horizontal Alignment ....................................................................................... ODS - 10
3.3 Cant and Speed............................................................................................... ODS - 11
3.4 Horizontal Transition Curves ........................................................................... ODS - 12
3.5 Vertical Profile ................................................................................................. ODS - 13
3.6 Gradients ......................................................................................................... ODS - 14
3.7 Levels .............................................................................................................. ODS - 14
3.8 Points and Crossing Work ............................................................................... ODS - 14
3.9 Track Centres .................................................................................................. ODS - 15

4. Railway Design Requirements ..................................................................................... ODS - 16


4.1 General ............................................................................................................ ODS - 16
4.2 Stray Current Corrosion Control ...................................................................... ODS - 16
4.3 Railway Cross Sections and Structure Gauges .............................................. ODS - 17

5. Clearances ................................................................................................................... ODS - 17

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd)

Page

C. DESIGN LIFE AND SERVICEABILITY

6. General ......................................................................................................................... ODS - 18

7. Civil Engineering Structures ........................................................................................ ODS - 18

8. Building Structures ...................................................................................................... ODS - 18

9. Bridge Bearings and Movement Joints........................................................................ ODS 18

10. Serviceability of Civil Engineering and Building Works ................................................ ODS - 18

11. Serviceability of Electrical and Mechanical, Lifts and Escalators Equipment .............. ODS - 18

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND METHODS : CIVIL AND STRUCTURES

D. LOADS AND REQUIREMENTS

12. Railway Live Loads....................................................................................................... ODS - 19


12.1 General ........................................................................................................... ODS - 19
12.2 Nominal Loads................................................................................................. ODS - 19

13. Not Used ....................................................................................................................... ODS - 21

14. Loads due to Volumetric Changes ............................................................................... ODS - 21


14.1 Not Used ......................................................................................................... ODS - 21
14.2 Not Used .......................................................................................................... ODS - 21
14.3 Not Used .......................................................................................................... ODS - 21
14.4 Rail Force ........................................................................................................ ODS - 21

15. Exceptional Loads ........................................................................................................ ODS - 21


15.1 Not Used .......................................................................................................... ODS - 21
15.2 Not Used .......................................................................................................... ODS - 21
15.3 Not Used .......................................................................................................... ODS - 21
15.4 Earthquake Load (Eq) ..................................................................................... ODS - 21

16. Other Loads .................................................................................................................. ODS - 21


16.1 Effects of ground settlement ........................................................................... ODS - 21
16.2 Earth Pressure (E) ........................................................................................... ODS - 22
16.3 Buoyancy (B) ................................................................................................... ODS - 22
16.4 Road Traffic Load (GL) .................................................................................... ODS - 22
16.5 Load Combinations ......................................................................................... ODS - 22

17. Live Load in Stations .................................................................................................... ODS - 24


17.1 Live Loads ....................................................................................................... ODS - 24

18. Railway Requirements.................................................................................................. ODS - 25

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd)

Page

E. UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION

19. Foundations and Geotechnical Works ......................................................................... ODS - 26


19.1 General ............................................................................................................ ODS - 26
19.2 Diaphragm Walling .......................................................................................... ODS - 26
19.3 Piles and Pile Caps ........................................................................................ ODS - 27

20. Tunnel Design .............................................................................................................. ODS - 27


20.1 Cut and Cover Tunnels ................................................................................... ODS - 27
20.2 Bored Tunnel Design ....................................................................................... ODS - 31
20.3 Loads ............................................................................................................... ODS - 34
20.4 Flotation ........................................................................................................... ODS - 34
20.5 Compressed Air ............................................................................................... ODS - 35
20.6 Tunnel Lining ................................................................................................... ODS - 35
20.7 As-built Tolerances .......................................................................................... ODS - 37
20.8 Waterproofing .................................................................................................. ODS - 37
20.9 Temporary Access or Retrieval Shafts ............................................................ ODS - 38
20.10 Underpinning of Existing Structures ................................................................ ODS - 38
20.11 As-built Tunnel Survey (Wriggle Survey) ........................................................ ODS - 39
20.12 Cross Passages .............................................................................................. ODS - 39
20.13 Intervention Shafts........................................................................................... ODS - 40
20.14 Sumps in Running Tunnels ............................................................................. ODS - 41

21. Covered Approaches and Subways ............................................................................. ODS - 42


21.1 General ............................................................................................................ ODS - 42
21.2 Types of Construction ..................................................................................... ODS - 42
21.3 Flotation ........................................................................................................... ODS - 42
21.4 Base Heave in Soft Clays ................................................................................ ODS - 43
21.5 Heave and Settlement ..................................................................................... ODS - 43

22. Underground Station Design ........................................................................................ ODS - 43


22.1 General ............................................................................................................ ODS - 43
22.2 Types of Construction ..................................................................................... ODS - 43
22.3 Flotation ........................................................................................................... ODS - 44
22.4 Base Heave in Soft Clays ................................................................................ ODS - 44
22.5 Waterproofing .................................................................................................. ODS - 44
22.6 Heave and Settlement ..................................................................................... ODS - 44

23. Soil Improvement Works .............................................................................................. ODS - 44


23.1 General ............................................................................................................ ODS - 44
23.2 Area of Soil Improvement Works..................................................................... ODS - 44
23.3 Sensitivity in Soft clays .................................................................................... ODS - 44

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd)

Page

F. NOT USED

24. Not Used ....................................................................................................................... ODS - 45

25. Not Used ....................................................................................................................... ODS - 45

G. NOT USED

26. Not Used ....................................................................................................................... ODS - 46

27. Not Used ....................................................................................................................... ODS - 46

H. NOT USED

28. Not Used ...................................................................................................................... ODS - 47

29. Not Used ....................................................................................................................... ODS - 47

I. DRAINAGE

30. Drainage Design ........................................................................................................... ODS - 48


30.1 Pavement Drainage ......................................................................................... ODS - 48
30.2 Slope Protection Drainage .............................................................................. ODS - 48
30.3 Not Used .......................................................................................................... ODS - 48
30.4 Not Used ......................................................................................................... ODS - 48
30.5 Ground Water Seepage .................................................................................. ODS - 48
30.6 Sumps.............................................................................................................. ODS - 48
30.7 Tunnel Drainage .............................................................................................. ODS - 48

J. SETTLEMENT

31. Settlement and Buildings Protection ............................................................................ ODS - 49


31.1 General ............................................................................................................ ODS - 49
31.2 Minimising Ground Movements ...................................................................... ODS - 49
31.3 Prediction of Ground Movements .................................................................... ODS - 50
31.4 Structure Condition Survey ............................................................................. ODS - 50
31.5 Assessment of Impact on Structures .............................................................. ODS - 50
31.6 Staged Assessment......................................................................................... ODS - 50
31.7 Monitoring ........................................................................................................ ODS - 51
31.8 Preventive Measures to Reduce Settlement ................................................... ODS - 51

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd)

Page
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND METHODS : ARCHITECTURAL

K. STATIONS

32. Station Design .............................................................................................................. ODS - 53


32.1 General Information ......................................................................................... ODS - 53
32.2 Liaison with Others .......................................................................................... ODS - 53
32.3 Definitions ........................................................................................................ ODS - 54
32.4 Key Design Criteria.......................................................................................... ODS - 56
32.5 Design Criteria for Passenger Areas ............................................................... ODS - 59
32.6 Design Criteria for Non-Passenger Areas ....................................................... ODS - 65
32.7 Detailed Design Criteria for Elements of Station Design ................................ ODS - 73
32.8 Fire Protection and Prevention ...................................................................... ODS - 104
32.9 Station Finishes ............................................................................................. ODS - 108

L. NOT USED

33. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 117

M. NOT USED

34. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 118

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS : BUILDING SERVICES (ELECTRICAL & MECHANICAL)


AND LIFTS & ESCALATORS

N. UNDERGROUND STATION

35. Introduction ................................................................................................................. ODS - 119


35.1 General .......................................................................................................... ODS - 119
35.2 Scope of Works ............................................................................................. ODS - 119

36. Building Services : Electrical Works ........................................................................... ODS - 120


36.1 General .......................................................................................................... ODS - 120
36.2 Definitions and Abbreviations ........................................................................ ODS - 120
36.3 Codes and Standards .................................................................................... ODS - 121
36.4 Sub-main Distribution ................................................................................... ODS - 121
36.5 Low Voltage Distribution ............................................................................... ODS - 124
36.6 Earthing and Bonding ................................................................................... ODS - 126
36.7 Lightning Protection ...................................................................................... ODS - 127
36.8 Lighting ......................................................................................................... ODS - 128
36.9 Architectural Accent Lighting ........................................................................ ODS - 130
36.10 Emergency Lighting ...................................................................................... ODS - 131
36.11 General Power .............................................................................................. ODS - 132
36.12 Fire Alarm System ........................................................................................ ODS - 133
36.13 Building Management System....................................................................... ODS - 136

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd)


Page

36.14 Not Used ........................................................................................................ ODS - 138


36.15 Electrical Equipment ...................................................................................... ODS - 138
36.16 Testing and Commissioning .......................................................................... ODS - 148

37. Building Services : Mechanical Works ....................................................................... ODS - 149


37.1 General .......................................................................................................... ODS - 149
37.2 Definitions and Abbreviations ........................................................................ ODS - 149
37.3 Codes and Regulations ................................................................................. ODS - 149
37.4 Station Environmental Control System.......................................................... ODS - 149
37.5 Tunnel Ventilation System ............................................................................. ODS - 158
37.6 Sanitary System ............................................................................................ ODS - 181
37.7 Fire Protection System .................................................................................. ODS - 185
37.8 Mechanical Equipment .................................................................................. ODS - 190
37.9 SCADA Interfacing ........................................................................................ ODS - 198
37.10 General Requirements for Mechanical Works .............................................. ODS - 199
37.11 Testing and Commissioning .......................................................................... ODS - 201

38. Lifts and Escalators .................................................................................................... ODS - 202


38.1 General .......................................................................................................... ODS - 202
38.2 Scope of Works ............................................................................................. ODS - 202
38.3 Definitions and Abbreviations ........................................................................ ODS - 204
38.4 Codes and Standards .................................................................................... ODS - 204
38.5 Lifts ................................................................................................................ ODS - 204
38.6 Escalators ...................................................................................................... ODS - 209
38.7 Platform Stairlift ............................................................................................. ODS - 215
38.8 SCADA Interfacing ........................................................................................ ODS - 216
38.9 Testing and Commissioning .......................................................................... ODS - 216

O. NOT USED

39. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 217

40. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 217

41. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 217

42. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 217

P. NOT USED

43. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 218

44. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 218

45. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 218

46. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 218

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd)

Page

Q. NOT USED

47. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 219

48. Not Used .................................................................................................................... ODS - 219

49. Not Used .................................................................................................................... ODS - 219

50. Not Used ..................................................................................................................... ODS - 219

R. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: GENERAL

51. Utilities ........................................................................................................................ ODS - 220

52. Access for Inspection and Maintenance .................................................................... ODS - 220

53. Environmental Requirements ..................................................................................... ODS - 220


53.1 General ............................................................................................................... ODS - 220
53.2 Noise .................................................................................................................. ODS - 220

54. Aesthetic Requirements ............................................................................................. ODS - 221

55. Landscaping ............................................................................................................... ODS - 222

56. Security Requirements ............................................................................................... ODS - 222

57. Durability and Maintenance ........................................................................................ ODS - 223

58 Roadworks .................................................................................................................. ODS - 223

Appendices

Appendix 1 General Information ................................................................................................ A1-1

Appendix 2 Design Interfaces with Adjacent Contracts ............................................................ A2-1

Appendix 3 Railway Structure Gauges ...................................................................................... A3-1

Appendix 4 Not Used ................................................................................................................. A4-1

Appendix 5 Not Used ................................................................................................................. A5-1

Appendix 6 Particular Considerations Applicable to the Chao Phraya River Tunnels .............. A6-1

Appendix 7 Electrical Apparatus, Wiring and Materials ............................................................ A7-1

Appendix 8 Painting and Protective Treatments ....................................................................... A8-1

Appendix 9 Earthing and Bonding Policy .................................................................................. A9-1

Appendix 10 Electromagnetic Compatibility .............................................................................. A10-1

Appendix 11 Tunnel Ventilation System .................................................................................... A11-1

Appendix 12 Interface List between Contractors ...................................................................... A12-1

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Volume 4 Outline Design Specifications ODS- viii

LIST OF GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS

Note: International metric measurement units are not listed.


Some additional specialist abbreviations are defined in the relevant section of the documents.

A Amperes
AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
AC Alternating Current
ACI American Concrete Institute
AFC Automatic Fare Collection
AFFF Aqueous Film-Forming Foam
AMCM Air Moving and Conditioning Association
ANSI American National Standards Institute
API American Petroleum Industry
AREA American Railway Engineering Association
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ATO Automatic Train Operation
ATP Automatic Train Protection
ATS Automatic Train Supervisory System

BMA Bangkok Metropolitan Administration


BE Blue Line Extension
BMS Building Management System
BS British Standard

CAT CAT Telecom Public Company Limited


CBR California Bearing Ratio
CCTV Closed Circuit Television
CIP Co-ordinated Installation Plan
CMS Control and Monitoring System
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
CPM Critical Path Method
CSD Combined Serviced Drawings
CWR Continuously Welded Rail

dB Decibel (sound power level)


DB Dry bulb
DC Direct Current
DFIS Diagnostic and Fault Indicating System
DIN Deutsche Industrie Normen
DOH Department of Highways
DSD Drivers Safety Device

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ECS Environmental Control System


EGAT Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand
EIT Engineering Institute of Thailand
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMU Electric Multiple Unit
EN Euronorm Standard
EOT Electric Overhead Traveling (crane)
ESPS Escalator Sprinkler Protection System

FAP Fire Alarm Panel


FCP Fireman's Control Panel

GCC General Conditions of Contract

HV High Voltage

ID Identification
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IEE Institution of Electrical Engineers
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IES Illumination Engineering Society (UK)
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISP Initial System Project

JIS Japanese Industrial Standards

KD Key Date
kVA Kilo volt-amps
kW Kilowatts

LV Low Voltage

MEA Metropolitan Electricity Authority


MJC Multiple Jet Control
Mm Millimeters
MPR Monthly Progress Report
MRTA Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand
MSL Mean Sea Level
MWA Metropolitan Waterworks Authority

NC Noise Criterion
NEC National Electrical Code
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association

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NFPA National Fire Protection Association


No. Number

O&M Operations and Maintenance


OTP Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning

PA Public Address
PDM Precedence Diagramming Method
PID Passenger Information Display
PSD Platform Screen Door
PTFE Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene

RPM Revolution per Minute

SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition


SE System Earth
SI International System
SOR Station Operations Room

TES Trackway Exhaust System


TIS Thai Industrial Standard
TOT TOT Public Company Limited
TSP Thai Standards on Pollution
TVF Tunnel Ventilation Fan
TVM Ticket Vending Machine

UIC International Union of Railways


UPE Under Platform Exhaust
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply

V Volts
VDE Verband Deutsche Elektrotechinke
VDU Visual Display Unit

WAHD Works Area Handover Date


WB Wet bulb
WC Water Closet (toilet)

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OUTLINE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION A : GENERAL

1. GENERAL

1.1 The Outline Design Specifications and the Appendices hereto, together with the particular
Design Specification (as submitted pursuant to Clause 4 of Annex 4 to the Instructions to
Tenderers and all as may be modified in accordance with the provisions of that Annex),
provide minimum standards which are to govern the design of the Permanent Works.
These documents shall be amalgamated to form the Contract Design Specifications
which will be part of the Contractors Technical Proposals extant at the date of
acceptance of Tender.

1.2 The Outline Design Specifications shall be read in conjunction with the Outline
Construction Specifications where appropriate.

1.3 General information is contained in Appendix 1.

1.4 All Contractors design submittals, prepared in accordance with these Outline Design
specifications, shall be submitted to the Employers Representative for review and
consent.

2. CODES AND STANDARDS

2.1 The design and construction of the Permanent Works shall comply with the latest edition
of codes of practice and standards current at the time of tender submission, unless the
Contractor can demonstrate that the code or standard is inapplicable or inappropriate for
the design or construction of the Permanent Works.

2.2 Local codes, regulations and standards issued by the Thai Government and by relevant
utility companies shall be followed as specified.

2.3 Where discrepancy exists between code requirements, the more onerous requirement
shall take precedence unless consented to by the Employers Representative.

2.4 The design relating to fire safety shall be in accordance with the requirements of NFPA
as stated in the Outline Design Specifications

2.5 The design of any one system shall be to a single code or standard. The parallel use of
different codes for one particular item or component will not be allowed.

2.6 Alternative or additional codes, standards and specifications proposed by the Contractor
shall be internationally recognized codes and shall be, or be equivalent to, the Standard
Publications or Standard Codes of Practice listed below, subject to being, in the opinion
of the Employer's Representative, suitable for incorporation into the Specifications.

STRUCTURAL

Design and loading requirements for the structures shall be in accordance with all
applicable portions of the following standards and codes, subject to 2.1 to 2.7 above.

ACI : ACI 224R-92, Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures


: ACI 318-99, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

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: ACI 336.3R-93, Design and Construction of Drilled Piers


: ACI 343R-95, Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge
Structures
: ACI 358.1R-92, Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete
Guideway Structures
: ACI 435R-95, Control of Deflection in Concrete Structures
: ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02, Building Code Requirements
for Masonry Structure
: ACI 530.0-02/ASCE 6-02/TMS 602-02, Specification for Masonry
Structure
AASHTO : AASHTO, Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 17th
Edition, 2002
: AASHTO, Guide Specifications for Design and Construction of
Segmental Concrete Bridge, 2nd Edition, 1999
: AASHTO, LRFD Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 1998
: AASHTO, Guide Specifications, Thermal Effects in Concrete
Bridge Superstructures
AISC : American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel
Construction, 9th Edition 1999
AREMA : American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way
Association 2003
ASBI : American Segmental Bridge Institute
ASTM : American Society for Testing and Materials Standards
ASCE : ASCE 7-98, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
BS 5400 : BS 5400, Part 1, 1988 General Statement
: BS 5400, Part 2, Specification for Loads
: BS 5400, Part 3, 1982 Code of Practice for Design of Steel Bridges
: BS 5400, Part 4, Code of Practice for Design of Concrete Bridges
: BS 5400, Part 5, 1979 Code of Practice for Design of Composite
Bridges
BS 4 : Part 1993 Specifications for hot rolled sections
BS 476 : Part 4 : 1970 Non-combustibility test for materials
BS 648 : 1964 Schedule of weights of building materials
BS 4449 : 1988 Specifications for carbon steel bars for the reinforcement of
concrete
BS 4466 : 1989 Scheduling, dimensioning, bending and cutting of steel
reinforcement for concrete
BS 4483 : 1985 Steel fabric for the reinforcement for concrete
BS 4848 : Part 2 : 1991 Specifications for hot finished hollow sections
BS 5268 : Structural use of timber
BS 5628 : Code of Practice for use of masonry
Part 1 : 1992 Structural use of unreinforced masonry
Part 2 : 1985 Structural use of reinforced and prestressed masonry
BS 5950 : Structural use of steelwork in building
Part 3 : 1990 Code of practice for design of simple and continuous
composite beams
Part 5 : 1987 Code of Practice for design of cold formed sections

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BS 6031 : 1981 Code of practice for earthworks


BS 6744 : 1986 Austenitic stainless steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete
BS 7613 : 1994 Hot rolled quenched and tempered weldable structural steel
plates
BS 7668 : 1994 Weldable structural steels. Hot finished structural hollow
sections in weather resistant steels.
BS EN 10029 : 1991 Tolerances on dimensions, shape and mass for hot rolled
steel plates 3mm thick or above
BS EN 10113 : 1993 Parts 1 to 3 Hot rolled products in weldable fine grained
structural steels
BS EN 10155 : 1993 Structural steels with improved atmospheric corrosion
resistance. Technical delivery conditions.
BS EN 10210-1 1994 Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine
grain structural steels. Technical delivery conditions.
BS 8004 : 1986 Code of practice for foundations
BS 8110 : Structural use of concrete
Part 1 : 1985 Code of Practice for design and construction
Part 2 : 1995 Code of Practice for special circumstances
BD 37/88 (Revised version of BS 5400:Part 2) Loads for Highway Bridges as
amended in part by BD 48/93, BD 49/93, and BD 60/94. These
documents are obtainable through The Department of Transport,
St. Christopher House, LONDON SEI OTE
CEB-FIP : MODEL CODE 1990
EIT Standards : The Engineering Institute of Thailand under H.M. the Kings
Patronage Standards
European Standards :
: EN 1991 Eurocode 1, Actions on Structures
: ENV 1991, Basis of Design
: ENV 1992, Design of Concrete Structures
: ENV 1993, Design of Steel Structures
: ENV 1994, Design of Composite Structures
: ENV 1997, Geotechnical Design
: ENV 1998, Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance
: PrEN 1337, Structural Bearing
JIS Standard : Japanese Industrial Standard
NAVFAC : U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Design Manual DM
7.01, Soil Mechanics
: U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Design Manual DM
7.02, Foundation and Earth Structures
PCI : Prestressed Concrete Institute
TIS : Thai Industrial Standards
UBC : Uniform Building Code 1997
UIC : The Union International des Chemins de Fer

ARCHITECTURAL AND BUILDING WORK

The design of Architectural and Building Work shall be based on the following codes,
regulations and standards, subject to 2.1 to 2.7 above:

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NFPA 101 : Life safety code


NFPA 130 : Standard for fixed guideway transit and passenger rail systems
NFPA 220 : Standard on types of building construction

ASTM C 39 : Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical


concrete specimens
ASTM C 232 : Standard test methods for bleeding of concrete

BS 405 : Specification for uncoated expanded metal carbon steel sheets for
general purposes
BS 416 : Part 1Discharge and ventilating pipes and fittings, sand-cast or
spun in cast iron. Specification for spigot and socket systems.
BS 460 : Cast iron rainwater goods. Specification.
BS 476: Part 3 : Fire tests on building materials and structures. Classification and
method of test for external fire exposure to roofs
BS 476: Part 6 : Fire tests on building materials and structures. Method of test for
fire propagation for products
BS 476: Part 7 : Fire tests on building materials and structures. Method of test to
determine the classification of the surface spread of flame of
products
BS 476: Part 20 : Fire tests on building materials and structures. Method for
determination of the fire resistance of elements of construction
(general principles)
BS 476: Part 22 : Fire tests on building materials and structures. Methods for
determination of the fire resistance of non-loadbearing elements of
construction.
BS 729 : Specification for hot dip galvanized coatings on iron and steel articles
BS 812 : Testing aggregates. Guide to sampling and testing aggregates.
BS 890 : Specification for building limes
BS 952 : Glass for glazing
BS 1014 : Specification for pigments for Portland cement and Portland cement
products
BS 1161 : Specification for aluminium alloy sections for structural purposes
BS 1191 : Specification for gypsum building plasters.
BS 1199/1200 : Specifications for building sands from natural sources
BS 1336 : Specification for knotting
BS 1369 : Steel lathing for internal plastering and external rendering.
Specification for expanded metal and ribbed lathing.
BS 1387 : Specification for screwed and socketed steel tubes and tubulars.
BS 1449 : Steel plate, sheet and strip.
BS 1474 : Specification for wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys for general
engineering purposes: bars, extruded round tubes and sections
BS 1494 : Specification for fixing accessories for building purposes. Fixings
for sheet, roof and wall coverings.
BS 1723 : Brazing.
BS-2750/ISO140 : Acoustics.

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BS 2871 : Specification for copper and copper alloys. Tubes.


BS 3416 : Specification for bitumen based coatings for cold application,
suitable for use in contact with potable water
BS 3638 : Method for the measurement of sound absorption coefficients
(ISO) in a reverberation room
BS 3987 : Specification for anodic oxidation coatings on wrought aluminium
for external architectural applications
BS 4255 : Rubber used in preformed gaskets for weather exclusion from
buildings. Specification for non-cellular gaskets.
BS 4641 : Method for specifying electroplated coatings of chromium for
engineering purposes
BS 4772 : Specification for ductile iron pipes and fittings
BS 4800 : Schedule of paint colours for building purposes
BS 4887 : Specification for mortar plasticizers
BS 5385 : Wall and floor tiling, code of practice for the design and installation of
terrazzo tile and slab, natural stone and composition block floorings
BS 5427 : Part 1Code of practice for the use of profiled sheet for roof and wall
cladding on buildings.
BS 5628 : Code of Practice for use of masonry, Materials and components,
design and workmanship
BS 5810 : Code of practice for access for the disabled to buildings
BS 5980 : Specification for adhesives for use with ceramic tiles and mosaics
BS 6180 : Barriers in and about buildings. Code of practice.
BS 6202 : Specification for impact performance requirements for flat safety
glass and safety plastics for use in buildings
BS 6213 : Selection of construction sealants. Guide.
BS 6229 : Flat roofs with continuously supported coverings. Code of practice.
BS 6262 : Glazing for buildings.
BS 6399 : Loading for buildings
BS 6431 : Ceramic floor and wall tiles. Specification for classification and
marking, including definitions and characteristics.
BS 6459: Part 1 Door closers. Specification for mechanical performance of crank
and rack and pinion overhead closers.
BS 6477 : Specification for water repellents for masonry surfaces
BS 6496 : Specification for powder organic coatings for application and
stoving to aluminium alloy extrusions, sheet and preformed
sections for external architectural purposes, and for the finish on
aluminium alloy extrusions, sheet and preformed sections coated
with powder organic coatings
BS 7352 : Specification for strength and durability performance of metal hinges
for side hanging applications and dimensional requirements for
template drilled hinges.
BS 7668 : Weldable structural steels. Hot finished structural hollow sections
in weather resistant steels. Specification.
BS 8204: Part 1 Screeds, bases and in-situ floorings. Code of practice for concrete
bases and screeds to receive in-situ floorings.
BS 8217 : Reinforced bitumen membranes for roofing. Code of practice.

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-6

BS 8218 : Code of practice for mastic asphalt roofing.


BS 8290 : Suspended ceilings.
BS 8298 : Code of practice for design and installation of natural stone cladding
and lining
BS EN 485: pts 1-4 Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Sheet, strip and plate.
BS EN 515 : Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Wrought products.
BS EN 573 : Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Chemical composition and form
of wrought products.
BS EN 1125 : Building hardware. Panic exit devices operated by a horizontal bar.
Requirements and test methods.
BS EN 9002 : Accreditation
BS EN 10088 : Stainless steels.
BS EN ISO11091 : Construction drawings landscape drawing practice.
BS EN 12206-1 : Paints and varnishes. Coating of aluminium and aluminum alloys
for architectural purposes. Coatings prepared from coating powder.
TIS : Thai Industrial Standards
TIS 378-2531 (1988) Concrete flooring tiles
TIS 219-2524 (1981) Gypsum plasterboards
TIS 744-2530 (1987) Metal frames and panel frames for doors and windows:
aluminium windows
TIS 759-2531 (1988) Hinges for doors and windows: butt hinges
TIS 791-2544 (2001) Vitreous china sanitary appliances: wash basins
TIS 792-2544 (2001) Vitreous china sanitary appliances: water-closet bowls
TIS 792-2531 (1988) Vitreous china sanitary appliances: flushing cisterns and
covers [withdrawn, 23 October B.E. 2546 (2003)]
TIS 794-2544 (2001) Vitreous china sanitary appliances: squatting water-closet pans
TIS 795-2544 (2001) Vitreous china sanitary appliances: urinals
TIS 796-2544 (2001) Vitreous china sanitary appliances: bidets
TIS 797-2544 (2001) Vitreous china sanitary appliances: bathroom accessories
TIS 829-2531 (1998) Metal frames and panel frames for doors and windows:
aluminium doors
TIS 826-2531 (1988) Cement mortar flooring tiles
TIS 862-2532 (1989) Window hinges: friction hinges
TIS 894-2532 (1989) Metal frames and panel frames for doors and windows: steel
doors and windows
TIS 965-2537 (1994) Glasses for use in buildings: tempered glass
TIS 992-2533 (1990) Hinges for doors: spring hinges
TIS 1188-2536 (1993) Faucets for bathtubs
TIS 1189-2536 (1993) Faucets shower baths
TIS 1222-2539 (1996) Glass for use in buildings: laminated safety glass
TIS 1231-2537 (1994) Glass for use in buildings: insulating glass
TIS 1277-2547 (2004) Faucets for sinks
TIS 1278-2547 (2004) Faucets for wash basins

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-7

TIS 1377-2547 (2004) Self-closing faucets for wash basins


TIS 2066-2544 (2001) Showers: environment requirements; water-savings
[Compulsory Standard (Effective Date 25 January 2003)]
TIS 2067-2544 (2001) Faucets for sanitary wares: environment requirements; water-
savings [Compulsory Standard (Effective Date 25 January 2003)]
TIS 2147-2546 (2003) Automatic faucets for sanitary wares
TIS 2148-2546 (2003) Automatic faucets for sanitary wares: environment
requirements; water-savings
TIS 2149-2546 (2003) Wall-faucets for bathroom

ELECTRICAL

The design of electrical system shall be based on the following codes, regulations and
standards, subject to 2.1 to 2.7 above:
E.I.T. 2001- 45 : Engineering Institute of Thailand, Standard for Electrical Installation
E.I.T. 2002- 43 Engineering Institute of Thailand, Standard for Fire Alarm System
E.I.T. 2003- 43 Engineering Institute of Thailand, Standard for Lightning Protection
E.I.T.2004- 44 : Engineering Institute of Thailand, Standard for Emergency light and
Exit sign
IEC : International Electrotechnical Commission
IES 1987 : Illuminating Engineering Society, Lighting Handbook
MEA - 1995 : Metropolitan Electrical Authority, Code for Power Distribution and
Electrical Equipment Installation
NFPA 70-2002 : National Electrical Code (NEC)
NFPA 72-2002 : National Fire Alarm Code
NFPA 101-2000 : Life Safety Code
NFPA 110-2002 : Standard for Emergency and Standby Power System
NFPA 130-2003 : Standard for Fixed Guide way Transit and Passenger Rail Systems
NFPA 780-2002 : Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
TIS : Thai Industrial Standards

MECHANICAL
The design of mechanical system shall be based on the following codes, regulations and
standards, subject to 2.1 to 2.7 above:

Environmental Control System


ASHRAE Handbooks Volume 1 to 4 (1995 to 1998-SI Edition)
ASHRAE Standard 62-1999 : Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality
ASHRAE GRP 158 : Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual
ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 : Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low Rise
Residential Buildings
AMCA : Air Moving and Conditioning Association
ANSI : American National Standard Institute
ARI : Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
ASME : American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM : American Society of Testing materials
Energy Conservation Promotion Act B.E.2535

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-8

EIT Standard 3010-45 : The Engineering Institute of Thailand Standard for


ventilation to improve indoor air Quality
FM : Factory Mutual
IEC : International Electro-Technical Commission
MEA : Metropolitan Electricity Authority
NEC : National Electrical Code
NEMA : National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NFPA 70 : National Electrical Code
NFPA 90A : Standard for the Installation of Air- Conditioning and Ventilating Systems
NFPA 91 : Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Materials (Battery
Rooms)
NFPA 92A : Smoke Control Systems
NFPA 92B : Smoke Management Systems in Large Areas
NFPA 101 : Life Safety Code.
NFPA 130 : Standard for Fixed Guide way Transit and Passenger Rail Systems
NFPA 220 : Standard on Types of Building Construction
NFPA 5000 : Building Construction and Safety Code
SMACNA : HVAC Duct Construction Standards (Metal and Flexible) Sheet Metal
and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association
SMACNA Standard 126-2000 : Method of Testing HVAC Air Ducts
UL : Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.

Sanitary System

ANPC : American National Plumbing Code


ANSI : American National Standard Institute Standards
ASPE : American Society of Plumbing Engineering
ASTM : American Society of Testing Materials Standards
ASME : American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standards
AWWA : American Water Works Association
BMA : Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Building Codes (Ministry of Interior)
EIT : The Engineering Institute of Thailand Standards
MWWA : Metropolitan Water Works Authority Regulations
NFPA 130 : Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems
TIS : Thai Industrial Standards

Fire Fighting System

ASME : American Society of Mechanical Engineers


ASTM : American Society of Testing Materials
EIT Standard 3002-45 : The Engineering Institute of Thailand, Standard for Fire
Protection System
MWA : Metropolitan Water Works Authority
NFPA 10 : Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers
NFIA 10 : Standard of Portable Fire Extinguishers

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-9

NFPA 13 : Standard for Installation of Sprinkler Systems


NFPA 14 : Standard for Installation of Standpipe, Private Hydrant and Hose
system
NFPA 20 : Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for fire Protection
NFPA 22 : Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection.
NFPA 24 : Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances.
NFPA 130 : Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems
NFPA 2001 : Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 101 : Life Safety Code
UL : Underwrites Laboratonries Inc.

LIFTS AND ESCALATORS

The design of lifts and escalators system shall be based on the following codes,
regulations and standards, subject to Clauses 2.1 to 2.7 above:

ANSI : American National Standards Institute


ASME : American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM : American Society for Testing and Materials
BS : British Standard Specification
EIT : Engineering Institute of Thailand
EN : European Norm
JIS : Japanese Industrial Standards
MEA : Metropolitan Electrical Authority
NFPA : National Fire Protection Association
TIS : Thai Industrial Standard

TUNNEL VENTILATION SYSTEM

The design of tunnel ventilation system shall be based on the following codes, regulations
and standards, subject to Clauses 2.1 to 2.7 above:

AMCA : Air Moving and Conditioning Association


ANSI : American National Standards Institute
ASHRAE : American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Handbooks
ASTM : American Society of Testing Materials
AWS : American Welding Society
IEEE : Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
MIL : Military Specifications
NEMA : National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NFPA 130 : Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems
Subway Environmental Design Handbook
SSPC : Steel Structure Painting Council

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-10

SECTION B : GEOMETRIC DESIGN CRITERIA

3. RAILWAY ALIGNMENTS

3.1 Criteria

3.1.1 The horizontal and vertical alignments of the railway are given in the Drawings as listed in
Volume 6 Tender Drawings.

3.1.2 The Contractor shall design the civil engineering works to these alignments. However,
subject to the provisions of the Contract, minor changes to the given alignments may be
made, where clear benefits can be demonstrated, and in order to suit the specific
characteristics of his design.

3.1.3 The railway alignment design shall comply with the requirements of the following Clauses
3.2 to 3.8.

3.2 Horizontal Alignment

3.2.1 The limits for radii for horizontal circular curves shall be as follows :

(i) Desirable minimum radius - running track 300 metres


(ii) Absolute minimum radius
(a) for running track 200 metres
(b) within depots 100 metres

3.2.2 Whenever possible the track shall be straight throughout the length of the stations. The
presence of external restrains may necessitate limited encroachment of transition curves
at station ends but this shall be avoided whenever possible. Where encroachment is
unavoidable this shall be limited such that the vehicle throw does not affect the platform
nosing clearance.

3.2.3 Circular curve radii shall be selected to be the maximum practicable. The radius selected
for any particular curve shall not be so large as to unnecessarily impose more severe
curvature of the track at either end of that curve.

3.2.4 The combination of circular curves and their related transition curves shall be chosen
such that the length of pure circular arc between transitions is not less than the following :

(i) Preferred minimum 50 metres


(ii) Desirable minimum 25 metres
(iii) Absolute minimum 17 metres

3.2.5 For any two consecutive circular curves with the same direction of curvature the length of
straight track between the ends of the curves or of the transitions where these are
required shall be not less than the following :

(i) Preferred minimum 50 metres


(ii) Desirable minimum 25 metres
(iii) Absolute minimum 17 metres

3.2.6 For any consecutive circular curves with opposite direction of curvature the length of
straight track between the ends of the curves or of the transitions where these are
required shall be not less than the values given in Clause 3.2.5 above. Reverse curves
for which there will be no straight track between curves, will only be permitted in the
Depot and station approaches.

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-11

3.2.7 Reverse curves in depot tracks shall require to be connected by a minimum length of
straight track shall be determined by the rolling stock characteristics and radii concerned.

3.3 Cant and Speed

3.3.1 The curve speed cant relationship shall be based on the following equations :

Ve 2
Equilibrium cant E = 11.82 x
R
Maximum permissible speed Vm = 0.29 R( E a + D)

where R = horizontal curve radius in metres.


Vm = maximum permissible speed in kilometres per hour.
Ve = equilibrium speed in kilometres per hour.
E = equilibrium cant in millimetres.
Ea = actual applied cant in millimetres.
D = maximum allowable deficiency of cant in millimetres.

3.3.2 The maximum allowable applied cant shall be :

Absolute Maximum Desirable Maximum


(i) for concreted track 150 mm 125 mm
(ii) for ballasted track 125 mm 110 mm

3.3.3 The deficiency of cant shall be limited to:

(i) Maximum allowable deficiency of cant on plain line


for CWR and jointed track 110 mm
(ii) Maximum allowable deficiency of cant on turnouts
and crossings of CWR and jointed track 90 mm
(iii) Limit of negative cant on switches and crossings
for CWR and jointed track -80 mm
(iv) It is desirable that on a horizontal curve, trains
Normally operate with a slight cant deficiency
And the minimum value at 80 km/h shall be taken as 80 mm

3.3.4 The maximum non compensated lateral acceleration experienced by a passenger within
the train,

ad = g.hd/S

where: ad = lateral acceleration, m/s2


g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2)
s = track centres (1,500 mm)

Non compensated lateral acceleration shall be limited to:


a) Desirable maximum 0.50 m/s2
b) Absolute maximum 0.85 m/s2
c) Desirable minimum 0.13 m/s2

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-12

3.3.5 The track shall be designed on the basis of maximum line speeds. These will be as follows :

Curve Radius (m) Speed (km/h)


100 45
125 50
150 55
175 60
200 63
250 71
300 77
>300 80

However, subject to the provisions of the contract, speed restrictions may be introduced
where this is dictated by external constraints and operational requirements.

3.3.6 Applied cant shall be specified to the nearest millimetre for concrete track and to the
nearest 5 mm for ballasted track.

3.3.7 Track at terminus stations shall continue past the end of the platforms by 25 metres
where stabling or refuge tracks are not required.

3.4 Horizontal Transition Curves

3.4.1 In general for all running lines and depot connection tracks curves shall be provided
wherever possible between a circular curve and adjoining straight, between the different
radii of a compound curve and at the adjoining ends of circular curves forming reverse
curves. Transition curves are not required in pocket, siding or in depot tracks.

3.4.2 Transition curves shall be in the form of cubic parabolas or clothoid spirals for which the
equations are :

S = L2/24Rh - L4/2688 Rh3 x = I I5/40(RhL)2


C = L/2 L3/240R2 y = I3/3RhL I7/336(RhL)3
= I2/2RhL radians = 90.I2/Rh L degrees

Slope at any point given by ; tan = 12 / 2RhL

Where: L = total length of transition


Rh = radius of circular curve
S = shift, at point C measured along the tangent
y = lateral offset from extended tangent at point 1 along the transition
I = distance along transition from origin
x = longitudinal ordinate of spiral measured along the tangent at point I along
the transition
= deviation angle of transition

3.4.3 The cant gradient (not cant deficiency) shall be subject to the following limits :

(i) Absolute maximum = 1 : 500


(ii) Preferred = 1 : 750
(iii) Minimum = 1 : 1000

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-13

3.4.4 The rate of change of cant or cant deficiency shall be limited to:

(i) Absolute maximum = 55 mm/sec. for plain track


(ii) Desirable maximum = 35 mm/sec. for track plain
(iii) Absolute maximum = 80 mm/sec. for special track work

3.4.5 Transition curves will not normally be required between different radii of a compound
curve where the change of radius of curvature does not exceed 15% of the smaller radius
and provided that the cant deficiency and/or cant excess criteria are not exceeded for
either curve.

Where a compound curve is employed with a change of radius greater than 15% of the
smaller radius, or where the cant deficiency or cant excess criteria necessitates a change
in cant between the circular curves, a suitable transition curve shall be interposed
between the two parts of the curve. The length of such a transition shall be equal to the
difference between the required transition lengths at each end of the curve.

When the actual shift of any calculated transition curve would be less than 10mm the
actual transition curve may be omitted. In this case, the required change of cant shall
take place over the calculated length of the transition, or 17 m which ever is the greater,
and in the same location as if the transition had been provided.

3.4.6 The principle of virtual transition shall be adopted at locations where it is not possible to
provide a transition. Examples are to be found in special trackwork at the toe of the
switches. In such cases a chord of length of 14.8 metres is used to compute the apparent
versine and whence radius of curve. The 14.8 m represents the distance between bogie
centres of a typical transit car.

3.5 Vertical Profile

3.5.1 Vertical curves in plain line shall wherever possible be positioned such that coincidence
with both horizontal transitions and cant ramps is avoided. Where such coincidence is
unavoidable the largest practicable vertical curve radius shall be employed and the cant
gradient shall be the minimum practicable. In all such cases the resultant geometry shall
be verified as being compatible with safe passage at the design speeds by the proposed
rolling stock.

This exception applies solely to non-ballasted track, in the case of ballasted track such
coincidence is not permitted.

3.5.2 Vertical curves shall, for each location, be selected on the basis of the largest practicable
vertical curve radius subject to the following limit:

1) Minimum desirable radius = 1,500 metres


2) Preferred radius
Dip curves = 4,000 metres
Summit curves = 8,000 metres
3) Vertical acceleration,
av = Vmax2/Rv
shall be limited to;
Desirable maximum = 1%g ~ 0.10 m/s2
Absolute maximum = 3%g ~ 0.30 m/s2
Minimum desirable radius 1500 m

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-14

3.5.3 The length of constant grade between consecutive vertical curves shall be as follows:

(i) Desirable minimum 50 m


(ii) Absolute minimum 25 m

3.5.4 At point and crossing work vertical curves shall not coincide with any part of the overall
length of switches or of cast crossings. At other point and crossing work vertical curves
shall be avoided whenever possible. Where they cannot be avoided the vertical curve
radius shall be the maximum in accordance with Clause 3.5.2 above.

3.5.5 At station ends the tangent point of the vertical curve shall be permitted to encroach
within the length of the platform to a limited extent. This length of encroachment shall be
such that the vertical offset of the curve from the station gradient at the platform end shall
not exceed 15mm.

3.6 Gradients

3.6.1 The limits for gradients shall be as follows :

(i) For running lines the desirable maximum gradient shall be 3% and the absolute
maximum gradient shall be 4.5%. Where gradients of 1% or less are used they
may be unrestricted in length. Gradients of between 3.0% and 4.5% shall be kept
as short as possible. In particular up gradients between 4% and 4.5% shall be
avoided whenever practicable.
(ii) At stations the track shall be level throughout the platform length except for the
limited lengths of vertical curves as specified in Clause 3.5.5 above.
(iii) A drainage gradient shall be provided for all tunnels, other than at stations, as
follows :
(a) Desirable minimum 0.5%
(b) Absolute minimum 0.25%
(iv) Sidings shall be level or shall fall away from the main line switch at a gradient not
exceeding 0.25%. Train berths shall be level or shall fall towards the buffer stops
at a gradient not exceeding 0.25%.

3.7 Levels

3.7.1 All levels shall be quoted in metres correct to three decimal places and shall be to a
Datum which is 100 metres below mean sea level (MSL).

3.7.2 Rail level on superelevated track will refer to the level of the running edge of the lower
rail.

3.8 Points and Crossing Work

3.8.1 General

3.8.1.1 Whenever possible points and crossing work shall not coincide with vertically or
horizontally curved track.

3.8.1.2 Where it is not possible to avoid coincidence with vertical curves the switches and stock
rails shall not be laid on vertical curves.

3.8.1.3 Points and crossing work shall not coincide with horizontal transitions.

3.8.1.4 No part of the switches, switch operating gear or crossing nose shall be over a structural
movement joint.

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-15

3.8.2 Emergency Crossovers

3.8.2.1 Emergency crossovers shall be based on a transitioned crossover with vertical rails.

3.8.2.2 The maximum speed through the crossover shall be 35 km/hr.

3.8.3 Scissor Crossovers

3.8.3.1 Scissor crossovers shall be based on a transitioned crossover with vertical rails.

3.8.3.2 The switch points and turnout radius shall be standard 60EI or UIC or approved
equivalent, designed to accommodate a minimum operational speed of 40 km/hr.

3.8.4 Turnouts

3.8.4.1 Turnouts shall be based on a transitioned turnout with vertical rails.

3.8.4.2 The maximum speed through the turnout shall be 50 km/hr.

Operational speed in the Depot shall be 20 km/hr.

3.8.4.3 Trackwork Requirements:

The Contractor shall design the structures in accordance with trackwork requirements.
All the structural elements including the locations of expansion joints shall be designed so
that they will not interfere with the operation of the trackwork requirement and turnouts
and crossovers.

3.9 Track Centres

3.9.1 On main elevated running lines tracks are spaced at 4.4 metres centre between stations
and are widened to about 15.10 metres centre at centre platform station (upper platform
of Tha Phra station) except where otherwise shown. This dimension is based on a safe
air gap between vehicles under all conditions of curvature and cant.

3.9.2 At pocket tracks on the main elevated running lines tracks are spaced at 4.4 metres
centre to permit safe access and egress by authorosed staff.

3.9.3 At-grade, sub-surface and underground sections have track centres as determined by the
structural design parameters.

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-16

4. RAILWAY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

4.1 General

4.1.1 The Railway Envelope is defined as the extent of works to be constructed to allow
installation and operation of the railway equipment.

4.1.2 The Contractor shall be responsible for the design, provision and installation of a first
stage primary concrete as shown on the Drawings. The design, provision and installation
of the secondary concrete, trackslabs and trackwork will be undertaken by others under
contracts with the Employer. A fundamental obligation of the Contractor is to co-ordinate
and co-operate with the Trackwork Contractor so that the design and installation of all
components of the railway are compatible.

4.1.3 The design and installation of all railway operating equipment, including signals and
signalling cables, the third rail electrification equipment, electrical cables, electrical and
mechanical equipment, telecommunication links, etc. that are required for the railway will
be undertaken by others under contracts with the Employer. Similar co-ordination and
co-operation obligations as expressed in Clause 4.1.2 above apply.
4.1.4 The Contractor shall build into the civil works blind holes, plinths, trenches etc. as
required by the M & E Contractor. The M & E Contractor will supply and fit brackets, nuts
and bolts and other fixings for the support of its equipment. The extent and detail of such
provisions are to be determined by the Contractor making due enquiries, during the
design co-ordination period, from contractors engaged to provide railway operating
equipment and from the Trackwork Contractor. Some details of the likely fixing to be
provided are given below but it is stressed that this information may not be complete or
comprehensive.

4.1.5 The Contractor shall be responsible for co-ordinating his design and construction with
other contractors and with the Employer and for ensuring that the design incorporates
such fixings as are required in order to avoid any necessity for other contractors or the
Employer to drill, weld, burn or cut any part of the structure, including tunnel linings, when
carrying out installations.

4.1.6 Telecommunication

In addition to the fixings for leaky feeder co-axial cables, the Contractor shall provide
mounting plates or other agreed fixings for the trackside telephones and associated
cables at spacings to be determined by the contractor engaged to provide
telecommunications equipment and by the M & E Contractor.

4.1.7 Setting out

The Contractor shall provide permanent survey points and bench marks and shall
provide full details of co-ordinates and levels to the Trackwork Contractor.

4.1.8 Second pour concrete

The Trackwork Contractor will carry out the second pour concrete for the trackwork. In
this regard, the Contractor shall incorporate starter bars in the primary concrete pour to
facilitate anchorage of the second pour concrete. The Contractor shall coordinate with
the Trackwork Contractor as to the size and location of the starter bars. Contractor shall
provide drainage pipes, channels and catchbasias in the first pour concrete.

4.2 Stray Current Corrosion Control

4.2.1 The Contractor shall incorporate into his design precautions to minimise stray current
corrosion.

4.2.2 Electrical insulation of the Trackwork, will be carried out by the Trackwork Contractor.

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-17

4.2.3 The Contractor shall provide throughout in situ concrete structures in the vicinity of return
rails a longitudinal, continuous, low resistance, electrical path. The Contractor shall
provide for sufficient longitudinal reinforcement to be electrically bonded, to form an
effective stray current interception and collection path.

4.2.4 The continuous electrical path shall be provided by ensuring full and reliable electrical
connection throughout the structure.

4.2.5 The electrically continuous path shall be provided through the steel reinforcement either
by continuous welding of structural reinforcement or by the provision of additional welded
mesh reinforcement. Where welded structural reinforcement is used to form a grid,
welded cross-connections shall be at a minimum spacing of :

(a) for longitudinal bars, 600 mm measured in the transverse direction;


(b) for transverse bars, 6 m measured in the longitudinal direction.

4.2.6 The Contractor shall make provision for the monitoring of this continuous electrical path
during construction and shall demonstrate to the Employer's Representative during
construction that the required electrical resistance has been achieved.

4.2.7 The continuous electrical path will be made approximately in 100 metre sections. At these
sections the Contractor shall provide terminals as required from the continuous electrical
path through the structures to external connections. The terminals shall be suitable for
the connection of 70 mm2 insulated copper cable. At each connection, four such
terminals shall be provided, two of which shall be kept as spares and suitably protected.
Similar terminals, spare terminals and connections shall be provided over any joint of the
structure.

4.2.8 General requirements for earthing and bonding the structures are to be determined in
liaison with the M & E Contractor.

4.2.9 Cross-bonding of the running rails, stray current return cabling etc. will be carried out by
other contractors.

4.2.10 The Contractor shall take account in his design of the fact that the Contract will be
integrated with others in the Project in respect of the control of stray currents, and may
therefore carry stray currents arising from any foreseeable operating condition of the
Project.

4.3 Railway Cross Sections and Structure Gauges

4.3.1 The Kinematic Envelope for the rolling stock of the railway, and Structure Gauges for
straight and curved track are shown in Appendix 3 herein.
4.3.2 The Contractor shall ensure that the proposed size of structure is adequate to contain the
equipment to be provided under Clause 4.1 above outside the Structure Gauge.

5. CLEARANCES

5.1 Structures shall not infringe the clearances specified in ERF Clause 4 of the Employer's
Requirements and as defined in Appendix 3 herein. See also Clause 4.3.2 above.

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-18

SECTION C: DESIGN LIFE AND SERVICEABILITY

6. GENERAL

6.1 Clauses 7 to 11 below define the design life and serviceability requirements for the
various elements of the structures. Requirements for durability, including choice of
materials and detailed design requirements to achieve good durability, are given in
Clause 57 of the Outline Design Specifications.

6.2 The design life of a structure is that period for which it is designed to fulfill its intended
function when inspected and maintained in accordance with agreed procedures. The
assumption of a design life for a structure or component does not necessarily mean that
the structure will no longer be fit for its purpose at the end of that period. Neither will it
necessarily continue to be serviceable for that length of time without adequate and
regular inspection and routine maintenance.

7. CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES

The design life of civil engineering structures shall be in accordance with ERF Clause 5
Design Life of the Employers Requirements.

The design life required shall be obtained by the use of durable materials, corrosion
protection, resistance to or avoidance of wear etc. All underground works shall be
designed to achieve the design lives with minimum or zero maintenance.:

8. BUILDING STRUCTURES

The design life of above ground building structures shall be as per Clause 7 above unless
otherwise specified or agreed.

9. BRIDGE BEARINGS AND MOVEMENT JOINTS

Bridge bearings and movement joints shall have a minimum design life of 50 years apart
from minor components which can be replaced without complete removal and without
interruption to traffic. Such components shall have a service life of 20 years.

10. SERVICEABILITY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND BUILDING WORKS

10.1 The design shall include the effects of groundwater conditions with the following return
periods :

(a) 10 years, with a factor of safety of 1.4;


(b) worst predicted, with a factor of safety of 1.1.

10.2 Paint systems for steelwork shall ensure a minimum life of 15 years before full
maintenance painting is required.

10.3 The corrosion protection of non-structural steel items shall be appropriate to the
accessibility of the item for inspection and maintenance.

11. SERVICEABILITY OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL, LIFTS AND ESCALATORS


EQUIPMENT

Serviceability of electrical and mechanical, lifts and escalators equipment included in this
Contract shall be a minimum of 20 years, subject to the maintenance being carried out in
the manner laid down by the Manufacturer.

CONTRACT 1 Dec. 09
Volume 4 : Outline Design Specifications ODS-19

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND METHODS: CIVIL AND STRUCTURES

SECTION D: LOADS AND REQUIREMENTS

12. RAILWAY LIVE LOADS

12.1 General

The railway loading applied to structures on the Project shall generally be in accordance
with standard train loading as shown in Figure 12.1 detailed below.

12.2 Nominal Loads

12.2.1 Standard Vehicle Loading: The track supporting structure shall be designed to carry the
proposed standard train loading as shown in Figure 12.1. The nominal loading for the
design of members shall comprise fully loaded trains with individual cars each having four
axles of 175 KN and 23.5 meters overall length as shown in Figure 12.1. This load
pattern shall be placed at the most critical position to generate maximum stress for the
part of structure considered. The Final car dimensions and loadings will be determined by
the M&E Contractor, and clause 12.2.10 will apply. Coupled cars shall be applied to the
structure so as to give the most adverse effect on the element being considered.

Figure 12.1 Standard One Car Train Load

12.2.2 Lurching: Lurching forces are caused by the train rotates slightly about its axis. The 56%
and 44% of the train load shall be applied as shown in Figure 12.2. This causes a couple
at the rail level or a moment with a magnitude of 6% of the maximum axle load multiplied
by the distance between the rails.

Figure 12.2 Lurching Forces

12.2.3 Impact factor shall be based on Clause 3.3.1.2 of ACI358.1R-92, or any other suitable
code or methods provided that the designer conduct detailed dynamic analyses to
determine the impact factor to be used in design. Unless otherwise justified, structural

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damping of 2% for steel structures, 2.5% for prestressed concrete structures and 5% for
reinforced concrete structures shall be used in conducting the dynamic analyses. When
the modal superposition method is used in a dynamic analyses, an adequate number of
modes shall be used such that the total mass participation factor shall be no less than
90%.

Impact factor shall not be applied to piles, foundation, abutments, retaining walls and
service walkway.

12.2.4 Hunting Force: The hunting force or nosing force caused by the lateral interaction of the
train and rail shall be designed in accordance with Clause 3.3.1.4 of ACI 358.1R-92

12.2.5 Centrifugal Force: Structure on horizontal curves shall be designed for a horizontal lateral
radial force in accordance with Clause 3.3.1.3 of ACI 358.1R-92. The centrifugal force is
assumed to act at 1.50 m above the top of low rail.

Figure 12.3: Hunting Force AND Centrifugal Force

When centrifugal and hunting forces act simultaneously, only the larger force needs to be
considered.

12.2.6 Longitudinal Force: The longitudinal force shall be designed in accordance with Clause
3.3.1.5 of ACI 358.1R-92 and shall be applied 1.80 m. above the top of low rail. The
longitudinal force acts simultaneously with the vertical live load of a standard train load. It
may be applied in either direction: forward in braking or deceleration or reverse in
acceleration

Load Reduction for Emergency Longitudinal Force


Loading reduction shall be used on emergency longitudinal loading only. The following
percentages of emergency longitudinal force tabulated in Table 12.1 shall be used in the
view of the improbability of coincident maximum loadings:

Table 12.1 Percentage of Emergency Longitudinal Force


Percentage of Emergency
No. of Trains
Longitudinal Force
One & Two trains 100 %
Three trains 90%
Four trains or more 75%

12.2.7 Service Walkway Loads: Live load on service or emergency walkways shall be designed
in accordance with Clause 3.3.1.6 of ACI 358.1R-92. base on 2.5 kN/m2 of area. This
load should be used together with empty vehicles on guideway, since the walkway load is
the result of vehicles being evacuated. This load is used only for deck transverse analysis
and cable trough cover and support; it is not used as a general effect.

12.2.8 The above loadings may need to be revised after the proposed Rolling Stock has been
finalized.

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13. NOT USED

14. LOADS DUE TO VOLUMETRIC CHANGES

14.1 Not Used

14.2 Not Used

14.3 Not Used

14.4 Rail Force

The stresses in the continuous welded rails shall not exceed the allowable stresses stated
below for a combination of loads due to braking, traction and 200C temperature variation
between rails and deck for typical 60EI rail with a tensile strength of at least 900MPa.
-72/+92 N/mm2
In which, the minus sign denotes compressive stress and plus sign tensile stress.

15. EXCEPTIONAL LOAD

15.1 Not Used

15.2 Not Used

15.3 Not Used

15.4 Earthquake Load (Eq)

Earthquake effect will be represented by an equivalent static force consistent with a


horizontal acceleration of the structure of 0.06 g. For the segmental tunnel lining however
seismic load cases have not to be taken into account for the following reasons:

a) Segmental tunnel lining has certain flexibility and therefore is not sensitive to
seismicity. Furthermore tubes are completely embedded in soil and therefore
cause no significant resistance to seismic waves in relation to the surrounding
soil as a result of inertia.
b) An increase in horizontal loads reduces the bending in the lining when the lateral
earth pressure is less than vertical earth pressure.
c) The value of the dynamic modulus of soil elasticity is up to 10 times the static
value for cohesive ground. This fact clearly reduced the bending of the lining.

16. OTHER LOADS

16.1 Effects of ground settlement

When constructing a tunnel in soft ground, attention must be paid to how the soil
characteristics, apart from those caused by the tunnel construction process, affect ground
settlement. It is necessary to consider the effect of ground settlement on the tunnel and
the joint between the tunnel and the shaft.

a) Tunnel.
The effects of the ground settlement on the tunnel can be studied in two ways
such as study of the effect of consolidation settlement on the tunnel in the
transverse direction and study of the effect of unequal settlement on the tunnel in
the longitudinal direction.
b) The joint between the tunnel and the shaft.
Relative displacement tends to occur at the joints connection a tunnel and the

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shaft because different types of structure are connected at these positions.


Therefore, it is desirable to prevent the concentration of stress by
applying the flexible joints where necessary or to reduce the effect of unequal
settlement by marking the foundation of the shaft a floating foundation.

16.2 Earth Pressure (E)

a) Depending on the ground conditions, the groundwater pressure can be dealt with
either of the following two for evaluation of the earth pressure such as:
groundwater pressure acting separately from the soil pressure (Effective stress
method) and groundwater pressure being included to the soil pressure (Total
stress method)
b) The vertical earth pressure shall be uniform load acting on the tunnel crown. Its
magnitude shall be determined considering the overburden, the cross section
and the outer diameter of the tunnel and ground conditions.
c) The horizontal earth pressure shall be uniformly varying load acting on the
centroid of the lining from the crown to the bottom. Its magnitude shall be
calculated by multiplying the vertical earth pressure by the coefficient of the
lateral earth pressure.

16.3 Buoyancy (B)

When the uplift pressure occurs at lower side, the tunnel constructed in underground
water examines coming to the surface. The buoyancy which acts on the tunnel is
obtained from the pore water pressure at upper and lower sides of the tunnel.

us = w ( z b - z w )

where;
us : Buoyancy (kN/m2)
w : Bulk density of water (kN/m3)
zb : Depth to bottom slab in tunnel
zw : Depth to the upper surface of ground water level

16.4 Road Traffic Load (GL)

The road traffic load is sum of weight of vehicles on the road including on pavement. The
traffic load is assumed to be uniform load corresponding to the tunnel earth covering.

Table 16.1 : Road traffic Load (including impact)

Overburden 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.5 More than 4.5
Road traffic load
(kN/m2) 35.5 28.5 20.5 15.0 12.0 11.5 10.5 10.0

However, the road traffic load used to design U type structure is assumed to be 10 kN/m2.

16.5 Load Combinations

Service Load Combinations and Design of the tunnel design is not covered in British
Standard (BS) and Thai Industrial Standard (TIS). Therefore, the Japanese Standard is
used in this category. The final service load combinations are tabulated in table below.

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Allowable Percentage of
Group Load Combination
Basic Unit Stress
U1 D + EV + EH + GL + B + L + I + T + SH 100
U2 D + EV + EH + B 100
U3 D + EV + EH + GL + L + I + T + SH 100
U4 D + EH + B 100
S1 D + EV + EH + GL + B + L + I + T + SH 100
S2 D + EV + EH + GL + L + I + T + SH 100
S3 D + EH + T + SH 100
F1 D + EH + GL + L + I + T + SH 100

where:

D : Dead load + Superimposed dead load


EV : Vertical earth pressure
EH : Lateral pressure
GL : Road surface Load
B : Buoyancy
L : Live load
I : Impact
T : Temperature gradient effect (Superstructure only)
SH : Forces due to shrinkage in concrete

The Factor load combination of the tunnel design is not covered in British Standard (BS)
and Thai Industrial Standard (TIS). Therefore, the Japanese Standard is used in this
category. The final road factor combinations are tabulated in Table below.

Design Serviceability Limit


Condition Ultimate Limit State Fatigue Limit
State
Load State
*3 *4 *5 *3 *4 *5
Dead Load D 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Vertical earth pressure *1 EV 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Lateral pressure *1 EH 1.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 1.0 0.7 1.0 1.0
Road surface Load GL 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0
Buoyancy (B) B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Train load in tunnel *2 L 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0
Influence of impact *2 I 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0
Influence of temperature
T 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
change *2
Influence of drying
SH 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
shrinkage *2
*1. The tunnel of the cohesive soil ground considers by the surrounding and when an upper and bottom slab is
examined, does not consider hydraulic pressure.
*2. This load is considered if necessary.
*3. The combination of this load is used to examine the tunnel sidewall.
*4. The combination of this load is used to examine an upper and bottom slab.
*5. The combination of this load is used to examine to the up float.
*6. The combination of this load is used to examine stability (vertical direction support).

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Notation:
D : Dead load + Superimposed dead load
EV : Vertical earth pressure
EH : Lateral pressure
GL : Road surface Load
B : Buoyancy
L : Live load
I : Impact
T : Temperature gradient effect (Superstructure only)
SH : Forces due to shrinkage in concrete

17. LIVE LOADS IN STATIONS

17.1 Live Loads:

Platforms Ticket Hall, Stairs 5.0kN/m2, or a concentrated load of 15kN on a square


Walkway: area of 300mm side, whichever is more onerous.
Staff Rooms, Toilets, Offices 2.5kN/m2
Store Rooms 5.0kN/m2
Plant Room According to self weight of machines - see Table 17.1.

Circulation space within :-


(i) Control rooms 3.0kN/m2
(ii) Plant rooms 4.0kN/m2

Escalators inside stations Top reaction = 75 kN


(fully loaded) Middle reaction = 140 kN
Bottom reaction = 63 kN
Total weight = 278 kN
Roof : Concrete slab roof = 1.0 kN/m2
Metal sheet roof = 0.5 kN/m2
Other Occupancies Minimum design load specified in ASCE 7-98 shall be applied

Table 17.1 Electrical Equipment

Length (m) Width (m) Weight (kN)


Rectifier (2 No.) 2.0 1.5 20
2.5 MW Inverter/Transformer (1 No. if installed) 4.5 2.0 90
MW Rectifier/Transformer (2 No.) 4.5 2.0 100
24 kV Switch board (1 No./substation) 4.2 1.3 30
380 V Switch board (No. according to design) 3.2 3.6 22.5
AC Switch board (1 No.) 3.0 1.3 25
Aux. Services Transformers (Accord. Employers Requirements) 1.7 1.7 20
Inverter (1 No. if installed) 2.0 1.5 20
Note : All dimensions and weights are approximate. The design of the station structure shall take
into account the dimensions and weights of the actual equipment to be used.

In the design of the station structure due account shall be taken of all loadings resulting
from the method and route to be taken for the installation and subsequent removal and
replacement of the various items of plant and equipment.

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18. RAILWAY REQUIREMENTS

18.1 Deflections Limitations Related to Track/Structure Response

The limitations indicated below are indicative only, adequate limits shall be provided by
the designer in coordination with the track work contractor/designer based on the
rail/fastening system.

1. Limitation of Tract Twist

The rotation of the pier top shall be confined such that the relative rail deflection
() does not exceed 4.5mm over a length of 3.0 meters and the rotation () does
not exceed 0.0015 rad.

Figure : Limits of Track Twist

2. Lateral Deflection Limitation

Figure : Limits of Transverse Deflection

At the transition between two tunnels, the relative movement should not exceed
3 mm.

The lateral movement of the ring segments, restricting the relative movement to
1.5 mm.

18.2 Provision for emergency evacuation shall be provided along the railway for the full length
of the structure. Routes assigned for emergency evacuation shall be designed for
footway loading in accordance with the requirements stated herein.

18.3 The Contractor shall note that there is a requirement to provide touch potential protection
to passengers on the platforms. The design shall therefore include for a width of 2.5
metres from the platform edge to be insulated from ground earth by insertion of PVC
and/or other insulating compounds. Metalwork railings etc. shall be kept a minimum of
2.5 metres from the platform edge unless similarly insulated.

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SECTION E : UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION

19. FOUNDATIONS AND GEOTECHNICAL WORKS

19.1 General

19.1.1 "Geotechnical works" shall mean foundations, earthworks, deep excavations, slopes,
embankments and earth retaining structures.

19.1.2 The Contractor will be responsible for determining for his design purposes the Geology
and the Geotechnical parameters of the sub-surface strata along the route.

19.1.3 The Employer will make available to the Contractor, for information only, the Geotechnical
Investigation Report prepared at Pre-Tender stage.

19.1.4 The slopes of all permanent cuttings and excavations shall be so designed that they are
capable of supporting vegetation and shall be stabilised where necessary. In particular,
soil slopes shall be hydroseeded or turfed.

19.1.5 A safety factor of not less than 2.5 should be adopted as the test for a single pile and a
safety factor of not less than 2.0 shall be adopted when considering pile and pile group
capacities. A safety factor of at least 1.75 for a single pile and at least 1.5 for group piles
shall be adopted when the negative skin friction (which results from downward movement
of adjacent soil relative to the pile caused by dewatering and/or the placement of fill) is
considered.

19.1.6 In his design the Contractor shall take adequate measures to minimise the amount of
local differential settlement of road surfaces around underground works.

19.2 Diaphragm Walling

19.2.1 General

The Contractor shall prepare and submit to the Employers Representative for his
consent a detailed design including calculations, schedules and drawings for each
proposed diaphragm wall installation, prior to the commencement of such works.

19.2.2 Method Statement

The Contractor shall prepare a method statement giving the full details of materials, plant
and operations involved in the construction of diaphragm walls, and include traffic
management proposals for each stage of the construction plan, including consideration of
construction vehicle access and egress without significant disruption of public traffic
flows. This shall be incorporated into the design submission for consent and shall include
details of :

(i) the formation of the joints between panels;


(ii) the sequence of excavation and concreting of panels;
(iii) the methods of monitoring and checking the stability of neighbouring properties,
highways, utilities and other underground structures;
(iv) the methods of monitoring and checking the excavated trench profile tolerances
associated with the diaphragm wall panels;
(v) the methods of monitoring and checking the stability of the diaphragm wall
trench;
(vi) the mixing, transporting and placing equipment for the bentonite slurry (or
equivalent polymer);
(vii) the method of disposal of contaminated bentonite slurry;

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(viii) the type, source, chemical and physical properties of the bentonite (or equivalent
polymer) to be used;
(ix) the dimensions and details of guide walls;
(x) the cleaning, testing and re-use of the bentonite slurry; calculations to show that
the density of the bentonite, and lowest head of slurry are sufficient to maintain
the stability of the trench, in the ground conditions envisaged, over its full depth.
(xi) emergency procedures to be implemented in the event that trench collapse or
soil inflow occur, or that monitoring indicates tolerances associated with the
diaphragm wall panels may be exceeded.

19.2.3 Tolerances

The design shall take account of tolerances set out in Clause 4.6.5 of the Outline
Construction Specifications unless otherwise defined by the Contractor's drawings or
procedures.

19.2.4 Adjacent Properties

(i) The Contractor's design shall take account of adjacent utilities, buildings,
highways and underground structures of any type.
(ii) Allowance shall be made for all ancillary treatment and all work necessary to
ensure the stability of roadworks, adjacent structures and underground
constructions and utilities.
(iii) The Contractor shall be responsible for any damage or movement (predicted or
unexpected) in such adjacent utilities and structures.

19.2.5 The Contractor's structural design shall be based on materials properties specified in the
Outline Construction Specifications, Clauses 4.6.8 and 4.6.9.

19.3 Piles and Pile Caps

19.3.1 A factor of safety to be adopted when considering a single and/or pile group capacities
shall be as specified in Clause 19.1.5 above.

19.3.2 The Contractor shall note that the highway authorities have restricted the width of pile
caps to the width of any central median strip. The Contractor shall consider this
restriction in preparing his design.

19.3.3 In his design the Contractor shall take adequate measures to minimise the amount of
local differential settlement of road surfaces and utilities around pile caps.

20. TUNNEL DESIGN

20.1 Cut and Cover Tunnels

20.1.1 General Principles

The drawings of the cut and cover stations and tunnels show generally a rectangular box
section built inside the excavation support walls. In case of use of temporary walls as a
permanent element of the structure, the Contractor shall justify the feasibility and
suitability of this alternative and submit the detailed design for the review and consent by
the Employers Representative.

20.1.1.1 The Contractor shall use design methods for the analysis of the cut and cover tunnel
structures which take account of the following :

(i) The method of construction, including Temporary Works.


(ii) The ground/structure interaction, including the effects of Temporary Works.

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(iii) Ground pressure redistribution and bending moment redistribution.


(iv) Short and long term heave and settlement.
(v) Groundwater loading, backfill and other imposed loading such as plant,
surcharge and highway loadings.

20.1.1.2 For the purpose of assessing ground pressures the cut and cover tunnel may be
considered as effectively a rigid box structure subject to earth pressure at rest.

20.1.2 Types of Construction

20.1.2.1 The method of construction for the cut and cover tunnels shall take into account the following:

(i) The geology along the length and depth of the cutting.
(ii) The hydrogeology and strata permeability along the length of the cutting.
(iii) The degree of settlement which would be expected. In this context the location of
the works in relation to existing structures shall be considered. Refer to Clause
27 herein.
(iv) The depth of construction required.
(v) Any particular difficulties that special plant might meet with in respect of access,
clearances and working space.
(vi) The noise levels produced.
(vii) Control over heave and instability of the base of the excavation.
(viii) The methods by which the completed structure shall be secured against flotation.
(ix) The method for waterproofing the completed structure.
(x) The connection details for the adjacent stations or tunnels for watertight joints.
(xi) The Contractor shall make provision for future public facilities installation. The
minimum unobstructed depth shall be 3 m under ground surface.

20.1.2.2 The following methods of construction may be used either individually or in combination
depending upon the particular requirements of the location, size and type of structure.
The list is not considered to be exhaustive.

(i) Diaphragm Walling


Particular attention shall be paid to the stability of the reinforcement cage during
placing, methods for forming and locating box-outs, waterproofing of the vertical
panel joints and support of the walls during excavation.
(ii) Secant Piling
Particular attention shall be paid to the formation of piles to ensure their integrity
and water tightness and to the support of the completed walls during excavation.
(iii) Soldier Piles and Lagging
Particular attention shall be paid to ensuring that the lagging is providing proper
support to the ground and prohibits the flow of fine soils, and that the wall is
adequately supported during excavation.
(iv) Steel Sheet Piling
Particular attention shall be paid to adequately supporting the walls during
excavation and to ensuring that water leakage will not be such that loss of ground
or significant groundwater drawdown will occur.
(v) Precast Concrete panels.
Particular attention shall be paid to protect the surface and to ensuring that water
will not leakage.

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20.1.2.3 In all cases the need to support existing services adequately across or near to the
excavation shall be taken into account.

20.1.3 Flotation

20.1.3.1 The Contractor shall check the cut and cover tunnels for the possibility of flotation due to
differential water pressure and shall design the structure such that adequate factors of
safety against flotation (during construction and upon completion) are provided as set out
below.

20.1.3.2 A partial safety factor of 1.05 shall be applied to the self weight of the structure, including
the first stage only of the track concrete.

20.1.3.3 A partial safety factor of 1.3 shall be applied to the weight of backfill material over the
structure, both above and below the water table. Above the water table the weight shall
be based on the average bulk density of the backfill and below the water table it shall be
based on the submerged density.

20.1.3.4 In evaluating the design shear resistance to uplift between the walls of the structure and
the ground, or lateral backfill as the case may be, a partial factor of safety of 2.0 on the
design shear strength of the material shall be used. In addition to this factor of safety the
Contractor shall determine an adhesion factor for cohesive soils and for cohesionless
soils an earth pressure coefficient taking into account the following as appropriate:

(i) the shear strength of the backfill in contact with the wall,
(ii) the method of placing of backfill material,
(iii) the temporary support system, either left in place or extracted,
(iv) grouting,
(v) the use of bentonite (or polymer),
(vi) the depth below ground surface,
(vii) the drag-down effect on driven supports,

No vertical shear resistance shall be allowed within 2 meters of the ground surface.

20.1.3.5 The overall factor of safety against Flotation shall not be less than 1.15 generally, nor
less than 1.05 when 1.5m of ground is removed from over the tunnel. Additionally, the
structure shall have a factor of safety of not less than 1.03 and 1.07 against flotation at
any construction stage and after the completion of the Permanent Works respectively,
excluding the benefit from skin friction of wall or from shear resistance of the backfill.

20.1.3.6 Where deemed necessary: suitable measures to counteract flotation forces shall be
incorporated in the Contractor's design. The measure(s) chosen shall suit the particular
conditions and method of construction and may include :

(i) Toeing in of the base slab into the surrounding ground.


(ii) Increasing the dead weight of the structure by :
(a) thickening of structural members,
(b) providing an extra thickness of concrete beneath the base slab tied into
the structural base slab,
(c) deepening diaphragm walls.
(iii) The provision of tension piles. For this case, the use of the secant piled wall can
be considered.

It will not normally be acceptable to modify the vertical alignment of the tunnels solely to
counteract the flotation forces. The use of ground anchors as a permanent measure to
counteract flotation forces will not be permitted.

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20.1.3.7 Where the base slab is toed in to the surrounding ground a partial safety factor of 2.0
shall be applied to the shear resistance of the ground above the toe and the adhesion
factor shall not apply. The value of the weight of ground above the toe shall be
calculated as for the backfill material.

20.1.3.8 The value of the weight of any additional thickness of concrete shall take account of the
increased volume of water displaced.

20.1.3.9 The Contractor shall ensure that his method and sequence of construction is such that an
adequate resistance to uplift is maintained at all times.

20.1.4 Base Instability

20.1.4.1 The Contractor shall include in his design for adequate precautions against base heave in
the soft clays during construction. The stability of the bottom of the excavation shall be
checked in accordance with the analysis of Bjerrum and Eide. A surcharge of 15 kN/m2
shall be allowed for, applied at ground level to the ground surrounding the excavation.

20.1.4.2 The sands of the Upper Bangkok Sand (the First Sand Layer) found below water table
can be uniformly graded and thus susceptible to piping failure. The Contractor shall allow
in his design adequate precautions against piping where the sands are to be exposed
and against base failure where the clay cover to the sand would be low.

20.1.4.3 The Contractor shall show in his calculations the contribution made to the base stability of
the excavation by his proposed method of construction and shall state the factor(s) of
safety used in the design. The factor(s) of safety shall relate to the method of
construction and to the particular location of the Works and shall be subject to the
consent of the Employer's Representative.

20.1.4.4 The Contractor shall check the stability of the completed structure against failure due to
base heave under the structure.

20.1.5 Waterproofing

20.1.5.1 Leakage rates shall not exceed a general value of 5 ml/m2 of lining area/hour. For any 10
meters length of tunnel, the leakage rate shall not exceed 10 ml/m2/h. Materials for
expansion joints, caulking etc. shall have acceptable fire performance for use on an
underground railway.

20.1.5.2 The grade of concrete, treatment of construction joints, areas of slab pours and external
membranes shall be chosen such that the required standard of waterproofing can be
achieved.

20.1.5.3 An external membrane shall be provided over the roof of the structure and seal the joints
with the walls to make the roof completely watertight.

20.1.5.4 Detailing of structure shall include provision of splays, chamfers and fillets as appropriate
to facilitate the detailed design, laying and performance of waterproofing membranes.

20.1.6 Heave and Settlement

20.1.6.1 Differential heave and settlement between adjacent structures shall be evaluated and due
allowance incorporated into the size of the structures and detailing of joints to ensure that
the structure gauge is not infringed within the design life.

20.1.6.2 The differential movements, including relative rotation between structures, calculated to
take place after track laying has been carried out, shall not exceed the requirements of
the track design.

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20.1.7 Transition Structures

20.1.7.1 These structures form the transition between the underground interface structures and
the elevated viaducts (and may form the end span support).

20.1.7.2 The design shall consider pressure wave effects at the portals which shall be designed
accordingly to minimizes these effects.

20.1.7.3 Rain water drainage shall be based on the requirements for viaducts given in Clause
26.7. Design shall be based on the catchments area from top of ramp to the mouth of the
portal, all ramp span drainage being considered to be ineffective. Drainage sumps shall
have an appropriate safety factor applied as required by Clause 20.14 below.

20.1.7.4 Surface water drainage is a major design consideration, and the drainage system for the
underground structure shall be designed to protect against floodwater 1.0 m above
adjacent ground level or the 200 year level of flooding, whichever is higher. It shall be
necessary that the transition structure does not constitute a flood route into the
underground system. Cut off drains shall be designed to collect heavy flood water which
may enter the mouth of the tunnel.

20.2 Bored Tunnel Design

General Principles

20.2.1 These principles shall apply to all bored tunnels. Particular applications for crossing under
the Chao Phraya River are given in Appendix 6 herein.

The running tunnels shall comprise either, twin single track tunnels (approximately one
tunnel width apart) or a single double track tunnel. The top of rail alignment is shown on
the Contract plan and profile drawings. Tunnels shall be either circular or horseshoe
shape depending on the soil conditions and the method of construction chosen.

20.2.2 Prior to commencing excavation, the Contractor shall submit full details of his proposed
methods of working to the Employer's Representative for his review and consent. The
Contractor shall ensure that ground movements and changes to the piezometric
pressure, which may affect adjacent subway works, utility services and any adjacent
buildings, surface or underground structures, are kept to a minimum.

20.2.3 The safety and security of all excavations and structures, either surface or underground,
shall, at all times during the execution of the Contract, be the responsibility of the
Contractor. The Contractor shall implement such measures, including supporting,
stanchioning, local dewatering, soil treatment and consolidation, as may be necessary to
fulfill this obligation. The Contractor shall submit full details of such temporary works and
stabilization proposals to the Employer's Representative, for his consent, at least 21 days
in advance of commencing such work. This consent, or any comments given, shall in no
way relieve the Contractor of any of his obligations under the Contract. No work shall
commence prior to the Employer's Representative's consent being given.

20.2.4 All works shall be carried out in compliance with the Contractor's approved Safety Plan.
All aspects of tunnelling shall comply with the requirements of :

BS 6164 Safety in tunnelling in the construction industry.


CIRIA Report 80A A review of instruments for gas and dust monitoring underground.
CIRIA Report 44 Medical Code of Practice for working in compressed air (if applicable).

20.2.5 The design of the linings for the tunnels shall be fully compatible with the Contractor's
proposed method of construction. The principal method is expected to be bored tunnel
(either TBM or shield) with permanent precast concrete or Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron
(SGI) segmental lining.

Proposals for alternative manual methods such as open face techniques using

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compressed air, with segmental linings or temporary support such as NATM and
permanent secondary lining may be considered where TBMs cannot be used.

20.2.6 The Contractor shall consider the data provided at tender stage and undertake any other
investigations which he deems necessary. The design shall also take into account all
(temporary and permanent) loadings, the requirements of the overall schedule, the need
for further investigations if necessary, and contract limitations with regard to ground
movements and de-watering.

20.2.7 The tunnel profile shall generally follow the alignment shown on the Tender Drawings
unless it can be shown that there are advantages (to the Contractor and MRTA) in
following an alternative.

20.2.8 An ultimate load limit state method, such as detailed in British Standard 8110, shall be
used for the design of all permanent underground concrete structures.

20.2.9 The method of analysis of the permanent lining shall take into account the proximity to the
face at the time of installation and the potential for additional ground loads as the face
advances, and any (second) TBM drives passing nearby.

20.2.10 The design method for the analysis of the bored tunnel linings shall take into account the
interaction between the lining and the ground, the deflection of the lining and the
redistribution of the loading dependent upon the relative flexibility of the lining, the
variability and compressibility of the ground. The method of analysis shall conform to the
guidelines of the International Tunnelling Association and Japanese standard of
Japanese Society of Civil Engineering (JSCE).

20.2.11 Where a permanent secondary lining is installed inside a temporary primary lining, the
ground loads used in permanent lining design shall consider all loads as described in
Clause 20.3 and any additional ground loads from time-dependent ground strains. If the
life of the temporary lining is less than the design life for the Project then the Contractor
shall design the secondary lining ignoring the contribution of the temporary support for
structural purposes.

20.2.12 Due account shall be taken of the degree of flexibility of the linings to be used in the
various soil conditions and taking account of the size, proximity, timing and method of
construction of adjacent excavations. The inherent lining flexibility may have to be
reduced in order to maintain acceptable values for the deflection of the lining.

20.2.13 The Contractor shall derive the geotechnical parameters, including groundwater
chemistry, necessary for lining design from the currently available geotechnical
investigation results and the reports provided during tendering augmented, as deemed
necessary, by the Contractors additional investigations. The Contractor shall obtain an
independent review of the data provided to assist in his evaluation. The geotechnical
design parameters adopted and the method of analysis of the lining shall be to the
consent of the Employer's Representative prior to commencement of design.

20.2.14 The Contractor shall design all necessary linings for tunnels and shafts including
temporary linings. If any proprietary materials or components are proposed to be used,
the Contractor shall be responsible for demonstrating their fitness for purpose and subject
to the consent of the Employer's Representative.

20.2.15 The Contractor shall determine the configuration of rings, segmentation and details of
joints and fixings etc. to suit ground conditions, loadings, methods of construction and all
functions in the completed Works as described herein. The design shall address all
aspects, including but not limited to the following, as appropriate:

(a) Ring configurations may include :


rings with parallel circle faces,
tapered rings for specific tunnel curvatures,

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tapered rings designed to suit any special required curvature,


matched or staggered joints,
special rings to allow break-out for cross-passages or shaft connections.
(b) Segment size and form including :
ring length,
segment arc length,
joint details:
plane radial or longitudinal joints,
non-plane joints,
non-radial joints for key segments,
wedge segments.
(c) Fixing details including :
ring to ring fixings,
segment to segment fixings,
for fixing all equipment etc. to suit segment position,
handling and installation
to allow connections at break-out locations and
to allow for fixings of the tunnel M&E equipment.
Designs shall allow for tolerances in production and installation of segments.
(d) Other components :
grout hole valves,
gaskets,
bedding and packing materials.
(e) Instrumentation and monitoring to demonstrate performance of the installed
linings.

20.2.16 The Contractor shall submit for the consent of the Employer's Representative a
comprehensive schedule of tests to establish the quality and performance of all elements
of the tunnel lining, including :

segment materials,
permeability,
production tolerances,
joint performance and load capacity including effect of joint misalignment and birds
mouthing with aligned and misaligned joints,
performance of joint bedding/packing materials,
lateral bending tests to demonstrate resistance to jacking forces,
gasket performance with aligned/misaligned joints,
self sealing grout hole,
capacity of all fixings
capacity to tolerate stresses during storage, transportation and erection forces,
shrinkage etc., during casting and curing process.

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20.3 Loads

20.3.1 The method of analysis shall consider in situ ground stresses and shall provide evidence
and/or measurements to the Employer's Representative in support of the parameters
adopted in the design.

20.3.2 Analysis shall be undertaken of the additional ground loadings imposed by adjacent
structures on the underground structures and due account taken of the additional
stresses in the design of the underground structures.

20.3.3 Where the tunnels are adjacent to buildings or other structures, analysis shall be provided
to ensure that no loss of support can occur which endangers the stability of the buildings
and structures and that predicted settlement will be in accordance with Clause 27.1.5.

20.3.4 All components of underground structures shall be sized or proportioned to withstand the
applied loads and forces as follows:

(a) Dead load comprises the self weight of the basic structure and secondary
elements supported and the weight of earth cover. The depth of cover shall be
the actual depth or a minimum of 3.0 meters. The maximum depth to tunnel invert
shall be used.
(b) Traffic surcharge of a uniform 20kPa shall be used for depths below 2.5 m when
the alignment is below streets. At less than 3.0 m depth, the Contractor shall take
into account wheel loads as submitted to and consented to by the Employer's
Representative.
(c) Loads from existing or known future adjacent structures above or within the area
of influence, which will remain in place above the tunnels, or any specified future
loading. The applicable foundation load shall be computed based on the height
and type of occupancy or use. For known future buildings, a minimum load based
on a dead and live load of 12kPa for each floor, applied at the foundations, shall
be used.
(d) Additional support, ground treatment or additional lining thickening shall be
provided unless it can be shown that adequate provision already exists. Non-
MRTA structures shall not be supported directly by the tunnel lining.
(e) Where provision for a specific future structure is not made, apply a minimum
surcharge of 50 kPa at the existing or proposed ground level.
(f) For hydrostatic design pressures, ignoring pore pressure relief obtained by any
seepage into the tunnel,. Two ground water levels shall be considered.
1. Normal - representing the observed maximum ground water level.
2. One meter above 200 year return Flood level.
(g) Loads and load changes due to known construction activity in the vicinity of the
tunnel, such as the excavation of underpasses, basements, pile groups, bridges,
diaphragm walls and cable ground anchors.
(h) The design of the tunnel linings shall take into account the proximity of the
tunnels one to another, the sequence and timing of construction and the proximity
of adjacent structures and utility services.

20.4 Flotation

20.4.1 Where the bored tunnels are relatively shallow they shall be checked for the possibility of
flotation due to differential water pressure at representative typical locations. In
calculating the uplift (U) and restraining (R) forces a partial safety factor of 2.0 shall be
applied to the average shear resistance of the ground along the planes of failure, and a
partial safety factor of 1.15 shall be applied to the average weight of the ground above the
tunnel, with the exception of the soft clay, to which a partial safety factor of 1.3 shall be
applied. The resultant overall factor of safety (R/U) shall be not less than 1.2.
20.4.2 The relatively shallow bored tunnels in the soft clay shall also be checked for the

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possibility of heave due to shear failure of the ground at tunnel invert level. In this
analysis, a partial safety factor of 2.0 shall be applied to the shear strength of the soil and
a partial safety factor of 1.15 shall be applied to the bulk density of the soil, with the
exception of the soft clay to which a partial safety factor of 1.3 shall be applied.

20.4.3 The overall factor of safety shall be not less than 1.05 when a surcharge is applied at
ground level beside the tunnel, and not less than 1.2 when the surcharge is not
considered.

20.4.4 The bulk density of the soil shall be determined as the average value from the current site
investigation occurring at the tunnel horizon, i.e. over the range of depth from tunnel
crown to invert.

20.4.5 The analysis shall be carried out for drained and undrained shear strength parameters
representative of the locations being considered.

20.4.6 In all checking for flotation and heave, the self weight of the tunnel shall include only the
weight of the lining and shall have a partial safety factor of 1.05 applied to it.

20.4.7 All tunnel designs shall be checked against flotation and heave in accordance with the
methods specified above. Wherever these checks indicate a critical case the Contractor,
at his option, may carry out a more rigorous analysis. Such analysis shall clearly show
the factor of safety achieved by the design and shall be subject to the consent of the
Employer's Representative.

20.5 Compressed Air

Where the Contractor plans to employ compressed air working all necessary bulkheads
and other provisions in the work shall be designed to have no adverse effects on the
integrity and design life of the Permanent Works, including water tightness.

20.6 Tunnel Lining

20.6.1 The permanent tunnel linings shall be bolted segmental precast concrete, spheroidal
graphite cast iron (SGI) or in situ concrete.

20.6.2 Alternative types of lining may be proposed subject to the consent of the Employer's
Representative.

20.6.3 The Contractor shall take into account; inter alia, the following when considering the
design of lining:

(a) The internal diameter shall take into account of the need to accommodate the
Structure Gauge, the emergency walkway following NFPA 130 requirements, M&E
equipment, the tunnel boring construction tolerances and the track bed
arrangement to be provided by the M&E and Trackwork Contractors.

(b) Due allowance for relative movement between tunnels and cut and cover
structure in accordance with Clause 20.1.6.1.

(c) The Contractor shall provide a track invert drain and bottom floor slab (invert
concrete, Stage 1) up to 550 mm below final rail level and any necessary box-
outs to accommodate the requirement of the Trackwork Contractor and others.
The first stage concrete shall be to a tolerance of + 0 mm - 40 mm and will be
unformed concrete finish completed by rough trowelling. The Designated
Contractors for M&E and Trackwork will be responsible for the design and
installation of the second stage invert concrete and track fixings and the electrical
bonding and continuity.

(d) The stiffness of the lining shall be sufficient to limit the maximum allowable
deflection to the values stated in Clause 20.7. The distortional loads adopted
shall also take into account of the speed of reloading of the horizontal and vertical

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ground pressure and in the case of the shallow tunnels, the ability of the ground
above the tunnel to generate sufficient passive resistance to maintain stability of
the lining.

(e) Stresses induced by grouting.

(f) The reinforcement for segmental concrete lining shall be detailed such that no
electrical continuity will exist across the circle joints. However, where applicable,
reinforcement for in situ concrete lining or other structures shall be bonded to
mitigate stray currents. Similarly SGI lining segments shall be bonded to mitigate
stray current effects. The bonding will be part of the corrosion control system to
be installed by the Contractor. The corrosion control system shall be designed in
coordination with the M&E / Trackwork Contractor, and installed by the
Contractor in his first stage concrete if applicable, as consented to by the
Employer's Representative. The system shall be tested (jointly with the M&E
contractor if necessary) to demonstrate its proper function.

(g) Blind holes and other fixings necessary for the installation of internal construction,
brackets and equipment, whether under this Contract or the M & E Contract: Such
holes or fixings shall be detailed such that they have no adverse effect on the
integrity, water tightness or design life of the linings.

20.6.4 Segmental Linings

The Contractor shall take into account; inter alia, the following when considering the
design of linings:

(a) A segment shall be considered as a short column subjected to axial load with a
load factor of 1.7 applied to all loads. The design of the segments shall be
adequate for all temporary loads during stacking, lifting, erection and impact.

(b) The width of segments shall suit the method of construction and shall not be so
large that part shoving of the shield becomes a general necessity.

(c) The width of segments shall be consistent with the capacity of the circle bolting
arrangements to withstand the shear forces induced in linings built with
staggered joints.

(d) The lengths of segments shall be chosen with regard to bending stresses during
handling and erection and the long term stresses due to deflection and thrust
force. In the design for handling and erection a safety factor of 5.0 shall be
applied to the self weight of the segment combined with zero axial load.

(e) Opening of longitudinal joints.

(f) The design of linings shall include suitable taper rings in order to negotiate the
alignment curvature and to correct for line and level during construction with the
minimum use of circumferential joint packers consistent with attaining the
required degree of water tightness of the tunnels; see Clause 20.8 below.

20.6.5 Alternative Construction Methods

Alternative construction methods may involve temporary support followed by permanent


secondary lining. The Contractor shall submit, to the Employer's Representative for
consent, full details of his proposed method of construction including specification of the
proposed permanent secondary lining including formwork details and surface finish.

20.6.6 The Contractor's Quality Plan, inter liaison, shall describe all aspects of concrete
construction including : measuring, mixing, delivery, placing, pumping, compaction, form
stripping, position tolerances, concrete sampling and testing procedures.
20.6.7 The size and sequence of pours and the sequence of erection and in situ connection of

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precast units other than tunnel lining segments shall be agreed with the Employer's
Representative prior to commencement of the section of the Works.

20.6.8 Primary support shall be :

designed to minimize ground movements and provide a safe working environment for
its required life;
must suit the anticipated and actual ground conditions and be agreed before use by
the Employer's Representative;
accompanied by monitoring, as consented to by the Employer's Representative, to
verify that actual performance is as expected;
Designed to support exposed ground where excavation is discontinued for more than
4 hours.

20.6.9 Permanent secondary support shall:

comply with the requirements for permanent secondary lining as given in Clause 20.6,
comply with the waterproofing requirements contained in Clause 20.8,
include measures to ensure that all voids outside the in situ concrete are grouted,
comply with the general build tolerances.
be formed as a series of straight chords provided the minimum thickness is
maintained and that the finished inside surface does not deviate inside the theoretical
designed location.

20.7 As-built Tolerances

20.7.1 The as-built internal profiles of segmentally lined shafts and tunnels and cast in situ lining
shall not depart from their design position by more than 75mm (to include setting out and
build errors and deflection).

20.7.2 The internal profile of each ring of machine or shield driven tunnels shall not deviate from
the true circle by more than 25 mm, that is, any diameter of the as-built ring shall not
differ from the design internal diameter by more than +/- 50 mm, or lesser dimensions if
required by the Contractors design.

20.8 Waterproofing

20.8.1 During construction in water bearing ground, the water may be controlled by chemical
consolidation, ground freezing, compressed air or other means. The Contractor shall
obtain the Employer's Representative's prior agreement to the process he intends to
adopt. Pumping of large quantities of water, such that the support for adjacent structures
or the piezometric pressure in the vicinity is altered, will not be permitted.

20.8.2 A high standard of waterproofing of the tunnel linings shall be provided. Groundwater
leakage rates shall not exceed 0.12 litre/m2/day. For any 10m length of tunnel the water
ingress rate shall not exceed 0.24 litre/m2/day. In particular leakage with drips onto track,
E&M equipment, or M&E equipment must be avoided at all times. Leakage next to the
emergency walkway must not flow across the walkway or form puddles thereon.

20.8.3 The design shall incorporate sealing gaskets in the segment design. Materials for sealing
gaskets shall be hydrophilic or elastomeric type or a combination of the two. It is
anticipated that conventional caulking will not be adequate. Materials shall have
acceptable fire performance for use on an underground railway (e.g. NFPA 220).

20.8.4 Notwithstanding the above limits on groundwater leakage rates, the design shall aim to
ensure that no loss of ground occurs (or salts forming thick deposits) through any part of
the completed structure. All grouting holes shall be fitted with non-return valves.

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20.9 Temporary Access or Retrieval Shafts

20.9.1 The principal method of access for erection, launching and retrieval of tunnelling
machines is expected to be at the tunnel portal, or within cut and cover tunnels or, in the
ends of station box structures. If provision cannot be made in the structural design of the
station works or the construction programme the Contractor shall design alternative
temporary access shafts outside the permanent wall of the station, and shall be
responsible for traffic planning submittals and for obtaining all appropriate approvals from
the relevant authorities and the Employer's Representatives consent prior to
commencement of the tunnel works.

20.9.2 Temporary access provisions within the station box or outside the permanent wall of the
station shall be designed and constructed to ensure the integrity of the temporary works
and permanent structure at all stages of the work and the water tightness of the
completed station and tunnels.

20.9.3 The scope of work shall include, inter alia, the following :

(a) Any additional site investigation considered necessary by the Contractor to


design and execute the work.
(b) Topographic, utility and building condition survey, including piles and foundations
close to the shaft.
(c) Analysis of potential ground movement effects and the design of measures to
control such effects.
(d) Structural design of the shaft to meet the requirements in the Specification for cut
and cover design, and
(e) Traffic management associated with shaft locations.

20.9.4 The Contractor shall ensure the compatibility of permanent and temporary Works designs
and construction schedules and that construction interfaces are resolved.

20.9.5 Temporary access shafts shall be backfilled with concrete or other approved compacted
material in accordance with the Outline Construction Specifications. Temporary works
shall be removed to at least 3 m below original ground surface level, unless otherwise
instructed, prior to reinstatement works.

20.9.6 Temporary Access Shafts

(a) It is assumed that the design and construction of temporary access shafts in
conjunction with the permanent works may be necessary. The design shall aim
to minimize long term traffic disruption at each location.
(b) The size, layout, traffic management and period of occupation of road space at
each access shaft shall be included in the Contractor's submissions for consent
by the Employers Representative.

20.10 Underpinning of Existing Structures

20.10.1 General

Where the construction of tunnels or other underground works would necessitate removal
of existing support or foundations to existing structures which are public properties, the
Contractor shall carry out investigations of the nature and extent of the existing works,
their design and loading conditions. Subject to the agreement of the owner of the
structure the Contractor shall design and carry out such works as are necessary to
maintain the integrity of the structure at all times including its design life. No work shall
commence prior to the approval of the Employer, other relevant authority and the consent
of the Employer's Representative being given.

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20.10.2 Khlong Bridges

(1) The assumed alignment shown on the Contract Drawings passes through the
foundation piles of road bridges over Khlongs.
(2) The flow of water in the Khlongs is to be maintained at all times, to the approval
of the Irrigation Department or BMA. The Contractor shall ensure that any
temporary or permanent works are such that the capacity of the waterway meets
the maximum anticipated flows in that section of the Khlong, and to allow
maintenance and cleaning of the waterway as necessary to ensure that flow
capacities are maintained.
(3) In the case of navigable khlongs, adequate width of waterway with a minimum
clear height of 2.5m above water level shall be maintained at all times to permit
navigation, subject to the approval of the Harbour Department.
(4) The Contractor shall take account of potential differential settlement, between
elements of the existing structure to be left in place, the underpinning works, and
the tunnels or cut and cover tunnels.
(5) The design shall suit the Contractor's method and sequence of construction and
tunneling, and the efficient traffic management.

20.11 As-built Tunnel Survey (Wriggle Survey)

(1) The Contractor shall undertake an as-built tunnel survey upon completion of the
lining and invert concrete (Stage 1 concrete). The survey will include measuring
the position of the lining at 5 m interval cross-sections, at the crown, invert, axes
positions and at intervening quarter points. The results of the survey shall be
submitted to the Employer's Representative immediately after completing each
100 m length of the tunnel. The results will show the deviations of the as-built
cross-sections from the design cross-sections.
The Contractor shall be responsible for analyzing the results of the as-built
survey to demonstrate that there are no infringements of the required cross-
sections, and for reviewing the track alignment where appropriate and as may be
agreed by the Employer's Representative.

(2) Permanent survey monuments, at 40 m maximum intervals, shall be established


at the tunnel axis, or as directed for the use of the M&E/ Trackwork Contractors
and the Employer's Representative.

(3) The results of the as-built survey shall be provided to the Designated Contractor
for Trackwork Contract, and others as directed by the Employer's Representative.

20.12 Cross Passages

20.12.1 Cross passages shall be located in accordance with NFPA 130.

20.12.2 The locations of cross passages on the Tender drawings have, wherever possible, been
chosen to avoid critical sections of the alignment where their construction could have an
adverse effect on construction safety and adjacent structures.

20.12.3 The openings into the running tunnels shall have a finished door width of 2.4 m and a
finished height of 2.1 m. Throughout the cross passage a minimum headroom of 2.1 m
shall be maintained over a width of 2.4 m.

20.12.4 The cross passage floor screed shall be laid to falls and drain into the running tunnel
drainage system. Floor level shall correspond with the level of the tunnel escape route.

20.12.5 A concrete bulkhead fitted with steel door and frame shall be constructed to isolate the
cross passage from each running tunnel. The doors shall be self closing and latching and
have a fire resistance of 2 hours minimum and shall be capable of withstanding the

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maximum differential pressures on either side created by the passage of trains. Maximum
force to open the door shall not exceed 150N. Any mechanism needed to operate the
door must be demonstrated to be of ahigh reliability and durability.

20.12.6 The tunnel lining may be bolted segmental precast concrete or SGI and shall be designed
generally in accordance with the requirements of the above Clauses with the following
exception :
(a) The maximum allowable deflection on radius shall be 15 mm.

20.12.7 The junctions with the running tunnels shall be steel framed and encased with reinforced
in situ concrete for fire protection. The junctions shall be designed to support fully the
running tunnel linings at the openings together with the ground and groundwater loads on
the junction itself, and maintain the specified water tightness of the tunnels.

20.12.8 Where openings are to be formed in running tunnels having segmental concrete or SGI
linings, temporary internal supports to the running tunnel lining shall be provided. These
supports shall adequately restrain the lining such that, on completion of the cross
passage and removal of the temporary supports, the total deflection of the lining does not
exceed the requirements of Clause 20.7 above.

20.13 Intervention Shafts

20.13.1 The Contractor shall design and construct intervention shafts as part of the permanent
works where required.

20.13.2 The scope of the work shall include but not be limited to:

(a) Any additional soil investigation considered necessary by the Contractor in order
to complete the design and execute the work.
(b) Topographic, utility and building condition inspections prior to commencement of
the work.
(c) Development of a safe, durable and cost effective structural detailed design
based on the Tender information and additional investigations as necessary.
(d) The shaft may be a vertical bolted precast concrete segmentally lined structure, a
vertical diaphragm wall box with internal concrete walls or a further alternative
construction. Using segmentally lined structures the design of the shaft linings
shall comply with the requirements for tunnel linings. Construction tolerances
shall be in accordance with Clause 20.7. Water tightness shall comply with the
requirements of Clause 20.8.
In order to minimize the degree of ground movement, which may induce damage
to adjacent buildings especially in historical or cultural specific area, construction
with diaphragm wall boxes may be necessary.
For the chosen construction method the ground movement shall be evaluated
and monitored as required during the construction period. The preferred method
shall be proposed to Employers Representative for consent.
(e) Any alternative form of construction shall comply with the appropriate Clauses of
the Specification.

20.13.3 Shafts and Shaft-head structures shall be designed to provide:

(a) direct access to a cross passage,


(b) access to a place of safety at ground level,
(c) convenient access for Emergency Services personnel and equipment,
(d) safe exit for detrained passengers,
(e) prevent unauthorized access to shaft and tunnels from ground level.
20.13.4 Requirements for the shaft include:

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(a) an internal size of the not less than 6.0m internal diameter or rectangular
equivalent to provide the same facilities,
(b) an access passageway/opening to the cross passage to provide a 2.1m high x
2.4m wide clear passage width not infringed by equipment or services,
(c) stairway between ground (flood protection) level and tunnel level of steel. Open
grid construction will not be permitted, because open grid steel is not suitable for
public use,
(d) space for an equipment/stretcher hoist,
(e) fire main, lighting and emergency lighting, cableways and, if appropriate, a
pumped discharge main,
(f) sufficient free cross sectional area to enable the shaft to be used to exhaust
smoke from the tunnels in the event of a fire incident and
(g) cable routes for lighting, ventilation fans, LCX radio cable.

20.13.5 An access and equipment room shall be provided at ground level designed :

(a) to provide flood protection (raised entrance platform),


(b) to incorporate draught relief louvers and dampers, and reversible fans and
ducting for emergency ventilation from ground level to base of shaft,
(c) the weatherproof Fireman's Control Panel, telephone and fire main Valve
Cupboard - both accessed from outside the building,
(d) such that its architectural treatment is compatible with the style adopted for
ventilation shafts and entrances at stations, and readily identifiable by the
Emergency Services, with good vehicle access.

20.14 Sumps in Running Tunnels

20.14.1 Sumps shall be located at every low point within each running tunnel.

20.14.2 Wherever practicable the vertical alignment shall be chosen such that the locations of
sumps avoid critical sections where their construction could have an adverse effect on
adjacent structures.

20.14.3 The size of each sump shall take account of the anticipated rate of flow into the sump, the
priority rating, the number and types of pumps to be installed and the reserve capacity
required above alarm level.

20.14.4 The reserve capacity of a groundwater seepage sump shall be calculated on the basis of
the area of tunnel lining applicable to the sump in accordance with the following formula.
VR = A * v * t * F.O.S. *10-3
where
VR = Volume of reserve, m3
A = Tunnel lining area, m2
v = Maximum leakage rate, l/m2/h
t = Maximum response time, h (hour)
F.O.S = Factor of Safety

20.14.5 For running tunnel low point sumps, the response time t shall be 24 hours and the factor
of safety shall be 2.0.

20.14.6 The sump design shall include outlets for the longitudinal drain pipe and discharge mains,
temporary pumps of suitable capacity and temporary power connection. Sumps shall be
fitted with steel covers and provided with step irons or access ladder as consented to.
Permanent discharge mains shall be installed as well as embedment of conduits for
permanent electric power cables to the pumps.

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20.14.7 The Contractor shall investigate the overall capital cost and running costs and feasibility
of either installing the discharge mains in the tunnel or a direct pumping main through a
borehole to the surface and submit his recommendation for consent.

20.14.8 The linings of the sumps shall be designed for the appropriate ground and groundwater
loads.

20.14.9 The design and construction of the junctions with the running tunnel linings shall be in
accordance with the general requirements of this Outline Design Specifications.

20.14.10 The arrangement of temporary pumps and pipework shall allow the installation of
permanent pumps and a switch over at substantial completion after trackwork
installation is complete.

21. COVERED APPROACHES AND SUBWAYS

21.1 General

The designs provided under this Clause shall also satisfy the requirements of Clause
20.1

21.1.1 The Contractor shall use design methods for the analysis of the covered approach
structures which take account of the following :

(i) The method of construction, including temporary works.


(ii) The ground/structure interaction, including the effects of temporary works.
(iii) Ground pressure redistribution and bending moment redistribution.
(iv) Short and long term heave and settlement.
(v) Groundwater loading, backfill, temperature and other imposed loadings such as
surcharge and highway loadings.

21.1.2 For the purpose of assessing ground pressures the walls of the covered approach shall
be considered as either free ended or propped cantilevers as appropriate for the
proposed roof slab connection. In either case the ground pressure shall be taken as the
at rest value.

21.2 Types of Construction

21.2.1 The method of construction for the covered approach structure shall take into account the
following :

(i) The geology along the length of the approach structure.


(ii) The hydrogeology and ground permeabilities of the site.
(iii) The maximum depth of construction required.
(iv) Control over heave and instability of the base of the excavation.
(v) The methods by which the completed structure shall be secured against flotation.
(vi) The method for waterproofing the completed structure.

21.2.2 For types of construction see Clause 20.1.2.2 above.

21.3 Flotation
.
The Contractor shall include in the design of the covered approach structures suitable
methods for countering the uplift due to displaced water generally in accordance with
Clause 20.1.3 above.
21.4 Base Heave in Soft Clays

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21.4.1 The excavation during construction for covered approach structures shall be checked for
base heave in accordance with Clauses 20.1.4.1 to 20.1.4.3 above.

21.4.2 The completed covered approach structures shall be checked against base heave in
accordance with Clause 20.1.4.4 above.

21.5 Heave and Settlement

Differential heave and settlement shall be considered in accordance with Clause 20.1.6
above.

22. UNDERGROUND STATION DESIGN

22.1 General

22.1.1 The Contractor shall use design methods for the analysis of the underground station
structures which take account of the following :

(i) The method of construction, including temporary works.


(ii) The ground/structure interaction, including the effects of temporary works.
(iii) Ground pressure redistribution and bending moment redistribution.
(iv) Short and long term heave and settlement.
(v) Ground water loading, backfill and other imposed loadings such as surcharge
and highway loadings.
(vi) The interfaces with temporary and permanent tunnel works.

22.1.2 For the purpose of assessing ground pressures the underground station shall be
regarded as a rigid box structure subject to earth pressure at rest.

22.2 Types of Construction

22.2.1 The method of construction for the cut and cover stations shall (as a minimum) take into
account the following :

(i) The geology at the Station Site.


(ii) The hydrogeology and ground permeability at the station site.
(iii) The degree of settlement which would be expected. In this context the proximity
of the works to existing structures must be considered.
(iv) The depth of construction required, levels of excavation and propping required,.
(v) Any particular difficulties that special plant might meet with in respect of access,
clearances and working space. The possible need to push a TBM through a
partially built station.
(vi) Control over heave and instability of the base of the excavation.
(vii) The methods by which the completed structure shall be secured against flotation,
and how slabs will be effectively connected to walls will a watertight joint.
(viii) The method for waterproofing the completed structure.
(ix) The traffic management in the area and the proximity of adjacent buildings.
22.2.2 For types of construction see Clause 20.1.2.2 above.

22.2.3 In all cases the need to support existing services adequately across or near to the
excavation shall be taken into account.

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22.3 Flotation

The Contractor shall include in the design of the station structure suitable methods for
countering the uplift due to displaced water generally in accordance with Clause 20.1.3
above.

22.4 Base Heave in Soft Clays

22.4.1 The excavation for the station during construction shall be checked for base heave in the
soft clays in accordance with Clauses 20.1.4.1 to 20.1.4.3 above.

22.4.2 The completed station structure shall be checked against base heave in accordance with
Clause 20.1.4.4 above.

22.5 Waterproofing

22.5.1 A high standard of waterproofing of the station structure will be required. Groundwater
leakage rates shall not exceed a general value of 5 ml/m2/hr. For any 100 square meter
of structure the leakage rate shall not exceed 1000/ml/hr.

22.5.2 An external waterproofing membrane shall be provided over any below ground roof of the
structure to make the roof completely watertight.

22.5.3 Detailing of structures shall include provision of splays, chamfers and fillets as
appropriate to facilitate the laying and performance of waterproofing membranes.

22.6 Heave and Settlement

Differential heave and settlement shall be considered in accordance with Clause 20.1.6
above.

23. SOIL IMPROVEMENT WORKS

23.1 General

23.1.1 The Contractor shall appoint a Professional Engineer who shall prepare a detailed design
of the soil improvement works for the acceptance of the Engineer.

A detailed description of the proposed instrumentation plan and programme for the
monitoring and controlling of the soil improvement works during the ground treatment
shall be submitted to the Engineer for acceptance.

23.1.2 Soil improvement works is subject to providing improvement of stiff clay conditions as a
minimum requirement and detailed design proposed by contractor.

23.2 Area of soil improvement works

Area of soil improvement using jet grouting method shall take into account the following :

(i) Break in/launch of any station and cut & cover part.
(ii) Sump pump of tunnel
(iii) Passage adit of Intervention Shaft
(iv) Cross passage.
(v) Underpinning of existing structures.
23.3 Sensitivity in soft clays

In the area of soft clays which tunnelling affect on the damage for building above
tunnelling area therefore soil improvement shall be checked by contractor and be agreed
before use by the Employers Representative.

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SECTION F : NOT USED

24 NOT USED

25. NOT USED

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SECTION G: NOT USED

26. NOT USED

27. NOT USED

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SECTION H: NOT USED

28. NOT USED

29. NOT USED

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SECTION I: DRAINAGE

30. DRAINAGE DESIGN

30.1 Pavement Drainage

Pavement design shall be based on a 50 year return period storm of one hour duration.

30.2 Slope Protection Drainage

Protective measures to collect run off from slopes and up-slope catchment shall be
included in the design. Design shall be based upon a 200 year return period storm.

30.3 Not Used

30.4 Not Used

30.5 Ground Water Seepage

30.5.1 Ground water seepage penetrating the structural walls shall be kept to a minimum and
shall not exceed the values stated elsewhere.

30.5.2 As a precautionary measure a cavity wall shall be constructed as an inner lining to the
structural wall unless otherwise consented to by the Employer's Representative. Within
the bottom of the cavity shall be formed a drainage channel 100mm diameter laid to falls
of not less 1 in 200, and discharging to outlets of not less than 100mm dia. The channels
shall be lined with a suitable waterproofing membrane. Access panels within the wall
shall be constructed to permit inspection and maintenance of the drainage system. At the
intermediate levels where floors form an integral part of the structural box, channels shall
be formed and laid to falls within the slab and connected to outlets of 100mm minimum
diameter, situated at 10m centres. Water collected shall drain to a sump placed at the
lowest level of the station.

30.6 Sumps

30.6.1 The Contractor shall design and locate the soil drainage, groundwater seepage and fire
fighting water sumps to suit the individual requirements of each station.

30.6.2 The size of each sump shall take account of the anticipated rate of flow into the sump, the
priority rating, the number and types of pumps to be installed and the reserve capacity
required above alarm level. This reserve capacity shall be determined from consideration
of the response time of a maintenance crew to an alarm signal, the accessibility of the
sump and the consequential effect of an overflow.

30.6.3 Wherever practicable sumps shall be located such as to be readily accessible for
inspection and maintenance during times when trains are running.

30.6.4 Sumps shall be fitted with steel covers and provided with step irons or access ladders
within the sump as appropriate.

30.6.5 Provision shall be made in the design of the sumps for the discharge mains and power
supply cables to the pumps. The layout shall be such as to facilitate the removal and
replacement of pumps.

30.7 Tunnel Drainage

Refer to Clause 20.14 for tunneling drainage.

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SECTION J: SETTLEMENT

31. SETTLEMENT AND BUILDINGS PROTECTION

31.1 General

31.1.1 The Contractor shall design both his temporary and permanent works to ensure that
ground movements are kept to an absolute minimum. The Contractor shall use proven
techniques and good workmanship is essential to restrict ground loss.

31.1.2 The construction of tunnels and open excavations gives rise to ground movement, at and
around the excavation, which can lead to settlement of the ground surface. Lowering of
piezometric pressure can also lead to consolidation of loose sediments, reduction in pile
skin friction and sediment transport in loose sand aquifers. Excavation can also result in
the change of in situ stresses which may effect existing or planned future structures.

31.1.3 The Contractor shall be responsible for the control of all ground movements and for any
resulting damage to buildings and roads. The Contractor's attention is drawn to the
General Conditions of Contract and Employer's Requirements relating to repair of
damage should any arise as a result of the tunneling or excavation.

31.1.4 The Contractor shall take due regard of the presence of utilities over and adjacent to the
Works. Ground settlements introduce the risk of damage to these utilities and a
consequent possible interruption of supply. The Contractor shall therefore carefully and
regularly monitor the ground adjacent to open cut excavations and along tunnel drives to
determine the rate and magnitude of any settlements.

31.1.5 Settlement shall be limited such that any individual structure or building shall not suffer
damage greater than "Slight" as defined in the Damage Classification Table 31.1.

31.1.6 The general approach to settlement control and building protection shall involve the
procedures described below.

31.1.7 The Contractor shall design and construct all elevated structures taking into account the
Differential Settlement Reduction Structure (DSRS) as shown in Volume 6 Tender
Drawings in order to minimize the differential settlement, both in short term and long term,
between the areas above the foundation of the elevated structures and the adjacent
areas.

31.2 Minimising Ground Movements

31.2.1 Tunnels, cut and cover structures, station boxes, viaduct piles and pile caps shall be
constructed in such a way as to minimise ground movements through immediate
installation of support to the ground and to minimise the inflow of water. Care should be
exercised to ensure over excavation does not take place.

31.2.2 Construction from the surface shall be undertaken with due regard to the settlement,
associated with the particular method chosen. In particular, the following methods will not
be permitted :

1. Ground Water lowering by pumping.

2. Use of ground anchors beneath adjacent buildings.

3. Non-recoverable timber ground support.

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31.3 Prediction of Ground Movements

31.3.1 The Contractor shall obtain consent from the Employer's Representative for his proposed
methods of predicting settlements adjacent to the structures. Proven methods based on
practical experience shall be used.

31.3.2 The Contractor shall provide predictive assessments of the anticipated ground
movements when making submittal for consent of his proposed method of construction of
particular sections of tunnel.

31.4 Structure Condition Survey

The Contractor shall undertake a condition survey of all structures within the zone of
potential influence as determined by the Contractor's analysis which are anticipated to
incur movements in excess of the action level for Stage 1 specified below. `Structures`
includes all surface and sub-surface structures including buildings, bridges, roads,
tunnels, utilities, culverts and sewers.

31.5 Assessment of Impact on Structures

31.5.1 The Contractor shall provide an assessment of the effect of the predicted movement on
all structures within the zone of influence.

31.5.2 Settlements shall be limited as defined in Clause 31.1.5 above.

31.5.3 Each building shall be categorised into one of the risk categories, in accordance with
criteria listed in column 5 of the Damage Classification Table 31.1.

31.5.4 Depending upon the level of risk, precautionary and protective measures shall be
proposed by the Contractor and put into effect after consent from the Employer's
Representative.

31.6 Staged Assessment

31.6.1 Assessment of the effects of settlement shall be undertaken in one, two or three stages,
depending upon the findings at each stage, as described below :-

Stage 1

The effect of building foundations on the pattern of settlement are ignored. Any structure
where the predicted settlement is less than 10mm and the predicted ground slope is less
than 1/500, need not be subject to further assessment. All other structures within the
zone of influence shall be subjected to a Stage 2 assessment.

Stage 2

Structures subject to settlement from bored tunnels shall be individually assessed using a
limiting tensile strain approach as described by Burland et al (1) and Boscardin and
Cording (2). This method of assessment takes into account the tensile strains in the
ground and uses a simple idealised model of the building.

In the case of cut and cover excavations, the assessment shall be based on the work of
Peck (3) and Clough and O'Rourke (4) using parameters derived from recent case
histories.

References :-

(1) Burland JB, Broms JB and de Mello VFB (1977) Behaviour of foundations and
structures

(2) Boscardin MD and Cording EJ (1989) Building response to excavation induced


settlement

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(3) Peck (RB) Deep excavation and Tunnelling in soft ground

(4) Clough and O'Rourke (1990) Construction induced movements of insite PRO.
ASCE specialty conference, cornell, ASCE Geo special publication 25.

Stage 3

All structures which are placed in Category 3 or above in the Damage Classification
Table 31.1, during the second stage assessment, shall be subjected to a further
settlement assessment. A structural survey shall be undertaken by the Contractor to
determine the structural form and condition of a building, followed by an analysis of how
individual elements of the building would be affected by the predicted settlement. The
method, extent and detail of the analysis will be determined on a case-by-case basis and
may include, inter alia, an analysis of the soil/structure interaction, structural behaviour,
and the possible effects of differential stiffness of the foundations.

31.6.2 As a result of the Stage 3 analysis, the requirement for any protective works shall be
established and the details of any protective works including designs and method of
working determined. Details of such works shall be submitted to the Employer's
Representative for his consent.

31.7 Monitoring

31.7.1 Monitoring of ground settlement shall be carried out during construction by the
Contractor, to check that the ground is behaving as predicted. The Contractor shall
submit for the Employer's Representative's consent a monitoring system and procedures
to immediately detect movements in accordance with ERC Clause 31 and Appendix 16 of
the Employers Requirements.

31.7.2 The extent of monitoring of structures shall be carried out on a case-by-case basis
depending upon the assessment of risk of damage. Monitoring shall begin prior to
commencement of settlement to enable base-line values to be determined accurately,
and shall continue until all settlement due to the underground works, as shown by the
monitoring, has effectively stopped for a period of three months.

31.7.3 Monitoring results shall be available for inspection at the construction site offices, by the
Employer's Representative and reported to the Employers Representative in accordance
with Appendix 16 of the Employers Requirements.

31.8 Preventive Measures to Reduce Settlement

31.8.1 Generally, measures taken to reduce the risk of damage to structures shall consist of
adopting good tunnelling practices, in order to reduce settlement. Such practices will
include:

(a) The use of modern purpose built tunnelling machines and/or methods
appropriate to the ground conditions.

(b) Tunnelling techniques that provide for immediate support of the tunnel excavation
and the face if open face techniques are adopted.

(c) A high level of supervision of the works to ensure compliance with good working
practice.

31.8.2 If the Stage 3 settlement analysis of a structure indicates that measures to restrict the
effect of settlement on the structure are required, special protective measures shall be
proposed and undertaken subject to the Employer's Representative's consent

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Table 31.8 -1: Building Damage Classification

Building Damage Classification1


(after Burland et al, 1977 and Boscardin and Cording, 1989)
1 2 3 4 5
Risk Description Description of Typical Damage and Likely Form Approx2 Crack Max
Categor of Degree of Repair for Typical Masonry Buildings Width Tensile
of Damage (mm) Strain %
0 Negligible Hairline cracks. Less
than 0.05
1 Very Fine cracks easily treated during normal 0.1 to 1 0.5 to
Slight redecorations. Perhaps isolated slight fracture in 0.075
building. Cracks in exterior brickwork visible upon
close inspection.
2 Slight Cracks easily filled. Redecoration probably 1 to 5 0.075 to
required. Several slight fractures inside building. 0.15
Exterior cracks visible : some repointing may be
required for weather tightness. Doors and
windows may stick slightly.
3 Moderate Cracks may require cutting out and patching. 5 to 15 0.15
Recurrent cracks can be masked by suitable or a number of to 0.3
linings. Tuck-pointing and possibly replacement cracks greater
of a small amount of exterior brickwork may be than 3
required. Doors and windows sticking. Utility
services may be interrupted. Weathertightness
often impaired.
4 Severe Extensive repair involving removal and 15 to 25 Greater
replacement of sections of walls, especially over but also than 0.3
doors and windows required. Windows and door depends on
frames distorted. Floor slopes noticeably. Walls number of
lean or bulge noticeably, some loss of bearing in cracks
beams. Utility services disrupted.
5 Very Severe Major repair required involving partial or complete Usually greater
reconstruction. Beams lose bearing, walls lean than 25 but
badly and require shoring. Windows broken by depends on
distortion. Danger of instability. number of
cracks

Notes :
1. The table is based on the work of Burland et al (1977) and includes typical maximum tensile
strains for the various damage categories (column 5) used in the stage 2 settlement analysis.
2. Crack width is only one aspect of damage and should not be used on its own as a direct measure
of it.

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