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Spray-applied waterproofing membrane

is an area of growth for the
waterproofing industry.
BASFs Masterseal 345
waterproofing membrane
was used extensively on
Londons Crossrail project.

Modern waterproofing methods are multi-step other materials, and they are taking the
possibilities a step further. We can effectively
processes and more watertight than ever, glue two layers together with the MasterSeal
345 - a sprayable, double-bonded membrane
NATJ investigates - to create slimmer linings, with lower
maintenance costs and faster tunnel
STOPPING THE WATER may seem like a where polymer-based sheet membranes - ei- construction, said Clement. The company is
simple process, but in a tunnel connected to ther PVC or Flexible Polyolefin (FPO) - have performing joint research with consulting firm
caverns and cross passages the geometry of been the standard for years. What we are Arup to develop a computerized design tool
that stoppage is complex. In straightforward seeing is continual increased acceptance of for this type of solution employing
conventionally built or TBM-driven tunnels, sprayable membranes. We started offering MasterSeal 345 in a composite sprayed
conditions such as extreme temperature, them in 1999, and the first application was at concrete lining model. The tool is meant to
difficult variable ground and required design a project in 2000 in Brazil. It was a slow be a starting point for designers. We wanted
life of more than a century up the ante for a process to get acceptance from designers. to understand what the action on composite
long-lasting waterproof solution. Water- Then in 2013 the ITA developed its Design lining would be from the technical side, but
proofing methods vary by tunnel - sprayed Guidance for Spray-Applied Waterproofing we realized the final product could benefit
liners and PVC or other polymer-based liners Membranes, and there were now guidelines designers, said Hyuk-Il Jung, Tunnel
work in concert with injectable materials, where there hadnt been before. Today we Discipline lead for Arup. The company tested
specialized concrete, grout and drainage are seeing much more acceptance, said core samples to calibrate parameters and core
systems. Customized solutions are verified Frank Clement, Global Technical Manager values, and then employed laminated glass
by computer models that guarantee greater Membranes for BASF Underground Construc- theory - a theory using two similar materials
efficiency, longer lifespan, and durability in tion. inside and outside with a glue between
specific conditions. In short, the world of BASFs MasterSeal 345 is the companys layers. Of course glass is much thinner but
waterproofing has gone high-tech. currently offered spray-applied solution, the principal is still the same. With the new
featuring double-bonding capabilities, calibrations it could be applied to tunnel
Sprayable Solutions meaning that it adheres to both the initial lining, said Jung. We worked from a failure
Sprayable waterproofing membranes are the liner and final liner. The flexible membrane zone concept, based on shear strength
latest trend in a waterproofing industry can adhere to concrete, steel, wood, and parameters we obtained from the cores. And



Arup and BASF have

developed a model
based on the action of
Masterseal 345 with a
composite lining to
help designers. The
model was calibrated
using core samples,
shown here, and a
variety of other tests.

well as the application procedure. We are in a a double layer full-round system along the
good position because we have both section characterized by higher quantity of
solutions and we have the knowhow to water. Waterstops are installed along
combine both the technologies on the same construction joints (in the full-round section)
project. and a backup system of injection valves has
Rimon Salah, Corporate Global Key been installed in case of leaks.
Specifier Manager for Sika, emphasized that The integrated approach is something Sika
the future industry focus needs to be on has developed as well. Their Sikaplan systems
standardization of spray-applied membranes: are addressing longer design life and
This includes standardizing the 100-year increased durability needs for longer and
design life and the position of sprayed deeper tunnels. Notably, the system has been
membranes within the tunnel lining section. used on large-scale projects like the Gotthard
There is a drive towards single shell linings, base tunnel. For the Gotthard base tunnel
and understanding the load sharing behavior the specially designed Sikaplan14.6 NEAT

we found that ultimately the secondary lining
thickness can be reduced by 20-30% when
between concrete shells through the
membranes, and through any sprayed
concrete lining is critical.

Comprehensive Combinations
Long-term sustainability on a given project
often requires a custom solution and an inte-
grated design. The latest waterproofing sys-
membrane was used to withstand extreme
conditions at temperatures greater than 40C
combined with a life expectancy of more
than 100 years, said Rimon. Their Sikaplan
membranes have been newly redesigned to
be compliant with Europes new REACH
guidelines regarding specific raw materials
(Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and
composite action is considered. Jung tems combine a waterproofing membrane, Restriction of Chemicals). Their latest offering,
describes this as his finding of greatest dewatering, and/or a long-term leak preven- Sikaplan WP 2101, is a certified, PVC-based
magnitude, and discusses the research in tion strategy. membrane that passes all of the latest
more detail in his technical paper on page 18 Over the years the mechanical and requirements, standards, and REACH
of TJ. Currently Arup and BASF are working to chemical characteristics of the PVC-P regulations in Europe.
confirm the models findings with real-scale membrane have improved, growing the life The lining itself is a key part of the overall
testing, on both a jobsite and in a test yard. expectancy of the material to match the waterproofing strategy but it is by no means
Accelerated tests will confirm the linings requirements of the most challenging jobs in the only layer. Drainage solutions are often
longevity, while fire testing will also be done the world, said Pavese. For Mapei UTT, the required as well as grouting to keep water
to see how properties and longevity might goal was to provide a system with a minimum pressures stabilized and reduced in hard rock
change after extreme heat. BASF and Arup life expectancy of 120 years as well as tunnels. In my view, drainage systems will
are taking the idea on the road this year and something that addressed leaks. Their system, remain the biggest market, drainage is a key
next to present the idea to designers in called Mapeplan, has been used on several element of any waterproofing or damp
Singapore, Hong Kong, and Australia and high profile projects including the Brenner proofing system. Surface drainage is the first
gather opinions on how the model could be Base Tunnel in Austria. The system is applied opportunity to mitigate water infiltration. A
improved. in phases and using partitions that essentially drainage layer reduces hydrostatic pressure on
However, spray-on membranes need not be compartmentalize the entire structure and the membrane, which improves performance
considered in a vacuum, says Enrico Pavese, localize any leaks that may occur. In this way a and longevity, said Rimon.
Waterproofing Specialist for Mapeis leak can be addressed by grouting a small Injection Grouting is another key factor to
Underground Technology Team. area and the location of the leak is well keeping a hard rock tunnel dry and a
Sprayable membranes are being required known - separate compartments are treated waterproof lining in good working order.
on more and more projects; however, we as their own entities, while control and Avantis grouting solutions include
dont consider sprayable membranes as a injection valves make repair of the membrane cementitious grout, polyurethane foams and
parallel alternative to PVC - they are different possible even in inaccessible areas. acrylic grouts that are widely customizable.
solutions and require different designs. The At the Brenner Base Tunnel, the solution Our acrylic grouts are as thin as water, in
properties of the materials are different, as combines a single layer drainage system with order to permeate into soil - set times can be



Top left: Sandwich Beam Test 1 - The Arup and accelerated tests carried out in high
BASF composite lining model was also temperature water over eight months. It
calibrated using a sandwich beam test, with a passed these tests, guaranteeing that it will
layer of Masterseal in the middle. meet the projects longevity requirements and
match the Norwegian standard (Handbook
Left: The second Arup and BASF Sandwich 163).
Beam Test
The Big Picture
Above: An example of a partitioned With all of the new options on the table for
waterproofing system by Mapei at the Red waterproofing, making members of the indus-
Line Metro Station in Doha, Qatar. try aware of them is the next big challenge.
Proper application of the materials is an
controlled between 5 seconds and 12 hours. expecting a service life of 100+ years. At rock equally big hurdle to overcome. Sika continues
Our thin cement grouts also permeate into temperatures greater than 40C, when com- to offer its Sika Academy classes, which tar-
soils to give structural support as well as bined with a required service life of 100 years, get both application training and specs related
control groundwater. Uncontrolled the guidelines specify increased requirements to the design phase of the project. BASF also
groundwater can bring a tunneling operation for the waterproofing and drainage systems. It trains it clients - both designers and the tunnel
to its knees. Sometimes there is no plan for is these guidelines, now in place on projects crew - to guarantee proper specification and
grouting until the contractor runs into a water like the Ceneri Base Tunnel in Switzerland and application.
plume, and all of a sudden they need water the Brenner Base Tunnel where Sika linings are From the grout side of things, U.S.-based
control and they need it now, said Don Rigby, in use, that define the standards waterproof- Avanti International believes in the importance
VP Marketing & Education for Avanti. The ing materials must meet. of education: Application at the proper
company has been working towards In addition to long-term longevity testing pressure and proper volume is key. We have
customized, blended solutions for tunnels that done in the field (currently their materials have grout schools throughout the country - we
form an impermeable matrix in the soils while been verified to between 40 and 44 years and hold seven to eight of them a year. We also
providing support. In tunnels we will inject carry a design life of 100+ years), the company offer onsite training with a field service team -
into fissures in the wall with acrylic grout and has developed crack injection materials to we are as much a teaching organization as a
go very deep to shut off water supply, then prevent steel corrosion. The material, known sales/service organization. We want to teach
inject behind that with cement grout to add as Sika Injection -307 is an acrylate resin- them why, when, and where to apply grout,
that structural support as well. The company based injection material to address and and we want to teach them how to do it
has provided customized solutions for tunnels eliminate the issue of steel corrosion, through right, said Rigby.
throughout the U.S., and even for shafts as passivation of the concrete environment to As industry education increases, the
large as 38m in diameter and 60m deep. At protect the steel reinforcement in the injected technology must keep up with ever-evolving
that project in Dearborn, Michigan, USA, pre- areas. The technology validates acrylate resin demands for tunnels and underground
excavation grouting with acrylamide and injection materials as the most appropriate structures. I see that tunnels are increasingly
ultrafine cement provided a watertight barrier technology for permanent crack and joint larger in diameter, deeper and at higher water
during shaft construction that was also sealing injection applications on waterproof pressures and geologic stress. Many tunnels
approved for an environmentally sensitive area reinforced concrete structures, said Rimon. are being mined under more difficult ground
near a waterway. Mapei has also been innovating in terms of conditions, which makes the waterproofing
new materials with high longevity. We details even more of a challenge, said Rimon.
Long-term Lining developed a new type of Flexible Polyolefin With these challenges, new guidelines and
A key, continuing area of research is in (FPO) material - its very workable, suitable for standards are also on the rise, and designers
longevity of lining materials. Owners and de- underground activities, and easier to install are becoming increasingly willing to specify
signers expect a service life of their structures than standard FPO membranes, says Pavese. sprayed waterproofing membranes. What may
of 100 years, 120 years, and sometimes even He explains that standard FPO is stiffer, and be the biggest trend, however, is towards
200 years, without being specific on the ex- their new material is particularly advantageous layered, customized solutions, says BASFs
pected quality of the construction materials, in for irregular tunnel shapes or arched roofs. The Clement: You can have a sprayable
particular of the waterproofing system, said company is currently applying the FPO lining at membrane in an undrained or drained tunnel.
Rimon. To combat the issue, says Rimon, the Follo Line project in Norway, where At one project in Switzerland we have
Austria released a guideline called Richtlinie approximately 4km of tunnel has been drainage strips every 2m. In Scandinavia we
Tunnelabdichtung in 2012, which describes in constructed by drill & blast and the required have a tunnel with fractured rock, where
a comprehensive way, all of the required ele- waterproofing must last longer than 100 water is drained naturally through an open
ments for durable waterproofing of tunnels. It years. Weve tested the membrane longevity invert. All configurations are feasible, and this
also defines standard, specific durability tests according to the international standards (EN includes sprayed membranes in combination
for the construction materials to fulfill when 13491 and SIA V 280), consisting of with PVC sheets. All is possible.