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A-B N0 1&2

C-K NO 3&4

L-O NO 5&6

P-Z NO 7&8


Question one

(a) Why a U tube manometer is not widely used in industries as a pressure sensor

(b)An inclined tube manometer is one of the differential pressure sensors used in pressure
measurement, with the help of a diagram explain how it works

c) The figure be1ow shows a fluid of density p rotating in a centrifuge bowl with angular
velocity ; r1 and r2 are the distances measured from the axis of rotation to the free surface
and the bowl wall respectively. Show that the pressure drop between the free surface and the
wall of the bowl is given by

Question two

(a)Pressure differential flow meters such as Venturi meters are based on the principle of fluids
under pressure gaining velocity and loosing head in passing through converging pipes. Using
Bernoullis equation and the principle of continuity, explain how the pressure and velocity
changes can be used to estimate the flow rates in these meters
(b)What advantages a Venturi meter has compared to an Orifice meter
Question three

(a)Write short notes about the following as they are applied in fluid mechanics

(i) Uniform flow

(ii) Uniform stead flow

(b)Consider a cylinder of fluid of length L and radius R flowing steadily in the centre of a pipe of
radius r as shown below

r R

Show that when the flow in the pipe is laminar the pressure loss is directly proportional to the
velocity and obeys the equation

Where v is the velocity D is the diameter of the pipe

Question four

(a) The figure below shows a triangular prismatic element of fluid within a static fluid Show that

the pressures Px Py and P acting perpendicularly on as EFBA, EDCF and ABCD respectively

show that the pressure is equal and independent of the direction.

B Ps

Px F F C

y z


Question five

a)An inclined manometer is required to measure an air pressure difference of about 3 mm of

water with an accuracy of 3 per cent. The inclined arm is 8 mm diameter and the enlarged end

is 24 mm diameter. The density of the manometer fluid is 740 kg m3. Find the angle which the

inclined arm must make with the horizontal to achieve the required accuracy assuming an

acceptable readability of 0.5 mm

b) A venturi meter having a throat diameter d2 of 100 mm is fitted into a pipeline which has a

diameter d1 of 250 mm through which oil of specific gravity 0.9 is flowing. The pressure

difference between the entry and throat tapping is measured by a U-tube manometer, containing
mercury of specific gravity 13.6, and the connections are filled with the oil flowing in the

pipeline. If the difference of level indicated by the mercury in the U-tube is 0.63 m, calculate the

theoretical volume rate of flow through the meter.

Question six

(a) A flat plate is sliding at a constant velocity of 5m/s on a large horizontal table. A thin

layer of oil (of absolute viscosity = 0.40 N-s/m2) separates the plate from the table.

Determine the thickness of the oil film (mm) in order to limit the shear stress in the oil

layer to 1 Kpa assuming the fluid velocity varies linearly with the distance from the table

(b) A continuous gravity decanter is to separate chlorobenzene with a density of 1109 kg/m3

from an aqueous wash liquid having a density of 1020 kg/m3. If the total depth in the

separator is 1 m and the interface is to be 0.6 m from the vessel floor, determine the

height of the heavy- liquid over flow leg

Question seven

(a) A centrifuge bowl with internal diameter of 250mm is turning at 4000r/min. it contains a

layer of chlorobenzene 50mm thick. If the density of chlorobenzene is 1109kgm3 and the

pressure at the liquid surface is atmospheric, what gauge pressure is exerted on the wall

of the centrifuge bowl?

(b) A centrifuge bowl with internal diameter of 150mm is turning at 8000r/min is used to

separate chlorobenzene, with a density of 1109 kgm3, from an aqueous wash liquid

having a density of 1020 kgm3. The free liquid surface inside the bowl is 40mm from the

axis of rotation. If the centrifugal bowl is to contain equal volumes of the two liquids,
what should be the radial distance from the rotational axis to the top of the over flow dam

for heavy liquid

Question eight

(a) A Venturi meter is being used to measure flow in a horizontal pipeline of diameter 250

mm which carries water. When the pressure difference between the throat and the

entrance of the Venturi meter is 300 mm on a mercury manometer, determine the

volumetric flow rate in the pipe line. The Venturi meter has a throat diameter of 80 mm

and Venturi coefficient 0.97. The relative density of mercury is 13.6

(b) 88% Sulfuric acid is pumped at 1.25 kg/s through a 20 mm diameter mild steel pipe, 32

m long, to a reservoir 10 m higher than the feed point. Calculate the pressure drop in the

pipeline given that the viscosity of acid = 25x10-4 Ns/m2 and density of acid = 1840kg/m3

(c) Calculate the volumetric flow rate of water through a pipe with an inside diameter of

0.15m fitted with an orifice plate containing a concentric hole of diameter 0.10m given

the following data. Difference in level on a mercury manometer connected across the

orifice plate 0.254m, mercury Sg=13.6 and Co =0.60